WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural antimicrobial agent

  1. Essential oils as natural food antimicrobial agents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergis, Jess; Gokulakrishnan, P; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend. Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a "natural" remedy to this problem other than its flavoring property instead of using synthetic agents. The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram-positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth, and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry.

  2. Modified lysozymes as novel broad spectrum natural antimicrobial agents in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminlari, Ladan; Hashemi, Marjan Mohammadi; Aminlari, Mahmoud

    2014-06-01

    In recent years much attention and interest have been directed toward application of natural antimicrobial agents in foods. Some naturally occurring proteins such as lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, and lysozyme have received considerable attention and are being considered as potential antimicrobial agents in foods. Lysozyme kills bacteria by hydrolyzing the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall of certain bacterial species, hence its application as a natural antimicrobial agent has been suggested. However, limitations in the action of lysozyme against only Gram-positive bacteria have prompted scientists to extend the antimicrobial effects of lysozyme by several types of chemical modifications. During the last 2 decades extensive research has been directed toward modification of lysozyme in order to improve its antimicrobial properties. This review will report on the latest information available on lysozyme modifications and examine the applicability of the modified lysozymes in controlling growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in foods. The results of modifications of lysozyme using its conjugation with different small molecule, polysaccharides, as well as modifications using proteolytic enzymes will be reviewed. These types of modifications have not only increased the functional properties of lysozyme (such as solubility and heat stability) but also extended the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme. Many examples will be given to show that modification can decrease the count of Gram-negative bacteria in bacterial culture and in foods by as much as 5 log CFU/mL and in some cases essentially eliminated Escherichia coli. In conclusion this review demonstrates that modified lysozymes are excellent natural food preservatives, which can be used in food industry. The subject described in this review article can lead to the development of methods to produce new broad-spectrum natural antimicrobial agents, based on modification of chicken egg white lysozyme, which

  3. Dill (Anethum graveolens L. seeds essential oil as a potential natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević, Lj.P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can induce many undesired side effects, which attracts interest of food producers and consumers in finding ingredients of natural origin. The antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L. seeds was investigated in terms of its possible application as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. DPPH test and FRAP method have been used for the investigation of antioxidative activity of essential oil. Disc-diffusion method has been used for investigation of oil antimicrobial activity on following microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Candida albicans. Essential oil, in concentration of 29 mg/mL, incubated for 60 minutes has shown the highest degree of DPPH radicals’ neutralization (79.62%. FRAP activity of oil was 40.63 μmol Fe2+/g of essential oil. Essential oil showed the best antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, there was a significant antimicrobial activity on all investigated microorganisms.

  4. Novel natural food antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry.

  5. Novel food packaging systems with natural antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Esmer, Ozlem Kizilirmak

    2015-10-01

    A new type of packaging that combines food packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods to enhance product microbial safety and to extend shelf-life is attracting interest in the packaging industry. Several antimicrobial compounds can be combined with different types of packaging materials. But in recent years, since consumer demand for natural food ingredients has increased because of safety and availability, these natural compounds are beginning to replace the chemical additives in foods and are perceived to be safer and claimed to alleviate safety concerns. Recent research studies are mainly focused on the application of natural antimicrobials in food packaging system. Biologically derived compounds like bacteriocins, phytochemicals, enzymes can be used in antimicrobial food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of most important knowledge about application of natural antimicrobial packagings with model food systems and their antimicrobial effects on food products.

  6. NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT USE IN THE PRESERVATION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Nereyda Rodríguez Sauceda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today has been a need to find alternatives of conservation, because it has been associated with consumption of poison chemical preservatives. The demand for minimally processed fresh products is increasing, and interest in natural antimicrobial agents (derived from plants, so now looking for the combination of two or more factors that interact additively or synergistically controlling population microbial, allowing it to fresh produce similar products with less additives, it should be noted that the rate of microbial spoilage depends not only on microorganisms but also the chemical combination of product and type of initial microbial load. That is why the main aim of food processing is to provide comfort to humans through a safe, nutritionally adequate and meet the expectations of taste, aroma and appearance, so the use of natural food additives involves the isolation, purification, stabilization and incorporation of these compounds to food antimicrobial purposes, without adversely affecting the sensory characteristics. In general, every time we discover more plants or parts thereof which contain natural antimicrobials, such as including phenolic compounds from bark, stems, leaves, flowers, organic acids present in fruits and phytoalexins produced in plants, so as will not only safer, but better food quality and type of antimicrobials that are regarded as potentially safer sources.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Olea europaea Linné extracts and their applicability as natural food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, J; Kohnen, S; Hauser, C

    2017-06-19

    The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds from Olea (O.) europaea Linné (L.) is part of the scientific discussion regarding the use of natural plant extracts as alternative food preservative agents. Although, the basic knowledge on the antimicrobial potential of certain molecules such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol or elenolic acid derivatives is given, there is still little information regarding their applicability for food preservation. This might be primarily due to the lack of information regarding the full antimicrobial spectrum of the compounds, their synergisms in natural or artificial combinations and their interaction with food ingredients. The present review accumulates available literature from the past 40 years, investigating the antimicrobial activity of O. europaea L. derived extracts and compounds in vitro and in food matrices, in order to evaluate their food applicability. In summary, defined extracts from olive fruit or leaves, containing the strongest antimicrobial compounds hydroxytyrosol, oleacein or oleacanthal in considerable concentrations, appear to be suitable for food preservation. Nonetheless there is still need for consequent research on the compounds activity in food matrices, their effect on the natural microbiota of certain foods and their influence on the sensorial properties of the targeted products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Rafii, Fatemeh

    2008-01-01

    Fatemeh Rafii, John B Sutherland, Carl E CernigliaDivision of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR, USAAbstract: Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the c...

  9. Screening of commercial and pecan shell-extracted liquid smoke agents as natural antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Babu, D; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-06-01

    Liquid smoke extracts have traditionally been used as flavoring agents, are known to possess antioxidant properties, and serve as natural alternatives to conventional antimicrobials. The antimicrobial efficacies of commercial liquid smoke samples may vary depending on their source and composition and the methods used to extract and concentrate the smoke. We investigated the MICs of eight commercial liquid smoke samples against Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli . The commercial liquid smoke samples purchased were supplied by the manufacturer as water-based or concentrated extracts of smoke from different wood sources. The MICs of the commercial smokes to inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens ranged from 0.5 to 6.0% for E. coli, 0.5 to 8.0% for Salmonella, and 0.38 to 6% for S. aureus. The MIC for each liquid smoke sample was similar in its effect on both E. coli and Salmonella. Solvent-extracted antimicrobials prepared using pecan shells displayed significant differences between their inhibitory concentrations depending on the type of solvent used for extraction. The results indicated that the liquid smoke samples tested in this study could serve as effective natural antimicrobials and that their inhibitory effects depended more on the solvents used for extraction than the wood source.

  10. In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Characterization of Peptoids as Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czyzewski, Ann M.; Jenssen, Håvard; Fjell, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    report a new QSAR model that we developed based on 27 diverse peptoid sequences, which accurately correlates antimicrobial peptoid structure with antimicrobial activity. We have identified a number of peptoids that have potent, broad-spectrum in vitro activity against multi-drug resistant bacterial......Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is a global threat that has spurred the development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their mimetics as novel anti-infective agents. While the bioavailability of AMPs is often reduced due to protease activity, the non-natural structure of AMP...... potential of peptoids as antimicrobial agents....

  11. Antimicrobial Agents Used in Endodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina George Kudiyirickal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical preparation alone does not completely eradicate microorganisms from the root canal, hence the next logical step is to perform root canal procedures in conjunction with antimicrobials. The use of an antimicrobial agent improves the efficacy and prognosis of endodontic treatment. This review enumerates the most widely used antimicrobial agents, their mechanism of action and their potential use in reducing the microbial load.

  12. Synergy between antibiotics and natural agents results in increased antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Syed Hani; Ahmed, Khalid; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2015-09-27

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most frequent causes of biofilm-associated infections on indwelling medical devices. With the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), there is an urgent need to discover novel active agents against a range of Gram-positive pathogens. We screened the clinical isolates of S. epidermidis for susceptibility/resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Furthermore, we tested some natural agents alone and in combination with antibiotics to find possible synergistic antimicrobial effects. S. epidermidis clinical isolates were screened for susceptibility/resistance against vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, ofloxacin, cephalexin, and gentamicin using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The antimicrobial potential of Camellia sinensis, Juglans regia, and Hippophae rhamnoides alone and in combination with antibiotics were examined using the disk diffusion method, where the antimicrobial potential activity was measured in terms of formation of zones of inhibition. Most S. epidermidis isolates were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. Gentamycin and ofloxacin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against S. epidermidis isolates. Extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides, Juglans regia, and Camellia sinensis were found to be equally effective against S. epidermidis isolates. In combination with antibiotics, these extracts exhibited appreciable synergistic activity; the highest synergistic activity was observed with erythromycin and cephalexin. In the case of cephalexin, a reversion in resistance was observed. The plant extracts used in the study exhibited additive and synergistic antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis, hence providing an effective alternative to deal with the problem of multidrug resistance.

  13. Animal venoms as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G; Franco, Octavio L; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K

    2017-06-15

    Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens. Interestingly, snake venom-derived synthetic peptide/snake cathelicidin not only has potent antimicrobial and wound-repair activity but is highly stable and safe. Such molecules are promising candidates for novel venom-based drugs against S. aureus infections. The structure of animal venom proteins/peptides (cysteine rich) consists of hydrophobic α-helices or β-sheets that produce lethal pores and membrane-damaging effects on bacteria. All these antimicrobial peptides are under early experimental or pre-clinical stages of development. It is therefore important to employ novel tools for the design and the development of new antibiotics from the untapped animal venoms of snake, scorpion, and spider for treating resistant pathogens. To date, snail venom toxins have shown little antibiotic potency against human pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of Antimicrobial Agent by Streptomyces violachromogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Arwa A.

    2007-01-01

    The isolation of antibiotics from microorganisms improved the discovery of novel antibiotics, which is relatively easy as compared to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial agents. This study starts from isolation and purification of the antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes obtained from soil habitat of Yemen. The good antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes isolate was selected from a batch of Sterptomycetes isolates then identified. This isolate has bioactivity against some G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The antimicrobial agent isolated from Streptomyces violachromogenes (isolate no.YA118) was extracted with ethyl acetate at pH 3. The residue was applied to a silica gel column chromatography and eluted stepwise with many solvent systems. The active fractions were tested with B. subtilis NCTC10400. The purification of the antibiotic has been carried out by thin layer chromatography then the physical and chemical properties were studied to identify the antimicrobial agent. The isolated antimicrobial agent is an antibiotic belonging to the neomycin group. (author)

  15. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Rafii, John B Sutherland, Carl E CernigliaDivision of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR, USAAbstract: Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the colonic microbial ecosystem, making the host vulnerable to infection by commensal microorganisms or nosocomial pathogens. In this minireview, the impacts of antimicrobials, individually and in combinations, on the human colonic microflora are discussed.Keywords: antibiotics, intestinal bacteria

  16. Antimicrobial packaging with natural compunds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Packaging problems are an integral part of logistics and the implementation of packaging significantly affects the effectiveness of logistics processes, as a factor which increases the safety and the quality of products being transported. Active packaging is an area of technology needed to meet the requirements of the contemporary consumer. Active packaging creates additional opportunities in systems for packing goods, as well as offering a solution in which the packaging, the product and surroundings interact. Furthermore, active packaging allows packaging to interact with food and the environment and play a dynamic role in food preservation. The main role of antimicrobial packaging is to inhibit the growth of microorganisms that reduce the quality of the packaged product. Methods: The application of natural antimicrobial agents appears to be safe for food products. Also, these compounds have potential applications as a natural preservative in the food packaging industry. This study presents some antibacterial agents, namely chitosan, nisin and pectins. Results and conclusion: Natural substances used in active packaging can eliminate the danger of chemical substances migrating to food.

  17. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijkeren, Engeline; Schink, Anne-Kathrin; Roberts, Marilyn C; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan

    During the past decades resistance to virtually all antimicrobial agents has been observed in bacteria of animal origin. This chapter describes in detail the mechanisms so far encountered for the various classes of antimicrobial agents. The main mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation by either

  18. Chitosan-Based Coating with Antimicrobial Agents: Preparation, Property, Mechanism, and Application Effectiveness on Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yage Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan coating is beneficial to maintaining the storage quality and prolonging the shelf life of postharvest fruits and vegetables, which is always used as the carrier film for the antimicrobial agents. This review focuses on the preparation, property, mechanism, and application effectiveness on the fruits and vegetables of chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agents. Chitosan, derived by deacetylation of chitin, is a modified and natural biopolymer as the coating material. In this article, the safety and biocompatible and antimicrobial properties of chitosan were introduced because these attributes are very important for its application. The methods to prepare the chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agents, such as essential oils, acid, and nanoparticles, were developed by other researchers. Meanwhile, the application of chitosan-based coating is mainly due to its antimicrobial activity and other functional properties, which were investigated, introduced, and analyzed in this review. Furthermore, the surface and mechanical properties were also investigated by researchers and concluded in this article. Finally, the effects of chitosan-based coating on the storage quality, microbial safety, and shelf life of fruits and vegetables were introduced. Their results indicated that chitosan-based coating with different antimicrobial agents would probably have wide prospect in the preservation of fruits and vegetables in the future.

  19. Nontherapeutic Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Animal Agriculture: Implications for Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Jerome A; Zaoutis, Theoklis E

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious threats to public health globally and threatens our ability to treat infectious diseases. Antimicrobial-resistant infections are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Infants and children are affected by transmission of susceptible and resistant food zoonotic pathogens through the food supply, direct contact with animals, and environmental pathways. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in veterinary and human medicine is, in large part, responsible for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Approximately 80% of the overall tonnage of antimicrobial agents sold in the United States in 2012 was for animal use, and approximately 60% of those agents are considered important for human medicine. Most of the use involves the addition of low doses of antimicrobial agents to the feed of healthy animals over prolonged periods to promote growth and increase feed efficiency or at a range of doses to prevent disease. These nontherapeutic uses contribute to resistance and create new health dangers for humans. This report describes how antimicrobial agents are used in animal agriculture, reviews the mechanisms of how such use contributes to development of resistance, and discusses US and global initiatives to curb the use of antimicrobial agents in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. The risk of some veterinary antimicrobial agents on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance and their molecular basis

    OpenAIRE

    Haihong Hao; Zahid Iqbal; Yulian Wang; Guyue Cheng; Zong-Hui Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The risk of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance continues to be a current topic of discussion as related to animal and human public health. In the present review, resistance monitoring data and risk assessment result of some important antimicrobial agents were cited to elucidate the possible association of antimicrobial use in food animals and antimicrobial resistance in human. From the selected examples, it was obvious...

  1. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.

    2009-01-01

    industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health....... in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...

  2. Current Status and Future Prospects of Marine Natural Products (MNPs) as Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alka; Naughton, Lynn M; Montánchez, Itxaso; Dobson, Alan D W; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-08-28

    The marine environment is a rich source of chemically diverse, biologically active natural products, and serves as an invaluable resource in the ongoing search for novel antimicrobial compounds. Recent advances in extraction and isolation techniques, and in state-of-the-art technologies involved in organic synthesis and chemical structure elucidation, have accelerated the numbers of antimicrobial molecules originating from the ocean moving into clinical trials. The chemical diversity associated with these marine-derived molecules is immense, varying from simple linear peptides and fatty acids to complex alkaloids, terpenes and polyketides, etc. Such an array of structurally distinct molecules performs functionally diverse biological activities against many pathogenic bacteria and fungi, making marine-derived natural products valuable commodities, particularly in the current age of antimicrobial resistance. In this review, we have highlighted several marine-derived natural products (and their synthetic derivatives), which have gained recognition as effective antimicrobial agents over the past five years (2012-2017). These natural products have been categorized based on their chemical structures and the structure-activity mediated relationships of some of these bioactive molecules have been discussed. Finally, we have provided an insight into how genome mining efforts are likely to expedite the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds.

  3. Animals living in polluted environments are potential source of antimicrobials against infectious agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Simon; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobials crisis is a ticking time bomb which could lead to millions of people dying from untreatable infections. With the worsening trends of antimicrobial resistance, we are heading towards a pre-antibiotic era. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful antibiotic agents. The search for new antibiotic compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in germ-infested environments are a potent source of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of bacteria, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances which show potent activity in the nervous system. We hope that the discovery of antimicrobial activity in the cockroach brain will stimulate research in finding antimicrobials from unusual sources, and has potential for the development of novel antibiotics. Nevertheless, intensive research in the next few years will be required to approach or realize these expectations. PMID:23265422

  4. Antimicrobial topical agents used in the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey Tirri, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Vaginally applied antimicrobial agents are widely used in the vagina in women with lower genital tract infections. An 'antimicrobial' is a general term that refers to a group of drugs that are effective against bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. Topical treatments can be prescribed for a wide variety of vaginal infections. Many bacterial infections, such as bacterial vaginosis, desquamative inflammatory vaginitis or, as some European authors call it, aerobic vaginitis as well as infection with Staphylococcus aureus or group A streptococci, may be treated in this way. Candida vulvovaginitis is a fungal infection that is very amenable to topical treatment. The most common viral infections which can be treated with topical medications are condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex. The most often encountered protozoal vaginitis, which is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, may be susceptible to topical medications, although this infection is treated systemically. This chapter covers the wide variety of commonly used topical antimicrobial agents for these diseases and focuses on the individual therapeutic agents and their clinical efficacy. In addition, potential difficulties that can occur in practice, as well as the usage of these medications in the special setting of pregnancy, are described in this chapter. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Nanostructures for delivery of natural antimicrobials in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Nathalie Almeida; Brandelli, Adriano

    2017-04-10

    Natural antimicrobial compounds are a topic of utmost interest in food science due to the increased demand for safe and high-quality foods with minimal processing. The use of nanostructures is an interesting alternative to protect and delivery antimicrobials in food, also providing controlled release of natural compounds such as bacteriocins and antimicrobial proteins, and also for delivery of plant derived antimicrobials. A diversity of nanostructures are capable of trapping natural antimicrobials maintaining the stability of substances that are frequently sensitive to food processing and storage conditions. This article provides an overview on natural antimicrobials incorporated in nanostructures, showing an effective antimicrobial activity on a diversity of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms.

  6. Predictive value of pharmacodynamic parameters of antimicrobial agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. den Hollander (Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe study of the phamlacodynamicg of antimicrobial agents has been a rapidly developing line of research in recent years. Regarding this line of research it is important to appreciate the difference between the pharmacokinetics and the phannacodynamics of phamlaceutical agents.

  7. High-Level Antimicrobial Efficacy of Representative Mediterranean Natural Plant Extracts against Oral Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprini Karygianni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature is an unexplored reservoir of novel phytopharmaceuticals. Since biofilm-related oral diseases often correlate with antibiotic resistance, plant-derived antimicrobial agents could enhance existing treatment options. Therefore, the rationale of the present report was to examine the antimicrobial impact of Mediterranean natural extracts on oral microorganisms. Five different extracts from Olea europaea, mastic gum, and Inula viscosa were tested against ten bacteria and one Candida albicans strain. The extraction protocols were conducted according to established experimental procedures. Two antimicrobial assays—the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC assay—were applied. The screened extracts were found to be active against each of the tested microorganisms. O. europaea presented MIC and MBC ranges of 0.07–10.00 mg mL−1 and 0.60–10.00 mg mL−1, respectively. The mean MBC values for mastic gum and I. viscosa were 0.07–10.00 mg mL−1 and 0.15–10.00 mg mL−1, respectively. Extracts were less effective against C. albicans and exerted bactericidal effects at a concentration range of 0.07–5.00 mg mL−1 on strict anaerobic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Parvimonas micra. Ethyl acetate I. viscosa extract and total mastic extract showed considerable antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms and could therefore be considered as alternative natural anti-infectious agents.

  8. Pharmacological interactions of anti-microbial agents in odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José-Luis

    2009-03-01

    In this third article we describe the pharmacological interactions resulting from the use of anti-microbial agents. Although the antimicrobials prescribed in odontology are generally safe they can produce interactions with other medicaments which can give rise to serious adverse reactions which are well documented in clinical studies. Antibiotics with grave and dangerous life threatening consequences are erythromycin, clarithromycin and metronidazol and the anti-fungal agents are ketoconazol and itraconazol. Regarding the capacity of the anti-microbials to reduce the efficacy of oral anti-contraceptives the clinical studies to date are inconclusive, however, it would be prudent for the oral cavity specialist to point out the risk of a possible interaction. Therefore the specialist should be aware of possible interactions as a consequence of administering an antibiotic together with other medicaments the patient may be taking.

  9. Susceptibility of Haemophilus equigenitalis, the causal agent of contagious equine metritis, to 31 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, C; Isayama, Y; Kashiwazaki, M; Mitani, K

    1981-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 31 antimicrobial agents were determined for 99 isolates of Haemophilus equigenitalis by the agar dilution method. All the isolates showed good susceptibility to 26 antimicrobial agents tests, minimal inhibitory concentrations of which were less than 3.13 micrograms/ml for more than 90% of the isolates. Of these agents, 4 macrolides (erythromycin, oleandomycin, kitasamycin, tylosin), 3 tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline), 1 peptide (colistin), 1 penicillin (ampicillin) and 1 pleuromutilin (tiamulin) were the most active agents, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration of less than 0.39 micrograms/ml for more than 90% of the isolates. The growth of more than 90% of the isolates was not inhibited by 800 micrograms/ml of streptomycin.

  10. Antimicrobial peptides: Possible anti-infective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah Narayana, Jayaram; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections are major health threats. The Infectious Diseases Society of America has expressed concern on the decrease of pharmaceutical companies working on antibiotic research and development. However, small companies, along with academic research institutes, are stepping forward to develop novel therapeutic methods to overcome the present healthcare situation. Among the leading alternatives to current drugs are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are abundantly distributed in nature. AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, and even cancerous cells. They also show potential immunomodulatory properties, and are highly responsive to infectious agents and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. In recent years, many AMPs have undergone or are undergoing clinical development, and a few are commercially available for topical and other applications. In this review, we outline selected anion and cationic AMPs which are at various stages of development, from preliminary analysis to clinical drug development. Moreover, we also consider current production methods and delivery tools for AMPs, which must be improved for the effective use of these agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Current and future challenges in the development of antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Micro-organisms exist to survive. Even in the absence of antimicrobial agents, many have determinants of resistance that may be expressed phenotypically, should the need arise. With the advent of the antibiotic age, as more and more drugs were developed to treat serious infections, micro-organisms (particularly bacteria) rapidly developed resistance determinants to prevent their own demise.The most important determinants of resistance have been in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among Gram-positive bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) have taxed researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop new agents that are effective against these resistant strains. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes, carbapenemases (CREs) and the so-called amp-C enzymes that may be readily transferred between species of enterobacteriaceae and other facultative species have created multi-drug resistant organisms that are difficult to treat. Other resistance determinants have been seen in other clinically important bacterial species such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Clostridium difficile, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These issues have now spread to fungal agents of infection.A variety of modalities have been used to stem the tide of resistance. These include the development of niche compounds that target specific resistance determinants. Other approaches have been to find new targets for antimicrobial activity, use of combination agents that are effective against more than one target in the cell, or new delivery mechanism to maximize the concentration of antimicrobial agents at the site of infection without causing toxicity to the host. It is important that such new modalities have been proved effective for clinical therapy. Animal models and non-mammalian systems have been developed to

  12. Macromolecular agents with antimicrobial potentialities: A drive to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) or multidrug resistance (MDR) has become a serious health concern and major challenging issue, worldwide. After decades of negligence, the AMR has now captured global attention. The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains has threatened the achievements of science and medicine since it inactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists are trying to respond to AMR/MDR threat by exploring innovative platforms and new therapeutic strategies to tackle infections from these resistant strains and bypass treatment limitations related to these pathologies. The present review focuses on the utilization of bio-inspired novel constructs and their potential applications as novel antimicrobial agents. The first part of the review describes plant-based biological macromolecules containing an immense variety of secondary metabolites, which could be potentially used as alternative strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance. The second part discusses the potential of metal-based macromolecules as effective antimicrobial platforms for preventing infections from resistant strains. The third part comprehensively elucidates how nanoparticles, in particular, metal-integrated nanoparticles can overcome this AMR or MDR issue. Towards the end, information is given with critical concluding remarks, gaps, and finally envisioned with future considerations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Spanish scientific production in antimicrobial agents and susceptibility procedures during period 1990-2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J M; Gutiérrez, F; Royo, G

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the scientific production of Spanish authors on antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests during the period 1990-2002. Articles from Spanish scientific institutions of microbiology, bacteriology, mycology and parasitology published and recorded in the MEDLINE database (WEBSPIRS version 4.2) during the period 1990-2002 were selected. Only articles about antimicrobial agents and susceptibility procedures were reviewed. A total of 5,259 documents were analyzed, of which 1,041 (19.8%) were about antimicrobal agents. The annual number of documents increased by two-fold (from 48 in 1990 to 101 in 2002). The journal that published most documents was Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, with 183 (17.1%). The main field of interest of the documents was antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests (765; 73.5%) and in vitro resistance analyses (265; 25.5%). The highest number of contributions came from hospitals (571; 54.9%), followed by universities (351; 33.7%). The institutions with most documents published were the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (8.6%), and Seville University Faculty of Medicine (6%). The most productive autonomous communities were Madrid (43.4%), Catalonia (16.4%) and Andalusia (4.7%). A total of 787 documents (75.6%) were published in journals with impact factors and the mean expected impact factor was 2.390 +/- 1.546. It was concluded that the scientific production of Spanish researchers in antimicrobial agents had increased during the period 1990-2002, and that hospitals were the most productive institutions in this area of microbiology, with the main areas of interest being antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests.

  14. Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Starch-PVA Blend Films as Affected by the Incorporation of Natural Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Cano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, active films based on starch and PVA (S:PVA ratio of 2:1 were developed by incorporating neem (NO and oregano essential oils (OEO. First, a screening of the antifungal effectiveness of different natural extracts (echinacea, horsetail extract, liquid smoke and neem seed oil against two fungus (P. expansum and A. niger was carried out. The effect of NO and OEO incorporation on the films’ physical and antimicrobial properties was analyzed. Only composite films containing OEO exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. Antibacterial activity occurred at low OEO concentration (6.7%, while antifungal effect required higher doses of OEO in the films. Incorporation of oils did not notably affect the water sorption capacity and water vapor barrier properties of S-PVA films, but reduced their transparency and gloss, especially at the highest concentrations. The mechanical response of the S-PVA films was also negatively affected by oil incorporation but this was only relevant at the highest oil ratio (22%. S-PVA films with 6.7% of OEO exhibited the best physical properties, without significant differences with respect to the S-PVA matrix, while exhibiting antibacterial activity. Thus, the use of OEO as a natural antimicrobial incorporated into starch-PVA films represents a good and novel alternative in food packaging applications.

  15. Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Starch-PVA Blend Films as Affected by the Incorporation of Natural Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Amalia; Cháfer, Maite; Chiralt, Amparo; González-Martínez, Chelo

    2015-12-26

    In this work, active films based on starch and PVA (S:PVA ratio of 2:1) were developed by incorporating neem (NO) and oregano essential oils (OEO). First, a screening of the antifungal effectiveness of different natural extracts (echinacea, horsetail extract, liquid smoke and neem seed oil) against two fungus ( P. expansum and A. niger ) was carried out. The effect of NO and OEO incorporation on the films' physical and antimicrobial properties was analyzed. Only composite films containing OEO exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. Antibacterial activity occurred at low OEO concentration (6.7%), while antifungal effect required higher doses of OEO in the films. Incorporation of oils did not notably affect the water sorption capacity and water vapor barrier properties of S-PVA films, but reduced their transparency and gloss, especially at the highest concentrations. The mechanical response of the S-PVA films was also negatively affected by oil incorporation but this was only relevant at the highest oil ratio (22%). S-PVA films with 6.7% of OEO exhibited the best physical properties, without significant differences with respect to the S-PVA matrix, while exhibiting antibacterial activity. Thus, the use of OEO as a natural antimicrobial incorporated into starch-PVA films represents a good and novel alternative in food packaging applications.

  16. An overview of natural antimicrobials role in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Pop, Aneta; Georgescu, Cecilia; Turcuş, Violeta; Olah, Neli Kinga; Mathe, Endre

    2018-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the natural food preservatives with antimicrobial properties emphasizing their importance for the future of food manufacturing and consumers' health. The extraction procedures applied to natural antimicrobials will be considered, followed by the description of some natural preservatives' antimicrobial mechanism of action, including (i) membrane rupture with ATP-ase activity inhibition, (ii) leakage of essential biomolecules from the cell, (iii) disruption of the proton motive force and (iiii) enzyme inactivation. Moreover, a provenance-based classification of natural antimicrobials is discussed by considering the sources of origin for the major natural preservative categories: plants, animals, microbes and fungi. As well, the structure influence on the antimicrobial potential is considered. Natural preservatives could also constitute a viable alternative to address the critical problem of microbial resistance, and to hamper the negative side effects of some synthetic compounds, while meeting the requirements for food safety, and exerting no negative impact on nutritional and sensory attributes of foodstuffs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Computer-aided discovery of antimicrobial agents as potential enoyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer-aided discovery of antimicrobial agents as potential enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase inhibitors. ... Conclusion: Overall, the newly discovered hits can act as a good starting point in the future for the development of safe and potent antibacterial agents. Keywords: Enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase, saFabI, ...

  18. Benzofuran as a promising scaffold for the synthesis of antimicrobial and antibreast cancer agents: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadamali Khodarahmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzofuran as an important heterocyclic compound is extensively found in natural products as well as synthetic materials. Since benzofuran drivatives display a diverse array of pharmacological activities, an interest in developing new biologically active agents from benzofuran is still under consideration. This review highlights recent findings on biological activities of benzofuran derivatives as antimicrobial and antibreast cancer agents and lays emphasis on the importance of benzofurans as a major source for drug design and development.

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of oral topical agents on microorganisms associated with radiated head and neck cancer patients: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidra, Avinash S; Tarrand, Jeffery J; Roberts, Dianna B; Rolston, Kenneth V; Chambers, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    A variety of oral topical agents have been used for prevention and management of radiotherapy-induced adverse effects. The antimicrobial nature of some of the commonly used agents is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacies of various oral topical agents on common microorganisms associated with radiated head and neck cancer patients. Seven commonly used topical oral agents-0.12% chlorhexidine with alcohol, 0.12% chlorhexidine without alcohol, baking soda-salt rinse, 0.4% stannous fluoride gel, 0.63% stannous fluoride rinse, calcium phosphate mouthrinse, and acemannan hydrogel (aloe vera) rinse-were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial efficacies against four common microorganisms. A combination of baking soda-salt rinse and 0.4% stannous fluoride gel was evaluated as the eighth agent. The microorganisms used were Staphylococcus aureus, group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. An ELISA reader was used to measure the turbidity of microbial culture wells and optical density (OD) values for each of the 960 wells recorded. Mean OD values were rank ordered based on their turbidity. One-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc analysis was used to study differences in OD values (P baking soda- salt, calcium phosphate rinse, and the combination of baking soda-salt and stannous fluoride gel. Mean OD values classified for microorganisms from lowest to highest were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, group B Streptococcus, and Candida albicans. A significant difference among the antimicrobial efficacies of topical agents was evident for each of four microorganisms (P < .05). There was also a significant difference among the antimicrobial efficacies of the same topical agent on the four microorganisms tested (P < .05).

  20. Evaluation of linalool, a natural antimicrobial and insecticidal essential oil from basil: Effects on poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linalool is a natural plant product used in perfumes, cosmetics, and flavoring agents. Linalool has proven antimicrobial and insect repellant properties which indicate it might be useful for control of enteropathogens or insect pests in poultry production. However, there are no published reports t...

  1. A novel approach to pharmacodynamic assessment of antimicrobial agents: new insights to dosing regimen design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent H Tam

    Full Text Available Pharmacodynamic modeling has been increasingly used as a decision support tool to guide dosing regimen selection, both in the drug development and clinical settings. Killing by antimicrobial agents has been traditionally classified categorically as concentration-dependent (which would favor less fractionating regimens or time-dependent (for which more frequent dosing is preferred. While intuitive and useful to explain empiric data, a more informative approach is necessary to provide a robust assessment of pharmacodynamic profiles in situations other than the extremes of the spectrum (e.g., agents which exhibit partial concentration-dependent killing. A quantitative approach to describe the interaction of an antimicrobial agent and a pathogen is proposed to fill this unmet need. A hypothetic antimicrobial agent with linear pharmacokinetics is used for illustrative purposes. A non-linear functional form (sigmoid Emax of killing consisted of 3 parameters is used. Using different parameter values in conjunction with the relative growth rate of the pathogen and antimicrobial agent concentration ranges, various conventional pharmacodynamic surrogate indices (e.g., AUC/MIC, Cmax/MIC, %T>MIC could be satisfactorily linked to outcomes. In addition, the dosing intensity represented by the average kill rate of a dosing regimen can be derived, which could be used for quantitative comparison. The relevance of our approach is further supported by experimental data from our previous investigations using a variety of gram-negative bacteria and antimicrobial agents (moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin and meropenem. The pharmacodynamic profiles of a wide range of antimicrobial agents can be assessed by a more flexible computational tool to support dosing selection.

  2. Chemerin is an antimicrobial agent in human epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Banas

    Full Text Available Chemerin, a chemoattractant ligand for chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1 is predicted to share similar tertiary structure with antibacterial cathelicidins. Recombinant chemerin has antimicrobial activity. Here we show that endogenous chemerin is abundant in human epidermis, and that inhibition of bacteria growth by exudates from organ cultures of primary human skin keratinocytes is largely chemerin-dependent. Using a panel of overlapping chemerin-derived synthetic peptides, we demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of chemerin is primarily mediated by Val(66-Pro(85, which causes direct bacterial lysis. Therefore, chemerin is an antimicrobial agent in human skin.

  3. Association between the consumption of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry and the occurrence of resistant bacteria among food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1999-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals...... animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimens to limit the development of resistance is incomplete. Surveillance programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption...... or humans. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes following the use of antimicrobial agents is relatively well documented and it seems evident that all antimicrobial agents will select for resistance. However, current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food...

  4. Insights into the Antimicrobial Properties of Hepcidins: Advantages and Drawbacks as Potential Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lombardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency of multi-drug resistant microorganisms has driven research into alternative therapeutic strategies. In this respect, natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs hold much promise as candidates for the development of novel antibiotics. However, AMPs have some intrinsic drawbacks, such as partial degradation by host proteases or inhibition by host body fluid composition, potential toxicity, and high production costs. This review focuses on the hepcidins, which are peptides produced by the human liver with a known role in iron homeostasis, as well by numerous other organisms (including fish, reptiles, other mammals, and their potential as antibacterial and antifungal agents. Interestingly, the antimicrobial properties of human hepcidins are enhanced at acidic pH, rendering these peptides appealing for the design of new drugs targeting infections that occur in body areas with acidic physiological pH. This review not only considers current research on the direct killing activity of these peptides, but evaluates the potential application of these molecules as coating agents preventing biofilm formation and critically assesses technical obstacles preventing their therapeutic application.

  5. Metal oxide nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents: a promise for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-01

    Microbial infectious diseases are a global threat to human health. Excess and improper use of antibiotics has created antimicrobial-resistant microbes that can defy clinical treatment. The hunt for safe and alternate antimicrobial agents is on in order to overcome such resistant micro-organisms, and the birth of nanotechnology offers promise to combat infectious organisms. Over the past two decades, metal oxide nanoparticles (MeO-NPs) have become an attractive alternative source to combat microbes that are highly resistant to various classes of antibiotics. Their vast array of physicochemical properties enables MeO-NPs to act as antimicrobial agents through various mechanisms. Apart from exhibiting antimicrobial properties, MeO-NPs also serve as carriers of drugs, thus barely providing a chance for micro-organisms to develop resistance. These immense multiple properties exhibited by MeO-NPs will have an impact on the treatment of deadly infectious diseases. This review discusses the mechanisms of action of MeO-NPs against micro-organisms, safety concerns, challenges and future perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Variations in the sales and sales patterns of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Kari; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Muller, Arno; Greko, Christina; Moulin, Gerard; Mackay, David

    2014-08-01

    To describe sales and sales patterns of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries for 2011. Data on the sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents from 25 EU member states and EEA countries for 2011 were collected at package level (name, formulation, strength, pack size, number of packages sold) according to a standardized protocol and template and presented in a harmonized manner. These data were calculated to express amounts sold, in metric tonnes, of active ingredient of each package. A population correction unit (PCU) was applied as a proxy for the animal biomass potentially treated with antimicrobial agents. The indicator used to express sales was milligrams of active substance per PCU. Substantial variations in the sales patterns and in the magnitude of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents, expressed as mg/PCU, between the countries were observed. The proportion of sales, in mg/PCU, of products applicable for treatment of groups or herds of animals (premixes, oral powders and oral solution) varied considerably between the countries. Some countries reported much lower sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents than others, when expressed as mg/PCU. Sales patterns varied between countries, particularly with respect to pharmaceutical forms. Further studies are needed to understand the factors that explain the observed differences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Insights on antimicrobial resistance, biofilms and the use of phytochemicals as new antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Anabela; Saavedra, Maria J; Simões, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health problems. This is of particular concern when bacteria become resistant to various antimicrobial agents simultaneously and when they form biofilms. Consequently, therapeutic options for the treatment of infections have become limited, leading frequently to recurrent infections, treatment failure and increase of morbidity and mortality. Both, persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance, in combination with decreased effectiveness and increased toxicity of current antibiotics have emphasized the urgent need to search alternative sources of antimicrobial substances. Plants are recognized as a source of unexplored chemical structures with high therapeutic potential, including antimicrobial activity against clinically important microorganisms. Additionally, phytochemicals (plant secondary metabolites) present several advantages over synthetic molecules, including green status and different mechanisms of action from antibiotics which could help to overcome the resistance problem. In this study, an overview of the main classes of phytochemicals with antimicrobial properties and their mode of action is presented. A revision about the application of phytochemicals for biofilm prevention and control is also done. Moreover, the use of phytochemicals as scaffolds of new functional molecules to expand the antibiotics pipeline is reviewed.

  8. The Discovery of a Potential Antimicrobial Agent: the Novel Compound Natural Medicinal Plant Fermentation Extracts against Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingzhu; Wang, Xirui; Mao, Canquan; Yao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Natural medicinal plants and their extracts are important sources of antimicrobial drug development. In this study, we reported an ancient formula of Chinese folk medicine, the compound natural medicinal plant fermentation extracts (CNMPFE) for its antimicrobial effects. The effects and mechanisms of CNMPFE on C. albicans were studied by cell damage experiments including antimicrobial kinetics, fungal growth curve, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, ultraviolet absorption, electric conductivity and the evaluation of cellular ultra microstructure. The results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of CNMPFE against C. albicans were 75% (vol/vol) and 80% (vol/vol) respectively. The inhibition of CNMPFE for C. albicans was dose and time dependent, based on increasing of the AKP activities and the ultraviolet absorptions and the electric conductivities of the fungal solutions, it may exert its antifungal properties by disrupting the structure of cell wall and the cell membrane integrity and their permeability, subsequently resulting in cell death. Taken together, these findings suggest that CNMPFE may be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of fungal infections skin diseases.

  9. Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

    1996-01-01

    of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC...

  10. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29). Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination. PMID:27891157

  11. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29. Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination.

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Fusion Peptides of Influenza A Viruses, a Promising Approach to Designing Potent Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhong, Wenjing; Lin, Dongguo; Xia, Fan; Wu, Wenjiao; Zhang, Heyuan; Lv, Lin; Liu, Shuwen; He, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have spurred the urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial agents with different mode of action. In this respect, we turned several fusogenic peptides (FPs) derived from the hemagglutinin glycoproteins (HAs) of IAV into potent antibacterials by replacing the negatively or neutrally charged residues of FPs with positively charged lysines. Their antibacterial activities were evaluated by testing the MICs against a panel of bacterial strains including S. aureus, S. mutans, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli. The results showed that peptides HA-FP-1, HA-FP-2-1, and HA-FP-3-1 were effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with MICs ranging from 1.9 to 16.0 μm, while the toxicities toward mammalian cells were low. In addition, the mode of action and the secondary structure of these peptides were also discussed. These data not only provide several potent peptides displaying promising potential in development as broad antimicrobial agents, but also present a useful strategy in designing new antimicrobial agents. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Patterns of antimicrobial agent prescription in a sentinel population of canine and feline veterinary practices in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, D A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, F; Dawson, S; Jones, P H; Noble, P J M; Pinchbeck, G L; Williams, N J; Radford, A D

    2017-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an increasingly important global health threat and the use of antimicrobial agents is a key risk factor in its development. This study describes antimicrobial agent prescription (AAP) patterns over a 2year period using electronic health records (EHRs) from booked consultations in a network of 457 sentinel veterinary premises in the United Kingdom. A semi-automated classification methodology was used to map practitioner defined product codes in 918,333 EHRs from 413,870 dogs and 352,730 EHRs from 200,541 cats, including 289,789 AAPs. AAP as a proportion of total booked consultations was more frequent in dogs (18.8%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 18.2-19.4) than cats (17.5%, 95% CI 16.9-18.1). Prescription of topical antimicrobial agents was more frequent in dogs (7.4%, 95% CI 7.2-7.7) than cats (3.2%, 95% CI 3.1-3.3), whilst prescription of systemic antimicrobial agents was more frequent in cats (14.8%, 95% CI 14.2-15.4) than dogs (12.2%, 95% CI 11.7-12.7). A decreasing temporal pattern was identified for prescription of systemic antimicrobial agents in dogs and cats. Premises which prescribed antimicrobial agents frequently for dogs also prescribed frequently for cats. AAP was most frequent during pruritus consultations in dogs and trauma consultations in cats. Clavulanic acid potentiated amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial agent in dogs (28.6% of prescriptions, 95% CI 27.4-29.8), whereas cefovecin, a third generation cephalosporin, was the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial agent in cats (36.2%, 95% CI 33.9-38.5). This study demonstrated patterns in AAP over time and for different conditions in a population of companion animals in the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of disinfectant agents incorporated into type IV dental stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rodrigo de Paula; Lucas, Matheus Guilherme; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of two disinfectant agents, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX) and 98% chlorhexidine hydrochloride powder (HYD), incorporated into type IV dental stone at the time of mixing. Agar diffusion test was used for the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. The specimens were grouped in: (1) dental stone mixed with sterile distilled water; (2) paper disc soaked with CHX; (3) dental stone mixed with CHX; and (4) dental stone with incorporation of HYD, in 1% proportion of the dental stone mass and mixed with sterile distilled water. The culture medium was inoculated with microbial suspensions 1 and 24 h after pouring of the dental stone. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the average diameter of microbial growth inhibition zones. The data were analysed with a nested anova (p < 0.05) and Tukey test for specific comparisons. The disinfectant agents demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms, with the exception of C. albicans, against which the CHX was ineffective in two periods of analysis. Significant differences between disinfectants were found with all microorganisms. The disinfectant agents analysed were effective against most of the microorganisms tested, except C. albicans. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antimicrobial agents in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyno, Serawit; Fekadu, Sintayehu; Astatkie, Ayalew

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Staphylococcus aureus has limited treatment options against its infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the pooled prevalence of resistance to different antimicrobial agents by S. aureus in Ethiopia. Web-based search was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) to identify potentially eligible published studies. Required data were extracted and entered into Excel spread sheet. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 13.0. The metaprop Stata command was used to pool prevalence values. Twenty-one separate meta-analysis were done to estimate the pooled prevalence of the resistance of S. aureus to twenty-one different antimicrobial agents. Heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using the I 2 statistic and chi-square test. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test. Because of significant heterogeneity amongst the studies, the random effects model was used to pool prevalence values. The electronic database search yielded 1317 studies among which 45 studies met our inclusion criteria. Our analyses demonstrated very high level of resistance to amoxicillin (77% [95% confidence interval (CI): 68%, 0.85%]), penicillin (76% [95% CI: 67%, 84%]), ampicillin (75% [95% CI: 65%, 85%]), tetracycline (62% [95% CI: 55%, 68%]), methicillin (47% [95% CI: 33%, 61%]), cotrimoxaziole (47% [95% CI: 40%, 55%]), doxycycline (43% [95% CI: 26%, 60%]), and erythromycin (41% [95% CI: 29%, 54%]). Relatively low prevalence of resistance was observed with kanamycin (14% [95% CI: 5%, 25%]) and ciprofloxacin (19% [95% CI: 13%, 26%]). The resistance level to vancomycin is 11% 995% CI: (4%, 20%). High heterogeneity was observed for each of the meta-analysis performed (I 2 ranging from 79.36% to 95.93%; all p -values ≤0.01). Eggers' test did not show a significant publication bias for all antimicrobial agents except for erythromycin and

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils and their interactions with conventional antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Petar; Aleksic, Verica; Simin, Natasa; Svircev, Emilija; Petrovic, Aleksandra; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-02-03

    Traditional herbal medicine has become an important issue on the global scale during the past decade. Among drugs of natural origin, special place belongs to essential oils, known as strong antimicrobial agents that can be used to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves are traditional herbal remedy used for various purposes, including treatment of infections. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial potential of two E. camaldulensis essential oils against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii wound isolates and to examine possible interactions of essential oils with conventional antimicrobial agents. Chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). MIC values of essential oils against A. baumannii strains were estimated by modified broth microdilution method. The components responsible for antimicrobial activity were detected by bioautographic analysis. The potential synergy between the essential oils and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and polymyxin B) was examined by checkerboard method and time kill curve. The dominant components of both essential oils were spatulenol, cryptone, p-cimene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol and β-pinene. The detected MICs for the E. camaldulensis essential oils were in range from 0.5 to 2 μl mL(-1). The bioautographic assay confirmed antibacterial activity of polar terpene compounds. In combination with conventional antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and polymyxin B), the examined essential oils showed synergistic antibacterial effect in most of the cases, while in some even re-sensitized MDR A. baumannii strains. The synergistic interaction was confirmed by time-kill curves for E. camaldulensis essential oil and polymyxin B combination which reduced bacterial count under detection limit very fast, i.e. after 6h of incubation. The detected anti-A. baumannii activity of E. camaldulensis essential oils

  17. Green One-pot Synthesis of Novel Polysubstituted Pyrazole Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyzaei, Hamid; Motraghi, Zahra; Aryan, Reza; Zahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Samzadeh-Kermani, Alireza

    2017-12-01

    Various biological properties of natural and synthetic pyrazole derivatives such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, anticonvulsant, antidepressant and anticancer activities encouraged us to propose a new, fast, green and eco-friendly procedure for the preparation of some novel 5-amino-3-(aryl substituted)-1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitriles. They were efficiently synthesized via one-pot two-step process reaction of malononitrile, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and different benzaldehydes in deep eutectic solvent (DES) glycerol/potassium carbonate. The products yield and reaction times were considerably improved in the presence of applied DES. Antibacterial effects of all newly synthesized pyrazoles in comparison with several common antibiotics were evaluated against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. In addition to, their inhibitory activities on three fungi were compared to some current antifungal agents. The moderate to good antimicrobial potentials particularly against fungi were observed in the major heterocyclic compounds according to the IZD, MIC, MBC and MFC results.

  18. In vitro susceptibilities of zygomycetes to combinations of antimicrobial agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Afeltra, J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    Combinations of antimicrobial agents were tested against 35 strains of zygomycetes. The interaction between amphotericin B and rifampin was synergistic or additive. Flucytosine alone was inactive and, upon combination with amphotericin B, synergy was not achieved. The combination of amphotericin B

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of Some Coumarin Containing Potential Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali D. Kudale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of the Schiff’s bases incorporating coumarin and chalcone moeities, 3-(4-(4-(substituted phenylprop-1-ene-3-one phenylimino methyl-4-chloro-2h-chromen-2-one 4(a-g were synthesized as potential antimicrobial agents. These compounds were characterized on the basis of their spectral (IR, 1H NMR data and evaluated for antimicrobial activity in vitro against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungi. Compound 4b was found to be most active with an MIC of 20 µg/mL against all the tested organisms.

  20. Development and Sequential Analysis of a New Multi-Agent, Anti-Acne Formulation Based on Plant-Derived Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Saviuc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potential of natural, plant-derived compounds has been reported in many studies. Emerging evidence indicates that plant-derived essential oils and/or their major compounds may represent a plausible alternative treatment for acne, a prevalent skin disorder in both adolescent and adult populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and subsequently analyze the antimicrobial activity of a new multi-agent, synergic formulation based on plant-derived antimicrobial compounds (i.e., eugenol, β-pinene, eucalyptol, and limonene and anti-inflammatory agents for potential use in the topical treatment of acne and other skin infections. The optimal antimicrobial combinations selected in this study were eugenol/β-pinene/salicylic acid and eugenol/β-pinene/2-phenoxyethanol/potassium sorbate. The possible mechanisms of action revealed by flow cytometry were cellular permeabilization and inhibition of efflux pumps activity induced by concentrations corresponding to sub-minimal inhibitory (sub-MIC values. The most active antimicrobial combination represented by salycilic acid/eugenol/β-pinene/2-phenoxyethanol/potassium sorbate was included in a cream base, which demonstrated thermodynamic stability and optimum microbiological characteristics.

  1. Efficacy of antimicrobial agents incorporated in orthodontic bonding systems: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, C M; da Rosa, W L O; Meereis, C T W; de Almeida, S M; Ribeiro, J S; da Silva, A F; Lund, Rafael Guerra

    2018-03-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of orthodontic bonding systems containing different antimicrobial agents, as well as the influence of antimicrobial agent incorporation in the bonding properties of these materials. Eight databases were searched: PubMed (Medline), Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, Ibecs, BBO, Scielo and Google Scholar. Any study that evaluated antimicrobial activity in experimental or commercial orthodontic bonding systems was included. Data were tabulated independently and in duplicated by two authors on pre-designed data collection form. The global analysis was carried out using a random-effects model, and pooled-effect estimates were obtained by comparing the standardised mean difference of each antimicrobial orthodontic adhesive with the respective control group. A p-value orthodontic bonding systems. The antimicrobial agent incorporation in orthodontic bonding systems showed higher antimicrobial activity than the control group in agar diffusion (overall standardised mean difference: 3.71; 95% CI 2.98 to 4.43) and optical density tests (0.41; 95% CI -0.05 to 0.86) (p orthodontic bonding systems were statistically similar to the control. Although there is evidence of antibacterial activity from in vitro studies, clinical and long-term studies are still necessary to confirm the effectiveness of antibacterial orthodontic bonding systems in preventing caries disease.

  2. Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antimicrobial agents in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serawit Deyno

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Staphylococcus aureus has limited treatment options against its infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the pooled prevalence of resistance to different antimicrobial agents by S. aureus in Ethiopia. Methods Web-based search was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ to identify potentially eligible published studies. Required data were extracted and entered into Excel spread sheet. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 13.0. The metaprop Stata command was used to pool prevalence values. Twenty-one separate meta-analysis were done to estimate the pooled prevalence of the resistance of S. aureus to twenty-one different antimicrobial agents. Heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using the I2 statistic and chi-square test. Publication bias was assessed using Egger’s test. Because of significant heterogeneity amongst the studies, the random effects model was used to pool prevalence values. Results The electronic database search yielded 1317 studies among which 45 studies met our inclusion criteria. Our analyses demonstrated very high level of resistance to amoxicillin (77% [95% confidence interval (CI: 68%, 0.85%], penicillin (76% [95% CI: 67%, 84%], ampicillin (75% [95% CI: 65%, 85%], tetracycline (62% [95% CI: 55%, 68%], methicillin (47% [95% CI: 33%, 61%], cotrimoxaziole (47% [95% CI: 40%, 55%], doxycycline (43% [95% CI: 26%, 60%], and erythromycin (41% [95% CI: 29%, 54%]. Relatively low prevalence of resistance was observed with kanamycin (14% [95% CI: 5%, 25%] and ciprofloxacin (19% [95% CI: 13%, 26%]. The resistance level to vancomycin is 11% 995% CI: (4%, 20%. High heterogeneity was observed for each of the meta-analysis performed (I2 ranging from 79.36% to 95.93%; all p-values ≤0.01. Eggers’ test did not show a significant publication bias for all

  3. Polymeric nanoparticles – a novel solution for delivery of antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Michalak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires additional efforts to develop new antimicrobial agents and alternative methods to prevent and treat infections. In response to this challenge, a variety of nanotechnology-based tools are currently being designed and thoroughly investigated. To date, a considerable number of studies have reported increased activity of antibiotic-conjugated polymeric nanoparticles against bacteria and fungi associated with various infections, including those caused by drug-resistant pathogens. Importantly, high biocompatibility of these structures coupled with enhanced biological activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties supports the potential of these nanosystems as new tools to treat infections. In this review, we summarize the synthesis of polymer-based nanoparticles and describe their mechanism of action. We also highlight the recent advances in the application of antibiotic-conjugated polymeric nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents.

  4. Resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents in bacteria isolated from acute endodontic infections: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pauline M; Jacinto, Rogério C; Dal Pizzol, Tatiane S; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz C; Montagner, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Infected root canal or acute apical abscess exudates can harbour several species, including Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Streptococcus, Treponema, Olsenella and not-yet cultivable species. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in clinical studies that isolated bacteria from acute endodontic infections. Electronic databases and the grey literature were searched up to May 2015. Clinical studies in humans evaluating the antimicrobial resistance of primary acute endodontic infection isolates were included. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A random-effect meta-analysis was employed. The outcome was described as the pooled resistance rates for each antimicrobial agent. Heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses were performed. Subgroup analyses were conducted based upon report or not of the use of antibiotics prior to sampling as an exclusion factor (subgroups A and B, respectively). Data from seven studies were extracted. Resistance rates for 15 different antimicrobial agents were evaluated (range, 3.5-40.0%). Lower resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and amoxicillin; higher resistance rates were detected for tetracycline. Resistance rates varied according to previous use of an antimicrobial agent as demonstrated by the subgroup analyses. Heterogeneity was observed for the resistance profiles of penicillin G in subgroup A and for amoxicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole and tetracycline in subgroup B. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that resistance rates changed for metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. These findings suggest that clinical isolates had low resistance to β-lactams. Further well-designed studies are needed to clarify whether the differences in susceptibility among the antimicrobial agents may influence clinical responses to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights

  5. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of some natural plant extracts added to lamb patties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, Hayam M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural plants are considered an important target to investigate in order to provide a new source of natural antioxidants and/or antimicrobial agents. The optimum concentrations of some natural plant (jojoba, jatropha, ginseng and ginger extracts were determined and added to lamb patties. Some chemical and microbial characteristics of the prepared patties during storage for 9 days at 4°C were evaluated. Both the addition of these extracts and storage time had a significant effect on the patties throughout the storage period. The effectiveness of the tested natural extracts can be listed in the following order of decreasing Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values: ginseng > jatropha > jojoba > ginger. Aerobic plate count, mould and yeast counts decreased significantly with addition of the extracts during the storage period. Also, the addition of the extracts was significantly effective in reducing histamine, tyramine and putrescine formation during the storage period. Compared to control patties, the addition of these natural extracts was effective as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for improving the properties of lamb patties.

    Las plantas naturales están consideradas como un importante producto donde buscar y encontrar nuevas fuentes de antioxidantes naturales y/o agentes antimicrobianos. La concentración óptima de algunos extractos de plantas naturales (jojoba, jatropha, ginseng y jengibre fueron determinado y añadidas a pasteles de cordero. Algunas características químicas y microbiológicas de los pasteles preparados y almacenados durante 9 días a 4°C fueron evaluados. Tanto la adición de estos extractos como el tiempo de almacenamiento tuvieron un efecto significativo en los pasteles en el periodo de almacenamiento. La efectividad de los extractos naturales ensayados puede ser enumerada en el siguiente orden decreciente de valores de substancias reactivas con el ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS: ginseng

  7. PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN NEONATOLOGY: RESULTS OF THE RETROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Kolbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infectious diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Against the background of ever-increasing resistance of bacteria, it is necessary to develop effective measures aimed at the structure optimization of consumption of antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the pharmacoepidemiological data describing either the consumption of antimicrobial agents or the resistance level to them is required. Objective: Our aim was to assess the antimicrobial load in term and preterm newborns during their stay in the maternity wards and/or in the intensive care units (ICU. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study has been carried out. The analysis included data of 419 newborns from 5 medical centers. The study has been carried out as part of a multi-purpose program on antibiotic resistance containment being held in St. Petersburg from 2014. Results. The antimicrobial load on the child's body expressed in days of the antimicrobial therapy was 1,838 per 1,000 patient-days in children staying in the ICU for not more than 16 days, and 1,434 per 1,000 patient-days when staying in the ICU for more than 16 days. The average duration of the antimicrobial therapy is 28 days in the ICU and 5 days out the ICU (department for newborns, physiological departments. The most commonly, the children were treated with ampicillin — 384 (92%, gentamicin — 254 (61%, and fluconazole — 150 (36%. The prevalence of off-label prescriptions was 41% (of 1,557 analyzed prescriptions, unlicensed prescriptions — 10%. Congenital infections were the main reasons for prescription of antimicrobial drugs — 225 (62%. Conclusion. The high anti-bacterial load in newborns has been established. The indicator 'days of antimicrobial therapy' in the ICU is 4 times higher than that in the United States. The prevalence of off-label and unlicensed prescriptions is comparable with foreign data.

  8. Antimicrobial Approaches for Textiles: From Research to Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Santos Morais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The large surface area and ability to retain moisture of textile structures enable microorganisms’ growth, which causes a range of undesirable effects, not only on the textile itself, but also on the user. Due to the public health awareness of the pathogenic effects on personal hygiene and associated health risks, over the last few years, intensive research has been promoted in order to minimize microbes’ growth on textiles. Therefore, to impart an antimicrobial ability to textiles, different approaches have been studied, being mainly divided into the inclusion of antimicrobial agents in the textile polymeric fibers or their grafting onto the polymer surface. Regarding the antimicrobial agents, different types have been used, such as quaternary ammonium compounds, triclosan, metal salts, polybiguanides or even natural polymers. Any antimicrobial treatment performed on a textile, besides being efficient against microorganisms, must be non-toxic to the consumer and to the environment. This review mainly intends to provide an overview of antimicrobial agents and treatments that can be performed to produce antimicrobial textiles, using chemical or physical approaches, which are under development or already commercially available in the form of isolated agents or textile fibers or fabrics.

  9. The management of risk arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine in EU/EEA countries - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törneke, K; Torren-Edo, J; Grave, K; Mackay, D K J

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobials are essential medicines for the treatment of many microbial infections in humans and animals. Only a small number of antimicrobial agents with new mechanisms of action have been authorized in recent years for use in either humans or animals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is a concern for public health due to the detection of increasing levels of resistance in foodborne zoonotic bacteria, particularly gram-negative bacteria, and due to the detection of determinants of resistance such as Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in bacteria from animals and in foodstuffs of animal origin. The importance and the extent of the emergence and spread of AMR from animals to humans has yet to be quantified. Likewise, the relative contribution that the use of antimicrobial agents in animals makes to the overall risk to human from AMR is currently a subject of debate that can only be resolved through further research. Nevertheless, risk managers have agreed that the impact on public health of the use of antimicrobials in animals should be minimized as far as possible and a variety of measures have been introduced by different authorities in the EU to achieve this objective. This article reviews a range of measures that have been implemented within European countries to reduce the occurrence and the risk of transmission of AMR to humans following the use of antimicrobial agents in animals and briefly describes some of the alternatives to the use of antimicrobial agents that are being developed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis an...

  11. New Biofunctional Loading of Natural Antimicrobial Agent in Biodegradable Polymeric Films for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtawar Ghafoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the development of novel Aloe vera based polymeric composite films and antimicrobial suture coatings. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, a synthetic biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, was combined with Aloe vera, a natural herb used for soothing burning effects and cosmetic purposes. The properties of these two materials were combined together to get additional benefits such as wound healing and prevention of surgical site infections. PVA and Aloe vera were mixed in a fixed quantity to produce polymer based films. The films were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial (E. coli, P. aeruginosa and fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tubingensis screened. Aloe vera based PVA films showed antimicrobial activity against all the strains; the lowest Aloe vera concentration (5% showed the highest activity against all the strains. In vitro degradation and release profile of these films was also evaluated. The coating for sutures was prepared, in vitro antibacterial tests of these coated sutures were carried out, and later on in vivo studies of these coated sutures were also performed. The results showed that sutures coated with Aloe vera/PVA coating solution have antibacterial effects and thus have the potential to be used in the prevention of surgical site infections and Aloe vera/PVA based films have the potential to be used for wound healing purposes.

  12. Efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs as new antimicrobial agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momen Askoura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. The difficulty in treatment of pseudomonas infections arises from being multidrug resistant (MDR and exhibits resistance to most antimicrobial agents due to the expression of different mechanisms overcoming their effects. Of these resistance mechanisms, the active efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that belong to the resistance nodulation division (RND plays a very important role in extruding the antibiotics outside the bacterial cells providing a protective means against their antibacterial activity. Beside its role against the antimicrobial agents, these pumps can extrude biocides, detergents, and other metabolic inhibitors. It is clear that efflux pumps can be targets for new antimicrobial agents. Peptidomimetic compounds such as phenylalanine arginyl β-naphthylamide (PAβN have been introduced as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs; their mechanism of action is through competitive inhibition with antibiotics on the efflux pump resulting in increased intracellular concentration of antibiotic, hence, restoring its antibacterial activity. The advantage of EPIs is the difficulty to develop bacterial resistance against them, but the disadvantage is their toxic property hindering their clinical application. The structure activity relationship of these compounds showed other derivatives from PAβN that are higher in their activity with higher solubility in biological fluids and decreased toxicity level. This raises further questions on how can we compact Pseudomonas infections. Of particular importance, the recent resurgence in the use of older antibiotics such as polymyxins and probably applying stricter control measures in order to prevent their spread in clinical sittings.

  13. Effect of ionizing energy on extracts of Quillaja saponaria to be used as an antimicrobial agent on irradiated edible coating for fresh strawberries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga, G.E., E-mail: gustavo.zuniga@usach.cl [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Depto. de Biologia, Alameda 3363, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Junqueira-Goncalves, M.P., E-mail: mpaula.junqueira@usach.cl [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad Tecnologica, Depto. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Ecuador 3769, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Pizarro, M.; Contreras, R. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Depto. de Biologia, Alameda 3363, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Tapia, A. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Facultad Tecnologica, Depto. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Ecuador 3769, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Silva, S. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Depto. de Aplicaciones Nucleares, Seccion Salud y Alimentos, La Reina, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-01-15

    Incorporating antimicrobial compounds into edible films or coatings provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. Diverse studies with Quillaja saponaria Mol. (popularly named quillay) extracts have demonstrated their potential as antifungal agents against phytopathogenic fungi. Crosslinking induced by ionizing radiation is an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on milk proteins. However there are few reports about the effects of {gamma}-radiation on plant extracts. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 kGy) on extracts prepared from in vitro plants of Q. saponaria to be used as antimicrobial agent in irradiated edible coating based on calcium caseinate and whey protein isolated, and also to establish the concentration of Q. saponaria extract to be added as an antifungal agent in the coating. Gamma irradiation since 15 kGy affects negatively the antimicrobial activity and metabolites composition of extract of Q. saponaria by reducing compounds of phenolic nature. Otherwise no effect on saponins profile was observed even at higher doses. It was possible to conclude that the antifungal activity of Q. saponaria extract is mainly related to phenolic compounds content. In addition, our work also shows that to obtain an efficient antifungal protection is necessary to add a minimum concentration of 6% of the extract after the coating irradiation. - Highlights: > Antimicrobial compounds into edible coatings improve food' safety and shelf life. > Q. saponaria extract is an antifungal agent against phytopathogenic fungi. > Crosslinking induced by {gamma}-radiation over 30 kGy improves properties of the coatings. > {gamma}-radiation since 15 kGy affects the antimicrobial activity of Q. saponaria extract. > This extract should be added after the coating radiation, at a minimum of 6%.

  14. Synthesis of bio-based nanocomposites for controlled release of antimicrobial agents in food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGruson, Min Liu

    The utilization of bio-based polymers as packaging materials has attracted great attention in both scientific and industrial areas due to the non-renewable and nondegradable nature of synthetic plastic packaging. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biobased polymer with excellent film-forming and coating properties, but exhibits brittleness, insufficient gas barrier properties, and poor thermal stability. The overall goal of the project was to develop the polyhydroxyalkanoate-based bio-nanocomposite films modified by antimicrobial agents with improved mechanical and gas barrier properties, along with a controlled release rate of antimicrobial agents for the inhibition of foodborne pathogens and fungi in food. The ability for antimicrobial agents to intercalate into layered double hydroxides depended on the nature of the antimicrobial agents, such as size, spatial structure, and polarity, etc. Benzoate and gallate anions were successfully intercalated into LDH in the present study and different amounts of benzoate anion were loaded into LDH under different reaction conditions. Incorporation of nanoparticles showed no significant effect on mechanical properties of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films, however, significantly increased the tensile strength and elongation at break of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) films. The effects of type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles (unmodified LDH and LDH modified by sodium benzoate and sodium gallate) on structure and properties of PHBV films were then studied. The arrangement of LDH in the bio-nanocomposite matrices ranged from exfoliated to phase-separated depending on the type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles. Intercalated or partially exfoliated structures were obtained using modified LDH, however, only phase-separated structures were formed using unmodified LDH. The mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and thermo-mechanical (storage modulus) properties were significantly improved with low

  15. [Susceptibility and resistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero Delgado, M C; García-Mayorgas, A D; Rodríguez, F; Ibarra, A; Casal, M

    2007-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism that is frequently the cause of nosocomial infections. Multiple mechanisms are involved in its natural and acquired resistance to many of the antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated in Hospital Reina Sofia between 2000 and 2005, as well as to analyze the differences between intrahospital and extrahospital isolates in 2005 and to compare the results with those obtained in other studies. A total of 3,019 strains of P. aeruginosa from different hospitals and nonhospital settings were evaluated, taking into consideration their degree of sensitivity to different antibiotics. The MICs were determined by means of the Wider I automated system (Soria Melguizo), taking into consideration the criteria of susceptibility and resistance recommended by MENSURA. Results of the analysis showed that P. aeruginosa maintained similar levels of antimicrobial susceptibility during the period 2000-2005, with increased susceptibility to amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin. There were also important differences in the degree of susceptibility between intrahospital and extrahospital strains, except for imipenem and fosfomycin. The intrahospital difference in susceptibility was also evaluated, emphasizing the importance of periodically studying susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in each setting in order to evaluate different therapeutic guidelines, as it is not always advisable to extrapolate data from different regions. These differences can be explained by the different use of antibiotics in each center and the geographic variations of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa.

  16. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias

    2013-01-01

    Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications. PMID:23665898

  17. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs. The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications.

  18. Antimicrobial and Antifouling Polymeric Agents for Surface Functionalization of Medical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Zhu, Yiwen; Yu, Bingran; Sun, Yujie; Ding, Xiaokang; Xu, Chen; Wu, Yu-Wei; Tang, Zhihui; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2018-05-09

    Combating implant-associated infections is an urgent demand due to the increasing numbers in surgical operations such as joint replacements and dental implantations. Surface functionalization of implantable medical devices with polymeric antimicrobial and antifouling agents is an efficient strategy to prevent bacterial fouling and associated infections. In this work, antimicrobial and antifouling branched polymeric agents (GPEG and GEG) were synthesized via ring-opening reaction involving gentamicin and ethylene glycol species. Due to their rich primary amine groups, they can be readily coated on the polydopamine-modified implant (such as titanium) surfaces. The resultant surface coatings of Ti-GPEG and Ti-GEG produce excellent in vitro antibacterial efficacy toward both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, while Ti-GPEG exhibit better antifouling ability. Moreover, the infection model with S. aureus shows that implanted Ti-GPEG possessed excellent antibacterial and antifouling ability in vivo. This study would provide a promising strategy for the surface functionalization of implantable medical devices to prevent implant-associated infections.

  19. A STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FOAM-WASHING AGENT SPECIMENS AT ACIDIC pH VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strilets O. P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is well-known that any parapharmaceutical substance, in particular, foam-washing agents comprising water in combination with detergents, extracts, water-soluble vitamins, viscosity regulators, pH, etc., is the ideal environment for microbial growth. Therefore, it is indispensable to use preservatives to protect any foam-washing agent from possible contamination by microorganisms. Their main advantages are: presence of a single antimicrobial and antifungal effect, expanded range of effects, decrease in the risk of resistance of microorganisms and decrease in the toxicity and concentration of the preserving mixture. In this regard, the shelf life of parapharmaceutical substances is not provided through the use of large quantities of preservatives, but thanks to their rational combination. Materials and Methods. For this study, we have made a number of samples of foam washing bases with a number of preservatives, which are often used in developing foam-washing agents with acidic pH value, namely: sample number 1 – foam washing base + sodium benzoate; sample number 2 – foam washing base + «Euxyl K300» (phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, bulylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylaraben; sample number 3 – foam washing base + «Germaben II» (polypropylene glycol, diazolium dinomovine, methylparaben, propylparaben; sample number 4 – foam washing base + «Nipaquard CMB» (benzyl alcohol, triethylene glycol, chloromethylisothiazoline, methylisothiazoline. The concentration of preservative in each sample was 0.1% (average concentration that is recommended for developing foam-washing agents. The antimicrobial activity of prototype gels was studied in vitro by diffusion in agar (“wells” method. The antimicrobial activity was measured immediately after sample preparation. All the studies were performed in aseptic conditions using a laminar box (biological safety cabinet AS2-4E1 "Esco" Indonesia. Results. According to the

  20. Recent advances in microencapsulation of natural sources of antimicrobial compounds used in food - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rosas, Javier; Ferreira-Grosso, Carlos Raimundo; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos Alberto; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Rodríguez-Marín, María Luisa; Guzmán-Ortiz, Fabiola Araceli; Falfan-Cortes, Reyna Nallely

    2017-12-01

    Food safety and microbiological quality are major priorities in the food industry. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural antimicrobials in food products. An ongoing challenge with natural antimicrobials is their degradation during food storage and/or processing, which reduces their antimicrobial activity. This creates the necessity for treatments that maintain their stability and/or activity when applied to food. Microencapsulation of natural antimicrobial compounds is a promising alternative once this technique consists of producing microparticles, which protect the encapsulated active substances. In other words, the material to be protected is embedded inside another material or system known as wall material. There are few reports in the literature about microencapsulation of antimicrobial compounds. These published articles report evidence of increased antimicrobial stability and activity when the antimicrobials are microencapsulated when compared to unprotected ones during storage. This review focuses mainly on natural sources of antimicrobial compounds and the methodological approach for encapsulating these natural compounds. Current data on the microencapsulation of antimicrobial compounds and their incorporation into food suggests that 1) encapsulation increases compound stability during storage and 2) encapsulation of antimicrobial compounds reduces their interaction with food components, preventing their inactivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Chitosan/Fructose Model as an Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent for Shelf Life Extension of Beef Meat During Freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Mohmed S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of chitosan/fructose Maillard reaction products (CF-MRPs as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents was evaluated and applied on minced beef meat during frozen storage. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-fructose complexes were tested. Anti-oxidant properties were measured by the DPPH, β-carotene and ABTS methods. These three methods showed the same profile of antioxidant activity. Chitosan with 4% fructose autoclaved for 45 min (CF9 showed to have the most effective antioxidant activity. It was demonstrated that the browning product exhibited antioxidant activity. For antimicrobial activity, most chitosan-fructose complexes were less effective than chitosan. Thus, MRPs derived from chitosan-sugar model system can be promoted as a novel antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in minced beef. Chitosan-sugar complex could be a potential alternative natural product for synthetic food additive replacement that would additionally meet consumer safety requirement.

  2. Synthesis of modified pyridine and bipyridine substituted coumarins as potent antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lad Hemali B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In search for new antimicrobial agents a series of new modified pyridine and bipyridine substituted coumarins 5a-y was designed and synthesized by adopting molecular hybridization strategy. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity using broth dilution method against selected bacterial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative and fungal strains. Compounds 5a, 5f, 5g, 5n, 5r, 5t, 5w, 5x and 5y demonstrated promising antibacterial activity while other derivatives showed comparable activity to standard drugs used as reference.

  3. Species of Genus Ganoderma (Agaricomycetes) Fermentation Broth: A Novel Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Kosanic, Marijana; Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena; Ranković, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    The bioactivity of Ganoderma lucidum basidiocarps has been well documented, but there are no data on the medicinal properties of its submerged cultivation broth nor on the other species of the genus Ganoderma. Thus the aim of this study was to test the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fermentation broth obtained after submerged cultivation of G. applanatum, G. carnosum, and G. lucidum. DPPH· scavenging ability, total phenols, and flavonoid contents were measured to determine the antioxidative potential of Ganoderma spp. fermentation filtrates, whereas their antimicrobial potential was studied using the microdilution method. DPPH· scavenging activity of G. lucidum fermentation filtrates was significantly higher than that of G. applanatum and G. carnosum, with the maximum (39.67%) obtained from strain BEOFB 432. This filtrate also contained the highest concentrations of phenols (134.89 μg gallic acid equivalents/mL) and flavonoids (42.20 μg quercetin equivalent/mL). High correlations between the activity and phenol content in the extracts showed that these compounds were active components of the antioxidative activity. G. lucidum strain BEOFB 432 was the most effective antibacterial agent, whereas strain BEOFB 434 has proven to be the most effective antifungal agent. The study showed that Ganoderma spp. fermentation filtrates are novel potent antioxidative and antimicrobial agents that could be obtained more quickly and cheaper than basidiocarps.

  4. Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Salmon, S.A.; Mevius, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n = 384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested:

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s):   The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study ...

  6. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Dalila Angélica Moliterno; Ribeiro, Aldemir Reginato; Vasconcelos, Ana Mércia Mendes; Santos, Sylnei Barros; Silva, Juliana Vital Domingos; de Andrade, Patrícia Lúcia Arruda; de Arruda Falcão, Lúcia Sadae Pereira da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6%) were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%), nitrofurantoin (52.3%), tetracycline (31.6%), and nalidixic acid (21%) were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested. PMID:24031401

  7. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yeol Ahn

    Full Text Available The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  8. Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

  9. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

  10. Effect of ionizing energy on extracts of Quillaja saponaria to be used as an antimicrobial agent on irradiated edible coating for fresh strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga, G.E.; Junqueira-Goncalves, M.P.; Pizarro, M.; Contreras, R.; Tapia, A.; Silva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating antimicrobial compounds into edible films or coatings provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. Diverse studies with Quillaja saponaria Mol. (popularly named quillay) extracts have demonstrated their potential as antifungal agents against phytopathogenic fungi. Crosslinking induced by ionizing radiation is an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on milk proteins. However there are few reports about the effects of γ-radiation on plant extracts. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 kGy) on extracts prepared from in vitro plants of Q. saponaria to be used as antimicrobial agent in irradiated edible coating based on calcium caseinate and whey protein isolated, and also to establish the concentration of Q. saponaria extract to be added as an antifungal agent in the coating. Gamma irradiation since 15 kGy affects negatively the antimicrobial activity and metabolites composition of extract of Q. saponaria by reducing compounds of phenolic nature. Otherwise no effect on saponins profile was observed even at higher doses. It was possible to conclude that the antifungal activity of Q. saponaria extract is mainly related to phenolic compounds content. In addition, our work also shows that to obtain an efficient antifungal protection is necessary to add a minimum concentration of 6% of the extract after the coating irradiation. - Highlights: → Antimicrobial compounds into edible coatings improve food' safety and shelf life. → Q. saponaria extract is an antifungal agent against phytopathogenic fungi. → Crosslinking induced by γ-radiation over 30 kGy improves properties of the coatings. → γ-radiation since 15 kGy affects the antimicrobial activity of Q. saponaria extract. → This extract should be added after the coating radiation, at a minimum of 6%.

  11. Antibiofilm agents: A new perspective for antimicrobial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Hui; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-10-01

    Biofilms are complex microbial architectures that attach to surfaces and encase microorganisms in a matrix composed of self-produced hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). In biofilms, microorganisms become much more resistant to antimicrobial treatments, harsh environmental conditions, and host immunity. Biofilm formation by microbial pathogens greatly enhances survival in hosts and causes chronic infections that result in persistent inflammation and tissue damages. Currently, it is believed over 80% of chronic infectious diseases are mediated by biofilms, and it is known that conventional antibiotic medications are inadequate at eradicating these biofilm-mediated infections. This situation demands new strategies for biofilm-associated infections, and currently, researchers focus on the development of antibiofilm agents that are specific to biofilms, but are nontoxic, because it is believed that this prevents the development of drug resistance. Here, we review the most promising antibiofilm agents undergoing intensive research and development.

  12. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  13. Indole diterpenoids from the endophytic fungus Drechmeria sp. as natural antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Chao; Wang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Chen, Zhong-Jian; Yang, Tian-Mei; Wu, Ying-Ying; Sun, Cheng-Peng; Ma, Xiao-Chi; Zhang, Yi-Xuan

    2018-04-01

    A fungal strain, Drechmeria sp., was isolated from the root of Panax notoginseng. Totally, seven new indole diterpenoids, drechmerins A-G (1-7), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Drechmeria sp. together with four known analogues (8-11). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopic analyses as well as theoretical calculations. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtillis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia, respectively. Drechmerin B (2) displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 12.5 μg/mL. Molecular docking was used to investigate interactions of peptide deformylase with compounds 1-3, 5-7, 9, and 10. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  15. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the pharmaceutical and scientific communities and various publications have documented the therapeutic value of natural compounds in a bid to validate claims of their biological activity. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of plants and their ...

  16. Use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y H; Hwang, S Y; Hong, M K; Kwon, K H

    2012-04-01

    The aquaculture industry has grown dramatically, and plays an important role in the world's food supply chain. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with food animals receives much attention, and drug use in aquaculture is also an important issue. There are many differences between aquatic and terrestrial management systems, such as the methods used for administration of drugs. Unique problems are related to the application of drugs in aquatic environments. Residual drugs in fish products can affect people who consume them, and antimicrobials released into aquatic environments can select for resistant bacteria. Moreover, these antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, or their resistance genes, can be transferred to humans. To decrease the risks associated with the use of antimicrobials, various regulations have been developed. In addition, it is necessary to prevent bacterial diseases in aquatic animals by vaccination, to improve culture systems, and to monitor the amount of antimicrobial drugs used and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

  17. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli: recommendations from the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología, Micología y Parasitología Clínicas, Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Marcela; Marín, Marcelo; Giovanakis, Marta; Vay, Carlos; Almuzara, Marisa; Limansky, Adriana; Casellas, José M; Famiglietti, Angela; Quinteros, Mirta; Bantar, Carlos; Galas, Marcelo; Kovensky Pupko, Jaime; Nicola, Federico; Pasterán, Fernando; Soloaga, Rolando; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This document contains the recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), adopted after conforming those from international committees to the experience of the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee members and invited experts. This document includes an update on NFGNB classification and description, as well as some specific descriptions regarding natural or frequent antimicrobial resistance and a brief account of associated resistance mechanisms. These recommendations not only suggest the antimicrobial drugs to be evaluated in each case, but also provide an optimization of the disk diffusion layout and a selection of results to be reported. Finally, this document also includes a summary of the different methodological approaches that may be used for detection and confirmation of emerging b-lactamases, such as class A and B carbapenemases.

  18. Antimicrobial Air Filters Using Natural Euscaphis japonica Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Byoung Hwang

    Full Text Available Controlling bioaerosols has become more important with increasing participation in indoor activities. Treatments using natural-product nanomaterials are a promising technique because of their relatively low toxicity compared to inorganic nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. In this study, antimicrobial filters were fabricated from natural Euscaphis japonica nanoparticles, which were produced by nebulizing E. japonica extract. The coated filters were assessed in terms of pressure drop, antimicrobial activity, filtration efficiency, major chemical components, and cytotoxicity. Pressure drop and antimicrobial activity increased as a function of nanoparticle deposition time (590, 855, and 1150 µg/cm2(filter at 3-, 6-, and 9-min depositions, respectively. In filter tests, the antimicrobial efficacy was greater against Staphylococcus epidermidis than Micrococcus luteus; ~61, ~73, and ~82% of M. luteus cells were inactivated on filters that had been coated for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, while the corresponding values were ~78, ~88, and ~94% with S. epidermidis. Although statistically significant differences in filtration performance were not observed between samples as a function of deposition time, the average filtration efficacy was slightly higher for S. epidermidis aerosols (~97% than for M. luteus aerosols (~95%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS analyses confirmed that the major chemical compounds in the E. japonica extract were 1(ß-O-galloyl pedunculagin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. In vitro cytotoxicity and disk diffusion tests showed that E. japonica nanoparticles were less toxic and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial strains than a reference soluble nickel compound, which is classified as a human carcinogen. This study provides valuable information for the development of a

  19. Repurposing Auranofin, Ebselen, and PX-12 as Antimicrobial Agents Targeting the Thioredoxin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly C. May

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As microbial resistance to drugs continues to rise at an alarming rate, finding new ways to combat pathogens is an issue of utmost importance. Development of novel and specific antimicrobial drugs is a time-consuming and expensive process. However, the re-purposing of previously tested and/or approved drugs could be a feasible way to circumvent this long and costly process. In this review, we evaluate the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tested drugs auranofin, ebselen, and PX-12 as antimicrobial agents targeting the thioredoxin system. These drugs have been shown to act on bacterial, fungal, protozoan, and helminth pathogens without significant toxicity to the host. We propose that the thioredoxin system could serve as a useful therapeutic target with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida strains isolated from swine to 42 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Martin, C B; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1993-08-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 42 antimicrobial agents were determined against 59 strains of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida, all isolated from swine lungs with lesions indicative of pneumonia. Penicillins (except cloxacillin), aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, erythromycin, josamycin, thiamphenicol, colistin, rifampin and mupirocin showed good activities, with ranging resistance between 0 and 6.8%. Higher resistance was observed for spiramycin and fosfomycin. Tylosin, vancomycin, metronidazole, dapsone and tiamulin, to which strains showed high rates of resistance, were ineffective. Cephalosporins (especially the third-generation cephalosporins) and quinolones (especially the fluorinated quinolones) were the most effective antimicrobial agents against P. multocida subsp. multocida strains and they might be of value for in vivo use.

  1. Aqueous Zinc Compounds as Residual Antimicrobial Agents for Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brandon Alexander; Gregory, Shawn Alan; Sulchek, Todd; Yee, Shannon; Losego, Mark D

    2018-03-07

    Textiles, especially those worn by patients and medical professionals, serve as vectors for proliferating pathogens. Upstream manufacturing techniques and end-user practices, such as transition-metal embedment in textile fibers or alcohol-based disinfectants, can mitigate pathogen growth, but both techniques have their shortcomings. Fiber embedment requires complete replacement of all fabrics in a facility, and the effects of embedded nanoparticles on human health remain unknown. Alcohol-based, end-user disinfectants are short-lived because they quickly volatilize. In this work, common zinc salts are explored as an end-user residual antimicrobial agent. Zinc salts show cost-effective and long-lasting antimicrobial efficacy when solution-deposited on common textiles, such as nylon, polyester, and cotton. Unlike common alcohol-based disinfectants, these zinc salt-treated textiles mitigate microbial growth for more than 30 days and withstand commercial drying. Polyester fabrics treated with ZnO and ZnCl 2 were further explored because of their commercial ubiquity and likelihood for rapid commercialization. ZnCl 2 -treated textiles were found to retain their antimicrobial coating through abrasive testing, whereas ZnO-treated textiles did not. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry analyses suggest that ZnCl 2 likely hydrolyzes and reacts with portions of the polyester fiber, chemically attaching to the fiber, whereas colloidal ZnO simply sediments and binds with weaker physical interactions.

  2. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A.

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application. PMID:23060862

  3. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application.

  4. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Alessandro eDel Nobile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables and cereal-based products where these compounds found application.

  5. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among Salmonella isolates recovered from layer farms and eggs in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-12-01

    This investigation determined the frequency of resistance of 84 isolates of Salmonella comprising 14 serotypes recovered from layer farms in three Caribbean countries (Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia) to eight antimicrobial agents, using the disc diffusion method. Resistance among isolates of Salmonella was related to the country of recovery, type of sample, size of layer farms, and isolate serotype. Overall, all (100.0%) of the isolates exhibited resistance to one or more of seven antimicrobial agents tested, and all were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The resistance detected ranged from 11.9% to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) to 100.0% to erythromycin. The difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.23). Across countries, for types of samples that yielded Salmonella, significant differences in frequency of resistance were detected only to SXT (P = 0.002) in Trinidad and Tobago and to gentamycin (P = 0.027) in St. Lucia. For the three countries, the frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents was significantly different for ampicillin (P = 0.001) and SXT (P = 0.032). A total of 83 (98.8%) of the 84 isolates exhibited 39 multidrug resistance patterns. Farm size significantly (P = 0.032) affected the frequency of resistance to kanamycin across the countries. Overall, among the 14 serotypes of Salmonella tested, significant (P resistance were detected to kanamycin, ampicillin, and SXT. Results suggest that the relatively high frequency of resistance to six of the antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) tested and the multidrug resistance detected may pose prophylactic and therapeutic concerns for chicken layer farms in the three countries studied.

  6. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  7. Design, Recombinant Fusion Expression and Biological Evaluation of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Analogue as Novel Antimicrobial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides represent an emerging category of therapeutic agents with remarkable structural and functional diversity. Modified vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP (VIP analogue 8 with amino acid sequence “FTANYTRLRRQLAVRRYLAAILGRR” without haemolytic activity and cytotoxicity displayed enhanced antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 25922 than parent VIP even in the presence of 180 mM NaCl or 50 mM MgCl2, or in the range of pH 4–10. VIP analogue 8 was expressed as fusion protein thioredoxin (Trx-VIP8 in E. coli BL21(DE at a yield of 45.67 mg/L. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the recombinant VIP analogue 8 against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. coli ATCC 25922 were 2 μM. These findings suggest that VIP analogue 8 is a promising candidate for application as a new and safe antimicrobial agent.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katla, A K; Kruse, H; Johnsen, G; Herikstad, H

    2001-07-20

    Commercial starter culture bacteria are widely used in the production of dairy products and could represent a potential source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. To learn more about the antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products, a total of 189 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were examined for susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin G, cephalothin, vancomycin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulphadiazine using Etest for MIC determination. Most of the isolates (140) originated from 39 dairy products (yoghurt, sour cream, fermented milk and cheese), while 49 were isolated directly from nine commercial cultures. The bacteria belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus. Only one of the 189 isolates was classified as resistant to an antimicrobial agent included in the study. This isolate, a lactobacillus, was classified as high level resistant to streptomycin. The remaining isolates were not classified as resistant to the antimicrobial agents included other than to those they are known to have a natural reduced susceptibility to. Thus, starter culture bacteria in Norwegian dairy products do not seem to represent a source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  9. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  10. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  11. Natural Cinnamic Acids, Synthetic Derivatives and Hybrids with Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Guzman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial natural preparations involving cinnamon, storax and propolis have been long used topically for treating infections. Cinnamic acids and related molecules are partly responsible for the therapeutic effects observed in these preparations. Most of the cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes and alcohols, show significant growth inhibition against one or several bacterial and fungal species. Of particular interest is the potent antitubercular activity observed for some of these cinnamic derivatives, which may be amenable as future drugs for treating tuberculosis. This review intends to summarize the literature data on the antimicrobial activity of the natural cinnamic acids and related derivatives. In addition, selected hybrids between cinnamic acids and biologically active scaffolds with antimicrobial activity were also included. A comprehensive literature search was performed collating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each cinnamic acid or derivative against the reported microorganisms. The MIC data allows the relative comparison between series of molecules and the derivation of structure-activity relationships.

  12. Smart Dressings Based on Nanostructured Fibers Containing Natural Origin Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Regenerative Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Andreu

    2015-08-01

    the beneficial or inert effects of those natural origin occurring materials, the scientific community leads towards the identification of the main active components involved and their mechanism of action during the corresponding healing, antimicrobial, or regenerative processes and in carrying out systematic and comparative controlled tests. Once those natural origin components have been identified and their efficacy validated through solid clinical trials, their combination within nanostructured dressings can open up new avenues in the fabrication of bioactive dressings with outstanding characteristics for wound care. The motivation of this work is to analyze the state of the art in the use of different essential oils, honey, cationic peptides, aloe vera, plant extracts, and other natural origin occurring materials as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and regenerative components with the aim of clarifying their potential clinical use in bioactive dressings. We conclude that, for those natural occurring materials, more clinical trials are needed to reach a sufficient level of evidence as therapeutic agents for wound healing management.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of new porphyrins of synthetic and natural origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulkhandanyan, Grigor V.; Ghazaryan, Robert K.; Paronyan, Marina H.; Ulikhanyan, Ghukas I.; Gyulkhandanyan, Aram G.; Sahakyan, Lida A.

    2012-03-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation has been successfully used against Gram (+) microorganisms, but most of the photosensitizers (PSs) on Gram (-) bacteria acts weakly. PSs are the natural or synthetic origin dyes, mainly porphyrins. We have synthesized more than 100 new cationic porphyrins and metalloporphyrins with different functional groups (hydroxyethyl, butyl, allyl, methallyl) and metals (cobalt, iron, copper, zinc, silver and other); from the nettle have also been purified pheophytin (a+b) and pheophytin (a) and have synthesized their Ag-and Zn-metalloporphyrins. It was found that in the dark (cytotoxic) mode, the most highly efficiency against microorganisms showed Agmetalloporphyrins of both types of porphyrins (synthetic and natural). Metalloporphyrin of natural origin Ag-pheophytin (a + b) is a strong antibacterial agent and causes 100% death as the Gram (+) microorganisms (St. aureus and MRSA) and the Gram (-) microorganisms (E.coli and Salmonella). It is established that for the destruction of Gram (+) and Gram (-) microorganisms in photodynamic mode cationic water-soluble synthetic metalloporphyrins, especially Zn-TBut4PyP, many times more effective than pheophytins. In vivo conditions on mice established that the best therapeutic activity against various strains of the microorganism St. aureus has the synthetic metalloporphyrin Ag-TBut4PyP. It is significantly more efficient than known drug "Chlorophyllipt" (2.5-3 times) and leads the survival rate of animals up to 50-60%.

  14. PLA/PBAT Bionanocomposites with Antimicrobial Natural Rosin for Green Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Hesham; El Kissi, Nadia; Abou-Kandil, Ahmed I; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S; Dufresne, Alain

    2017-06-14

    The use of biodegradable polymers is of great importance nowadays in many applications. Some of the most commonly used biopolymers are polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) due to their superior properties and availability. In this manuscript, we use a facile and green modification method of organoclay (OC) by antimicrobial natural rosin which is considered as a toxicity-free reinforcing material, thus keeping the green character of the material. It increases the interlayer spacing between the clay platelets. This was proven by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and found to impart antimicrobial properties to PLA/PBAT blends. The morphology of the resulting blends was conducted using scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), and evidence of exfoliation and intercalation was observed. The thermal properties of the blends were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and a detailed study of the crystallization of both PLA and PBAT was reported showing cold crystallization behavior of PLA. The final effect on mechanical and antimicrobial properties was also investigated. The obtained results reveal excellent possibility of using expanded OC modified PLA/PBAT polymer blends by adding a green material, antimicrobial natural rosin, for food packaging and biomembranes applications.

  15. Engineered Chimeric Peptides as Antimicrobial Surface Coating Agents toward Infection-Free Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hilal; O'Neill, Mary B; Kacar, Turgay; Wilson, Brandon R; Oren, E Emre; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan

    2016-03-02

    Prevention of bacterial colonization and consequent biofilm formation remains a major challenge in implantable medical devices. Implant-associated infections are not only a major cause of implant failures but also their conventional treatment with antibiotics brings further complications due to the escalation in multidrug resistance to a variety of bacterial species. Owing to their unique properties, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have gained significant attention as effective agents to combat colonization of microorganisms. These peptides have been shown to exhibit a wide spectrum of activities with specificity to a target cell while having a low tendency for developing bacterial resistance. Engineering biomaterial surfaces that feature AMP properties, therefore, offer a promising approach to prevent implant infections. Here, we engineered a chimeric peptide with bifunctionality that both forms a robust solid-surface coating while presenting antimicrobial property. The individual domains of the chimeric peptides were evaluated for their solid-binding kinetics to titanium substrate as well as for their antimicrobial properties in solution. The antimicrobial efficacy of the chimeric peptide on the implant material was evaluated in vitro against infection by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus. epidermidis, and Escherichia coli, which are commonly found in oral and orthopedic implant related surgeries. Our results demonstrate significant improvement in reducing bacterial colonization onto titanium surfaces below the detectable limit. Engineered chimeric peptides with freely displayed antimicrobial domains could be a potential solution for developing infection-free surfaces by engineering implant interfaces with highly reduced bacterial colonization property.

  16. The agents of natural genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2011-06-01

    The DNA serves as a stable information storage medium and every protein which is needed by the cell is produced from this blueprint via an RNA intermediate code. More recently it was found that an abundance of various RNA elements cooperate in a variety of steps and substeps as regulatory and catalytic units with multiple competencies to act on RNA transcripts. Natural genome editing on one side is the competent agent-driven generation and integration of meaningful DNA nucleotide sequences into pre-existing genomic content arrangements, and the ability to (re-)combine and (re-)regulate them according to context-dependent (i.e. adaptational) purposes of the host organism. Natural genome editing on the other side designates the integration of all RNA activities acting on RNA transcripts without altering DNA-encoded genes. If we take the genetic code seriously as a natural code, there must be agents that are competent to act on this code because no natural code codes itself as no natural language speaks itself. As code editing agents, viral and subviral agents have been suggested because there are several indicators that demonstrate viruses competent in both RNA and DNA natural genome editing.

  17. Novel Penicillin Analogues as Potential Antimicrobial Agents; Design, Synthesis and Docking Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Zaman; Bais, Abdul; Manir, Md Maniruzzaman; Niazi, Umar

    2015-01-01

    A number of penicillin derivatives (4a-h) were synthesized by the condensation of 6-amino penicillinic acid (6-APA) with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as antimicrobial agents. In silico docking study of these analogues was performed against Penicillin Binding Protein (PDBID 1CEF) using AutoDock Tools 1.5.6 in order to investigate the antimicrobial data on structural basis. Penicillin binding proteins function as either transpeptidases or carboxypeptidases and in few cases demonstrate transglycosylase activity in bacteria. The excellent antibacterial potential was depicted by compounds 4c and 4e against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidus and Staphylococcus aureus compared to the standard amoxicillin. The most potent penicillin derivative 4e exhibited same activity as standard amoxicillin against S. aureus. In the enzyme inhibitory assay the compound 4e inhibited E. coli MurC with an IC50 value of 12.5 μM. The docking scores of these compounds 4c and 4e also verified their greater antibacterial potential. The results verified the importance of side chain functionalities along with the presence of central penam nucleus. The binding affinities calculated from docking results expressed in the form of binding energies ranges from -7.8 to -9.2kcal/mol. The carboxylic group of penam nucleus in all these compounds is responsible for strong binding with receptor protein with the bond length ranges from 3.4 to 4.4 Ǻ. The results of present work ratify that derivatives 4c and 4e may serve as a structural template for the design and development of potent antimicrobial agents.

  18. Synthesis, biological evaluation and QSAR study of a series of substituted quinazolines as antimicrobial agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buha, V. M.; Rana, D. N.; Chhabria, M. T.; Chikhalia, K. H.; Mahajan, B. M.; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik; Shah, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2013), s. 4096-4109 ISSN 1054-2523 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial agents * quantitative structure-activity relationship * genetic function approximation * quinazoline Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2012

  19. THE STUDY THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Effective treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes often involves the use of antimicrobial agents.The purpose of the study was an in vitro estimation of cytotoxicity and the efficiency of national resources for local use: gel with bacteriophages («Otofag», «Fagogin», «Fagoderm», «Fagodent» and antiseptic — «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin».Materials and Methods. To study the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents they used to provide crop strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes as one of the most common representatives of pathogens. The study of cell viability and cytotoxicity antimicrobials performed on cell lines KB — epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity of a human. For this purpose we use mikrotetrazoly test, which is widely used in the assessment of the effects on the cells of toxins, pharmaceuticals, adverse environmental factors, allowing to evaluate the toxicity of investigational drugs in vitro.The results showed that the efficacy against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, has even a 10‑fold dilution of «Сhlorhexidine» 0.05% and gels with bacteriophages. Antiseptic «Miramistin» is effective only on the initial concentration. The study of cytotoxicity showed that the processing of epidermoid carcinoma cells with «Chlorhexidine» and «Мiramistin» invokes the irreversible reactions, while the composition processing of gels based on bacteriophages not further affect cell viability.Conclusions The results of the experiment confirmed the significant toxicity of tools such as «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin» in proposed concentrations in the pharmacy network. Despite the high efficiency of these vehicles with regard to the studied pathogens, their long-term use in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes can cause a slowing of repair processes. Gel means with bacteriophages

  20. Antimicrobial agents from Licaria puchuri-major and their synergistic effect with polygodial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himejima, M; Kubo, I

    1992-05-01

    The resistance of the seeds of Licaria puchuri-major (Lauraceae) to decomposition in nature seems to be due largely to chemical defense, since its n-hexane extract contains antimicrobial principles in quantity, with a broad antimicrobial spectrum. In order to identify the active principles, the n-hexane extract was steam-distilled to yield a distillate and a residue. Subsequent bioassay indicated that the distillate retained the original broad antimicrobial activity, while the residue exhibited almost no activity. Gc-ms analysis showed that the distillate contained four phenolic compounds, seven monoterpenes, and one sesquiterpene. In contrast, the residue contained, almost exclusively, lauric acid. In the detailed antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds identified, most of them showed broad, but moderate, antimicrobial activity. Some of the components identified in the distillate were combined with polygodial [1] in order to enhance their antifungal activity. Unexpectedly, while polygodial did not synergize the antifungal activity of any of the compounds tested, the antifungal activity of polygodial was significantly increased when combined with aromatic substances such as anethole, safrole, or methyleugenol.

  1. Development of Class IIa Bacteriocins as Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Lohans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Class IIa bacteriocins have been primarily explored as natural food preservatives, but there is much interest in exploring the application of these peptides as therapeutic antimicrobial agents. Bacteriocins of this class possess antimicrobial activity against several important human pathogens. Therefore, the therapeutic development of these bacteriocins will be reviewed. Biological and chemical modifications to both stabilize and increase the potency of bacteriocins are discussed, as well as the optimization of their production and purification. The suitability of bacteriocins as pharmaceuticals is explored through determinations of cytotoxicity, effects on the natural microbiota, and in vivo efficacy in mouse models. Recent results suggest that class IIa bacteriocins show promise as a class of therapeutic agents.

  2. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  3. Rhamnolipids and lactonic sophorolipids: natural antimicrobial surfactants for oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, M; Moya-Ramírez, I; Moens, H; Roelants, S; Soetaert, W; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2017-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of rhamnolipid (mixture of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid congeners), purified monorhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid and lactonic sophorolipid biosurfactants against pathogens important for oral hygiene. Acquired and produced biosurfactants were fully characterized to allow the antimicrobial activity to be assigned to the biosurfactant congeners. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the resazurin-aided microdilution method. Mixed rhamnolipid JBR425 (MR) and lactonic sophorolipids (LSLs) demonstrated the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) which ranged between 100 and 400 μg ml -1 against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Neisseria mucosa and Streptococcus sanguinis. Combining these biosurfactants with standard antimicrobial agents namely chlorhexidine, sodium lauryl sulphate, tetracycline HCl and ciprofloxacin showed a dramatic drop in the MIC values. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated the biosurfactants' ability to prevent and disrupt oral pathogens biofilms. The increased permeability of microorganisms treated with biosurfactant, as shown using bisbenzimide dye, in part explains the inhibition effect. The results demonstrate that rhamnolipids and LSLs have the ability to inhibit oral pathogens both in planktonic and oral biofilm states. The findings indicate the potential value of biosurfactants for both oral hygiene and the pharmaceutical industries since there is a serious need to reduce the reliance on synthetic antimicrobials and antibiotics. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Coping with antibiotic resistance: combining nanoparticles with antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kon, Kateryna Volodymyrivna; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Malahat; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2011-11-01

    The worldwide escalation of bacterial resistance to conventional medical antibiotics is a serious concern for modern medicine. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria among bacteria-based infections decreases effectiveness of current treatments and causes thousands of deaths. New improvements in present methods and novel strategies are urgently needed to cope with this problem. Owing to their antibacterial activities, metallic nanoparticles represent an effective solution for overcoming bacterial resistance. However, metallic nanoparticles are toxic, which causes restrictions in their use. Recent studies have shown that combining nanoparticles with antibiotics not only reduces the toxicity of both agents towards human cells by decreasing the requirement for high dosages but also enhances their bactericidal properties. Combining antibiotics with nanoparticles also restores their ability to destroy bacteria that have acquired resistance to them. Furthermore, nanoparticles tagged with antibiotics have been shown to increase the concentration of antibiotics at the site of bacterium-antibiotic interaction, and to facilitate binding of antibiotics to bacteria. Likewise, combining nanoparticles with antimicrobial peptides and essential oils generates genuine synergy against bacterial resistance. In this article, we aim to summarize recent studies on interactions between nanoparticles and antibiotics, as well as other antibacterial agents to formulate new prospects for future studies. Based on the promising data that demonstrated the synergistic effects of antimicrobial agents with nanoparticles, we believe that this combination is a potential candidate for more research into treatments for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  5. Alternative Antimicrobial Approach: Nano-Antimicrobial Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous existing potent antibiotics and other antimicrobial means, bacterial infections are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the need to develop additional bactericidal means has significantly increased due to the growing concern regarding multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm associated infections. Consequently, attention has been especially devoted to new and emerging nanoparticle-based materials in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The present review discusses the activities of nanoparticles as an antimicrobial means, their mode of action, nanoparticle effect on drug-resistant bacteria, and the risks attendant on their use as antibacterial agents. Factors contributing to nanoparticle performance in the clinical setting, their unique properties, and mechanism of action as antibacterial agents are discussed in detail.

  6. Bioactive and wood-associated stilbenes as multifunctional antimicrobial and health promoting agents - BIOSTIMUL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. von (Univ. of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Biosciences.), Email: atte.vonWright@uef.fi

    2010-10-15

    Plant polyphenolics have a wide range of bioactivities. Coniferous trees are a rich source of stilbenes, such as pinosylvin in the genus Pinus. Pinosylvin is structurally very similar to resveratrol, a stilbene found in grapes and red berries, and which is reported to have beneficial health effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, tumourigenesis, and according to recent findings, also type II diabetes. In our previous studies the bioactivities of pinosylvin (antimicrobial effects and cytotoxic activities against cancer cells) were very similar to those of resveratrol. In this project we elucidate the potential of pinosylvin and its derivatives in food applications as multifunctional antimicrobial agents with positive health effects (including prevention of type II diabetes) highlighting results. (orig.)

  7. Bioactive and wood-associated stilbenes as multifunctional antimicrobial and health promoting agents - BIOSTIMUL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. von (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Biosciences (Finland)), email: atte.vonWright@uku.fi

    2009-10-15

    Plant polyphenolics have a wide range of bioactivities. Coniferous trees are a rich source of stilbenes, such as pinosylvin in the genus Pinus. Pinosylvin is structurally very similar to resveratrol, a stilbene found in grapes and red berries, and which is reported to have beneficial health effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, tumourigenesis, and according to recent findings, also type 2 diabetes. In our previous studies the bioactivities of pinosylvin (antimicrobial effects and cytotoxic activities against cancer cells) were very similar to those of resveratrol. In this project we elucidate the potential of pinosylvin and its derivatives in food applications as multifunctional antimicrobial agents with positive health effects (including prevention of type 2 diabetes) highlighting results. (orig.)

  8. Bioactive and wood-associated stilbenes as multifunctional antimicrobial and health promoting agents (BIOSTIMUL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. von (Kuopio Univ., Department of Biosciences (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    Plant polyphenolics have a wide range of bioactivities. Coniferous trees are a rich source of stilbenes, such as pinosylvin in the genus Pinus. Pinosylvin is structurally very similar to resveratrol, a stilbene found in grapes and red berries, and which is reported to have beneficial health effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, tumourigenesis, and according to recent findings, also type II diabetes. In our previous studies the bioactivities of pinosylvin (antimicrobial effects and cytotoxic activities against cancer cells) were very similar to those of resveratrol. In this project we elucidate the potential of pinosylvin and as derivatives in food applications as multifunctional antimicrobial agents with positive health effects (including prevention of type II diabetes) highlighting results. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Plant Antimicrobial Agents Containing Marinades on Storage Stability and Microbiological Quality of Broiler Chicken Cuts Packed with Modified Atmosphere Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakomi, H-L; Maukonen, J; Honkapää, K; Storgårds, E; Quirin, K-W; Yang, B; Saarela, M

    2017-10-01

    The food industry, including the meat industry, is currently looking for natural preservatives to prevent the growth of harmful microbes in foods. The potential of plant-derived antimicrobial extracts to increase the shelf life and to delay the microbiological spoilage of marinated broiler chicken cuts in modified atmosphere packages during cold storage was investigated in this study. We evaluated the impact of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Finnish sea buckthorn berries and lingonberries and supercritical CO 2 -extracted herbal extracts from an antimicrobial blend and oregano leaves on the shelf life of broiler meat. The commercial antimicrobial blend extract and the oregano extract inhibited the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta in the marinated samples. The antimicrobial blend extract also reduced the growth of psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, whereas the sea buckthorn and lingonberry extracts did not. Only minor antimicrobial activity against Enterobacteriaceae by all the extracts was observed. Plate count analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that LAB, which are the major spoilage group in marinated modified atmosphere-packaged poultry products, were not significantly affected by the berry extracts studied. During this shelf-life study, LAB isolates of Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc were identified in the marinated samples. Antimicrobial blends and oregano leaf extracts can act as antimicrobial agents in marinade blends, although tailoring of the dose is needed because of their strong taste. Further studies for exploiting synergistic effects of plant extracts could contribute to the development of potential and more effective antimicrobial blends. Studies are needed in meat matrices and in product applications to demonstrate the efficacy of these compounds.

  10. Prodigiosin - A Multifaceted Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Danevčič

    Full Text Available Despite a considerable interest in prodigiosin, the mechanism of its antibacterial activity is still poorly understood. In this work, Escherichia coli cells were treated with prodigiosin to determine its antimicrobial effect on bacterial physiology. The effect of prodigiosin was concentration dependent. In prodigiosin treated cells above MIC value no significant DNA damage or cytoplasmic membrane disintegration was observed. The outer membrane, however, becomes leaky. Cells had severely decreased respiration activity. In prodigiosin treated cells protein and RNA synthesis were inhibited, cells were elongated but could not divide. Pre-treatment with prodigiosin improved E. coli survival rate in media containing ampicillin, kanamycin and erythromycin but not phleomycin. The results suggest that prodigiosin acts as a bacteriostatic agent in E. coli cells. If prodigiosin was diluted, cells resumed growth. The results indicate that prodigiosin has distinct mode of antibacterial action in different bacteria.

  11. Spermicidal Activity of the Safe Natural Antimicrobial Peptide Subtilosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Chikindas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV, a condition affecting millions of women each year, is primarily caused by the gram-variable organism Gardnerella vaginalis. A number of organisms associated with BV cases have been reported to develop multidrug resistance, leading to the need for alternative therapies. Previously, we reported the antimicrobial peptide subtilosin has proven antimicrobial activity against G. vaginalis, but not against the tested healthy vaginal microbiota of lactobacilli. After conducting tissue sensitivity assays using an ectocervical tissue model, we determined that human cells remained viable after prolonged exposures to partially-purified subtilosin, indicating the compound is safe for human use. Subtilosin was shown to eliminate the motility and forward progression of human spermatozoa in a dose-dependent manner, and can therefore be considered a general spermicidal agent. These results suggest subtilosin would be a valuable component in topical personal care products aimed at contraception and BV prophylaxis and treatment.

  12. Novel Penicillin Analogues as Potential Antimicrobial Agents; Design, Synthesis and Docking Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Ashraf

    Full Text Available A number of penicillin derivatives (4a-h were synthesized by the condensation of 6-amino penicillinic acid (6-APA with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as antimicrobial agents. In silico docking study of these analogues was performed against Penicillin Binding Protein (PDBID 1CEF using AutoDock Tools 1.5.6 in order to investigate the antimicrobial data on structural basis. Penicillin binding proteins function as either transpeptidases or carboxypeptidases and in few cases demonstrate transglycosylase activity in bacteria. The excellent antibacterial potential was depicted by compounds 4c and 4e against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidus and Staphylococcus aureus compared to the standard amoxicillin. The most potent penicillin derivative 4e exhibited same activity as standard amoxicillin against S. aureus. In the enzyme inhibitory assay the compound 4e inhibited E. coli MurC with an IC50 value of 12.5 μM. The docking scores of these compounds 4c and 4e also verified their greater antibacterial potential. The results verified the importance of side chain functionalities along with the presence of central penam nucleus. The binding affinities calculated from docking results expressed in the form of binding energies ranges from -7.8 to -9.2kcal/mol. The carboxylic group of penam nucleus in all these compounds is responsible for strong binding with receptor protein with the bond length ranges from 3.4 to 4.4 Ǻ. The results of present work ratify that derivatives 4c and 4e may serve as a structural template for the design and development of potent antimicrobial agents.

  13. Immune mediators of sea-cucumber Holothuria tubulosa (Echinodermata) as source of novel antimicrobial and anti-staphylococcal biofilm agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Domenico; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria; Russo, Debora; Vazzana, Mirella; Vitale, Maria; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2013-06-24

    The present study aims to investigate coelomocytes, immune mediators cells in the echinoderm Holothuria tubulosa, as an unusual source of antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents. The activity of the 5kDa peptide fraction of the cytosol from H. tubulosa coelomocytes (5-HCC) was tested against a reference group of Gram-negative and Gram-positive human pathogens. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 125 to 500 mg/ml were determined against tested strains. The observed biological activity of 5-HCC could be due to two novel peptides, identified by capillary RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS, which present the common chemical-physical characteristics of antimicrobial peptides. Such peptides were chemically synthesized and their antimicrobial activity was tested. The synthetic peptides showed broad-spectrum activity at 12.5 mg/ml against the majority of the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, and they were also able to inhibit biofilm formation in a significant percentage at a concentration of 3.1 mg/ml against staphylococcal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.The immune mediators in H. tubulosa are a source of novel antimicrobial peptides for the development of new agents against biofilm bacterial communities that are often intrinsically resistant to conventional antibiotics.

  14. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Wan, Kanglin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Clinical isolates (73) were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. M. abscessus (75.34%) and M. fortuitum (15.07%), the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  15. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Methods. Clinical isolates (73 were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. Results. M. abscessus (75.34% and M. fortuitum (15.07%, the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  16. Genome-Wide Identification of Antimicrobial Intrinsic Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Leng, Bingfeng; Haaber, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products...... that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We...... with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets...

  17. Genome-wide identification of antimicrobial intrinsic resistance determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vestergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library of 1920 single-gene inactivations in S. aureus strain JE2, for increased susceptibility to the anti-staphylococcal antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, fosfomycin, daptomycin, mupirocin, vancomycin and gentamicin. 68 mutants were confirmed by E-test to display at least two-fold increased susceptibility to one or more antimicrobial agents. The majority of the identified genes have not previously been associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in S. aureus. For example, inactivation of genes encoding for subunits of the ATP synthase, atpA, atpB, atpG and atpH, reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of gentamicin 16-fold. To elucidate the potential of the screen, we examined treatment efficacy in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Gentamicin efficacy was significantly improved, when treating larvae infected with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets for compounds that may potentiate the efficacy of existing antimicrobial agents against this important pathogen.

  18. Retainment of the antimicrobial agent triclosan in a septic tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirjanova, Ala; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Vollertsen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of the antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) in a conventional septic tank. The main mechanism of TCS removal from wastewater was identified to be rapid TCS sorption to suspended particles followed by settling of these particles...... to the bottom of the septic tank. Sorption to particles was completed within minutes while the settling took several days. Therefore, in a septic tank the removal of TCS from wastewater is mainly determined by the removal of suspended particles by sedimentation. Over 5 days of hydraulic residence time...... subsequent sorption onto the septic sludge....

  19. In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2013-07-01

    The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  20. Danish integrated antimicrobial in resistance monitoring and research program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Heuer, Ole Eske; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research......Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish...... activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries....

  1. Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    EFSA's Community Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004 was published in December 2005. The zoonoses, meaning infectious diseases transmissible from animals to humans, affected over 380,000 EU citizens in 2004....... Often the human form of the disease is acquired through contaminated food. According to the report, the two most frequently reported zoonotic diseases in humans were Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. These bacteria were also commonly found in food and animals. The report includes information...... of 11 zoonoses, antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic agents as well as foodborne outbreaks. The national zoonoses country reports which have been used as a basis for this Summary report are below. The utmost effort was made to keep the information in the Summary Report and the national reports identical...

  2. Microbiological aspects of an in situ model to study effects of antimicrobial agents on dental plaque ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giertsen, E; Guggenheim, B; Thurnheer, T; Gmür, R

    2000-10-01

    This study validates an in situ model for ecological studies of dental plaque exposed to various antimicrobial agents with different modes of action on plaque bacteria. Eleven subjects wore two acrylic appliances, each containing two bovine enamel discs, during two 1-wk test periods. Using a split-mouth crossover design, the appliances were dipped twice daily for 1 min into water (control; treatment A), fluoride (26.3 mM NaF; B), zinc acetate (20.0 mM; C), or fluoride plus zinc acetate (D). Four of the subjects used also chlorhexidine diacetate (2.2 mM; E) and chlorhexidine plus fluoride (F). At the end of each period, plaque was collected from the discs, after which the microbiota were analyzed by culture, automated quantitative immunofluorescence, and a viability fluorescence stain. As compared to control, treatments B, C, and D resulted in a significant reduction of individual taxa as detected by immunofluorescence, whereas similar bacterial viability and total bacterial numbers were observed. In contrast, chlorhexidine significantly reduced bacterial viability, total cell numbers, and the abundance of most of the enumerated taxa. We conclude that this in situ model is well suited to study effects of antimicrobial agents on dental plaque ecology. Combined with viability testing, immunofluorescence is obviously superior to culture in detecting taxa-specific shifts caused by antimicrobial agents.

  3. Development of Class IIa Bacteriocins as Therapeutic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher T. Lohans; John C. Vederas

    2012-01-01

    Class IIa bacteriocins have been primarily explored as natural food preservatives, but there is much interest in exploring the application of these peptides as therapeutic antimicrobial agents. Bacteriocins of this class possess antimicrobial activity against several important human pathogens. Therefore, the therapeutic development of these bacteriocins will be reviewed. Biological and chemical modifications to both stabilize and increase the potency of bacteriocins are discussed, as well as ...

  4. Common errors in the treatment of intra-abdominal infections: the irrational use of antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda De Simone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AR is a global, emergent problem because an increasing numbers of serious community acquired and nosocomial infections are caused by resistant bacterial pathogens. It is a direct consequence of the excessive and irrational use of antibiotics. The use of antimicrobial agents – aimed to decrease morbidity and mortality rate related to intra-abdominal infections – is very high, often improper, in the Departments of General and Emergency Surgery and Intensive Cure Units. Source control and empiric antibiotic therapy have to be administrated as early as possible to decrease high mortality rates in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and, in this, the general surgeon has a crucial role. Proper antimicrobial stewardship in selecting an appropriate antibiotic and optimizing its dose and duration to cure intraabdominal infections may prevent the emergence of AR and decrease costs for antibiotics.

  5. Antimicrobials Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios

    The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

  6. Antimicrobial Effects of 7,8-Dihydroxy-6-Methoxycoumarin and 7-Hydroxy-6-Methoxycoumarin Analogues against Foodborne Pathogens and the Antimicrobial Mechanisms Associated with Membrane Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jun-Hwan; Lee, Myung-Ji; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2017-10-03

    The antimicrobial effects of 7,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin and 7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin isolated from Fraxinus rhynchophylla bark and of their structural analogues were determined in an attempt to develop natural antimicrobial agents against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Listeria monocytogenes. To elucidate the relationship between structure and antimicrobial activity for the coumarin analogues, isolated constituents and their structural analogues were evaluated against foodborne pathogens. Based on the culture plate inhibition zones and MICs, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, 7,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin, and 7-methoxycoumarin, containing a methoxy functional group on the coumarin skeleton, had the notable antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens. However, 7-hydroxycoumarin and 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, which contained a hydroxyl functional group on the coumarin skeleton, had no antimicrobial activity against these pathogens. An increase in cell membrane permeability was confirmed by electron microscopy observations, and release of extracellular ATP and cell constituents followed treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction of F. rhynchophylla extract. These findings indicate that F. rhynchophylla extract and coumarin analogues have potential for use as antimicrobial agents against foodborne pathogens and that the antimicrobial mechanisms are associated with the loss of cell membrane integrity.

  7. Plant nutraceuticals as antimicrobial agents in food preservation: terpenoids, polyphenols and thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Ignacio; Fernández, Javier; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-05-16

    Synthetic food additives generate a negative perception in consumers. Therefore, food manufacturers search for safer natural alternatives as those involving phytochemicals and plant essential oils. These bioactives have antimicrobial activities widely proved in in vitro tests. Foodborne diseases cause thousands of deaths and millions of infections every year, mainly due to pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. This review summarizes industrially interesting antimicrobial bioactivities, as well as their mechanisms of action, for three main types of plant nutraceuticals, terpenoids (as carnosic acid), polyphenols (as quercetin) and thiols (as allicin), which are important constituents of plant essential oils with a broad range of antimicrobial effects. These phytochemicals are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables and are really useful in food preservation as they inhibit microbial growth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. In vitro susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains to 42 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C B; Píriz, S; Vadillo, S; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1993-04-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentration of 42 antimicrobial agents was determined against 57 field strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in Spain. Penicillins, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines had irregular activity; ticarcillin, tobramycin, and doxycycline were the most active of each group, respectively. Macrolides, vancomycin, dapsone, and tiamulin, to which strains had high rate of resistance, were almost ineffective. Thiamphenicol, colistin, rifampin, fosfomycin, mupirocin, and metronidazole had good activity, with resistance ranging between 0 and 8.8%. Finally, cephalosporins (except cephalexin) and quinolones (especially ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sparfloxacin) were the most active antibiotics against A pleuropneumoniae.

  9. Patterns of infections, aetiological agents and antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care hospital in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumburu, Happiness Houka; Sonda, Tolbert; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil; Alifrangis, Michael; Lund, Ole; Kibiki, Gibson; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods, and disc diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates. A total of 249 (42.2%) specimens were culture-positive yielding a total of 377 isolates. A wide range of bacteria was isolated, the most predominant being Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus spp. (n = 48, 12.7%), Escherichia coli (n = 44, 11.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 40, 10.6%) and Klebsiella spp (n = 38, 10.1%). Wound infections were characterised by multiple isolates (n = 293, 77.7%), with the most frequent being Proteus spp. (n = 44, 15%), Pseudomonas (n = 37, 12.6%), Staphylococcus (n = 29, 9.9%) and Klebsiella spp. (n = 28, 9.6%). All Staphylococcus aureus tested were resistant to penicillin (n = 22, 100%) and susceptible to vancomycin. Significant resistance to cephalosporins such as cefazolin (n = 62, 72.9%), ceftriaxone (n = 44, 51.8%) and ceftazidime (n = 40, 37.4%) was observed in Gram-negative bacteria, as well as resistance to cefoxitin (n = 6, 27.3%) in S. aureus. The study has revealed a wide range of causative agents, with an alarming rate of resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the bacterial spectrum differs from those often observed in high-income countries. This highlights the imperative of regular generation of data on aetiological agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns especially in infectious disease endemic settings. The key steps would be to ensure the diagnostic capacity at a sufficient number of sites and implement structures to routinely exchange, compare, analyse and report data. Sentinel sites

  10. Evaluation of natural antimicrobials on typical meat spoilage bacteria in vitro and in vacuum-packed pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Bjørn Christian; Langsrud, Solveig

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of natural antimicrobials on the growth of typical spoilage bacteria from marinated pork. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of thymol, cinnamaldehyde, allyl isothiocyanate, citric acid, ascorbic acid, a rosemary extract, and a grapefruit seed extract against Lactobacillus algidus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc carnosum, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Serratia proteamaculans were determined in a microplate assay. Combinations of antimicrobials were tested and several combinations showed synergistic effects in inhibiting bacterial growth. Single and combined antimicrobials were added to vacuum-packed pork meat to evaluate preserving effects. Antimicrobial concentrations of up to 10 times the MIC values showed no effect on total bacterial growth in vacuum packed pork meaning that although most antimicrobials inhibited the growth of spoilage bacteria in vitro, results from the microplate assay could not be transferred to the meat system. Most natural antimicrobials possess strong odor and flavor that limit their use as a food preservative. In conclusion, this study showed that the use of natural antimicrobials in meat products is limited and that bacterial quality and shelf life was not enhanced under the chosen conditions.

  11. An Injectable System for Local and Sustained Release of Antimicrobial Agents in the Periodontal Pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Laura; Cappelluti, Martino Alfredo; Ricotti, Leonardo; Lenardi, Cristina; Gerges, Irini

    2017-08-01

    Periodontitis treatments usually require local administration of antimicrobial drugs with the aim to reduce the bacterial load inside the periodontal pocket. Effective pharmaceutical treatments may require sustained local drug release for several days in the site of interest. Currently available solutions are still not able to fulfill the clinical need for high-quality treatments, mainly in terms of release profiles and patients' comfort. This work aims to fill this gap through the development of an in situ gelling system, capable to achieve controlled and sustained release of antimicrobial agents for medium-to-long-term treatments. The system is composed of micrometer-sized β-cyclodextrin-based hydrogel (bCD-Jef-MPs), featured by a strong hydrophilic character, suspended in a synthetic block-co-polymer solution (Poloxamer 407), which is capable to undergo rapid thermally induced sol-gel phase transition at body temperature. The chemical structure of bCD-Jef-MPs was confirmed by cross-correlating data from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, swelling test, and degradation kinetics. The thermally induced sol-gel phase transition is demonstrated by rheometric tests. The effectiveness of the described system to achieve sustained release of antimicrobial agents is demonstrated in vitro, using chlorhexidine digluconate as a drug model. The results achieved in this work disclose the potential of the mentioned system in effectively treating periodontitis lesions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Bee Venom and Melittin against Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socarras, Kayla M; Theophilus, Priyanka A S; Torres, Jason P; Gupta, Khusali; Sapi, Eva

    2017-11-29

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne, multi-systemic disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Though antibiotics are used as a primary treatment, relapse often occurs after the discontinuation of antimicrobial agents. The reason for relapse remains unknown, however previous studies suggest the possible presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia round bodies, persisters and attached biofilm forms. Thus, there is an urgent need to find antimicrobial agents suitable to eliminate all known forms of B. burgdorferi . In this study, natural antimicrobial agents such as Apis mellifera venom and a known component, melittin, were tested using SYBR Green I/PI, direct cell counting, biofilm assays combined with LIVE/DEAD and atomic force microscopy methods. The obtained results were compared to standalone and combinations of antibiotics such as Doxycycline, Cefoperazone, Daptomycin, which were recently found to be effective against Borrelia persisters. Our findings showed that both bee venom and melittin had significant effects on all the tested forms of B. burgdorferi. In contrast, the control antibiotics when used individually or even in combinations had limited effects on the attached biofilm form. These findings strongly suggest that whole bee venom or melittin could be effective antimicrobial agents for B. burgdorferi; however, further research is necessary to evaluate their effectiveness in vivo, as well as their safe and effective delivery method for their therapeutic use.

  13. Oxygen tension during biofilm growth influences the efficacy antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pippi ANTONIAZZI

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX and herbal green tea (Camellia sinensis solution on established biofilms formed at different oxygen tensions in an in situ model. Method Twenty-five dental students were eligible for the study. In situ devices with standardized enamel specimens (ES facing the palatal and buccal sides were inserted in the mouths of volunteers for a 7 day period. No agent was applied during the first four days. From the fifth day onward, both agents were applied to the test ES group and no agent was applied to the control ES group. After 7 days the ES fragments were removed from the devices, sonicated, plated on agar, and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C to determine and quantify the colony forming units (CFUs. Result CHX had significantly higher efficacy compared to green tea on the buccal (1330 vs. 2170 CFU/µL and palatal (2250 vs. 2520 CFU/µL ES. In addition, intragroup comparisons showed significantly higher efficacy in buccal ES over palatal ES (1330 vs. 2250 CFU/µL for CHX and 2170 vs, 2520 CFU/µL for CV for both solutions. Analysis of the ES controls showed significantly higher biofilm formation in palatal ES compared to buccal ES. Conclusion CHX has higher efficacy than green tea on 4-day biofilms. The efficacy of both agents was reduced for biofilms grown in a low oxygen tension environment. Therefore, the oxygen tension environment seems to influence the efficacy of the tested agents.

  14. In vitro and in vivo analysis of antimicrobial agents alone and in combination against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songzhe eHE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of tigecycline and other 13 common antimicrobial agents, alone or in combination, against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.MethodsAn in vitro susceptibility test of 101 Acinetobacter baumannii was used to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs. A mouse lung infection model of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii,established by the ultrasonic atomization method, was used to define in vivo antimicrobial activities.Results Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii showed high sensitivity to tigecycline (98% inhibition, polymyxin B (78.2% inhibition, and minocycline (74.2% inhibition. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents in combination with other antimicrobial agents produced synergistic or additive effects. In vivo data showed that white blood cell (WBC counts in drug combination groups C (minocycline + amikacin and D (minocycline + rifampicin were significantly higher than in groups A (tigecycline and B (polymyxin B (P < 0.05, after administration of the drugs 24h post-infection. Lung tissue inflammation gradually increased in the model group during the first 24h after ultrasonic atomization infection; vasodilation, congestion with hemorrhage were observed 48h post infection. After three days of anti-infective therapy in groups A, B, C and D, lung tissue inflammation in each group gradually recovered with clear structures. The mortality rates in drug combination groups (groups C and D were much lower than in groups A and B.ConclusionThe combination of minocycline with either rifampicin or amikacin is more effective against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii than single-agent tigecycline or polymyxin B. In addition, the mouse lung infection by ultrasonic atomization is a suitable model for drug screening and analysis of infection mechanism.

  15. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents Ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em carcaças de frango e sua suscetibilidade a agentes antimicrobianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Angélica Moliterno Duarte

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6% were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%, nitrofurantoin (52.3%, tetracycline (31.6%, and nalidixic acid (21% were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested.O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de Salmonellae em amostras de carcaças de frango e a suscetibilidade dos isolados a agentes antimicrobianos. Das 260 carcaças analisadas, 25 (9,6% foram positivas para Salmonella. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar predominante. Com relação à suscetibilidade a agentes antimicrobianos, 94,7% das cepas de Salmonella testadas, apresentaram resistência a um ou mais agentes antimicrobianos. Os perfís de resistência mais comumente observados entre os isolados foram a resistência à estreptomicina (73,7%, nitrofurantoína (52,3%, tetraciclina (31,6% e ácido nalidíxico (21%.

  16. Antimicrobial peptides as potential anti-biofilm agents against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pooi Yin; Khanum, Ramona

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial resistance to commonly used drugs has become a global health problem, causing increased infection cases and mortality rate. One of the main virulence determinants in many bacterial infections is biofilm formation, which significantly increases bacterial resistance to antibiotics and innate host defence. In the search to address the chronic infections caused by biofilms, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been considered as potential alternative agents to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs are commonly considered as the primitive mechanism of immunity and has been extensively studied in insects and non-vertebrate organisms, there is now increasing evidence that AMPs also play a crucial role in human immunity. AMPs have exhibited broad-spectrum activity against many strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including drug-resistant strains, and fungi. In addition, AMPs also showed synergy with classical antibiotics, neutralize toxins and are active in animal models. In this review, the important mechanisms of action and potential of AMPs in the eradication of biofilm formation in multidrug-resistant pathogen, with the goal of designing novel antimicrobial therapeutics, are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  18. Antimicrobial Peptides: An Emerging Category of Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlapuu, Margit; Håkansson, Joakim; Ringstad, Lovisa; Björn, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides, are short and generally positively charged peptides found in a wide variety of life forms from microorganisms to humans. Most AMPs have the ability to kill microbial pathogens directly, whereas others act indirectly by modulating the host defense systems. Against a background of rapidly increasing resistance development to conventional antibiotics all over the world, efforts to bring AMPs into clinical use are accelerating. Several AMPs are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as novel anti-infectives, but also as new pharmacological agents to modulate the immune response, promote wound healing, and prevent post-surgical adhesions. In this review, we provide an overview of the biological role, classification, and mode of action of AMPs, discuss the opportunities and challenges to develop these peptides for clinical applications, and review the innovative formulation strategies for application of AMPs.

  19. Use of Extract of Citrus sinensis as an antimicrobial agent for foodborne zoonotic pathogens and spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens remain global health problems despite concerted efforts to control the transmission of these microorganisms through food. The resurgence of drug resistant bacteria has renewed interest in developing and testing new sources of antimicrobial agents to control foodborne illness. Thi...

  20. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Ali; Asadpour, Leila; Naeemi, Akram Sadat; Houshmand, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Increase in the emergence of drug -resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant S. aureus have been studied. Solvent extraction procedure was done using soxhlet apparatus for extracting antimicrobial agents from freeze dried plants. Antibacterial activity was measured using agar well diffusion method. The MIC of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica extracts against the standard strain of S. aureus ATCC 6538 were determined using the micro dilution method at 15 mg and 20 mg respectively. All the test bacteria were found sensitive to the Sambucus ebulus extract and only one isolate was resistant to Urtica dioica extract. Extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica possess antibacterial potency against MRSA isolates and may be used as a natural antiseptics and antimicrobial agents in medicine.

  1. In vivo antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles produced via a green chemistry synthesis using Acacia rigidula as a reducing and capping agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Garza-Cervantes, J A; Vázquez-Rodríguez, A; Montelongo-Peralta, Liliana Zulem; Treviño-González, M T; Díaz Barriga Castro, E; Saucedo-Salazar, E M; Chávez Morales, R M; Regalado Soto, D I; Treviño González, F M; Carrazco Rosales, J L; Cruz, Rocío Villalobos; Morones-Ramírez, José Rubén

    2018-01-01

    One of the main issues in the medical field and clinical practice is the development of novel and effective treatments against infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One avenue that has been approached to develop effective antimicrobials is the use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), since they have been found to exhibit an efficient and wide spectrum of antimicrobial properties. Among the main drawbacks of using Ag-NPs are their potential cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells and the latent environmental toxicity of their synthesis methods. Therefore, diverse green synthesis methods, which involve the use of environmentally friendly plant extracts as reductive and capping agents, have become attractive to synthesize Ag-NPs that exhibit antimicrobial effects against resistant bacteria at concentrations below toxicity thresholds for eukaryotic cells. In this study, we report a green one-pot synthesis method that uses Acacia rigidula extract as a reducing and capping agent, to produce Ag-NPs with applications as therapeutic agents to treat infections in vivo. The Ag-NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible, and Fourier transform infrared. We show that Ag-NPs are spherical with a narrow size distribution. The Ag-NPs show antimicrobial activities in vitro against Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and a clinical multidrug-resistant strain of P. aeruginosa ) and Gram-positive ( Bacillus subtilis ) bacteria. Moreover, antimicrobial effects of the Ag-NPs, against a resistant P. aeruginosa clinical strain, were tested in a murine skin infection model. The results demonstrate that the Ag-NPs reported in this work are capable of eradicating pathogenic resistant bacteria in an infection in vivo. In addition, skin, liver, and kidney damage profiles were monitored in the murine infection model, and the

  2. Epidemiology and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of the main Nocardia species in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Carrasco, Gema; Medina-Pascual, María J; Villalón, Pilar; Navarro, Ana M; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the clinical distribution, by species, of the genus Nocardia and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 10 most prevalent species identified in Spain. Over a 10 year period (2005-14), 1119 Nocardia strains were molecularly identified and subjected to the Etest. The distribution and resistance trends over the sub-periods 2005-09 and 2010-14 were also examined. Of the strains examined, 82.9% belonged to the following species: Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (25.3%), Nocardia nova (15.0%), Nocardia abscessus (12.7%), Nocardia farcinica (11.4%), Nocardia carnea (4.3%), Nocardia brasiliensis (3.5%), Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (3.1%), Nocardia flavorosea (2.6%), Nocardia rhamnosiphila (2.6%) and Nocardia transvalensis (2.4%). Their prevalence values were similar during 2005-09 and 2010-14, except for those of N. abscessus , N. farcinica and N. transvalensis , which fell significantly in the second sub-period ( P ≤  0.05). The major location of isolation was the respiratory tract (∼86%). Half (13/27) of all strains from the CNS were N. farcinica . Significant differences in MIC results were recorded for some species between the two sub-periods. According to the CLSI's breakpoints, low resistance rates (≤15%) were recorded for seven species with respect to cefotaxime, imipenem and tobramycin; five species showed similar rates with respect to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Linezolid and amikacin were the most frequently active agents. The accurate identification of the infecting species and the determination of its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, given the large number of strains with atypical patterns, are crucial if patients with nocardiosis are to be successfully treated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Antimicrobial peptides design by evolutionary multiobjective optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maccari

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are an abundant and wide class of molecules produced by many tissues and cell types in a variety of mammals, plant and animal species. Linear alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides are among the most widespread membrane-disruptive AMPs in nature, representing a particularly successful structural arrangement in innate defense. Recently, AMPs have received increasing attention as potential therapeutic agents, owing to their broad activity spectrum and their reduced tendency to induce resistance. The introduction of non-natural amino acids will be a key requisite in order to contrast host resistance and increase compound's life. In this work, the possibility to design novel AMP sequences with non-natural amino acids was achieved through a flexible computational approach, based on chemophysical profiles of peptide sequences. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR descriptors were employed to code each peptide and train two statistical models in order to account for structural and functional properties of alpha-helical amphipathic AMPs. These models were then used as fitness functions for a multi-objective evolutional algorithm, together with a set of constraints for the design of a series of candidate AMPs. Two ab-initio natural peptides were synthesized and experimentally validated for antimicrobial activity, together with a series of control peptides. Furthermore, a well-known Cecropin-Mellitin alpha helical antimicrobial hybrid (CM18 was optimized by shortening its amino acid sequence while maintaining its activity and a peptide with non-natural amino acids was designed and tested, demonstrating the higher activity achievable with artificial residues.

  4. Microbial Resistance to Triclosan: A Case Study in Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Amanda; Matthews, Dorothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Natural selection is the mechanism of evolution caused by the environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce, sometimes explained as "survival of the fittest." An example of evolution by natural selection is the development of bacteria that are resistant to antimicrobial agents as a result of exposure to these agents. Triclosan, which…

  5. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pullorum strains to different antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceelen, Liesbeth; Decostere, Annemie; Devriese, Luc A; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activity of 13 antimicrobial agents against 23 Helicobacter pullorum strains from poultry (21) and human (two) origin, and one human H. canadensis strain was tested by the agar dilution method. With the H. pullorum strains, monomodal distributions of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were seen with lincomycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, erythromycin, tylosin, metronidazole, and enrofloxacin in concentration ranges considered as indicating susceptibility in other bacteria. The normal susceptibility level for nalidixic acid was situated at or slightly above the MIC breakpoints proposed for Campylobacteriaceae. Ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim showed poor activity against H. pullorum. For the H. canadensis strain, a similar susceptibility pattern was seen, except for nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin, whose MIC of >512 and 8 microg/ml, respectively, indicated resistance of this agent. With spectinomycin, a bimodal distribution of the MICs was noted for the tested strains; eight H. pullorum isolates originating from one flock showed acquired resistance (MIC>512 microg/ml).

  6. Production and characterization of curcumin microcrystals and evaluation of the antimicrobial and sensory aspects in minimally processed carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson Clayton da; Santos, Priscila Dayane de Freitas; Palazzi, Nicole Campezato; Leimann, Fernanda Vitória; Fuchs, Renata Hernandez Barros; Bracht, Lívia; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess

    2017-05-24

    Nontoxic conserving agents are in demand by the food industry due to consumers concern about synthetic conservatives, especially in minimally processed food. The antimicrobial activity of curcumin, a natural phenolic compound, has been extensively investigated but hydrophobicity is an issue when applying curcumin to foodstuff. The objective of this work was to evaluate curcumin microcrystals as an antimicrobial agent in minimally processed carrots. The antimicrobial activity of curcumin microcrystals was evaluated in vitro against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) microorganisms, showing a statistically significant (p minimally processed carrots. Sensory analyses were carried out showing no significant difference (p minimally processed carrots without causing noticeable differences that could be detected by the consumer. One may conclude that the analyses of the minimally processed carrots demonstrated that curcumin microcrystals are a suitable natural compound to inhibit the natural microbiota of carrots from a statistical point of view.

  7. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Various Essential Oils at Varying Concentrations against Periopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Deswal, Himanshu; Agarwal, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) is a notorious perio-pathogen with the ability to evade host defense mechanism and invade into the periodontal tissues. Many antimicrobial agents have been tested that curb its growth, although these agents tend to produce side effects such as antibiotic resistance and opportunistic infections. Therefore search for naturally occurring anti-microbials with lesser side effects is the need of the hour. Aim The aim of this study was to substantiate the antimicrobial activity of various essential oils; eucalyptus oil, chamomile oil, tea tree oil and turmeric oil against P. gingivalis. Materials and Methods Pure cultures of P. gingivalis were grown on selective blood agar. Antimicrobial efficacy of various concentrations of essential oils (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was assessed via disc diffusion test. Zone of inhibition were measured around disc after 48 hours in millimeters. Results Zones of inhibition were directly proportional to the concentration of essential oils tested. At 100% concentration all the tested oils possess antimicrobial activity against P.gingivalis with eucalyptus oil being most effective followed by tea tree oil, chamomile oil and turmeric oil. Conclusion All essential oils tested were effective against P.gingivalis. After testing for their clinical safety they could be developed into local agents to prevent and treat periodontitis. PMID:27790572

  8. Chitosan preparations for wounds and burns: antimicrobial and wound-healing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tianhong; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery approximately 200 years ago, chitosan, as a cationic natural polymer, has been widely used as a topical dressing in wound management owing to its hemostatic, stimulation of healing, antimicrobial, nontoxic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties. This article covers the antimicrobial and wound-healing effects of chitosan, as well as its derivatives and complexes, and its use as a vehicle to deliver biopharmaceuticals, antimicrobials and growth factors into tissue. Studies covering applications of chitosan in wounds and burns can be classified into in vitro, animal and clinical studies. Chitosan preparations are classified into native chitosan, chitosan formulations, complexes and derivatives with other substances. Chitosan can be used to prevent or treat wound and burn infections not only because of its intrinsic antimicrobial properties, but also by virtue of its ability to deliver extrinsic antimicrobial agents to wounds and burns. It can also be used as a slow-release drug-delivery vehicle for growth factors to improve wound healing. The large number of publications in this area suggests that chitosan will continue to be an important agent in the management of wounds and burns. PMID:21810057

  9. Survey of metals on antimicrobial and deodorant agents in household Necessities; Mukikei kokinsei kakoseihin no shiyojittai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Teruo

    1999-11-01

    It measured the metal bearing quantity in household necessities in order to clarify use actual condition of the metal system drug. And, it tried the detection of the drug used from detected metal. Too there is the report until now in the investigation of the metallic element in household necessities. However, metals examined this time are silver and zinc, four of copper and aluminum that it says that it has the antimicrobial action and is Key element of inorganic system antimicrobial agent. And, it carried out the analysis by inductive coupling plasma emission analysis method, after the wet digestion of the sample was done. (NEDO)

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactoferrin-Related Peptides and Applications in Human and Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascia Bruni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs represent a vast array of molecules produced by virtually all living organisms as natural barriers against infection. Among AMP sources, an interesting class regards the food-derived bioactive agents. The whey protein lactoferrin (Lf is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays a significant role in the innate immune system, and is considered as an important host defense molecule. In search for novel antimicrobial agents, Lf offers a new source with potential pharmaceutical applications. The Lf-derived peptides Lf(1–11, lactoferricin (Lfcin and lactoferrampin exhibit interesting and more potent antimicrobial actions than intact protein. Particularly, Lfcin has demonstrated strong antibacterial, anti-fungal and antiparasitic activity with promising applications both in human and veterinary diseases (from ocular infections to osteo-articular, gastrointestinal and dermatological diseases.

  11. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  12. New heterocycles having double characters; as antimicrobial and surface active agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed, R.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids isothiocyanate (1 was used as a starting material to synthesize some important heterocycles such as triazoles, oxazoles, thiazoles, benzoxazoles and quinazolines by treating with different types of nucleophiles such as nitrogen nucleophiles, oxygen nucleophiles, and sulfur nucleophiles. The produced compounds were subjected to propylene oxide in different moles (n = 3, 5 and 7 to produce novel groups of nonionic compounds having the double function as antimicrobial and surface active agents which can be used in the manufacturing of drugs, cosmetics, pesticides or can be used as antibacterial and/or antifungal. The physical properties as surface and interfacial tension, cloud point, foaming height, wetting time, emulsification power and the critical micelle concentration (CMC were determined, antimicrobial and biodegradability were also determined.Isocianatos de acidos grasos se utilizaron como material de partida para la síntesis de importantes heterociclos tales como triazoles, oxazoles, thoazoles, benzoxazoles y quinazolinas mediante el tratamiento de los mismos con diferentes tipos de nucleofilos tales como nucleofilos nitrogenados, oxigenados, o azufrados. Los compuestos producidos se trataron con oxido de propileno a diferentes concentraciones molares (n = 3, 5 y 7 para producir nuevos grupos de compuestos no iónicos que tuvieran la doble función de ser compuestos antimicrobianos y agentes de superficie, que se pudieran usar en la fabricación de medicinas, cosméticos, pesticidas o como antibacterianos o antifúngicos. Se determinaron sus propiedades tales como tensión superficial e interfacial, punto de turbidez, altura de espuma, tiempo de mojado, poder de emulsificación y concentración micelar crítica (CMC, asi como sus propiedades antimicrobianas y de degradabilidad.

  13. Recent updates of marine antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semreen, Mohammad H; El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Abdin, Shifaa; Alkhazraji, Hajar; Kamal, Leena; Hammad, Saba; El-Awady, Faten; Waleed, Dima; Kourbaj, Layal

    2018-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are group of proteins showing broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that have been known to be powerful agents against a variety of pathogens. This class of compounds contributed to solving the microbial resistance dilemma that limited the use of many potent antimicrobial agents. The marine environment is known to be one of the richest sources for antimicrobial peptides, yet this environment is not fully explored. Hence, the scientific research attention should be directed toward the marine ecosystem as enormous amount of useful discoveries could be brought to the forefront. In the current article, the marine antimicrobial peptides reported from mid 2012 to 2017 have been reviewed.

  14. Recent updates of marine antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Semreen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are group of proteins showing broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that have been known to be powerful agents against a variety of pathogens. This class of compounds contributed to solving the microbial resistance dilemma that limited the use of many potent antimicrobial agents. The marine environment is known to be one of the richest sources for antimicrobial peptides, yet this environment is not fully explored. Hence, the scientific research attention should be directed toward the marine ecosystem as enormous amount of useful discoveries could be brought to the forefront. In the current article, the marine antimicrobial peptides reported from mid 2012 to 2017 have been reviewed.

  15. ANTIMICROBIALS USED IN ACTIVE PACKAGING FILMS

    OpenAIRE

    Dıblan, Sevgin; Kaya, Sevim

    2017-01-01

    Active packaging technology is one of the innovativemethods for preserving of food products, and antimicrobial packaging films is amajor branch and promising application of this technology. In order to controlmicrobial spoilage and also contamination of pathogen onto processed or fresh food,antimicrobial agent(s) is/are incorporated into food packaging structure.Polymer type as a carrier of antimicrobial can be petroleum-based plastic orbiopolymer: because of environmental concerns researcher...

  16. Emerging Gram negative resistance to last-line antimicrobial agents fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam - epidemiology, laboratory detection and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Norelle; Howden, Benjamin

    2018-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the 're-discovery' of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam. Expert commentary: A key challenge for microbiologists and clinicians using these agents for treating patients with MDR and XDR Gram negative infections is the need to ensure appropriate reference methods are being used to test susceptibility to these agents, especially colistin and fosfomycin. These methods are not available in all laboratories meaning accurate results are either delayed, or potentially inaccurate as non-reference methods are employed. Combination therapy for MDR and XDR Gram negatives is likely to become more common, and future studies should focus on the clinical effects of monotherapy vs combination therapy, as well as validation of synergy testing methods. Effective national and international surveillance systems to detect and respond to resistance to these last line agents are also critical.

  17. Development of antimicrobial active packaging materials based on gluten proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Heincke, Diana; Martínez, Inmaculada; Partal, Pedro; Guerrero, Antonio; Gallegos, Críspulo

    2016-08-01

    The incorporation of natural biocide agents into protein-based bioplastics, a source of biodegradable polymeric materials, manufactured by a thermo-mechanical method is a way to contribute to a sustainable food packaging industry. This study assesses the antimicrobial activity of 10 different biocides incorporated into wheat gluten-based bioplastics. The effect that formulation, processing, and further thermal treatments exert on the thermo-mechanical properties, water absorption characteristics and rheological behaviour of these materials is also studied. Bioplastics containing six of the 10 examined bioactive agents have demonstrated suitable antimicrobial activity at 37 °C after their incorporation into the bioplastic. Moreover, the essential oils are able to create an antimicrobial atmosphere within a Petri dish. Depending on the selected biocide, its addition may alter the bioplastics protein network in a different extent, which leads to materials exhibiting less water uptake and different rheological and thermo-mechanical behaviours. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of natural honeys of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miartina Fikselová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To examine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of 15 natural honeys, honey samples were collected from different locations of Slovakia, Poland and Serbia. For antimicrobial activity determination honey solutions were prepared at three concentrations: 50, 25 and 12.5 % (by mass per volume. The potential antimicrobial activity of  selected samples against four species of bacteria (Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Pseudomonas aeroginosa CCM 1960, Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418, Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 and two species of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCM 8191, Candida albicans CCM 8216 was studied using the disc diffusion method. After incubation, the zones of inhibition of the growth of the microorganisms around the disks were measured. The strongest antimicrobial activity was shown at honey samples of 50 % concentration against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Staphylococcus epidermis. Against Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida albicans very low (at 50 %, 25 % concentration or zero antifugal (at 12.5 % concentration activity was determined. From the results obtained it was shown the variable ability of honey samples to scavenge stable free radical DPPH. TEACDPPH values ranged between 0.1-1.0 mmol.kg-1. As the antioxidative best source buckwheat honey was manifested and the lowest antioxidant activity was shown at acacia honey.

  20. Effects of irradiation, antimicrobial agents and modified packaging on histamine production by Morganella morganii in mackerel fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytac, S.A.; Ozbas, Z.Y.; Vural, H.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 2.0 kGy), antimicrobial agents (5% sodium chloride and 1% potassium sorbate) and modified atmosphere (100% CO2) packaging (MAP) on histamine production by Morganella morganii were examined in mackerel fillets during 8 days of cold storage. MAP combined with antimicrobial agents was also applied to the fillets. The changes in histamine levels, M. morganii and total aerobic bacterial counts were determined during the storage. All methods used in this study showed beneficial effect in controlling bacterial growth and histamine production on mackerel fillets during 2-3 days of storage. MAP combined with 5% sodium chloride has more retarding effect on production of histamine than the other methods. For M. morganii, maximum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 2.0 kGy. Irradiation with a dose of 2.0 kGy, MAP combined with sodium chloride and MAP were also found to have the most inhibiting effects on total aerobic bacterial count during the storage

  1. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Palou, Lluís; Del Río, Miguel A; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2011-01-01

    The use of edible films and coatings is an environmentally friendly technology that offers substantial advantages for shelf-life increase of many food products including fruits and vegetables. The development of new natural edible films and coatings with the addition of antimicrobial compounds to preserve fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Antimicrobial agents have been successfully added to edible composite films and coatings based on polysaccharides or proteins such as starch, cellulose derivatives, chitosan, alginate, fruit puree, whey protein isolated, soy protein, egg albumen, wheat gluten, or sodium caseinate. This paper reviews the development of edible films and coatings with antimicrobial activity, typically through the incorporation of antimicrobial food additives as ingredients, the effect of these edible films on the control of target microorganisms, the influence of antimicrobial agents on mechanical and barrier properties of stand-alone edible films, and the effect of the application of antimicrobial edible coatings on the quality of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  2. Drug-induced liver injury due to antimicrobials, central nervous system agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarbhavi, Harshad; Andrade, Raúl J

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial agents including antituberculosis (anti-TB) agents are the most common cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and drug-induced liver failure across the world. Better molecular and genetic biomarkers are acutely needed to help identify those at risk of liver injury particularly for those needing antituberculosis therapy. Some antibiotics such as amoxicillin-clavulanate and isoniazid consistently top the lists of agents in retrospective and prospective DILI databases. Central nervous system agents, particularly antiepileptics, account for the second most common class of agents implicated in DILI registries. Hepatotoxicity from older antiepileptics such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital are often associated with hypersensitivity features, whereas newer antiepileptic drugs have a more favorable safety profile. Antidepressants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs carry very low risk of significant liver injury, but their prolific use make them important causes of DILI. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent remain the mainstays of minimizing hepatotoxicity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Veterinary drug usage and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    In the production of food animals, large amounts of antimicrobial agents are used for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. There are large variations in the amounts of antimicrobial agents used to produce the same amount of meat among the different Europe...... monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of antimicrobial agents are strongly desirable, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine....

  4. Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, T; Schlüter, B; Pflegel, P; Lindequist, U; Jülich, W D

    1999-06-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy as well as the content of preservative agents of six commercially available grapefruit seed extracts were examined. Five of the six extracts showed a high growth inhibiting activity against the test germs Bacillus subtilis SBUG 14, Micrococcus flavus SBUG 16, Staphylococcus aureus SBUG 11, Serratia marcescens SBUG 9, Escherichia coli SBUG 17, Proteus mirabilis SBUG 47, and Candida maltosa SBUG 700. In all of the antimicrobial active grapefruit seed extracts, the preservative benzethonium chloride was detected by thin layer chromatography. Additionally, three extracts contained the preserving substances triclosan and methyl parabene. In only one of the grapefruit seed extracts tested no preservative agent was found. However, with this extract as well as with several self-made extracts from seed and juiceless pulp of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi) no antimicrobial activity could be detected (standard serial broth dilution assay, agar diffusion test). Thus, it is concluded that the potent as well as nearly universal antimicrobial activity being attributed to grapefruit seed extract is merely due to the synthetic preservative agents contained within. Natural products with antimicrobial activity do not appear to be present.

  5. Insights into Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacies of Synthetic and Organic Agents: The Case of ZnS Nanoparticles and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidi, O. F.; Nejo, A. O.; Ayeni, R. A.; Revaprasadu, N.

    2018-03-01

    The differences among the antimicrobial activities of synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), organic agents and conventional antibiotics against human pathogens are little known. We compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes with ZnS NPs and tetracycline/nystatin using agar-diffusion techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to characterize ZnS NPs. At 100 mg/ml, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract inhibited Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition (ZOI) ranging between 0-42 mm and 0-39 mm, respectively. Candida albicans had a remarkable ZOI of 42 mm and 22 mm from ethanol and ZnS NPs compared with 20 mm from conventional nystatin. TEM and FTIR revealed spherically shaped polydispersed NPs with particle size of 12.5 nm and the role of banana peel extracts in ZnS NPs synthesis. Organic and synthetic NPs proved potential alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents.

  6. Insights into Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacies of Synthetic and Organic Agents: The Case of ZnS Nanoparticles and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidi, O. F.; Nejo, A. O.; Ayeni, R. A.; Revaprasadu, N.

    2018-06-01

    The differences among the antimicrobial activities of synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), organic agents and conventional antibiotics against human pathogens are little known. We compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes with ZnS NPs and tetracycline/nystatin using agar-diffusion techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to characterize ZnS NPs. At 100 mg/ml, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract inhibited Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition (ZOI) ranging between 0-42 mm and 0-39 mm, respectively. Candida albicans had a remarkable ZOI of 42 mm and 22 mm from ethanol and ZnS NPs compared with 20 mm from conventional nystatin. TEM and FTIR revealed spherically shaped polydispersed NPs with particle size of 12.5 nm and the role of banana peel extracts in ZnS NPs synthesis. Organic and synthetic NPs proved potential alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents.

  7. Hybrid combinations containing natural products and antimicrobial drugs that interfere with bacterial and fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchino, Susana A; Butassi, Estefanía; Cordisco, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A

    2017-12-15

    Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many chronic and difficult-to eradicate infections whose treatment is complicated due to the intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics. As a consequence, there is an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. The combination therapy comprising an antimicrobial drug with a low molecular weight (MW) natural product and an antimicrobial drug (antifungal or antibacterial) appeared as a good alternative to eradicate biofilms. The aims of this review were to perform a literature search on the different natural products that have showed the ability of potentiating the antibiofilm capacity of antimicrobial drugs, to analyze which are the antimicrobial drugs most used in combination, and to have a look on the microbial species most used to prepare biofilms. Seventeen papers, nine on combinations against antifungal biofilms and eight against antibacterial biofilms were collected. Within the text, the following topics have been developed: breaf history of the discovery of biofilms; stages in the development of a biofilm; the most used methodologies to assess antibiofilm-activity; the natural products with capacity of eradicating biofilms when acting alone; the combinations of low MW natural products with antibiotics or antifungal drugs as a strategy for eradicating microbial biofilms and a list of the low MW natural products that potentiate the inhibition capacity of antifungal and antibacterial drugs against biofilms. Regarding combinations against antifungal biofilms, eight over the nine collected works were carried out with in vitro studies while only one was performed with in vivo assays by using Caenorhabditis elegans nematode. All studies use biofilms of the Candida genus. A 67% of the potentiators were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and six over the nine works used FCZ as the antifungal drug. The activity of AmpB and Caspo was enhanced in one and two

  8. Development and characterization of antimicrobial poly(l-lactic acid) containing trans-2-hexenal trapped in cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Min Jung; Merkel, Crispin; Auras, Rafael; Almenar, Eva

    2012-02-15

    Trans-2-hexenal, a naturally occurring plant volatile with antimicrobial capacity, was encapsulated into β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs), enzymatically modified starch, and shown effective to control main microorganisms causing food spoilage (Alternaria solani, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Penicillium sp). Loaded β-CDs were incorporated into a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) matrix by extrusion and casting, and yielded antimicrobial polymers made from natural resources. A masterbatch was used prior to sheet casting to improve the dispersion of the antimicrobial agent in the PLA matrix. However, this increased the number of extrusion processes for the material. The concentration of the antimicrobial compound in the polymers and its antimicrobial capacity against one food spoilage microorganism (A. solani) were measured during the different processing operations. Although the concentration of trans-2-hexenal was reduced by processing by about 70 and 99% compared to the loaded β-CDs, for the masterbatch and sheet, respectively, the polymers were still effective in reducing microbial growth. The changes of the polymer properties due to the addition of the antimicrobial agent were investigated, too. It was found that the mechanical and barrier properties of the PLA were changed (decreased by about half the tensile strength and elongation at break and nine-fold increased permeability) while the physical properties remained the same. Based on these results, the developed polymer may be a viable antimicrobial material for applications in food packaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening of Natural Antimicrobials for Inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 in a Solidified Apple Juice Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Naturally occurring antimicrobials such as plant extracts and essential oils have been used in the food industry for years. Due to increased consumer demand for minimally processed juices there has been increased interest in the use of novel antimicrobial compounds isolated from natur...

  10. Workshop report: the 2012 antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine: exploring the consequences of antimicrobial drug use: a 3-D approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Blondeau, J; Cerniglia, C E; Fink-Gremmels, J; Guenther, S; Hunter, R P; Li, X-Z; Papich, M; Silley, P; Soback, S; Toutain, P-L; Zhang, Q

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global challenge that impacts both human and veterinary health care. The resilience of microbes is reflected in their ability to adapt and survive in spite of our best efforts to constrain their infectious capabilities. As science advances, many of the mechanisms for microbial survival and resistance element transfer have been identified. During the 2012 meeting of Antimicrobial Agents in Veterinary Medicine (AAVM), experts provided insights on such issues as use vs. resistance, the available tools for supporting appropriate drug use, the importance of meeting the therapeutic needs within the domestic animal health care, and the requirements associated with food safety and food security. This report aims to provide a summary of the presentations and discussions occurring during the 2012 AAVM with the goal of stimulating future discussions and enhancing the opportunity to establish creative and sustainable solutions that will guarantee the availability of an effective therapeutic arsenal for veterinary species. © Published (2014). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Development of bacterial resistance to biocides and antimicrobial agents as a consequence of biocide usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie

    to antimicrobial agents. So far, only few studies have investigated the susceptibility of livestock-associated isolates to biocides used in their environment. Pigs are increasingly recognised as a potential reservoir of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), especially clones...... be of potential risk for human health, since these disinfectants are widely used at hospitals and in the food industry. Mobile genetic elements such as conjugative transposons are important vectors in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants. Tn916 including the tetracycline resistance gene tet......Biocides are chemical compounds with antimicrobial properties and they are widely used for disinfection, antiseptic and preservation purposes. Biocides have been applied for centuries due to early empirical approaches, such as cleansing of wounds with wine, vinegar and honey and salting of fish...

  12. Human Health Hazards from Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli of Animal Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A. M.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2009-01-01

    of antimicrobial agents in food animals may add to the burden of antimicrobial resistance in humans. Bacteria from the animal reservoir that carry resistance to antimicrobial agents that are regarded as highly or critically important in human therapy (e.g., aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and third- and fourth......Because of the intensive use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production, meat is frequently contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Humans can be colonized with E. coli of animal origin, and because of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, these bacteria may...... cause infections for which limited therapeutic options are available. This may lead to treatment failure and can have serious consequences for the patient. Furthermore, E. coli of animal origin may act as a donor of antimicrobial resistance genes for other pathogenic E. coli. Thus, the intensive use...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  14. Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from pine needle (Cedrus deodara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Cai; Zhang, Zeng; Gao, Hong; Jia, Li-Rong; He, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil from pine needles (Cedrus deodara) was determined, and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. Twenty-three components, representing 95.79% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The main components include α-terpineol (30.2%), linalool (24.47%), limonene (17.01%), anethole (14.57%), caryophyllene (3.14%), and eugenol (2.14%). Pine needle essential oil showed remarkable antioxidant activity in scavenging free radicals, in lipid peroxidation, and in reducing power assays. Moreover, the essential oil revealed strong antimicrobial activity against typical food-borne microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.2 to 1.56 and 0.39 to 6.25 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscope observation ascertained that the bactericidal mechanism of pine needle essential oil may be the induction of cytoplasmic outflow and plasmolysis. These results suggest that the essential oil from pine needles has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing. The present study provides a theoretical basis for the potential application of essential oil from pine needles (C. deodara) to be used as a natural resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food industry. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Associations between the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs in Denmark, Finland, and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Kruse, H.; Tast, E.

    2000-01-01

    This study compares the susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs and poultry in Denmark, Finland, and Norway to antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion. E. faecium was isolated from 211 broilers and 55 pigs in Denmark in 1997, from Norwegian 55 poultry farms (turkey and br......%) of the virginiamycin-resistant isolates from pigs in Denmark. This study indicates that the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion in Denmark, Finland, and Norway have selected for resistance to most of these drugs among E. faecium in food animals....... as resistant to monensin or salinomycin. In general, an association between the usage of antimicrobial agents in the respective countries and the occurrence of associated resistance was observed. Resistance to avilamycin was frequently observed among isolates from broilers in Denmark, where avilamycin has been...... used, whereas all isolates from Finland and Norway, where these drugs have not been used, were susceptible. The same phenomenon could be observed for avoparcin, bacitracin, tylosin, and virginiamycin; resistance was frequently observed among isolates from where these antimicrobials have been widely...

  16. Physicochemical investigations of biogenic chitosan-silver nanocomposite as antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Nithya; Kumari, Henry Linda Jeeva; Singaravelu, Chandra Mohan; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Kandasamy, Jothivenkatachalam

    2016-11-01

    Chitosan (CS), a seaweed polysaccharide is a natural macromolecule which is widely being used in medical applications because of its distinctive antimicrobial and anticancer properties. Silver, a noble metal, is also receiving wide attention for its potential usage in antimicrobial and anticancer therapeutics. In this study, an effective way of reduction of silver using chitosan at varying reaction temperatures and an optimised concentration of silver were performed. The optical, structural, spectral, morphological and elemental studies of the biosynthesized chitosan-silver (CS-Ag) nanocomposites were characterized by several techniques. The synthesized CS-Ag nanocomposites exhibit particle size around 20nm and were further exploited for potent biological applications in nanomedicine due to their nanometric sizes and biocompatibility of chitosan. The antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized CS-Ag nanocomposites exhibits zone of inhibition ranged between 09.666±0.577 and 19.000±1.000 (mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were from 8 to 128μgmL -1 and 16 to 256μgmL -1 respectively, with the highest antimicrobial activity shown against Gram-negative Salmonella sp. The synergistic effect of chitosan and silver as a composite in nanometric size revealed significant IC 50 value of 29.35μgmL -1 and a maximum of 95.56% inhibition at 100μgmL -1 against A549 lung cancer cell line, resulting in potent anticancer effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-09-01

    Sep 1, 2000 ... antimicrobial agents by use of disc diffusion technique(23). Bacterial strains were ... a roller drum at 37°C. About 1.5 ml of each overnight broth culture was ... antimicrobial agents compared to 36% of milk isolates (p. = 0.0394). A higher .... Hall, B., Greene, R., Potter, M. E. Cohen, M. L. and Brake, B. A..

  18. Resistencia bacteriana Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesualdo Fuentes

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se presenta un panorama de la resistencia bacteriana incluyendo su fisiopatogenia y formas de presentación y se establecen algunas consideraciones generales de tipo clínico como auxiliares para racionalizar el uso de los antimicrobianos y evitar o retardar el problema de la resistencia; éste plantea la necesidad de un reordenamiento definitivo en la prescripción de antimicrobianos. No será tanto la creación o descubrimiento de nuevos antibióticos sino la racionalización del manejo de los existentes lo que permitirá alcanzar victorias sobre estos microorganismos. Es Importante mantener educación continua sobre el uso adecuado de los antimicrobianos desde los puntos de vista epidemiológico, farmacocinético y fisiopatogénico.

    An overview on bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is presented. It includes the different genetic mechanisms for Its development and the biochemical phenomena that explain It. Some clinical considerations are proposed in order to rationalize the use of these drugs and to avoid or delay the appearance of resistance.

  19. Modified natural nanoparticles as contrast agents for medical imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cormode, David P.; Jarzyna, Peter A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2010-01-01

    The development of novel and effective contrast agents is one of the drivers of the ongoing improvement in medical imaging. Many of the new agents reported are nanoparticle-based. There are a variety of natural nanoparticles known, e.g. lipoproteins, viruses or ferritin. Natural nanoparticles have

  20. Synthesis of aryl b-N-acetylglucosamine desmodified at C-6 as potential antimicrobial agents; Sintese de b-N-acetilglicosaminideos de arila modificados em C-6 como potenciais agentes antimicrobianos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfrini, Rozangela Magalhaes; Souza Filho, Jose Dias de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas; Figueireido, Rute Cunha; D' Angelis, Allison Fabiano; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Nunan, Elziria de Aguiar; Martins, Gabriela Aires; Alves, Ricardo Jose [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos]. E-mail: ricardodylan@farmacia.ufmg.br

    2008-07-01

    We report herein the synthesis of aryl beta-N-acetylglucosaminides containing azido, amino and acetamido groups at C-6 as potential antimicrobial agents. It was expected that these compounds could interfere with the biosynthesis and/or biotransformation of Nacetylglucosamine in fungi and bacteria. None of the compounds showed antimicrobial activity against bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans and Candida tropicallis), at the concentration of 1 mg/mL in agar diffusion assay. (author)

  1. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance among food animals: Principles and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of antimicrobial agents are in the production of food animals used for therapy and prophylactics of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents causes problems in the therapy of infections through the selection for resistance among bacteria...... pathogenic for animals or humans. Current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimes to limit the development of resistance......, there are major differences between programmes designed to detect changes in a national population, individual herds or groups of animals. In addition, programmes have to be designed differently according to whether the aim is to determine changes in resistance for all antimicrobial agents or only...

  2. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-derived benzimidazoles as novel type of potential antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xue-Jie; Jeyakkumar, Ponmani; Avula, Srinivasa Rao; Zhou, Qian; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-06-01

    A series of 5-fluorouracil benzimidazoles as novel type of potential antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized for the first time. Bioactive assay manifested that some of the prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains in comparison with reference drugs norfloxacin, chloromycin and fluconazole. Noticeably, 3-fluorobenzyl benzimidazole derivative 5c gave remarkable antimicrobial activities against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MRSA and Bacillus proteus with MIC values of 1, 2 and 4μg/mL, respectively. Experimental research revealed that compound 5c could effectively intercalate into calf thymus DNA to form compound 5c-DNA complex which might block DNA replication and thus exert antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking indicated that compound 5c should bind with DNA topoisomerase IA through three hydrogen bonds by the use of fluorine atom and oxygen atoms in 5-fluorouracil with the residue Lys 423. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential inhibitors of dapE and argE enzymes as the new antimicrobial agents: Synthesis and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Jan; Pícha, Jan; Vaněk, Václav; Jiráček, Jiří; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Holz, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2008), s. 83-84 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /30./. 31.08.2008-05.09.2008, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antimicrobial agents * dapE and argE inhibitors * synthesis and activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  4. Synthesis and characterization of silver-copper core-shell nanoparticles using polyol method for antimicrobial agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmah, N.; Idrus, N. F.; Jai, J.; Hadi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles are well-known as the good antimicrobial agent. The nano-size of particles influences in enhancing the antimicrobial activity. This paper discusses the effect of molarity on the microstructure and morphology of silver-copper core-shell nanoparticles prepared by a polyol method. In this study, silver-copper nanoparticles are synthesized through the green approach of polyol method using ethylene glycol (EG) as green solvent and reductant, and polyoxyethylene-(80)-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) as a nontoxic stabilizer. The phase and morphology of silver-copper nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results XRD confirm the pure crystalline of silver and copper nanoparticles with face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. FESEM and TEM analysis confirm the existence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles in core-shell shape.

  5. ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity is inhabited by more than 25,000 different bacterial phylotypes; some of them cause systemic infections in addition to dental and periodontal diseases. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance among these bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial agents that are safe, stable, and relatively economic. This review focuses on the significance of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as supplementary antimicrobials for controlling oral infections and biofilm formation. Indeed, the ZnO NPs and TiO 2 NPs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria at concentrations which is not toxic in in vivo toxicity assays. These nanoparticles are being produced at an industrial scale for use in a variety of commercial products including food products. Thus, the application of ZnO and TiO 2 NPs as nanoantibiotics for the development of mouthwashes, dental pastes, and other oral hygiene materials is envisaged. It is also suggested that these NPs could serve as healthier, innocuous, and effective alternative for controlling both the dental biofilms and oral planktonic bacteria with lesser side effects and antibiotic resistance

  6. ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-06-01

    Oral cavity is inhabited by more than 25,000 different bacterial phylotypes; some of them cause systemic infections in addition to dental and periodontal diseases. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance among these bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial agents that are safe, stable, and relatively economic. This review focuses on the significance of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as supplementary antimicrobials for controlling oral infections and biofilm formation. Indeed, the ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria at concentrations which is not toxic in in vivo toxicity assays. These nanoparticles are being produced at an industrial scale for use in a variety of commercial products including food products. Thus, the application of ZnO and TiO2 NPs as nanoantibiotics for the development of mouthwashes, dental pastes, and other oral hygiene materials is envisaged. It is also suggested that these NPs could serve as healthier, innocuous, and effective alternative for controlling both the dental biofilms and oral planktonic bacteria with lesser side effects and antibiotic resistance.

  7. Antimicrobial properties of natural honey: a review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurongzeb, M.; Azim, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Health benefits of honey have been reported in a variety of conditions including microbial infections, wound healing, inflammation, glucose tolerance and analgesia. Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution mainly comprised of D-fructose, D-glucose, sucrose, maltose and higher sugars (80% of solid mass). While other natural products i.e. alkaloids, flavonoids/isoflavones, glycosides, phenolics, peptides/proteins are present in minor quantities. A number of enzymes such as invertase, amylase and glucose oxidase have been found in honey. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of honey are well documented and characterized. These antimicrobial properties have been related to oligosaccharides, glycopeptides and peptides present in honey. Honey glucose oxidase provides a continuous and slow release of hydrogen peroxide at a level which is antibacterial but not tissue-damaging. Hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase plays important roles in inflammation, wound healing etc. The antimicrobial properties of honey have great potential for application in medicine as well as in food industry. (author)

  8. Lactic acid bacteria and natural antimicrobials to improve the safety and shelf-life of minimally processed sliced apples and lamb's lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Serrazanetti, Diana I; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2015-05-01

    Outbreaks of food-borne disease associated with the consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables have increased dramatically over the last few years. Traditional chemical sanitizers are unable to completely eradicate or kill the microorganisms on fresh produce. These conditions have stimulated research to alternative methods for increasing food safety. The use of protective cultures, particularly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), has been proposed for minimally processed products. However, the application of bioprotective cultures has been limited at the industrial level. From this perspective, the main aims of this study were to select LAB from minimally processed fruits and vegetables to be used as biocontrol agents and then to evaluate the effects of the selected strains, alone or in combination with natural antimicrobials (2-(E)-hexenal/hexanal, 2-(E)-hexenal/citral for apples and thyme for lamb's lettuce), on the shelf-life and safety characteristics of minimally processed apples and lamb's lettuce. The results indicated that applying the Lactobacillus plantarum strains CIT3 and V7B3 to apples and lettuce, respectively, increased both the safety and shelf-life. Moreover, combining the selected strains with natural antimicrobials produced a further increase in the shelf-life of these products without detrimental effects on the organoleptic qualities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, Deborah P.; Epstein, Joel B.; Elad, Sharon; Allemano, Justin; Bossi, Paolo; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; Rao, Nikhil G.; Potting, Carin; Cheng, Karis K.; Freidank, Annette; Brennan, Michael T.; Bowen, Joanne; Dennis, Kristopher; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. A systematic review of the available literature was conducted. The body

  10. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, D.P.; Epstein, J.B.; Elad, S.; Allemano, J.; Bossi, P.; Wetering, M.D. van de; Rao, N.G.; Potting, C.M.J.; Cheng, K.K.; Freidank, A.; Brennan, M.T.; Bowen, J.; Dennis, K.; Lalla, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was

  11. An overview of antimicrobial peptides and the latest advances in their development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Josep M; Fusté, Ester; Rabanal, Francesc; Vinuesa, Teresa; Viñas, Miguel

    2017-06-01

    The recent dramatic increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance has been recognized by organizations such as the United Nations and World Health Organization as well as the governments of the USA and several European countries. A relatively new weapon in the fight against severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These include colistin, currently regarded as the last line of antimicrobial therapy against multi-drug resistant microorganisms. Areas covered: Here, the authors provide an overview of the current research on AMPs. The focus is AMPs currently being developed for the treatment of recalcitrant bacterial infections, the synergies of AMPs and antibiotics, and the activity of AMPs against biofilm. This review also includes a brief introduction into the use of AMPs in infections caused by Mycobacterium, fungi, and parasites. Expert opinion: In research into new antimicrobials, AMPs are gaining increasing attention. While many are natural and are produced by a wide variety of organisms, others are being newly designed and chemically synthesized in the laboratory to achieve novel antimicrobial agents. The same strategy to fight infections in nature is thus being effectively exploited to safeguard human and animal health.

  12. Current state of a dual behaviour of antimicrobial peptides-Therapeutic agents and promising delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Urszula; Sobczak, Marcin; Oledzka, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Micro-organism resistance is an important challenge in modern medicine due to the global uncontrolled use of antibiotics. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) symbolize a new family of antibiotics, which have stimulated research and clinical interest as new therapeutic options for infections. They represent one of the most promising antimicrobial substances, due to their broad spectrum of biological activity, against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, yeast and even tumour cells. Besides, being antimicrobial, AMPs have been shown to bind and neutralize bacterial endotoxins, as well as possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, angiogenic and antitumour properties. In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which have very defined and specific molecular targets, host cationic peptides show varying, complex and very rapid mechanisms of actions that make it difficult to form an effective antimicrobial defence. Importantly, AMPs display their antimicrobial activity at micromolar concentrations or less. To do this, many peptide-based drugs are commercially available for the treatment of numerous diseases, such as hepatitis C, myeloma, skin infections and diabetes. Herein, we present an overview of the general mechanism of AMPs action, along with recent developments regarding carriers of AMPs and their potential applications in medical fields. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Indications and patterns of therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in the Danish pig production from 2002 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    This study describes trends in the use and indications for prescriptions of antimicrobial agents in the Danish pig production in the period between 2002 and 2008 and is the first description of a complete prescription pattern for one animal species in an entire country. Data on all prescription...... for pigs in Denmark were retrieved from the VetStat database. Antimicrobial use was measured in defined animal daily doses (ADD) for the specific age-group and in ADDkg as a measure of amounts used. According to the results of the ADDkg data, 26% of all antimicrobials were prescribed for sows, 38....../piglets, by 141% for weaning pigs, and by 81% for finisher pig. The most commonly used class of antibiotics was tetracycline for all age-groups, replacing the previously used macrolide/lincosamide group. The use of pleuromutilin increased in 2008 to the level of macrolides. In sow/piglets, the second most used...

  14. Pyridinium Oxime Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berger, Bradley J; Knodel, Marvin H

    2007-01-01

    ... (as a model for Leishmania spp.). In general, the compounds were found to have little to no antimicrobial effect, with KJD-2-11, a thiourea derivative, being the most active in all the test systems.

  15. Review of new insights into antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Esmatabadi, M J; Bozorgmehr, A; Hajjari, S N; Sadat Sombolestani, A; Malekshahi, Z V; Sadeghizadeh, M

    2017-02-28

    People have known the bacteria and have used various ways to deal with them, from a long time ago. Perhaps, natural antibiotics with have been the first step in fighting against pathogens. However, several factors, such as dealing with unfamiliar bacteria or emergence of drug-resistant species, have motivated us to discover new antibiotics or  even change previous types. In this regard, a variety of natural and synthetic antibiotics with different origins, mechanism of action, structures and functional spectrum, have been developed and used. Some impact on the synthesis of nucleic acids and some affect protein synthesis so destroy bacteria. There is a ring in the structure of most of the antibiotics which gives them special properties. However, despite their numerous advantages, antibiotics also have drawbacks ehich limit their use in all situations. Therefore, other approaches such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and antibacterial peptides were considered as alternatives. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses photosensitizing agents, along with light, to kill bacteria. The photosensitizing agents only work after they have been activated by certain kinds of light. Antibacterial peptides are a unique and diverse group of molecules which have  between 12 and 50 amino acids in general.  In this paper, will reviewt hree mentioned topics, namely antibiotics, photodynamic therapy and antibacterial peptides and will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach briefly.

  16. Zinc-Substituted Myoglobin Is a Naturally Occurring Photo-antimicrobial Agent with Potential Applications in Food Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcanale, Pietro; Montali, Chiara; Rodríguez-Amigo, Beatriz; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Bruno, Stefano; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Viappiani, Cristiano

    2016-11-16

    Zinc-substituted myoglobin (ZnMb) is a naturally occurring photosensitizer that generates singlet oxygen with a high quantum yield. Using a combination of photophysical and fluorescence imaging techniques, we demonstrate the interaction of ZnMb with Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. An efficient antibacterial action against S. aureus was observed, with a reduction up to 99.9999% in the number of colony-forming units, whereas no sizable effect was detected against E. coli. Because ZnMb is known to form during the maturation of additive-free not-cooked cured ham, the use of this protein as a built-in photodynamic agent may constitute a viable method for the decontamination of these food products from Gram-positive bacteria.

  17. Chromatographic Characterization and GC-MS Evaluation of the Bioactive Constituents with Antimicrobial Potential from the Pigmented Ink of Loligo duvauceli

    OpenAIRE

    Girija, Smiline; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Kuppusamy, Pandi Suba; Gajendran, Hariprasad; Rajagopal, Raghuraman

    2014-01-01

    Chromatographic characterization and the GC-MS evaluation of the black pigmented ink of Loligo duvauceli in the present study have yielded an array of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial property. Facing an alarm of antimicrobial resistance globally, a need for elucidating antimicrobial agents from natural sources will be the need for the hour. In this view, this study is aimed at characterizing the black pigmented ink of the Indian squid L. duvauceli. The squid ink was subjected to...

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  19. Alginate edible films containing microencapsulated lemongrass oil or citral: effect of encapsulating agent and storage time on physical and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Moyano, Jessica K; Bustos, Rubén O; Herrera, María Lidia; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2017-08-01

    Active edible films have been proposed as an alternative to extend shelf life of fresh foods. Most essential oils have antimicrobial properties; however, storage conditions could reduce their activity. To avoid this effect the essential oil (EO) can be microencapsulated prior to film casting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the type of encapsulating agent (EA), type of EO and storage time on physical properties and antimicrobial activity of alginate-based films against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Trehalose (TH), Capsul ® (CAP) and Tween 20 (Tw20) were used as EA. Lemongrass essential oil (LMO) and citral were used as active agents. The results showed that the type of EA affected the stability of the film forming-emulsions as well as the changes in opacity and colour of the films during storage but not the antimicrobial activity of them. Both microencapsulated EOs showed a prolonged release from the alginate films during the 28 days of storage. Trehalose was selected to encapsulate both active compounds because the films made with this microencapsulated EA showed the greatest physical stability and the lowest color variation among all the films studied.

  20. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents. PMID:12670165

  1. Prospective Source of Antimicrobial Compounds From Pigment Produced by Bacteria associated with Brown Alga ( Phaeophyceae ) Isolated from Karimunjawa island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunggani, A. T.; Darmanto, Y. S.; Radjasa, O. K.; Sabdono, A.

    2018-02-01

    Brown algae or Phaeophyceae characterized by their natural pigments that differ from other important algal classes. Several publications proves that brown algae - associated bacteria have great potential in developing marine pharmaceutical industry since they are capable to synthesized numerous bioactive metabolite compounds. However the potency of marine pigmented microbes associated with brown alga to produce natural pigments and antimicrobials has been less studied. Marine pigmented bacteria associated with brown algae collected from Karimunjawa Island were successfully isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity. The aim of this research was evaluated of the antimicrobial activity of pigments extracted from culturable marine pigmented bacteria on some pathogenic bacteria and yeast. The results showed that all isolates had antimicrobial activity and could be prospectively developed as antimicrobial agent producing pigments. The 6 marine pigmented bacteria was identified to genus level as Pseudoalteromonas, Sphingomonas, Serratia, Paracoccus, Vibrio.

  2. pH Dependent Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins, Their Mechanisms of Action and Potential as Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Malik

    2016-11-01

    and hydrogel delivery systems. Nonetheless, many pH dependent AMPs and antimicrobial proteins have yet to be fully characterized and these molecules, as a whole, represent an untapped source of novel biologically active agents that could aid fulfillment of the urgent need for alternatives to conventional antibiotics, helping to avert a return to the pre-antibiotic era.

  3. The antimicrobial efficiency of silver activated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Đolić, Maja B.; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N.; Štrbac, Svetlana B.; Rakočević, Zlatko Lj.; Veljović, Đorđe N.; Dimitrijević, Suzana I.; Rajaković, Ljubinka V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different sorbents were activated by Ag + -ions and modified sorbents were determined by sorption capacities, in range of values: 42.06–3.28 mg/g. • Granulated activated carbon (GAC), natural zeolit (Z) and titanium dioxide (T) activated by Ag + -ions were tested against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. • The most successful bacteria removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, while the yeast cell reduction reached unsatisfactory effect for all three activated sorbents. • XRD, XPS and FE-SEM analysis showed that the chemical state of the silver activating agent affects the antimicrobial activity, as well as the structural properties of the material. • An overall microbial cell reduction, which is performed by separated antimicrobial tests on the Ag + -activated surface and Ag + -ions in aquatic solutions, is a consequence of both mechanisms. - Abstract: This study is focused on the surface modifications of the materials that are used for antimicrobial water treatment. Sorbents of different origin were activated by Ag + -ions. The selection of the most appropriate materials and the most effective activation agents was done according to the results of the sorption and desorption kinetic studies. Sorption capacities of selected sorbents: granulated activated carbon (GAC), zeolite (Z), and titanium dioxide (T), activated by Ag + -ions were following: 42.06, 13.51 and 17.53 mg/g, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/Z, Ag/GAC and Ag/T sorbents were tested against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and yeast C. albicans. After 15 min of exposure period, the highest cell removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, 98.8 and 93.5%, respectively. Yeast cell inactivation was unsatisfactory for all three activated sorbents. The antimicrobial pathway of the activated sorbents has been examined by two separate tests – Ag + -ions desorbed from the activated surface to the

  4. KR-12-a5 is a non-cytotoxic agent with potent antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiaffa, Karina Sampaio; Massunari, Loiane; Danelon, Marcelle; Abuna, Gabriel Flores; Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Santos-Filho, Norival Alves; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Vizoto, Natalia Leal; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Duque, Cristiane

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of analogs of cationic peptides against microorganisms associated with endodontic infections. L-929 fibroblasts were exposed to LL-37, KR-12-a5 and hBD-3-1C V and chlorhexidine (CHX, control), and cell metabolism was evaluated with MTT. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) of the peptides and CHX were determined against oral pathogens associated with endodontic infections. Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans biofilms were cultivated in bovine dentin blocks, exposed to different concentrations of the most efficient antimicrobial peptide and analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. CHX and peptides affected the metabolism of L-929 at concentrations > 31.25 and 500 μg ml -1 , respectively. Among the peptides, KR-12-a5 inhibited growth of both the microorganisms tested with the lowest MIC/MBC/MFC values. In addition, KR-12-a5 significantly reduced E. faecalis and S. mutans biofilms inside dentin tubules. In conclusion, KR-12-a5 is a non-cytotoxic agent with potent antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity against oral pathogens associated with endodontic infections.

  5. Development of antimicrobial films for microbiological control of packaged salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel-Galet, Virginia; Cerisuelo, Josep P; López-Carballo, Gracia; Lara, Marta; Gavara, Rafael; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar

    2012-07-02

    The aim of the present work was to characterize the antimicrobial efficiency of films consisting of PP/EVOH structures with oregano essential oil and citral. Both substances are known for their antimicrobial activity based on their interaction with the cell membrane. The films developed were used to pack minimally processed salads, combining modified atmosphere technology to extend shelf-life and active packaging technology to reduce possible microbiological risks. The antimicrobial activity of the films against the pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes and natural microflora was investigated "in vitro" and also on the food itself. The effect of release of the antimicrobial agent on the sensory characteristics of the salad was also studied. The results showed that antimicrobial activity reduced spoilage flora on the salad as well as inhibited the growth of pathogens in contaminated salads. This effect was greater against Gram-negative bacteria. Sensory studies showed that the package that was most effective and most accepted by customers was the one containing 5% oregano essential oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in the Fabrication of Antimicrobial Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M. González-Henríquez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review describes, in an organized manner, the recent developments in the elaboration of hydrogels that possess antimicrobial activity. The fabrication of antibacterial hydrogels for biomedical applications that permits cell adhesion and proliferation still remains as an interesting challenge, in particular for tissue engineering applications. In this context, a large number of studies has been carried out in the design of hydrogels that serve as support for antimicrobial agents (nanoparticles, antibiotics, etc.. Another interesting approach is to use polymers with inherent antimicrobial activity provided by functional groups contained in their structures, such as quaternary ammonium salt or hydrogels fabricated from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs or natural polymers, such as chitosan. A summary of the different alternatives employed for this purpose is described in this review, considering their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, more recent methodologies that lead to more sophisticated hydrogels that are able to react to external stimuli are equally depicted in this review.

  7. Antimicrobial, Optical and Mechanical Properties of Chitosan-Starch Films with Natural Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Navarro, Jessica I; Díaz-Zavala, Nancy P; Velasco-Santos, Carlos; Martínez-Hernández, Ana L; Tijerina-Ramos, Beatriz I; García-Hernández, Margarita; Rivera-Armenta, José L; Páramo-García, Ulises; Reyes-de la Torre, Adriana I

    2017-05-05

    Natural extracts possess several kinds of antioxidants (anthocyanins, betalains, thymol, carvacrol, and resveratrol) that have also demonstrated antimicrobial properties. In order to study these properties, extracts from cranberry, blueberry, beetroot, pomegranate, oregano, pitaya, and resveratrol (from grapes) were obtained. Growth inhibition tests of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and fungi were conducted in films prepared from the extracts in accordance with Mexican Official Norms (NOM). Optical properties such as transparency and opacity, mechanical properties, and pH were also analyzed in these materials. The films with beetroot, cranberry, and blueberry extracts demonstrated the best antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi in comparison with unmodified chitosan-starch film. This study shows that the addition of antioxidants improved the antimicrobial performance of these films. It was also found that antimicrobial properties are inherent to the films. These polymers combined with the extracts effectively inhibit or reduce microorganism growth from human and environmental contact; therefore, previous sterilization could be unnecessary in comparison with traditional plastics. The presence of extracts decreased transmittance percentages at 280 and 400 nm, as well as the transparency values, while increasing their opacity values, providing better UV-VIS light barrier properties. Despite diminished glass transition temperatures ( T g), the values obtained are still adequate for food packaging applications.

  8. Antimicrobial, Optical and Mechanical Properties of Chitosan–Starch Films with Natural Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Navarro, Jessica I.; Díaz-Zavala, Nancy P.; Velasco-Santos, Carlos; Martínez-Hernández, Ana L.; Tijerina-Ramos, Beatriz I.; García-Hernández, Margarita; Rivera-Armenta, José L.; Páramo-García, Ulises; Reyes-de la Torre, Adriana I.

    2017-01-01

    Natural extracts possess several kinds of antioxidants (anthocyanins, betalains, thymol, carvacrol, and resveratrol) that have also demonstrated antimicrobial properties. In order to study these properties, extracts from cranberry, blueberry, beetroot, pomegranate, oregano, pitaya, and resveratrol (from grapes) were obtained. Growth inhibition tests of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and fungi were conducted in films prepared from the extracts in accordance with Mexican Official Norms (NOM). Optical properties such as transparency and opacity, mechanical properties, and pH were also analyzed in these materials. The films with beetroot, cranberry, and blueberry extracts demonstrated the best antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi in comparison with unmodified chitosan–starch film. This study shows that the addition of antioxidants improved the antimicrobial performance of these films. It was also found that antimicrobial properties are inherent to the films. These polymers combined with the extracts effectively inhibit or reduce microorganism growth from human and environmental contact; therefore, previous sterilization could be unnecessary in comparison with traditional plastics. The presence of extracts decreased transmittance percentages at 280 and 400 nm, as well as the transparency values, while increasing their opacity values, providing better UV–VIS light barrier properties. Despite diminished glass transition temperatures (Tg), the values obtained are still adequate for food packaging applications. PMID:28475151

  9. Urinary tract infection in pregnant population, which empirical antimicrobial agent should be specified in each of the three trimesters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Bekir Serdar; Yildiz, Yunus; Keles, Ibrahim; Kaba, Metin; Kara, Halil; Tasin, Cuma; Erkilinc, Selcuk; Yildirim, Gulcin

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the bacterial profile and the adequacy of antimicrobial treatment in pregnant women with urinary tract infection. This retrospective observational study was conducted with 753 pregnant women who needed hospitalization because of UTI in each of the three trimesters. Midstream urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were evaluated. E. Coli was the most frequently isolated bacterial agent (82.2%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (11.2%). In each of the three trimesters, E. Coli remained the most frequently isolated bacterium (86%, 82.2%, 79.5%, respectively), followed by Klebsiella spp. (9%, 11.6%, 12.2%, respectively). Enterococcus spp. were isolated as a third microbial agent, with 43 patients (5.7%) in the three trimesters. The bacteria were found to be highly sensitive to fosfomycin, with 98-99% sensitivity for E.Coli and 88-89% for Klebsiella spp. and for Enterococcus spp. 93-100% nitrofurantoin sensitivity for each of the three trimesters. We demonstrated that E. Coli and Klebsiella spp. are the most common bacterial agents isolated from urine culture of pregnant women with UTI in each of the three trimesters. We consider fosfomycin to be the most adequate first-line treatment regimen due to high sensitivity to the drug, ease of use and safety for use in pregnancy

  10. Shelf-life extension of gilthead seabream fillets by osmotic treatment and antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironi, T N; Taoukis, P S

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of selected antimicrobial agents on the shelf life of osmotically pretreated gilthead seabream and to establish reliable kinetic equations for shelf-life determination validated in dynamic conditions. Fresh gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets were osmotically treated with 50% high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (HDM, DE 47) plus 5% NaCl and 0·5% carvacrol, 0·5% glucono-δ-lactone or 1% Citrox (commercial antimicrobial mix). Untreated and treated slices were aerobically packed and stored isothermally (0-15°C). Microbial growth and quality-related chemical indices were modelled as functions of temperature. Models were validated at dynamic storage conditions. Osmotic pretreatment with the use of antimicrobials led to significant shelf-life extension of fillets, in terms of microbial growth and organoleptic deterioration. The shelf life was 7 days for control samples at 5°C. The osmotic pretreatment with carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone and Citrox allowed for shelf-life extension by 8, 10 and 5 days at 5°C, respectively. The results of the study show the potential of adding carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone or Citrox in the osmotic solution to extend the shelf life and improve commercial value of chilled osmotically pretreated fish products. The developed models can be a reliable tool for predicting the shelf life of fresh or minimally processed gilthead seabream fillets in the real chill chain. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin release and role of the SOS response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Farah J; Rahal, Elias A; Sabra, Ahmad; Matar, Ghassan M

    2013-09-01

    Treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by certain antimicrobial agents often exacerbates the patient's condition by increasing either the release of preformed Shiga toxins (Stx) upon cell lysis or their production through the SOS response-triggered induction of Stx-producing prophages. Recommended subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of azithromycin (AZI), gentamicin (GEN), imipenem (IMI), and rifampicin (RIF) were evaluated in comparison to norfloxacin (NOR), an SOS-inducer, to assess the role of the SOS response in Stx release. Relative expression of recA (SOS-inducer), Q (late antitermination gene of Stx-producing prophage), stx1, and stx2 genes was assessed at two sub-MICs of the antimicrobials for two different strains of E. coli O157:H7 using reverse transcription-real-time polymerase chain reaction. Both strains at the two sub-MICs were also subjected to Western blotting for LexA protein expression and to reverse passive latex agglutination for Stx detection. For both strains at both sub-MICs, NOR and AZI caused SOS-induced Stx production (high recA, Q, and stx2 gene expression and high Stx2 production), so they should be avoided in E. coli O157:H7 treatment; however, sub-MICs of RIF and IMI induced Stx2 production in an SOS-independent manner except for one strain at the first twofold dilution below MIC of RIF where Stx2 production decreased. Moreover, GEN caused somewhat increased Stx2 production due to its mode of action rather than any effect on gene expression. The choice of antimicrobial therapy should rely on the antimicrobial mode of action, its concentration, and on the nature of the strain.

  12. Spectrum of antimicrobial activity associated with ionic colloidal silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Kira; May, Kathleen; Leek, Daniel; Langland, Nicole; Jeane, La Deana; Ventura, Jose; Skubisz, Corey; Scherer, Sean; Lopez, Eric; Crocker, Ephraim; Peters, Rachel; Oertle, John; Nguyen, Krystine; Just, Scott; Orian, Michael; Humphrey, Meaghan; Payne, David; Jacobs, Bertram; Waters, Robert; Langland, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Silver has historically and extensively been used as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. However, the Food and Drug Administration currently does not recognize colloidal silver as a safe and effective antimicrobial agent. The goal of this study was to further evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of colloidal silver. Several strains of bacteria, fungi, and viruses were grown under multicycle growth conditions in the presence or absence of ionic colloidal silver in order to assess the antimicrobial activity. For bacteria grown under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, significant growth inhibition was observed, although multiple treatments were typically required. For fungal cultures, the effects of ionic colloidal silver varied significantly between different genera. No viral growth inhibition was observed with any strains tested. The study data support ionic colloidal silver as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, while having a more limited and specific spectrum of activity against fungi.

  13. Peptide LyeTx I mnΔk: A potential antimicrobial agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuscaldi, Leonardo Lima; Avelar Júnior, Joaquim T. de; Boff, Daiane; Santos, Daniel M. dos; Oliveira, Vívian L.S. de; Mata, Lays M. da; Contarini, Sara M. Lopes; Miranda, Sued E. Mendes; Amaral, Flavio Almeida; Diniz, Simone O.F.; Lima, Maria Elena de; Cardoso, Valbert N.

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The emergence of resistance to current antibiotics and the incidence of opportunistic bacterial infections have stimulated the search for new antibiotic agents. In this sense, antimicrobial peptides are promising molecules due to their different mechanisms of action compared to classic antibiotics. Peptides LyeTx I (Lycosa erythrognatha venom) and LyeTx I mnΔK (truncated and modified derivative) present in vitro antimicrobial activity. Aim: To evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of LyeTx I mnΔK in an experimental model of septic arthritis. Methods: CEUA/UFMG: protocol nº 236/2014. At day 0, male C57/BL6 mice (∼7 weeks; (∼25 g) were inoculated with 10 μL of a S. aureus (ATCC® 6538) suspension (8 x 107 CFU/mL) or of sterile PBS (negative control group) by intraarticular injection (i.a.) in the right posterior articulation. At days 2, 4 and 6, mice were treated, by i.a., with clindamycin, LyeTx I or LyeTx I mnΔK (7.35, 0.08, 0.08 nmol/i.a., respectively). The positive control group received saline as treatment. At day 2 (before the first dose) and at day 7, an aliquot containing 7.4 MBq of technetium- 99m -Ceftizoxime ( 99m Tc-CFT) was injected into the tail vein of mice. At 2 h postradiopharmaceutical injection, animals were anesthetized and placed under a gamma camera (NuclideTM TH 22). Images were acquired during 5 min and quantitative analyzed to determine 99m Tc-CFT uptake by infectious focus, by means of target to non-target ratio (t/n-t) determination. Beyond scintigraphic images, animals were conducted to some other investigations post-treatment (at day 7). First, bacterial recovery assay was performed in order to assess pathogen reduction in the infected joint. Then, inflammatory process reduction was evaluated by the determination of immune cells recruitment. Finally, the removal threshold hypernociception was measured aiming to estimate pain. Quantitative data were expressed as 'mean±error' (n=4-6) and

  14. Peptide LyeTx I mnΔk: A potential antimicrobial agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuscaldi, Leonardo Lima; Avelar Júnior, Joaquim T. de; Boff, Daiane; Santos, Daniel M. dos; Oliveira, Vívian L.S. de; Mata, Lays M. da; Contarini, Sara M. Lopes; Miranda, Sued E. Mendes; Amaral, Flavio Almeida; Diniz, Simone O.F.; Lima, Maria Elena de; Cardoso, Valbert N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: The emergence of resistance to current antibiotics and the incidence of opportunistic bacterial infections have stimulated the search for new antibiotic agents. In this sense, antimicrobial peptides are promising molecules due to their different mechanisms of action compared to classic antibiotics. Peptides LyeTx I (Lycosa erythrognatha venom) and LyeTx I mnΔK (truncated and modified derivative) present in vitro antimicrobial activity. Aim: To evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of LyeTx I mnΔK in an experimental model of septic arthritis. Methods: CEUA/UFMG: protocol nº 236/2014. At day 0, male C57/BL6 mice (∼7 weeks; (∼25 g) were inoculated with 10 μL of a S. aureus (ATCC® 6538) suspension (8 x 107 CFU/mL) or of sterile PBS (negative control group) by intraarticular injection (i.a.) in the right posterior articulation. At days 2, 4 and 6, mice were treated, by i.a., with clindamycin, LyeTx I or LyeTx I mnΔK (7.35, 0.08, 0.08 nmol/i.a., respectively). The positive control group received saline as treatment. At day 2 (before the first dose) and at day 7, an aliquot containing 7.4 MBq of technetium-{sup 99m}-Ceftizoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-CFT) was injected into the tail vein of mice. At 2 h postradiopharmaceutical injection, animals were anesthetized and placed under a gamma camera (NuclideTM TH 22). Images were acquired during 5 min and quantitative analyzed to determine {sup 99m}Tc-CFT uptake by infectious focus, by means of target to non-target ratio (t/n-t) determination. Beyond scintigraphic images, animals were conducted to some other investigations post-treatment (at day 7). First, bacterial recovery assay was performed in order to assess pathogen reduction in the infected joint. Then, inflammatory process reduction was evaluated by the determination of immune cells recruitment. Finally, the removal threshold hypernociception was measured aiming to estimate pain. Quantitative data were expressed as 'mean±error' (n=4

  15. The Use of Plant Antimicrobial Compounds for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Tana; Matthews, Karl K.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a global issue with significant impact on human health. With the growing consumer demand for natural preservatives to replace chemical compounds, plant antimicrobial compounds must be thoroughly investigated for their potential to serve as biopreservatives. This review paper will focus on the plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents for use in food preservation and to control foodborne pathogens in foods. Structure, modes of action, stability, and resistance to these plant compounds will be discussed as well as their application in food industries and possible technologies by which they can be delivered. Benefits as well as challenges, such as the need for further research for implementation and governmental regulation, will be highlighted. PMID:26539472

  16. Multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from conventional pig farms using antimicrobial agents in preventative medicine programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Fraile, Lorenzo; Napp, Sebastian; Garrido, Victoria; Grilló, María Jesús; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of multidrug antimicrobial resistance (multi-AR) in Salmonella enterica in pigs reared under conventional preventative medicine programmes in Spain and the possible association of multi-AR with ceftiofur or tulathromycin treatment during the pre-weaning period. Groups of 7-day-old piglets were treated by intramuscular injection with ceftiofur on four farms (n=40 piglets per farm) and with tulathromycin on another four farms (n=40 piglets per farm). A control group of untreated piglets (n=30 per farm) was present on each farm. Faecal swabs were collected for S. enterica culture prior to treatment, at 2, 7 and 180days post-treatment, and at slaughter. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 14 antimicrobial agents, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of resistance genes representing five families of antimicrobial agents were performed. Plasmids carrying cephalosporin resistant (CR) genes were characterised. Sixty-six S. enterica isolates were recovered from five of eight farms. Forty-seven isolates were multi-AR and four contained bla CTX-M genes harboured in conjugative plasmids of the IncI1 family; three of these isolates were recovered before treatment with ceftiofur. The most frequent AR genes detected were tet(A) (51/66, 77%), sul1 (17/66, 26%); tet(B) (15/66, 23%) and qnrB (10/66, 15%). A direct relation between the use of ceftiofur in these conditions and the occurrence of CR S. enterica was not established. However, multi-AR was common, especially for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline. These antibiotics are used frequently in veterinary medicine in Spain and, therefore, should be used sparingly to minimise the spread of multi-AR. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-12-01

    Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  18. Retainment of the antimicrobial agent triclosan in a septic tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjanova, Ala; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of the antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) in a conventional septic tank. The main mechanism of TCS removal from wastewater was identified to be rapid TCS sorption to suspended particles followed by settling of these particles to the bottom of the septic tank. Sorption to particles was completed within minutes while the settling took several days. Therefore, in a septic tank the removal of TCS from wastewater is mainly determined by the removal of suspended particles by sedimentation. Over 5 days of hydraulic residence time the initial dissolved TCS concentration of 100 μg L(-1) was reduced by 87 ± 8%. During the first 24 hours, 66-86% of all removed TCS was retained, whereas during the remainder of the experiment a slight but steady decrease in TCS concentration was observed. This was most likely caused by TCS diffusion and its subsequent sorption onto the septic sludge.

  19. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  20. Impact of medicated feed along with clay mineral supplementation on Escherichia coli resistance to antimicrobial agents in pigs after weaning in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedehameneh; Kabore, Kiswendsida Paul; Fravalo, Philippe; Letellier, Ann; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotype and virulence and AMR gene profiles in Escherichia coli from pigs receiving in-feed antimicrobial medication following weaning and the effect of feed supplementation with a clay mineral, clinoptilolite, on this dynamic. Eighty E. coli strains isolated from fecal samples of pigs receiving a diet containing chlortetracycline and penicillin, with or without 2% clinoptilolite, were examined for antimicrobial resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. Overall, an increased resistance to 10 antimicrobials was observed with time. Supplementation with clinoptilolite was associated with an early increase but later decrease in blaCMY-2, in isolates, as shown by DNA probe. Concurrently, a later increase in the frequency of blaCMY-2 and the virulence genes iucD and tsh was observed in the control pig isolates, being significantly greater than in the supplemented pigs at day 28. Our results suggest that, in the long term, supplementation with clinoptilolite could decrease the prevalence of E. coli carrying certain antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:23323217

  2. Helical Antimicrobial Sulfono- {gamma} -AApeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yaqiong; Wu, Haifan; Teng, Peng; Bai, Ge; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, Chuanhai; Cai, Jianfeng

    2015-06-11

    Host-defense peptides (HDPs) such as magainin 2 have emerged as potential therapeutic agents combating antibiotic resistance. Inspired by their structures and mechanism of action, herein we report the fi rst example of antimicrobial helical sulfono- γ - AApeptide foldamers. The lead molecule displays broad-spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Time-kill studies and fl uorescence microscopy suggest that sulfono- γ -AApeptides eradicate bacteria by taking a mode of action analogous to that of HDPs. Clear structure - function relationships exist in the studied sequences. Longer sequences, presumably adopting more-de fi ned helical structures, are more potent than shorter ones. Interestingly, the sequence with less helical propensity in solution could be more selective than the stronger helix-forming sequences. Moreover, this class of antimicrobial agents are resistant to proteolytic degradation. These results may lead to the development of a new class of antimicrobial foldamers combating emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  3. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Puji Astuti; Sudarsono Sudarsono; Khoirun Nisak; Giri Wisnu Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatograp...

  5. Chitosan-thioglycolic acid as a versatile antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisberger, Georg; Gyenge, Emina Besic; Hinger, Doris; Käch, Andres; Maake, Caroline; Patzke, Greta R

    2013-04-08

    As functionalized chitosans hold great potential for the development of effective and broad-spectrum antibiotics, representative chitosan derivatives were tested for antimicrobial activity in neutral media: trimethyl chitosan (TMC), carboxy-methyl chitosan (CMC), and chitosan-thioglycolic acid (TGA; medium molecular weight: MMW-TGA; low molecular weight: LMW-TGA). Colony forming assays indicated that LMW-TGA displayed superior antimicrobial activity over the other derivatives tested: a 30 min incubation killed 100% Streptococcus sobrinus (Gram-positive bacteria) and reduced colony counts by 99.99% in Neisseria subflava (Gram-negative bacteria) and 99.97% in Candida albicans (fungi). To elucidate LMW-TGA effects at the cellular level, microscopic studies were performed. Use of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled chitosan derivates in confocal microscopy showed that LMW-TGA attaches to microbial cell walls, while transmission electron microscopy indicated that this derivative severely affects cell wall integrity and intracellular ultrastructure in all species tested. We therefore propose LMW-TGA as a promising and effective broad-band antimicrobial compound.

  6. Role of Antimicrobial Selective Pressure and Secondary Factors on Antimicrobial Resistance Prevalence in Escherichia coli from Food-Producing Animals in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, Kazuki; Asai, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the veterinary field affects the emergence, prevalence, and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food-producing animals. To control the emergence, prevalence, and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance, it is necessary to implement appropriate actions based on scientific evidence. In Japan, the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM) was established in 1999 to monitor the antimicrobial suscepti...

  7. Antimicrobial properties and membrane-active mechanism of a potential α-helical antimicrobial derived from cathelicidin PMAP-36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfeng Lv

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, which present in the non-specific immune system of organism, are amongst the most promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials. The modification of naturally occurring AMPs based on their residue composition and distribution is a simple and effective strategy for optimization of known AMPs. In this study, a series of truncated and residue-substituted derivatives of antimicrobial peptide PMAP-36 were designed and synthesized. The 24-residue truncated peptide, GI24, displayed antimicrobial activity comparable to the mother peptide PMAP-36 with MICs ranging from 1 to 4 µM, which is lower than the MICs of bee venom melittin. Although GI24 displayed high antimicrobial activity, its hemolytic activity was much lower than melittin, suggesting that GI24 have optimal cell selectivity. In addition, the crucial site of GI24 was identified through single site-mutation. An amino acid with high hydrophobicity at position 23 played an important role in guaranteeing the high antimicrobial activity of GI24. Then, lipid vesicles and whole bacteria were employed to investigate the membrane-active mechanisms. Membrane-simulating experiments showed that GI24 interacted strongly with negatively charged phospholipids and weakly with zwitterionic phospholipids, which corresponded well with the data of its biological activities. Membrane permeabilization and flow cytometry provide the evidence that GI24 killed microbial cells by permeabilizing the cell membrane and damaging membrane integrity. GI24 resulted in greater cell morphological changes and visible pores on cell membrane as determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Taken together, the peptide GI24 may provide a promising antimicrobial agent for therapeutic applications against the frequently-encountered bacteria.

  8. Informatic search strategies to discover analogues and variants of natural product archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chad W; Connaty, Alex D; Skinnider, Michael A; Li, Yong; Grunwald, Alyssa; Wyatt, Morgan A; Kerr, Russell G; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2016-03-01

    Natural products are a crucial source of antimicrobial agents, but reliance on low-resolution bioactivity-guided approaches has led to diminishing interest in discovery programmes. Here, we demonstrate that two in-house automated informatic platforms can be used to target classes of biologically active natural products, specifically, peptaibols. We demonstrate that mass spectrometry-based informatic approaches can be used to detect natural products with high sensitivity, identifying desired agents present in complex microbial extracts. Using our specialised software packages, we could elaborate specific branches of chemical space, uncovering new variants of trichopolyn and demonstrating a way forward in mining natural products as a valuable source of potential pharmaceutical agents.

  9. In vitro activity of five tetracyclines and some other antimicrobial agents against four porcine respiratory tract pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijpers, A; Van Klingeren, B; Schoevers, E J; Verheijden, J H; Van Miert, A S

    1989-09-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of five tetracyclines and ten other antimicrobial agents were determined for four porcine bacterial respiratory tract pathogens by the agar dilution method. For the following oxytetracycline-susceptible strains, the MIC50 ranges of the tetracyclines were: P. multocida (n = 17) 0.25-0.5 micrograms/ml; B. bronchiseptica (n = 20) 0.25-1.0 micrograms/ml; H. pleuropneumoniae (n = 20) 0.25-0.5 micrograms/ml; S. suis Type 2 (n = 20) 0.06-0.25 micrograms/ml. For 19 oxytetracycline-resistant P. multocida strains the MIC50 of the tetracyclines varied from 64 micrograms/ml for oxytetracycline to 0.5 micrograms/ml for minocycline. Strikingly, minocycline showed no cross-resistance with oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline in P. multocida and in H. pleuropneumoniae. Moreover, in susceptible strains minocycline showed the highest in vitro activity followed by doxycycline. Low MIC50 values were observed for chloramphenicol, ampicillin, flumequine, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against P. multocida and H. pleuropneumoniae. B. bronchiseptica was moderately susceptible or resistant to these compounds. As expected tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin and spiramycin were not active against H. pleuropneumoniae. Except for flumequine, the MIC50 values of nine antimicrobial agents were low for S. suis Type 2. Six strains of this species showed resistance to the macrolides and lincomycin.

  10. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other Firmicutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Shen, Jianzhong; Wendlandt, Sarah; Fessler, Andrea T; Wang, Yang; Kadlec, Kristina; Wu, Cong-Ming

    2014-12-01

    In staphylococci and other Firmicutes, resistance to numerous classes of antimicrobial agents, which are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine, is mediated by genes that are associated with mobile genetic elements. The gene products of some of these antimicrobial resistance genes confer resistance to only specific members of a certain class of antimicrobial agents, whereas others confer resistance to the entire class or even to members of different classes of antimicrobial agents. The resistance mechanisms specified by the resistance genes fall into any of three major categories: active efflux, enzymatic inactivation, and modification/replacement/protection of the target sites of the antimicrobial agents. Among the mobile genetic elements that carry such resistance genes, plasmids play an important role as carriers of primarily plasmid-borne resistance genes, but also as vectors for nonconjugative and conjugative transposons that harbor resistance genes. Plasmids can be exchanged by horizontal gene transfer between members of the same species but also between bacteria belonging to different species and genera. Plasmids are highly flexible elements, and various mechanisms exist by which plasmids can recombine, form cointegrates, or become integrated in part or in toto into the chromosomal DNA or into other plasmids. As such, plasmids play a key role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes within the gene pool to which staphylococci and other Firmicutes have access. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of the current knowledge of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci and other Firmicutes.

  11. Resistance to antimicrobial agents used for animal therapy in pathogenic , zoonotic and indicator bacteria isolated from different food animals in Denmark: A baseline study for the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programme (DANMAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bager, Flemming; Jensen, N. E.

    1998-01-01

    was found. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. In general, resistance was observed more frequently among isolates from pigs than from cattle and broilers. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed......, as is the occurrence of resistance in other countries. The results of this study show the present level of resistance to antimicrobial agents among a number of bacterial species isolated from food animals in Denmark. Thus, the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies has been established, enabling......This study describes the establishment and first results of a continuous surveillance system of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria isolated from pigs, cattle and broilers in Denmark. The three categories of bacteria tested were: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis...

  12. Lipids and essential oils as antimicrobial agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thormar, Halldor

    2011-01-01

    ... of Antimicrobial Lipids on Cell Membranes 20 1.7 Conclusions 21 Acknowledgements 21 References 22 2 Antibacterial Effects of Lipids: Historical Review (1881 to 1960) Halldor Thormar 2.1 Introduction 2....

  13. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-01-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the fi...

  14. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  15. ZnO and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez, E-mail: shamsalig75@gmail.com; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A. [King Saud University, Department of Zoology, College of Science (Saudi Arabia); Musarrat, Javed [AMU, Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (India)

    2015-06-15

    Oral cavity is inhabited by more than 25,000 different bacterial phylotypes; some of them cause systemic infections in addition to dental and periodontal diseases. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance among these bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial agents that are safe, stable, and relatively economic. This review focuses on the significance of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as supplementary antimicrobials for controlling oral infections and biofilm formation. Indeed, the ZnO NPs and TiO{sub 2} NPs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria at concentrations which is not toxic in in vivo toxicity assays. These nanoparticles are being produced at an industrial scale for use in a variety of commercial products including food products. Thus, the application of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} NPs as nanoantibiotics for the development of mouthwashes, dental pastes, and other oral hygiene materials is envisaged. It is also suggested that these NPs could serve as healthier, innocuous, and effective alternative for controlling both the dental biofilms and oral planktonic bacteria with lesser side effects and antibiotic resistance.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Three Lamiaceae Essential Oils Against Common Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Miloš

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of commercial essential oils’ samples from the aerial plant parts of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis were investigated. Analyses by GC-FID and GC-MS confirmed 52 oil components. The major constituent of the H. officinalis oil was cis-pinocamphone (34.4%, followed by transpinocamphone (23.3%, and β-pinene (11.3%. Analysis of R. officinalis oil revealed 1.8-cineol as a major constituent (43.8%, as well as transpinocamphone (12.5%, α-pinene (11.5% and β-pinene (8.2%. The most dominant constituent of S. officinalis oil was cis-thujone (32.7%, in addition to camphor (17.2%, 1.8-cineol (10.1%, α-pinene (8.6%, transthujone (7.7% and camphene (7.3%. The essential oil antimicrobial activity assay was performed by the use of microdilution method against oral Candida spp. and bacteria, the major causative agents of a number of human oral disorders; all of them were susceptible to tested concentrations of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis essential oils, although the oil of S. officinalis exhibited the lowest antimicrobial potential. The results obtained in this study encourage use of investigated essential oils from Lamiaceae family in development of safe natural agents for prevention and/ or alternative therapy of human oral diseases. However, a special care during development of an effective natural preparation is required.

  17. Uses of antimicrobial genes from microbial genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Rotem; Rubin, Edward M.

    2013-08-20

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their expression products from various microbial genomes that were found using this method. The products of such genes can be used as antimicrobial agents or as tools for molecular biology.

  18. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Call to Action for Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Therese M.; Catena, Fausto; Tessier, Jeffrey M.; Coccolini, Federico; Kao, Lillian S.; De Simone, Belinda; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; May, Addison K.; Ansaloni, Luca; Mazuski, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite current antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) being advocated by infectious disease specialists and discussed by national and international policy makers, ASPs coverage remains limited to only certain hospitals as well as specific service lines within hospitals. The ASPs incorporate a variety of strategies to optimize antimicrobial agent use in the hospital, yet the exact set of interventions essential to ASP success remains unknown. Promotion of ASPs across clinical practice is crucial to their success to ensure standardization of antimicrobial agent use within an institution. To effectively accomplish this standardization, providers who actively engage in antimicrobial agent prescribing should participate in the establishment and support of these programs. Hence, surgeons need to play a major role in these collaborations. Surgeons must be aware that judicious antibiotic utilization is an integral part of any stewardship program and necessary to maximize clinical cure and minimize emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The battle against antibiotic resistance should be fought by all healthcare professionals. If surgeons around the world participate in this global fight and demonstrate awareness of the major problem of antimicrobial resistance, they will be pivotal leaders. If surgeons fail to actively engage and use antibiotics judiciously, they will find themselves deprived of the autonomy to treat their patients. PMID:27828764

  19. Antimicrobial stewardship: attempting to preserve a strategic resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Van Schooneveld, Md

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials hold a unique place in our drug armamentarium. Unfortunately the increase in resistance among both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens coupled with a lack of new antimicrobial agents is threatening our ability to treat infections. Antimicrobial use is the driving force behind this rise in resistance and much of this use is suboptimal. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP have been advocated as a strategy to improve antimicrobial use. The goals of ASP are to improve patient outcomes while minimizing toxicity and selection for resistant strains by assisting in the selection of the correct agent, right dose, and best duration. Two major strategies for ASP exist: restriction/pre-authorization that controls use at the time of ordering and audit and feedback that reviews ordered antimicrobials and makes suggestions for improvement. Both strategies have some limitations, but have been effective at achieving stewardship goals. Other supplemental strategies such as education, clinical prediction rules, biomarkers, clinical decision support software, and institutional guidelines have been effective at improving antimicrobial use. The most effective antimicrobial stewardship programs have employed multiple strategies to impact antimicrobial use. Using these strategies stewardship programs have been able to decrease antimicrobial use, the spread of resistant pathogens, the incidence of C. difficile infection, pharmacy costs, and improved patient outcomes.

  20. Learning from agriculture: understanding low-dose antimicrobials as drivers of resistome expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqi eYou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health challenge worldwide, with agricultural use of antimicrobials being one major contributor to the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Globally, most antimicrobials are used in industrial food animal production, a major context for microbiomes encountering low-doses or subtherapeutic-levels of antimicrobial agents from all mechanistic classes. This modern practice exerts broad eco-evolutionary effects on the gut microbiome of food animals, which is subsequently transferred to animal waste. This waste contains complex constituents that are challenging to treat, including antimicrobial resistance determinants and low-dose antimicrobials. Unconfined storage or land deposition of a large volume of animal waste causes its wide contact with the environment and drives the expansion of the environmental resistome through mobilome facilitated horizontal genet transfer. The expanded environmental resistome, which encompasses both natural constituents and anthropogenic inputs, can persist under multiple stressors from agriculture and may re-enter humans, thus posing a public health risk to humans. For these reasons, this review focuses on agricultural antimicrobial use as a laboratory for understanding low-dose antimicrobials as drivers of resistome expansion, briefly summarizes current knowledge on this topic, highlights the importance of research specifically on environmental microbial ecosystems considering antimicrobial resistance as environmental pollution, and calls attention to the needs for longitudinal studies at the systems level.

  1. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  2. Natural agents: cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaq, Farrukh

    2011-04-15

    The skin is the largest organ of the body that produces a flexible and self-repairing barrier and protects the body from most common potentially harmful physical, environmental, and biological insults. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the major environmental insults to the skin and causes multi-tiered cellular and molecular events eventually leading to skin cancer. The past decade has seen a surge in the incidence of skin cancer due to changes in life style patterns that have led to a significant increase in the amount of UV radiation that people receive. Reducing excessive exposure to UV radiation is desirable; nevertheless this approach is not easy to implement. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel strategies to reduce the adverse biological effects of UV radiation on the skin. A wide variety of natural agents have been reported to possess substantial skin photoprotective effects. Numerous preclinical and clinical studies have elucidated that natural agents act by several cellular and molecular mechanisms to delay or prevent skin cancer. In this review article, we have summarized and discussed some of the selected natural agents for skin photoprotection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Soft antimicrobial agents: synthesis and activity of labile environmentally friendly long chain quaternary ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Másson, Már; Kristinsson, Karl G; Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha A; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2003-09-11

    A series of soft quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agents, which are analogues to currently used quaternary ammonium preservatives such as cetyl pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, were synthesized. These soft analogues consist of long alkyl chain connected to a polar headgroup via chemically labile spacer group. They are characterized by facile nonenzymatic and enzymatic degradation to form their original nontoxic building blocks. However, their chemical stability has to be adequate in order for them to have antimicrobial effects. Stability studies and antibacterial and antiviral activity measurements revealed relationship between activity, lipophilicity, and stability. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was as low as 1 microg/mL, and their viral reduction was in some cases greater than 6.7 log. The structure-activity studies demonstrate that the bioactive compounds (i.e., MIC for Gram-positive bacteria of <10 microg/mL) have an alkyl chain length between 12 and 18 carbon atoms, with a polar headgroup preferably of a small quaternary ammonium group, and their acquired inactivation half-life must be greater than 3 h at 60 degrees C.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activities of cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene against Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleha, Radek; Mosio, Petra; Vydrzalova, Marketa; Jantovska, Alexandra; Bostikova, Vanda; Mazurova, Jaroslava

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of five natural substances against 50 clinical isolates of Mycoplasma hominis. The in vitro activity of selected natural compounds, cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene, was investigated against 50 M. hominis isolates cultivated from cervical swabs by the broth dilution method. All showed valuable antimicrobial activity against the tested isolates. Oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (MBC90 = 500 µg/mL) however was found to be the most effective. Carvacrol (MBC90 = 600 µg/mL) and eugenol (MBC90 = 1000 µg/mL) also possessed strong antimycoplasmal activity. The results indicate that cinnamon bark oil, carvacrol and eugenol have strong antimycoplasmal activity and the potential for use as antimicrobial agents in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections.

  5. Efflux pumps as antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to hamper antimicrobial chemotherapy of infectious disease, and while biocide resistance outside of the laboratory is as yet unrealized, in vitro and in vivo episodes of reduced biocide susceptibility are not uncommon. Efflux mechanisms, both drug-specific and multidrug, are important determinants of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to these antimicrobials in important human pathogens. Multidrug efflux mechanisms are generally chromosome-encoded, with their expression typically resultant from mutations in regulatory genes, while drug-specific efflux mechanisms are encoded by mobile genetic elements whose acquisition is sufficient for resistance. While it has been suggested that drug-specific efflux systems originated from efflux determinants of self-protection in antibiotic-producing Actinomycetes, chromosomal multidrug efflux determinants, at least in Gram-negative bacteria, are appreciated as having an intended housekeeping function unrelated to drug export and resistance. Thus, it will be important to elucidate the intended natural function of these efflux mechanisms in order, for example, to anticipate environmental conditions or circumstances that might promote their expression and, so, compromise antimicrobial chemotherapy. Given the clinical significance of antimicrobial exporters, it is clear that efflux must be considered in formulating strategies for treatment of drug-resistant infections, both in the development of new agents, for example, less impacted by efflux or in targeting efflux directly with efflux inhibitors.

  6. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Joseph W; Clegg, Simon R; Sullivan, Leigh E; Duncan, Jennifer S; Grove-White, Dai H; Carter, Stuart D; Evans, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the treponemes cultured from CODD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro the miniumum inhibitory concentration/ minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) of antimicrobials used in the sheep industry for isolates of the three CODD associated treponeme phylogroups T. medium/T. vincentii-like, T. phagedenis-like and T. pedis. Twenty treponeme isolates; from 19 sheep with clinical CODD lesions. A microdilution method was used to determine in vitro the MIC/MBC of 10 antimicrobial agents for 20 treponeme isolates (five T. medium/T. vincentii-like, 10 T. phagedenis-like and five T. pedis). The antimicrobials tested were penicillin G, amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, tylosin, tildipirosin, tulathromycin and gamithromycin. The treponeme isolates tested showed low MICs and MBCs to all 10 antimicrobials tested. They were most susceptible to gamithromycin and tildipirosin (MIC90: 0.0469 mg/L), and were least susceptible to lincomycin, spectinomycin and oxytetracycline (MIC90: 48 mg/L, 24 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively). These data are comparable to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data for treponemes cultured from bovine digital dermatitis lesions. Dependent on local licensing, penicillin and tilmicosin appear to be the best candidates for future in vivo studies. © 2015 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palza, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms. PMID:25607734

  8. Phytochemical, toxicological and antimicrobial evaluation of Lawsonia inermis extracts against clinical isolates of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Iram; Sohail, Maria; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Amin Athar, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    The emerging resistance of pathogen against the currently available antimicrobial agents demands the search of new antimicrobial agents. The use of medicinal plants as natural substitute is the paramount area of research to overwhelm the drug resistance of infectious agents. Scientists have not made enough effort on the evaluation of safety of medicinal plant yet. In the present study antimicrobial activity of Lawsonia inermis is investigated against clinical isolates of seven bacteria including four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp., Shigella sonnei) and three Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) using disc diffusion method. Four types of Lawsonia inermis extracts were prepared using methanol, chloroform, acetone and water as extraction solvents, while DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) and water as dissolution solvents. The rate and extent of bacterial killing was estimated by time-kill kinetic assay at 1× MIC of each bacterial isolate. The overall safety of Lawsonia inermis extracts was assessed in mice. Lawsonia inermis displayed noteworthy antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains used in the study. The minimum value of MIC for different bacterial strains ranged from 2.31 mg/ml to 9.27 mg/ml. At 1x MIC of each bacterial isolate, 3log10 decrease in CFU was recorded after 6 hours of drug exposure and no growth was observed in almost all tested bacteria after 24 hours of exposure. No sign of toxidrome were observed during in vivo toxicity evaluation in mice at 300 mg/kg concentration. In conclusion, the present study provides the scientific rational for medicinal use of Lawsonia inermis. The use of Lawsonia inermis extracts is of great significance as substitute antimicrobial agent in therapeutics.

  9. antimicrobial properties of some natural and synthetic fabrics modified by radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    natural and synthetic fabrics have been treated with different antimicrobial metal complexes under the effect of gamma radiation . in this regard, cotton, cotton/PET blend and PET were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma radiation and this grafted fabrics were complexed with Cu(ll),Ni(ll)and Co(ll) metal ions . the antimicrobial properties were evaluated by the measurement of tensile strength of fabrics after burring in a soil for one and two weeks as well as the effect of this treatment on the growth of certain bacteria and fungi incubated on a culture for 48 hours. the results showed that the highest protection to cotton, cotton/PET blend and PET fabrics by using Cu(ll) ion in the complexation process, where the order of protection by metals is Cu(ll) > Co(ll)> Ni(ll), moreover, the more grafted fabrics the more complexed fabrics with metal ions and is higher protection against microorganisms . the treatment with the metal ions has nearly no effect on the chemical and physical properties of the natural or the synthetic fabrics as indicated from the analysis by TGA, sem, ion exchange testing and wettability testing.

  10. Proposed quality control guidelines for National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Susceptibility Tests using the veterinary antimicrobial agent tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N; Walter, D H

    2001-01-01

    Quality control guidelines for standardized antimicrobial susceptibility test methods are critical for the continuing accuracy of these clinical tests. In this report, quality control limits were proposed for the veterinary antimicrobial agent tiamulin with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of three or four log(2) dilution steps in two different medium formulations. Disk diffusion zone diameter ranges were proposed for tiamulin tested against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ATCC 27090 (12-18 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (25-32 mm). The data from eight participating laboratories produced 100% of results within proposed MIC limits (8-32 microg/mL), and 95.8-97.0% of zones were found within suggested zone diameter QC guidelines. These proposed QC ranges should be validated by in-use results from veterinary clinical laboratories.

  11. The diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes among staphylococci of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Sarah; Feßler, Andrea T; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Schwarz, Stefan; Kadlec, Kristina

    2013-08-01

    Staphylococci of animal origin harbor a wide variety of resistance genes. So far, more than 40 different resistance genes have been identified in staphylococci from animals. This includes genes that confer resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobial agents approved for use in animals, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamides, phenicols, aminoglycosides, aminocyclitols, pleuromutilins, and diaminopyrimidines. The gene products of some of these resistance genes confer resistance to only specific members of a class of antimicrobial agents, whereas others confer resistance to the entire class or even to members of different classes of antimicrobial agents. The resistance mechanisms specified by the resistance genes fall into three major categories: (i) enzymatic inactivation, (ii) active efflux, or (iii) protection/modification/replacement of the cellular target sites of the antimicrobial agents. Mobile genetic elements, in particular plasmids and transposons, play a major role as carriers of antimicrobial resistance genes in animal staphylococci. They facilitate the exchange of resistance genes with staphylococci of human origin but also with other Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. [Etiology of urinary tract infections and antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carlos; Costa, Elísio; Peres, António; Alves, Madalena; Pombo, Graça; Estevinho, Letícia

    2007-01-01

    With the objective of knowing the common etiological agents in urinary infection and comparing its antimicrobial susceptibility in nosocomial and community-acquired urinary infections, we analyse all the urine bacteriological exams from the Serviço de Patologia Clínica do Centro Hospitalar do Nordeste, EPE - Unidade Hospitalar de Bragança, during a two years period (April 2004 to March 2006). During this period, 4018 urine bacteriological exams were made. The cultural exam was positive in 572 samples (144 from nosocomial infections and 428 from community-acquired urinary infections). The Escherichia coli was the more isolated strain (68,4 %), followed by Klebsiella spp (7,9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6,1%) and Proteus mirabilis (5,2%). Concerning to antimicrobial susceptibility, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp showed a high resistance to the antimicrobials Amoxicillin, Piperacillin, Cephalothin, Ceftazidim and Quinolones. For Enterobacteriaceae Imipenem, Amikacin and Netilmicin were the antimicrobials with more level of susceptibility. Imipenem and Amikacin were the more efficient antimicrobials against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Concerning to the susceptibility for the same etiological agent, in nosocomial and community-acquired urinary infections, we founded statistical significant differences in the antimicrobials Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid and Collistin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in the group of antimicrobials from Quinolones for the Proteus mirabilis. In the other identified agents there were no statistical significant differences for antimicrobials. This study it allows making use of data necessary for the knowledge of etiologic urinary infection agents in Bragança and provides the information about the antimicrobials resistance, which were necessary to initiate an adequate empirical treatment and to elaborate treatment guides.

  13. Effect of mixed antimicrobial agents and flavors in active packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Batlle, Ramón; Nerín, Cristina

    2009-09-23

    Active packaging is an emerging food technology to improve the quality and safety of food products. Many works have been developed to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils. Essential oils have been traditionally used as flavorings in food, so they have an important odor impact but they have as well antimicrobial properties that could be used to protect the food. Recent developments in antimicrobial active packaging showed the efficiency of essential oils versus bread and bakery products among other applications. However, one of the main problems to face is the odor and taste they could provide to the packaged food. Using some aromas to mask the odor could be a good approach. That is why the main objective of this paper is to develop an antimicrobial packaging material based on the combination of the most active compounds of essential oils (hydrocinnamaldehyde, oregano essential oil, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol) together with some aromas commonly used in the food industry. A study of the concentration required to get the antimicrobial properties, the organoleptic compatibility with typical aroma present in many food systems (vanilla, banana, and strawberry), and the right combination of both systems has been carried out. Antimicrobial tests of both the mentioned aromas, the main components of some essential oils, and the combination of both groups were carried out against bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli), yeasts (Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii), and molds (Botrytis cinerae, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium roqueforti, Eurotium repens, Penicillium islandicum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium nalgiovensis). The sensory properties of the combinations were evaluated with a triangular test and classification was by an order test; the odor threshold of the aroma compounds was also

  14. Novel aminopyrimidinyl benzimidazoles as potentially antimicrobial agents: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Bo; Gao, Wei-Wei; Tangadanchu, Vijai Kumar Reddy; Zhou, Cheng-He; Geng, Rong-Xia

    2018-01-01

    A series of novel aminopyrimidinyl benzimidazoles as potentially antimicrobial agents were designed, synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and HRMS spectra. The biological evaluation in vitro revealed that some of the target compounds exerted good antibacterial and antifungal activity in comparison with the reference drugs. Noticeably, compound 7d could effectively inhibit the growth of A. flavus, E. coli DH52 and MRSA with MIC values of 1, 1 and 8 μg/mL, respectively. Further studies revealed that pyrimidine derivative 7d could exhibit bactericidal mode of action against both Gram positive (S. aureus and MRSA) and Gram negative (P. aeruginosa) bacteria. The active molecule 7d showed low cell toxicity and did not obviously trigger the development of resistance in bacteria even after 16 passages. Furthermore, compound 7d was able to beneficially regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation for an excellent safety profile. Molecular docking study revealed that compound 7d could bind with DNA gyrase by the formation of hydrogen bonds. The preliminary exploration for antimicrobial mechanism disclosed that compound 7d could effectively intercalate into calf thymus DNA to form a steady supramolecular complex, which might further block DNA replication to exert the powerful bioactivities. The binding investigation of compound 7d with human serum albumins (HSA) revealed that this molecule could be effectively transported by HSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The catabolite repression control protein Crc plays a role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lianbo; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Gao, Qingguo

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria form complex surface-attached biofilm communities in nature. Biofilm cells differentiate into subpopulations which display tolerance towards antimicrobial agents. However, the signal transduction pathways regulating subpopulation differentiation in biofilms are largely unelucidated. In t....... In the present study, we show that the catabolite repression control protein Crc regulates the metabolic state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in biofilms, and plays an important role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in P. aeruginosa biofilms....

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2H-Indazole Derivatives: Towards Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Dual Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pérez-Villanueva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indazole is considered a very important scaffold in medicinal chemistry. It is commonly found in compounds with diverse biological activities, e.g., antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. Considering that infectious diseases are associated to an inflammatory response, we designed a set of 2H-indazole derivatives by hybridization of cyclic systems commonly found in antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory compounds. The derivatives were synthesized and tested against selected intestinal and vaginal pathogens, including the protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis; the bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi; and the yeasts Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Biological evaluations revealed that synthesized compounds have antiprotozoal activity and, in most cases, are more potent than the reference drug metronidazole, e.g., compound 18 is 12.8 times more active than metronidazole against G. intestinalis. Furthermore, two 2,3-diphenyl-2H-indazole derivatives (18 and 23 showed in vitro growth inhibition against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. In addition to their antimicrobial activity, the anti-inflammatory potential for selected compounds was evaluated in silico and in vitro against human cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. The results showed that compounds 18, 21, 23, and 26 display in vitro inhibitory activity against COX-2, whereas docking calculations suggest a similar binding mode as compared to rofecoxib, the crystallographic reference.

  17. Protein C Inhibitor-A Novel Antimicrobial Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmström, E.; Mörgelin, M.; Malmsten, M.; Johansson, L.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Shannon, O.; Schmidtchen, A.; Meijers, J.C.M.; Herwald, H.

    2009-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a heparin-binding serine proteinase inhibitor belonging to the family of serpin proteins. Here we describe that PCI exerts broad antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens. This ability is mediated by the interaction of PCI with lipid membranes, which

  18. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity of the Dyed Silk Fabrics with Some Natural Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    ALKAN, Rezan; TORGAN, Emine; AYDIN, Canan; KARADAG, Recep

    2015-01-01

    In this study, silk fabric is dyed with natural indigo. Dyed silk fabric with natural indigo was cut in the 20x20 cm2 size. Excluding a fabric, all fabrics were mordanted in the same percentage with alum metal (KAl(SO4)2.12H2O). Then, silk fabrics for green color dyeing are dyed separately with weld (Reseda luteola), gall oak (Quercus infectoria Olivier) and together weld (Reseda luteola) and gall oak (Quercus infectoria) in different percentage. Antimicrobial functionality of the twenty seve...

  19. Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activity of Algae Extracts on Bacteria Responsible of External Otitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Pane

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available External otitis is a diffuse inflammation around the external auditory canal and auricle, which is often occurred by microbial infection. This disease is generally treated using antibiotics, but the frequent occurrence of antibiotic resistance requires the development of new antibiotic agents. In this context, unexplored bioactive natural candidates could be a chance for the production of targeted drugs provided with antimicrobial activity. In this paper, microbial pathogens were isolated from patients with external otitis using ear swabs for over one year, and the antimicrobial activity of the two methanol extracts from selected marine (Dunaliella salina and freshwater (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata microalgae was tested on the isolated pathogens. Totally, 114 bacterial and 11 fungal strains were isolated, of which Staphylococcus spp. (28.8% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa (24.8% were the major pathogens. Only three Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus strains and 11 coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed resistance to methicillin. The two algal extracts showed interesting antimicrobial properties, which mostly inhibited the growth of isolated S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp. with MICs range of 1.4 × 109 to 2.2 × 1010 cells/mL. These results suggest that the two algae have potential as resources for the development of antimicrobial agents.

  20. New perspectives for natural antimicrobial peptides: application as antinflammatory drugs in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capparelli, Rosanna; De Chiara, Francesco; Nocerino, Nunzia; Montella, Rosa Chiara; Iannaccone, Marco; Fulgione, Andrea; Romanelli, Alessandra; Avitabile, Concetta; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Capuano, Federico

    2012-11-17

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an ancient group of defense molecules. AMPs are widely distributed in nature (being present in mammals, birds, amphibians, insects, plants, and microorganisms). They display bactericidal as well as immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of a combination of two AMPs (temporin B and the royal jellein I) against Staphylococcus epidermidis. The temporin B (TB-KK) and the royal jelleins I, II, III chemically modified at the C terminal (RJI-C, RJII-C, RJIII-C), were tested for their activity against 10 different Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, alone and in combination. Of the three royal jelleins, RJI-C showed the highest activity. Moreover, the combination of RJI-C and TB-KK (MIX) displayed synergistic activity. In vitro, the MIX displayed low hemolytic activity, no NO2- production and the ability to curb the synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ to the same extent as acetylsalicylic acid. In vivo, the MIX sterilized mice infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis in eleven days and inhibited the expression of genes encoding the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) and CD64, two important parameters of inflammation. The study shows that the MIX - a combination of two naturally occurring peptides - displays both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.

  1. Patterns of Antimicrobial Prescribing in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Yamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been designed to measure and improve the use of antimicrobials to achieve optimal clinical outcomes and reduce bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to review patterns of antimicrobial prescribing for hospitalized patients in the acute care setting and assess the appropriateness of antimicrobial use among prescribers in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Methods: We conducted a retrospective audit of the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing in patients admitted to acute care settings in a tertiary care hospital in Oman over a four-week period (1 November to 28 November 2012. The data of all discharged patients were retrieved from the department databases. Patient records and prescriptions were reviewed by an infectious disease consultant. The rationality of antimicrobial use was evaluated, analyzed, and judged based on local standard guidelines and the experience of the evaluating consultant. Results: There were 178 patients discharged from acute medical teams over the study period. Sixty-four percent of the patients received a total of 287 antimicrobial agents during admission. The average number of antimicrobials prescribed per patient in those prescribed antimicrobials was 2.5±1.1. The most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agent was piperacillin/tazobactam. Most patients had infections from gram-negative organisms, and high rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms were observed. Cultures were obtained before antimicrobial initiation in 25% of patients. Variability in antimicrobial selection for common infections was observed. Conclusions: National guidelines for the management of common infections are needed to minimize the overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in tertiary care hospitals. A large surveillance study on antimicrobial prescribing appropriateness in different hospital settings is warranted.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgässner, C; Schmitt, S; Borgström, A; Wittenbrink, M M

    2016-06-01

    Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. So far, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of B. hyodysenteriae in Switzerland have not been investigated. Therefore, a panel of 30 porcine B. hyodysenteriae isolates were tested against 6 antimicrobial agents by using the VetMIC Brachy panel, a broth microdilution test. Tiamulin and valnemulin showed high antimicrobial activity inhibiting all isolates at low concentrations. The susceptibility testing of doxycycline revealed values from ≤0.25 μg/ ml (47%) to 2 μg/ml (10%). The MIC values of lincomycin ranged between ≤0.5 μg/ml (30%) and 32 μg/ml (43%). For tylosin, 57% of the isolates could not be inhibited at the highest concentration of ≥128 μg/ml. The MIC values for tylvalosin were between ≤0.25 μg/ml (10%) and 8 μg/ml (20%). These findings reveal Switzerland's favourable situation compared to other European countries. Above all, tiamulin and valnemulin are still effective antimicrobial agents and can be further used for the treatment of SD.

  3. Nanosilver: Potent antimicrobial agent and its biosynthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VIKAS

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... synthesis of silver nanoparticles, potential and the possible mechanism of antimicrobial actions. NANOSILVER SYNTHESIS- AN OVERVIEW. Nano silver are one of the promising products in the nanotechnology industry. The development of consistent processes for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles is an.

  4. Antimicrobials and therapeutic decision making: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, R; Nightingale, C H

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to remedy inappropriate and excessive use of antimicrobials and to control costs, most hospitals have developed some type of antimicrobial management program. At Hartford Hospital, our most effective approaches have been those that reduce the chances for physician error, decrease the burden on ancillary services, and encourage short hospital stays. These include automatic correction of dose and dosing intervals of antimicrobials and, if possible, their conversion by pharmacy to cost-effective alternative agents; daily review of patients who are taking the drugs by an antimicrobial team; and replacement of parenteral with oral agents as soon as possible. Physician acceptance of these approaches will require significant changes in traditional prescribing styles and willingness to allow pharmacists to implement the recommendations of therapeutic and medical staff committees.

  5. Polysaccharide-based biomaterials with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Coma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active packaging is one of the responses to the recent food-borne microbial outbreaks and to the consumer’s demand for high quality food and for packaging that is more advanced and creative than what is currently offered. Moreover, with the recent increase in ecological awareness associated with the dramatic decrease in fossil resources, research has turned towards the elaboration of more natural materials. This paper provides a short review of biomaterials exhibiting antimicrobial and antioxidant properties for applications in food preservation. The two main concepts of active biopackaging materials are briefly introduced. The different polysaccharides potentially used in packaging materials are then presented associated with a brief overview of research works related to biopackaging, exhibiting notably antimicrobial or antioxidant properties. Finally, future trends such as the release-on-demand of bioactive agents are discussed.

  6. Effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijie; Vriesekoop, Frank; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2014-05-01

    d-Limonene has been considered to be a safer alternative compared to synthetic antimicrobial food additives. However, its hydrophobic and oxidative nature has limited its application in foods. The purpose of this research was to study effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion and develop a novel antimicrobial delivery system by combining the positive effect of these two antibacterial agents at the same time. By the checkerboard method, both the synergistic and additive effects of d-limonene and nisin were found against four selected food-related microorganisms. Then, d-limonene nanoemulsion with or without nisin was prepared by catastrophic phase inversion method, which has shown good droplet size and stability. The positive effects and outstanding antimicrobial activity of d-limonene nanoemulsion with nisin were confirmed by MICs comparison, scanning electron microscopy and determination of cell constituents released. Overall, the research described in the current article would be helpful in developing a more effective antimicrobial system for the production and preservation of foods. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in pharmacovigilance initiatives surrounding antimicrobial resistance-Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Nayak, Veena; A, Avinash; Kunder, Sushil Kiran

    2016-08-01

    In recent years the development of antimicrobial resistance has been accelerating, the discovery of new antimicrobial agents has slowed substantially in past decades. This review mainly focuses on the problem of antimicrobial resistance(AMR); the various contributor mechanisms, consequences and future of AMR. The review also highlights the irrational use of antimicrobials, improving their usage and problems associated with pharmacovigilance of antimicrobial resistance. Pharmacovigilance in the form of surveillance of antibiotic use is being done in 90% of the countries worldwide through the WHONET program developed by WHO. However, the data comes from a limited area of the globe. Data from every part of the world is required, so that there is geographical representation of every region. A major hurdle in quantifying the extent of antimicrobial resistance is the fact that there are several known microbes, that may turn out to be resistant to one or more of the several known antimicrobial agents. The global action plan initiated by WHO, if implemented successfully will definitely reduce AMR and will help in evaluating treatment interventions.

  8. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A; Norris, Ross; Paterson, David L; Martin, Jennifer H

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing the prescription of antimicrobials is required to improve clinical outcome from infections and to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. One such method to improve antimicrobial dosing in individual patients is through application of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The aim of this manuscript is to review the place of TDM in the dosing of antimicrobial agents, specifically the importance of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) to define the antimicrobial exposures necessary for maximizing killing or inhibition of bacterial growth. In this context, there are robust data for some antimicrobials, including the ratio of a PK parameter (e.g. peak concentration) to the minimal inhibitory concentration of the bacteria associated with maximal antimicrobial effect. Blood sampling of an individual patient can then further define the relevant PK parameter value in that patient and, if necessary, antimicrobial dosing can be adjusted to enable achievement of the target PK/PD ratio. To date, the clinical outcome benefits of a systematic TDM programme for antimicrobials have only been demonstrated for aminoglycosides, although the decreasing susceptibility of bacteria to available antimicrobials and the increasing costs of pharmaceuticals, as well as emerging data on pharmacokinetic variability, suggest that benefits are likely. PMID:21831196

  9. Learning from agriculture: understanding low-dose antimicrobials as drivers of resistome expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yaqi; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health challenge worldwide, with agricultural use of antimicrobials being one major contributor to the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Globally, most antimicrobials are used in industrial food animal production, a major context for microbiomes encountering low-doses or subtherapeutic-levels of antimicrobial agents from all mechanistic classes. This modern practice exerts broad eco-evolutionary effects on the gut microbiome of food animals, which is subsequently transferred to animal waste. This waste contains complex constituents that are challenging to treat, including AMR determinants and low-dose antimicrobials. Unconfined storage or land deposition of a large volume of animal waste causes its wide contact with the environment and drives the expansion of the environmental resistome through mobilome facilitated horizontal genet transfer. The expanded environmental resistome, which encompasses both natural constituents and anthropogenic inputs, can persist under multiple stressors from agriculture and may re-enter humans, thus posing a public health risk to humans. For these reasons, this review focuses on agricultural antimicrobial use as a laboratory for understanding low-dose antimicrobials as drivers of resistome expansion, briefly summarizes current knowledge on this topic, highlights the importance of research specifically on environmental microbial ecosystems considering AMR as environmental pollution, and calls attention to the needs for longitudinal studies at the systems level.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and computational chemical study of 5-cyano-2-thiouracil derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Sameh A.; El-Naggar, Abeer M.; El-Badawy, Azza A.

    2018-03-01

    A series of 5-cyano-2-thiouracil derivatives, containing diverse hydrophobic groups in the 2-, 4- and 6-positions, were synthesized through one pot reaction of thiophene 2-carboxaldehyde, ethylcyanoacetate and thiourea using classic reflux-based method as well as microwave-assisted methods. Such prepared compounds were reacted with different electrophilic reagents to synthesize potent anti-microbial agents, e.g. 1,3,4-thiadiazinopyrimidine, hydrazide and triazolopyrimidine derivatives (compounds 4a-e, 9 and 10-12) respectively. The density functional theory (DFT) was then applied to explore the structural and electronic characteristics of these materials. It is found that compound 12 exhibited the highest antibacterial and antifungal activity against C. Albicans showing six-fold increasing biological affinity compared to that of Colitrimazole drug with MIC values 7.8 and 49 μg/mL, respectively. All the synthesized compounds have been characterized based on their elemental analyses and spectral data. Such compounds can be submitted to in vivo antimicrobial studies in future works.

  11. Design and synthesis of some new 2,3'-bipyridine-5-carbonitriles as potential anti-inflammatory/antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzahhar, Perihan A; Elkazaz, Salwa; Soliman, Raafat; El-Tombary, Alaa A; Shaltout, Hossam A; El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Abdel Wahab, Abeer E; El-Hawash, Soad A

    2017-08-01

    Inflammation may cause accumulation of fluid in the injured area, which may promote bacterial growth. Other reports disclosed that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may enhance progression of bacterial infection. This work describes synthesis of new series of 2,3'-bipyridine-5-carbonitriles as structural analogs of etoricoxib, linked at position-6 to variously substituted thio or oxo moieties. Biological screening results revealed that compounds 2b, 4b, 7e and 8 showed significant acute and chronic AI activities and broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In addition, similarity ensemble approach was applied to predict potential biological targets of the tested compounds. Then, pharmacophore modeling study was employed to determine the most important structural parameters controlling bioactivity. Moreover, title compounds showed physicochemical properties within those considered adequate for drug candidates. This study explored the potential of such series of compounds as structural leads for further modification to develop a new class of dual AI-antimicrobial agents.

  12. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  13. Cytotoxicity of topical antimicrobial agents used in burn wounds in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John F; Cuttle, Leila; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy M

    2004-03-01

    Burn sepsis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with major burns. The use of topical antimicrobial agents has helped improve the survival of these patients. Silvazine (Sigma Pharmaceuticals, Melbourne, Australia) (1% silver sulphadiazine and 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate) is used exclusively in Australasia, and there is no published study on its cytotoxicity. This study compared the relative cytotoxicity of Silvazine with 1% silver sulphadiazine (Flamazine (Smith & Nephew Healthcare, Hull, UK)) and a silver-based dressing (Acticoat (Smith & Nephew Healthcare, Hull, UK)). Dressings were applied to the centre of culture plates that were then seeded with keratinocytes at an estimated 25% confluence. The plates were incubated for 72 h and culture medium and dressings then removed. Toluidine blue was added to stain the remaining keratinocytes. Following removal of the dye, the plates were photographed under standard conditions and these digital images were analysed using image analysis software. Data was analysed using Student's t-test. In the present study, Silvazine is the most cytotoxic agent. Seventy-two hour exposure to Silvazine in the present study results in almost no keratinocyte survival at all and a highly statistically significant reduction in cell survival relative to control, Acticoat and Flamazine (Pstudy comparing Acticoat, Silvazine and Flamazine, Silvazine shows an increased cytotoxic effect, relative to control, Flamazine and Acticoat. An in-vivo study is required to determine whether this effect is carried into the clinical setting.

  14. Antimicrobial Treatment of Polymeric Medical Devices by Silver Nanomaterials and Related Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polívková, Markéta; Hubáček, Tomáš; Staszek, Marek; Švorčík, Václav; Siegel, Jakub

    2017-02-15

    Antimicrobial biocompatible polymers form a group of highly desirable materials in medicinal technology that exhibit interesting thermal and mechanical properties, and high chemical resistance. There are numerous types of polymers with antimicrobial activity or antimicrobial properties conferred through their proper modification. In this review, we focus on the second type of polymers, especially those whose antimicrobial activity is conferred by nanotechnology. Nanotechnology processing is a developing area that exploits the antibacterial effects of broad-scale compounds, both organic and inorganic, to form value-added medical devices. This work gives an overview of nanostructured antimicrobial agents, especially silver ones, used together with biocompatible polymers as effective antimicrobial composites in healthcare. The bactericidal properties of non-conventional antimicrobial agents are compared with those of conventional ones and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  15. Antimicrobial Treatment of Polymeric Medical Devices by Silver Nanomaterials and Related Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Polívková

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial biocompatible polymers form a group of highly desirable materials in medicinal technology that exhibit interesting thermal and mechanical properties, and high chemical resistance. There are numerous types of polymers with antimicrobial activity or antimicrobial properties conferred through their proper modification. In this review, we focus on the second type of polymers, especially those whose antimicrobial activity is conferred by nanotechnology. Nanotechnology processing is a developing area that exploits the antibacterial effects of broad-scale compounds, both organic and inorganic, to form value-added medical devices. This work gives an overview of nanostructured antimicrobial agents, especially silver ones, used together with biocompatible polymers as effective antimicrobial composites in healthcare. The bactericidal properties of non-conventional antimicrobial agents are compared with those of conventional ones and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  16. The effect of radiopacifiers agents on pH, calcium release, radiopacity, and antimicrobial properties of different calcium hydroxide dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; García-Godoy, Franklin; Moldauer, Bertram Ivan; Gagliardi Minotti, Paloma; Tercília Grizzo, Larissa; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, pH level, calcium ion release, and radiopacity of calcium hydroxide pastes associated with three radiopacifying agents (iodoform, zinc oxide, and barium sulfate). For the pH and calcium release tests, 45 acrylic teeth were utilized and immersed in ultrapure water. After 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days the solution was analyzed by using a pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Polyethylene tubes filled with the pastes were used to perform the radiopacity test. For the antimicrobial test, 25 dentin specimens were infected intraorally in order to induce the biofilm colonization and treated with the pastes for 7 days. The Live/Dead technique and a confocal microscope were used to obtain the ratio of live cells. Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were performed to show differences among the groups (P calcium release test on the 7th day (P > 0.05). The calcium hydroxide/iodoform samples had the highest radiopacity and antimicrobial activity against the biofilm-infected dentin in comparison to the other pastes (P Calcium hydroxide mixed with 17% iodoform and 35% propylene glycol into a paste had the highest pH, calcium ion release, radiopacity, and the greatest antimicrobial action versus similar samples mixed with BaSO4 or ZnO. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact of formulary restriction with prior authorization by an antimicrobial stewardship program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Erica E; Stevenson, Kurt B; West, Jessica E; Bauer, Karri A; Goff, Debra A

    2013-02-15

    In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance and few antimicrobials in the developmental pipeline, many institutions have developed antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) to help implement evidence-based (EB) strategies for ensuring appropriate utilization of these agents. EB strategies for accomplishing this include formulary restriction with prior authorization. Potential limitations to this particular strategy include delays in therapy, prescriber pushback, and unintended increases in use of un-restricted antimicrobials; however, our ASP found that implementing prior authorization for select antimicrobials along with making a significant effort to educate clinicians on criteria for use ensured more appropriate prescribing of these agents, hopefully helping to preserve their utility for years to come.

  18. Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C W; Lam, Y L; Yuen, C W M; Luximon, A; Lau, K W; Chen, K S

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  19. A novel natural analog in situ stabilization agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the laboratory-scale test results on a synthetic analog of natural hematite cement for potential as an in situ treatment and stabilization agent for buried hazardous and radioactive waste. The concept is based on the principle that the ideal waste isolation materials are synthetic analogs of those natural encapsulating materials (cements), which are in equilibrium with the environment in which they occur. If equilibrium is achieved, then such materials will remain intact as long as the natural environment remains unchanged. The specific waste application is long-term stabilization of transuranic-contaminated waste pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Six properties of the natural analog agent and resulting wasteforms are discussed to access the agent's effectiveness and implementability: hydraulic conductivity; compressive strength; mineralogy and microstructure; compatibility with possible waste materials, nitrates, machine cutting oil, and metallic iron; leachability of hazardous metals; and field application parameters. Data indicated that the iron waste encapsulation materials tested are appropriate choices for buried waste mixed with INEL soil. Iron oxide/gypsum INEL soil wasteforms have hydraulic conductivity values close to the regulatory limit. Wasteforms with soil and wastes have compressive strength greater than the regulatory minimum. Gypsum/iron oxide removes hazardous metals from solution by adsorption and would pass Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure limits for most toxic metals. It appears to be chemically and physically inert with respect to the bulk of the waste materials likely to be found at INEL, and has properties conducive to jet grouting

  20. Editorial of the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks to their interesting properties. In this special issue, the main strategies pursued for developing antimicrobial polymers, including polymer impregnation with antimicrobial agents or synthesis of polymers bearing antimicrobial moieties, were discussed. The future application of these polymers either in industrial or healthcare settings could result in an extremely positive impact not only at the economic level but also for the improvement of quality of life.

  1. Natural Antimicrobials and Oral Microorganisms: A Systematic Review on Herbal Interventions for the Eradication of Multispecies Oral Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Anderson, Annette C.; Skaltsounis, Alexios L.

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three Eng...

  2. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to various antimicrobial agents, and the relationship between antimicrobial resistance of the isolates and carriage of plasmids. Design: A random sampling of milk and meat samples was carried out. Setting: Milk was collected from various dairy ...

  3. Antimicrobial agents of plant origin for the treatment of phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract are one of the most widespread obstetricgynecologic issues, due to treatment failures that cause frequent relapses and to the adverse effects of some commonly used drugs.The most common vaginal syndromes are due to uncontrolled growth of bacteria or fungi which replace the normal vaginal flora, causing phlogistic and infectious based diseases. These infections are treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy; however, the emergence of resistant strains and the ability of many microorganisms to grow inside biofilms severely reduce the repertoire of useful agents.Thus, in the last years increasing interest has been focused toward compounds of plant origin with anti-microbial properties. In the present work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of fractions obtained from endemic plants of Sardinia towards microorganisms that frequently are involved in vaginal infectious diseases: Streptococcus agalactiae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans.

  4. Small cationic antimicrobial peptidomimetics: emerging candidate for the development of potential anti-infective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Sandeep; Bisht, Gopal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increase in the emergence and spread of microbes resistant to conventionally used antibiotics has become a major threat to global health care. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as a potential source of novel antibiotics because of their numerous advantages such as broad-spectrum activity, lower tendency to induce resistance, immunomodulatory response and unique mode of action. However, AMPs have several drawbacks such as; susceptibility to protease degradation, toxicity and high costs of manufacturing. Therefore, extensive research efforts are underway to explore the therapeutic potential of these fascinating natural compounds. This review highlights the potential of small cationic antimicrobial peptidomimetics (SCAMPs; M.W. ≅ 700 Da) as new generation antibiotics. In particular, we focused on recently identified small active pharmacophore from bulky templates of native AMPs, β-peptides, and lipopeptides. In addition, various design strategies recently undertaken to improve the physicochemical properties (proteolytic stability & plasma protein binding) of small cationic peptides have also been discussed.

  5. Intraperiodontal pocket: An ideal route for local antimicrobial drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja C Nair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal pockets act as a natural reservoir filled with gingival crevicular fluid for the controlled release delivery of antimicrobials directly. This article reflects the present status of nonsurgical controlled local intrapocket delivery of antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis. These sites have specialty in terms of anatomy, permeability, and their ability to retain a delivery system for a desired length of time. A number of antimicrobial products and the composition of the delivery systems, its use, clinical results, and their release are summarized. The goal in using an intrapocket device for the delivery of an antimicrobial agent is the achievement and maintenance of therapeutic drug concentration for the desired period of time. Novel controlled drug delivery system are capable of improving patient compliance as well as therapeutic efficacy with precise control of the rate by which a particular drug dosage is released from a delivery system without the need for frequent administration. These are considered superior drug delivery system because of low cost, greater stability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, and are biodegradable in nature. This review also focus on the importance and ideal features of periodontal pockets as a drug delivery platform for designing a suitable dosage form along with its potential advantage and limitations. The microbes in the periodontal pocket could destroy periodontal tissues, and a complete knowledge of these as well as an ideal treatment strategy could be helpful in treating this disease.

  6. Relation between antimicrobial use and resistance in Belgian pig herds

    OpenAIRE

    Callens, Benedicte; Boyen, Filip; Maes, Dominiek; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the link between the characteristics of antimicrobial therapy and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli of clinically healthy pigs exposed to antimicrobial treatments. A total of 918 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from faecal samples, collected from 50 pig herds at the end of the fattening period and susceptibility was tested towards 15 different antimicrobial agents, using the disk diffusion method. The Antimicrobial Resist...

  7. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil—Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis L. Liakos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs, with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  8. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil-Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-20

    Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  9. Systematic review of natural agents for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarom, Noam; Ariyawardana, Anura; Hovan, Allan

    2013-01-01

    /or conflicting evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Of the various natural agents reviewed here, the available evidence supported a guideline only for two agents: a suggestion in favor of zinc and a recommendation against glutamine, in the treatment settings listed above. Well-designed studies of other natural agents......Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of natural agents for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational...

  10. Advances in Development of Antimicrobial Peptidomimetics as Potential Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, Natalia; Hansen, Paul R; Franzyk, Henrik

    2017-08-29

    The rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has evolved into a global health problem as current treatment options are failing for infections caused by pan-resistant bacteria. Hence, novel antibiotics are in high demand, and for this reason antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted considerable interest, since they often show broad-spectrum activity, fast killing and high cell selectivity. However, the therapeutic potential of natural AMPs is limited by their short plasma half-life. Antimicrobial peptidomimetics mimic the structure and biological activity of AMPs, but display extended stability in the presence of biological matrices. In the present review, focus is on the developments reported in the last decade with respect to their design, synthesis, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic side effects as well as their potential applications as anti-infective agents. Specifically, only peptidomimetics with a modular structure of residues connected via amide linkages will be discussed. These comprise the classes of α-peptoids ( N -alkylated glycine oligomers), β-peptoids ( N -alkylated β-alanine oligomers), β³-peptides, α/β³-peptides, α-peptide/β-peptoid hybrids, α/γ N -acylated N -aminoethylpeptides (AApeptides), and oligoacyllysines (OAKs). Such peptidomimetics are of particular interest due to their potent antimicrobial activity, versatile design, and convenient optimization via assembly by standard solid-phase procedures.

  11. Bacterial-Derived Polymer Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid (γ-PGA)-Based Micro/Nanoparticles as a Delivery System for Antimicrobials and Other Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim R.; Burns, Alan T. H.; Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Khalaf, Tamara; Adamus, Grazyna; Johnston, Brian; Khechara, Martin P.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-based micro/nanoparticles have garnered remarkable attention as antimicrobial agents and for drug delivery, owing to their controlled and sustained-release properties, low toxicity, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. γ-PGA is a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by several gram-positive bacteria that, due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic properties, has been used successfully in the medical, food and wastewater industries. Moreover, its carboxylic group on the side chains can offer an attachment point to conjugate antimicrobial and various therapeutic agents, or to chemically modify the solubility of the biopolymer. The unique characteristics of γ-PGA have a promising future for medical and pharmaceutical applications. In the present review, the structure, properties and micro/nanoparticle preparation methods of γ-PGA and its derivatives are covered. Also, we have highlighted the impact of micro/nanoencapsulation or immobilisation of antimicrobial agents and various disease-related drugs on biodegradable γ-PGA micro/nanoparticles. PMID:28157175

  12. 241 Comparative Effectiveness of Certain Antimicrobial Agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info ... effectiveness of antimicrobial preservation during storage life of preparations ... The low cost and long history of safe use probably explains the .... In Hugo, W.B and Rusell, A.D. Pharmaceutical.

  13. Influence of triclosan and triclocarban antimicrobial agents on the microbial activity in three physicochemically differing soils of south Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali, Muhammad Arshad, Zahir A. Zahir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are being used in numerous consumer and health care products on account of which their annual global consumption has reached in millions of kilograms. They are flushed down the drain and become the part of wastewater and sewage sludge and end up in the ultimate sink of agricultural soils. Once they are in the soil, they may disturb the soil’s ecology as a result of which microbial activity useful for soil fertility and biodegradation of xenobiotics may severely be impacted. The present study was designed to assess the influence of two antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS and triclocarban (TCC, commonly used in consumer and health care products, on the microbial activity in the three agricultural soils from South Australia having different characteristics. The study was laid out following the two factors factorial design by applying 14C-glucose at 5 µg g-1 with either TCS at 0, 30, 90 and 270 µg g-1 or TCC at 0, 50, 150 and 450 µg g-1 in three agricultural soils, Freeling (Typic Rhodoxeralf–sodic, Booleroo (Typic Rhodoxeralf and Avon (Calcixerralic Xerochrepts. The 14CO2, which was released as a result of microbial respiration, was trapped in 3 mL 1M NaOH and was quantified on Wallac WinSpectral α/β 1414 Liquid Scintillation Counter. The results revealed a significant difference in amounts of 14C-glucose mineralized in the three soils. A significant concentration dependant suppressive effect of TCS on the biomineralization of 14C-glucose appeared in all the tested soils as opposed to TCC where no such concentration dependent effect could be recorded. The reduction in 14C-glucose biomineralization in the Freeling, Booleroo and Avon soils was recorded up to 53.6, 38.5 and 37.4 % by TCS at 270 µg g-1 and 13.0, 5.8 and 1.6 % by TCC at 450 µg g-1 respectively. However, a significant negative correlation of CEC and pH was recorded with TCS and TCC effects. These results may imply that presence of such antimicrobial agents

  14. [Identification and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of strictly anaerobic bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Katarzyna; Rokosz, Alicja; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; łuczak, MirosŁaw

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify anaerobic strains isolated in 2001 from clinical specimens obtained from patients of Warsaw hospital and to evaluate a susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial agents. In 2001 two hundred and twenty five clinical strains of obligate anaerobes were cultured, which were identified in the automatic ATB system (bioMérieux, France) using biochemical tests API 20 A. Drug-susceptibility of strains was determined also in ATB system with the use of ATB ANA strips. C. difficile strains were isolated on selective CCCA medium. Toxins A/B of C. difficile directly in stool specimens were detected by means of ELISA test (TechLab, USA). Fifty four strains of Gram-negative anaerobes (B. fragilis strains dominated) and 171 strains of Gram-positive anaerobes (the greatest number of strains belonged to genus Peptostreptococcus) were cultured from clinical specimens. In the cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea 28 C. difficile strains were isolated and C. difficile toxins A/B were detected in 39 stool samples. The most active in vitro antimicrobials against Gram-negative anaerobes were metronidazole, imipenem, ticarcillin combined with clavulanic acid and piperacillin with tazobactam. Gram-positive, clinical strains of anaerobes were the most susceptible in vitro to beta-lactam antibiotics combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors (amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate) and imipenem.

  15. Role of Nutrients and Phyto-compounds in the Modulation of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve; Khan, Imran; Almasaudi, Saad B; Azhar, Esam I; Al-Jaouni, Soad; Niedzweicki, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is quickly spreading and has become a major public health problem worldwide. If this issue is not resolved, it may cause a shift back to the pre-antibiotics era and infectious disease will again be a serious problem, especially in developing countries. Since the discovery of antibiotics, bacterial resistance has emerged, enabling certain bacteria to withstand antibiotic action. The emergence of antibiotic resistance is fueled by excessive and improper use of antimicrobial agents, especially in developing countries. For this reason, alternatives to or modifications of current treatment methods have been sought. The aim of this review is to highlight the possible synergies of various agents that can augment antibiotic activities. A structured literature search was conducted using only papers that have been published in PubMed with the focus on the agents that are likely to modulate antimicrobial resistance. In this review, data was retrieved from the literature regarding the possible synergies that exist between commercially available antimicrobial drugs with agents of interest. The papers included were summarized and analyzed, critiqued and compared for their contents using a conceptual frame-work. In total, one hundred and twenty six papers were reviewed. The number of papers that dealt with the different topics included are as follows (): emergence of antimicrobial resistance (22), bioactive phyto-compounds (36) (phytobiologics, and phytochemicals), Antioxidants (40) (N-acetylcysteine, Ambroxol, Ascorbic acid, Glutathione and vitamin E), Peptide synergies (14) (Synthetic cationic α-helical AMPs, CopA3, Alafosfalin, PMAP-36, Phosphonopeptide L-norvalyl-L-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid and norcardicin-A), nano-antibiotics (10), drug-compound interactions (4).This review addressed the new strategies using the above compounds in the modulation of antimicrobial resistance to avoid issues related to resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. The

  16. Vancomycin-modified Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers as effective antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang C

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chongwen Wang,1,2,* Kehan Zhang,2,* Zhe Zhou,2,* Qingjun Li,2 Liting Shao,2 Rong Zhang Hao,3 Rui Xiao,2 Shengqi Wang1,2 1College of Life Sciences & Bio-Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of New Molecular Diagnosis Technologies for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, 3Institute for Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nanomaterials combined with antibiotics exhibit synergistic effects and have gained increasing interest as promising antimicrobial agents. In this study, vancomycin-modified magnetic-based silver microflowers (Van/Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers were rationally designed and prepared to achieve strong bactericidal ability, a wide antimicrobial spectrum, and good recyclability. High-performance Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers served as a multifunction-supporting matrix and exhibited sufficient magnetic response property due to their 200 nm Fe3O4 core. The microflowers also possessed a highly branched flower-like Ag shell that provided a large surface area for effective Ag ion release and bacterial contact. The modified-vancomycin layer was effectively bound to the cell wall of bacteria to increase the permeability of the cell membrane and facilitate the entry of the Ag ions into the bacterium, resulting in cell death. As such, the fabricated Van/Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers were predicted to be an effective and environment-friendly antibacterial agent. This hypothesis was verified through sterilization of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 10 and 20 µg mL-1, respectively. The microflowers also showed enhanced effect compared with bare Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers and free-form vancomycin, confirming the synergistic effects of the combination of the

  17. The Potential Use of Natural and Structural Analogues of Antimicrobial Peptides in the Fight against Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewies Angélique

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, research into the development of new antimicrobial agents has been driven by the increase in resistance to traditional antibiotics and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are promising candidates as alternatives to current antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of microbial infections. AMPs are produced by all known living species, displaying direct antimicrobial killing activity and playing an important role in innate immunity. To date, more than 2000 AMPs have been discovered and many of these exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial, antiviral and anti-parasitic activity. Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are caused by a variety of pathogens and are particularly wide-spread in low-income and developing regions of the world. Alternative, cost effective treatments are desperately needed to effectively battle these medically diverse diseases. AMPs have been shown to be effective against a variety of NTDs, including African trypanosomes, leishmaniosis and Chagas disease, trachoma and leprosy. In this review, the potential of selected AMPs to successfully treat a variety of NTD infections will be critically evaluated.

  18. Antimicrobial, antiparasitic and anticancer properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa (L.) and its phytochemicals: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Berchová, Kateřina; Šudomová, Miroslava

    In the last few decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae; H. sabdariffa) has gained much attention in research field because of its potentially useful bioactivity as well as a great safety and tolerability. For decades, microbial, parasitic and cancer diseases remain a serious threat to human health and animals as well. To treat such diseases, a search for new sources such as plants that provide various bioactive compounds useful in the treatment of several physiological conditions is urgently needed, since most of the drugs currently used in the therapy have several undesirable side effects, toxicity, and drug resistance. In this paper, we aim to present an updated overview of in vitro and in vivo studies that show the significant therapeutic properties of the crude extracts and phytochemicals derived from H. sabdariffa as antimicrobial, antiparasitic, and anticancer agents. The future directions of the use of H. sabdariffa in clinical trials will be discussed. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. antimicrobial agents cancer preventive agents antiparasitic drugs natural products.

  19. Natural isothiocyanates express antimicrobial activity against developing and mature biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefan J; Mutters, Nico T; Blessing, Brigitte; Günther, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The antimicrobial properties of natural isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in plants such as nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), and the need of new chemotherapeutic options for treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant and biofilm-forming Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), led us to evaluate the effects of three major ITCs, allylisothiocyanate (AITC), benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), and phenylethyl-isothiocyanate (PEITC), and a mixture (ITCM) adapted to the ITC composition after release of active components out of natural sources. Out of 105Pa isolates 27 isolates with increased biofilm formation were selected for testing. The effects of ITCs on Pa were evaluated regarding (1) planktonic bacterial proliferation, (2) biofilm formation, (3) metabolic activity in mature biofilms, and (4) synergism of ITCs and antibiotics. (1) Each ITC had anti-Pa activity. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were (μg/ml, mean±standard deviation): AITC 103±6.9; BITC, 2145±249; PEITC 29,423±1652; and ITCM, 140±5. (2) Treating bacteria with PEITC and ITCM in concentrations below the MIC significantly inhibited biofilm formation. Particularly, ITCM reduced biofilm mass and bacterial proliferation. (3) ITCs significantly inhibited metabolic activity in mature biofilms. (4) Combining ITCs with meropenem synergistically increased antimicrobial efficacy on Pa biofilms. ITCs represent a promising group of natural anti-infective compounds with activity against Pa biofilms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorption of various antimicrobial agents to endotoxin removal polymyxin-B immobilized fiber (Toraymyxin®). Part 2: Adsorption of two drugs to Toraymyxin PMX-20R cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Takakuwa, Ryotaro; Wada, Yuko; Yamazaki, Noriko; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    In our previous study, the degree of adsorption of 9 representative antimicrobial agents to Toraymyxin(®) PMX-F sheets was quantitatively evaluated. As a result, the adsorption rate was 22.1% for Linezolid in the presence of serum. Therefore, we investigated whether two types of antimicrobial agents (Ciprofroxacin and Linezolid) can be better adsorbed on PMX-F sheets. When the number of PMX-F sheets was increased in a step wise manner, specifically 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12, the adsorption rate increased linearly. In addition, the adsorption to polymyxin-B immobilized fiber (Toraymyxin(®) PMX-20R) cartridges, widely used to remove endotoxins from circulating blood in the treatment of sepsis, was quantitatively evaluated. As a result, in the presence of serum, Linezolid showed adsorption to PMX-20R, and the adsorption rate after 2h was 54.5%, and that after 4h was 65.8%. The results of this study suggest the necessity of monitoring blood antimicrobial concentration during treatment for sepsis with Linezolid, which showed adsorption to PMX-20R in an environment close to a clinical environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of jasmine oil against oral microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweboon, S.; Thaweboon, B.; Kaypetch, R.

    2018-02-01

    Jasmine sambac is a species of jasmine indigenous to the tropical and warm temperature regions in particular West and Southeast Asia. Essential oil extracted from the flowers of J. sambac has been shown to have anti-oxidant activity. However, very little information regarding antimicrobial activity especially oral microorganisms exists. Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effect of essential oil extracted from flowers of J. sambac against various oral microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Oral microbial strains used in the study were Streptococcus mutans KPSK2, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 5638, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 6363, Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida tropicalis (clinical isolate), Candida glabrata ATCC 90030, Candida pseudotropicalis (clinical isolate) and Candida stellatoidia (clinical isolate). The potential of microbial growth inhibition of the oil was firstly screened by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar dilution method. Results: Jasmine oil showed antimicrobial activities against S. mutans, L. casei, E. coli and all strains of Candida species with the zones of inhibition ranging from 9 to 26 mm and MIC values of 0.19-1.56 %v/v. Conclusion: Results from the present study are scientific evidence to demonstrate that jasmine oil could be employed as a natural antimicrobial agent against oral microorganisms.

  2. Micro-encapsulation of ozonated red pepper seed oil with antimicrobial activity and application to nonwoven fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyildiz, F; Karagönlü, S; Basal, G; Uzel, A; Bayraktar, O

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, functional fabrics possessing antimicrobial activity have drawn significant interest because antibiotic resistance is becoming widespread among pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of this study was to produce microcapsules incorporating ozonated red pepper seed oil (ORPSO) with antimicrobial properties and apply them to nonwoven fabrics to prepare functional textiles. Red pepper seed oil (RPSO) was ozonated and micro-encapsulated via a complex coacervation method using gelatin (GE) and gum arabic (GA) as wall materials. While micro-encapsulation yield and oil loading decreased with increases in the amount of surfactant, the mean particle size increased. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested via the disc diffusion method. The microcapsules were also tested using the agar well method. While RPSO had no effect on the test micro-organisms, the ORPSO and microcapsules containing ORPSO were found to be active against the test micro-organisms. The microcapsules were then applied to nonwoven fabric using the padding method to produce a disposable functional textile. The microcapsule-impregnated functional fabrics provided a 5 log decrease in 1 h. It is therefore possible to functionalize nonwoven fabrics to have antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms, using microcapsules containing ORPSO. This is the first report on the antimicrobial action of RPSO after ozonation process. These findings suggest that ozonated red pepper seed oil (ORPSO) may be a useful and effective antimicrobial agent against the micro-organisms with antibiotic resistance. Therefore, as a natural product, RPSO represents a sustainable alternative to the use of synthetic antimicrobial agents. To our knowledge, this is also the first time that ORPSO has been micro-encapsulated for the preparation of functional textile material with significant antimicrobial activity. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic activities of tea polyphenols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics has become an increasing global problem and there is a need to find out novel potent antimicrobial agents with alternative modes of action as accessories to antibiotic therapy. This study investigated the antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic properties of tea polyphenols. The tea ...

  4. Shigella Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Mechanisms, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Heini, Nicole; Zurfluh, Katrin; Althaus, Denise; Hächler, Herbert; Stephan, Roger

    2016-06-01

    To determine antimicrobial drug resistance mechanisms of Shigella spp., we analyzed 344 isolates collected in Switzerland during 2004-2014. Overall, 78.5% of isolates were multidrug resistant; 10.5% were ciprofloxacin resistant; and 2% harbored mph(A), a plasmid-mediated gene that confers reduced susceptibility to azithromycin, a last-resort antimicrobial agent for shigellosis.

  5. Antimicrobial usage in an intensive care unit: a prospective analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conrick-Martin, I

    2012-01-31

    Antimicrobial therapies in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) need to be appropriate in both their antimicrobial cover and duration. We performed a prospective observational study of admissions to our semi-closed ICU over a three-month period and recorded the indications for antimicrobial therapy, agents used, duration of use, changes in therapy and reasons for changes in therapy. A change in therapy was defined as the initiation or discontinuation of an antimicrobial agent. There were 51 patients admitted during the three-month study period and all received antimicrobial therapy. There were 135 changes in antimicrobial therapy. 89 (66%) were made by the ICU team and 32 (24%) were made by the primary team. Changes were made due to a deterioration or lack of clinical response in 41 (30%) cases, due to the completion of prescribed course in 36 (27%) cases, and in response to a sensitivity result in 25 (19%) cases. Prophylactic antibiotic courses (n=24) were of a duration greater than 24 hours in 15 (63%) instances. In conclusion, the majority of changes in antimicrobial therapy were not culture-based and the duration of surgical prophylaxis was in excess of current recommended guidelines.

  6. Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides toward the Development of Novel Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Aoki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents have eradicated many infectious diseases and significantly improved our living environment. However, abuse of antimicrobial agents has accelerated the emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms, and there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have attracted attention as a novel class of antimicrobial agents because AMPs efficiently kill a wide range of species, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, via a novel mechanism of action. In addition, they are effective against pathogens that are resistant to almost all conventional antibiotics. AMPs have promising properties; they directly disrupt the functions of cellular membranes and nucleic acids, and the rate of appearance of AMP-resistant strains is very low. However, as pharmaceuticals, AMPs exhibit unfavorable properties, such as instability, hemolytic activity, high cost of production, salt sensitivity, and a broad spectrum of activity. Therefore, it is vital to improve these properties to develop novel AMP treatments. Here, we have reviewed the basic biochemical properties of AMPs and the recent strategies used to modulate these properties of AMPs to enhance their safety.

  7. Antimicrobial and biocompatible properties of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Islam, M; Shehzad, A; Khan, S; Khattak, W A; Ullah, M W; Park, J K

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of drug-resistant characteristics in pathogenic viral, bacterial, and fungal species and the consequent spread of infectious diseases are currently receiving serious attention. Indeed, there is a pressing demand to explore novel materials and develop new strategies that can address these issues of serious concern. Nanomaterials are currently proving to be the most capable therapeutic agents to cope with such hazards. The exceptional physiochemical properties and impressive antimicrobial capabilities of nanoparticles have provoked their utilization in biomedical fields. Nanomaterials of both organic and inorganic nature have shown the capabilities of disrupting microbial cells through different mechanisms. Along with the direct influence on the microbial cell membrane, DNA and proteins, these nanomaterials produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cell components and viruses. Currently, a serious hazard associated with these antimicrobial nanomaterials is their toxicity to human and animal cells. Extensive studies have reported the dose, time, and cell-dependent toxicology of various nanomaterials, and some have shown excellent biocompatible properties. Nevertheless, there is still debate regarding the use of nanomaterials for medical applications. Therefore, in this review, the antimicrobial activities of various nanomaterials with details of their acting mechanisms were compiled. The relative toxic and biocompatible behavior of nanomaterials emphasized in this study provides information pertaining to their practical applicability in medical fields.

  8. Loads and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on fresh chicken meat in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison, F B; Chaisowwong, W; Alter, T; Tiwananthagorn, S; Pichpol, D; Lampang, K N; Baumann, M P O; Gölz, G

    2014-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and to semiquantify Campylobacter spp. on chicken meat samples at 4 selected local wet markets in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates. Out of 120 chicken meat samples, 57 (47.5%) were Campylobacter spp. positive. The majority of isolated Campylobacter strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (54.4%) and 45.6% as Campylobacter jejuni. Most of these positive samples (52.6%) showed a very high quantitative Campylobacter contamination (most probable number > 2,400/g, lower confidence limit 580/g). For antimicrobial resistance testing, 44 C. coli/jejuni isolates were tested using the agar disk diffusion method. Out of these, 77.3% were resistant to ampicillin, followed by ciprofloxacin (70.4%), tetracycline (54.6%), erythromycin (20.2%), and gentamicin (11.4%). Of the isolates, 36.4% (n = 16) were resistant to 1 antimicrobial agent, 34.1% (n = 15) were resistance to 3 antimicrobial agents, 13.6% (n = 6) to 2 antimicrobial agents, 9.1% (n = 4) to 4 antimicrobial agents, and 6.8% (n = 3) to all 5 antimicrobial agents tested. Our data demonstrate a high contamination of fresh chicken meat with Campylobacter spp. at retail in the Philippines. The detected high Campylobacter prevalences and quantitative loads on chicken meat at retail in the Philippines highlight the need to implement efficient intervention measures along the food chain and to encourage sanitary handling of poultry meat.

  9. Nano ZnO/amine composites antimicrobial additives to acrylic paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Kamal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano ZnO has been widely used as an antimicrobial agent not only for food packaging purposes but also in many coating processes. The present work is meant to enhance such functions through the preparation of sustainable and safe conduct of nano ZnO composites with amine derivatives that are characterized by their antimicrobial and anti-fouling functional activities. The results obtained revealed a more comprehensive approach to the antimicrobial function based on the reported active oxide species role. The oxide/amine composites and the acrylic emulsion paint were characterized chemically and structurally through FT-IR, TGA and TEM supported by biological assessment of each ZnO/amine composite action. Results of the study concluded that equilibrium between the nano ZnO particles size, their dispersion form, and amine ability to stabilize the actively produced oxygen species responsible for the antimicrobial function, should all be accounted for when persistence of antimicrobial agent efficiency is regarded.

  10. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebiyan, Reza; Kheradmand, Mehdi; Khamesipour, Faham; Rabiee-Faradonbeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%), Erythromycin (71.70%), Oxytetracycline (43.40%), Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%), Enrofloxacin (37.74%), Florfenicol (35.85%), Chlortetracycline (33.96%), Doxycycline (16.98%), Difloxacin (32.08%), Danofloxacin (28.30%), Chloramphenicol (20.75%), Ciprofloxacin (7.55%), and Gentamicin (5.66%). This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances.

  11. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Talebiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%, Erythromycin (71.70%, Oxytetracycline (43.40%, Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%, Enrofloxacin (37.74%, Florfenicol (35.85%, Chlortetracycline (33.96%, Doxycycline (16.98%, Difloxacin (32.08%, Danofloxacin (28.30%, Chloramphenicol (20.75%, Ciprofloxacin (7.55%, and Gentamicin (5.66%. This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchgässner, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. Currently, no data for antimicrobial susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae from Switzerland are available and though antimicrobial treatment is the main therapy, no standardised methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing are established. Therefore, a broth microdilution test was performed for 30 Swiss porcine field isolate...

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITIES OF MEDICINAL ANTISEPTIC DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliy D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our research results of the study of antimicrobial, physical and chemical qualities of antiseptic medicines of decamethoxin (DCM. Antimicrobial activity of DCM, palisan, decasan, deseptol against srains of S.aureus (n 56, S.epidermidis (n 26, E.coli (n 24, P.mirabilis (n 11, P.vulgaris (n 8 was studied by means of method of serial dilutions. Obtained data of mass spectrometry study of antimicrobial compositions with constant concentrations of DCM have shown that medicinal forms of DCM are complex physical and chemical systems, because of different origin and number of adjuvant ingredients used during their fabrication. Among synthetic quaternary ammonium agents there have been found the substance (commercial name of medicine is decamethoxin to have high antimicrobial activity against strains of grampositive and gram-negative microorganisms, an also C.albicans. There was found that antimicrobial activity of antiseptic palisan had been higher comparably to DCM in equivalent concentration. The composition and concentrations of acting agents and the methodology of preparation of palisan have been substantiated on the basis of microbiological, mass spectrometry characteristics of antiseptics DCM, palisan.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Bee Venom and Melittin against Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Kayla M. Socarras; Priyanka A. S. Theophilus; Jason P. Torres; Khusali Gupta; Eva Sapi

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne, multi-systemic disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Though antibiotics are used as a primary treatment, relapse often occurs after the discontinuation of antimicrobial agents. The reason for relapse remains unknown, however previous studies suggest the possible presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia round bodies, persisters and attached biofilm forms. Thus, there is an urgent need to find antimicrobial agents suitable to eliminate all known f...

  15. Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity of Zhumeria Majdae Essential Oil and its Capsulated Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Emami

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: It was found that in some cases, encapsulation could lead to better antimicrobial property and less toxicity. Because of high antimicrobial activity, both EO and EFEO of Zhumeria majdae may be used as powerfully antimicrobial agents.

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy in Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Ramya; Goud, Nerella S; Saraswati, A Prasanth; Alvala, Ravi; Alvala, Mallika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules. Newer synthetic strategies like organometalic complexes, Peptide-polymer conjugates, solid phase, liquid phase and recombinant DNA technology encouraging the use of peptides as therapeutic agents with a host of chemical functions, and tailored for specific applications. In the last decade, many peptide based drugs have been successfully approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This success can be attributed to their high specificity, selectivity and efficacy, high penetrability into the tissues, less immunogenicity and less tissue accumulation. Considering the enormity of AMR, the use of Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) can be a viable alternative to current therapeutics strategies. AMPs are naturally abundant allowing synthetic chemists to develop semi-synthetics peptide molecules. AMPs have a broad spectrum of activity towards microbes and they possess the ability to bypass the resistance induction mechanisms of microbes. The present review focuses on the potential applications of AMPs against various microbial disorders and their future prospects. Several resistance mechanisms and their strategies have also been discussed to highlight the importance in the current scenario. Breakthroughs in AMP designing, peptide synthesis and biotechnology have shown promise in tackling this challenge and has revived the interest of using AMPs as an important weapon in fighting AMR. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  17. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown.

  18. Risk assessment of antimicrobial usage in Danish pig production on the human exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria from pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina

    to antimicrobials are influenced by the use of antimicrobial agents, and the prudence of antimicrobial use have been emphasized since the Swann report in 1969 recommended that antibiotics used in human medicine should not be used as growth promoters in food-producing animals. In 2007, the World Health Organisation...... the human exposure to cephalosporin resistance from pork purchased in retail shops was assessed using different scenarios for the amount of antimicrobial used in the primary production. Also, farm-related factors affecting the antimicrobial usage were investigated as a part of this thesis. The thesis...... producing E. coli through the purchase of pork chops Objective 3: Identification of management factors in the Danish finishing pig production important for antimicrobial usage In Objective 1, the occurrence (presence/non-presence) of ESC producing E. coli in samples from healthy pigs at slaughter...

  19. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives.

  20. Comparative in vitro activity of 16 antimicrobial agents against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, H; Takagi, M; Ishimura, M; Endoh, Y S

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen antimicrobial agents were tested for their activity against 68 isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Ceftiofur and the fluoroquinolones danofloxacin and enrofloxacin were the most active compounds, with a MIC for 90% of the isolates (MIC90) of (0.05 microg/ml. The MIC90 values of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin and aspoxicillin were 0.78 units/ml, 0.39 microg/ml and colistin and tiamulin. Of these, spectinomycin was the least active, with a MIC50 of 25 microg/ml, followed by tiamulin, with a MIC50 of 6.25 microg/ml. Of the 68 isolates tested, 49 (72.0%) were of serotype 2; 14 (20.5%) were of serotype 1; 2 each (3.0%) were of serotypes 5 and 6; and one was of serotype 7. Of the isolates, 23 (33.8%) were resistant to one or more of the major antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance was found only infrequently among serotype 2, with 5 (10.2%) of 49 isolates being resistant to chloramphenicol and/or oxytetracycline, while it occurred in 18 (94.7%) of the 19 isolates of other serotypes.

  1. Use of an Electrostatic Spraying System or the Sprayed Lethality in Container Method To Deliver Antimicrobial Agents onto the Surface of Beef Subprimals To Control Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J Max; Luchansky, John B; Miller, Kelsey; Shoyer, Bradley A; Shane, Laura E; McGeary, Lianna; Osoria, Manuela; Stahler, Laura J; Sevart, Nicholas J; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Porto-Fett, Anna C S

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of an electrostatic spraying system (ESS) and/or the sprayed lethality in container (SLIC) method to deliver antimicrobial agents onto the surface of beef subprimals to reduce levels of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was evaluated. Beef subprimals were surface inoculated (lean side; ca. 5.8 log CFU per subprimal) with 2 mL of an eight-strain cocktail comprising single strains of rifampin-resistant (100 μg/mL) STEC (O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O104:H4, O111:H - , O121:H19, O145:NM, and O157:H7). Next, inoculated subprimals were surface treated with lauric arginate (LAE; 1%), peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 0.025%), or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC; 0.4%) by passing each subprimal, with the inoculated lean side facing upward, through an ESS cabinet or via SLIC. Subprimals were then vacuum packaged and stored at 4°C. One set of subprimals was sampled after an additional 2 h, 3 days, or 7 days of refrigerated storage, whereas another set was retreated via SLIC after 3 days of storage with a different one of the three antimicrobial agents (e.g., a subprimal treated with LAE on day 0 was then treated with PAA or CPE on day 3). Retreated subprimals were sampled after 2 h or 4 days of additional storage at 4°C. A single initial application of LAE, PAA, or CPC via ESS or SLIC resulted in STEC reductions of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU per subprimal after 7 days of storage. However, when subprimals were initially treated with LAE, PAA, or CPC via ESS or SLIC and then separately retreated with a different one of these antimicrobial agents via SLIC on day 3, additional STEC reductions of 0.4 to 1.0 log CFU per subprimal were observed after an additional 4 days of storage. Application of LAE, PAA, or CPC, either alone or in combination, via ESS or SLIC is effective for reducing low levels (ca. 0.3 to 1.6 log CFU) of STEC that may be naturally present on the surface of beef subprimals.

  2. Current Trend of Antimicrobial Prescription for Oral Implant Surgery Among Dentists in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rahul; Grewal, Yasmin; Batth, J S; Singh, Amandeep

    2014-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate antimicrobial prescription behaviour amongst dentists performing oral implant surgery in India. Dentists performing oral implant surgery from different parts of India were personally approached during various national events such as conferences and academic meetings and information regarding their prescription habits for antimicrobial agents in routine oral implant surgery was collected using a structured questionnaire. Out of a total sample of 332 dentists, 85.5 % prescribed 17 different groups or combinations of antibiotics routinely for oral implant surgery in the normal healthy patient. Majority preferred the peri-operative protocol of drug therapy (72.2 %) with variable and prolonged duration of therapy after surgery, ranging from 3 to 10 days. An antimicrobial mouthwash was routinely prescribed by all the doctors (14.5 %) not in favour of prescribing antimicrobials in a normal healthy patient. Our findings suggest that there is a trend of antimicrobial agent misuse by dentists performing oral implant surgery in India, both in terms of drugs used and the protocols prescribed. The majority of these dentists prescribed a variety of antimicrobial agents for prolonged durations routinely even in the normal, healthy patients.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratzl, Günther, E-mail: guenther.gratzl@jku.at [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Paulik, Christian [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Hild, Sabine [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Polymer Science, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian [AMiSTec GmbH and Co. KG, Leitweg 13, 6345 Kössen, Tirol (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed

  5. Synthesis of New Macrocyclic Polyamides as Antimicrobial Agent Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama I. Abd El-Salam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of macrocyclic imides and Schiff-bases have been prepared via the cyclocondensation of pyridine-2,6-dicarbonyl dichloride (1 with L-ornithine methyl ester to give the corresponding macrocyclic bisester 2. Treatment of 2 with hydrazine hydrate gave macrocyclic bisacid hydrazide 3, which was used as starting material. Condensation of bishydrazide 3 with diacid anhydrides or aromatic aldehydes in refluxing acetic acid or ethanol gave the corresponding macrocyclic bisimides 4, 5a,b and macrocyclic bis- hydrazones 6a–j, respectively. The structure assignments of the new compounds were based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The antimicrobial screening showed that many of these newly synthesized compounds have good antimicrobial activities, comparable to ampicillin and ketaconazole used as reference drugs.

  6. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Sadredinamin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

  7. Biofilm disruption with rotating microrods enhances antimicrobial efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Lamar O.; Nacev, Aleksandar; Hilaman, Ryan; Stepanov, Pavel Y.; Chowdhury, Sagar; Jafari, Sahar; Hausfeld, Jeffrey; Karlsson, Amy J.; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Shapiro, Benjamin; Weinberg, Irving N.

    2017-04-01

    Biofilms are a common and persistent cause of numerous illnesses. Compared to planktonic microbes, biofilm residing cells often demonstrate significant resistance to antimicrobial agents. Thus, methods for dislodging cells from the biofilm may increase the antimicrobial susceptibility of such cells, and serve as a mechanical means of increasing antimicrobial efficacy. Using Aspergillus fumigatus as a model microbe, we magnetically rotate microrods in and around biofilm. We show that such rods can improve the efficacy of antimicrobial Amphotericin B treatments in vitro. This work represents a first step in using kinetic magnetic particle therapy for disrupting fungal biofilms.

  8. Two choices for the functionalization of silica nanoparticles with gallic acid: characterization of the nanomaterials and their antimicrobial activity against Paenibacillus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Tamara A.; Arce, Valeria B.; Fangio, María F.; Gende, Liesel B.; Bertran, Celso A.; Mártire, Daniel O.; Churio, María S.

    2016-11-01

    Silica nanoparticles attached to gallic acid were synthesized from 7-nm diameter fumed silica particles by different functionalization methods involving the condensation of hydroxyl or carboxyl groups. The particles were characterized by thermal analyses and UV-vis, FTIR, NMR, and EPR spectroscopies. In comparison to free gallic acid, enhanced stability and increased antimicrobial activity against Paenibacillus larvae were found for the functionalized nanoparticles. Thus, both derivatization strategies result in improved properties of the natural polyphenol as antimicrobial agent for the treatment of honeybee pathologies.

  9. Two choices for the functionalization of silica nanoparticles with gallic acid: characterization of the nanomaterials and their antimicrobial activity against Paenibacillus larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vico, Tamara A.; Arce, Valeria B.; Fangio, María F.; Gende, Liesel B.; Bertran, Celso A.; Mártire, Daniel O.; Churio, María S.

    2016-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles attached to gallic acid were synthesized from 7-nm diameter fumed silica particles by different functionalization methods involving the condensation of hydroxyl or carboxyl groups. The particles were characterized by thermal analyses and UV–vis, FTIR, NMR, and EPR spectroscopies. In comparison to free gallic acid, enhanced stability and increased antimicrobial activity against Paenibacillus larvae were found for the functionalized nanoparticles. Thus, both derivatization strategies result in improved properties of the natural polyphenol as antimicrobial agent for the treatment of honeybee pathologies.

  10. Two choices for the functionalization of silica nanoparticles with gallic acid: characterization of the nanomaterials and their antimicrobial activity against Paenibacillus larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vico, Tamara A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Química, FCEyN/IFIMAR, CONICET (Argentina); Arce, Valeria B. [CONICET La Plata—CIC—UNLP, Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CIOp) (Argentina); Fangio, María F., E-mail: mfangio@mdp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Química, FCEyN/IFIMAR, CONICET (Argentina); Gende, Liesel B. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Centro de Investigaciones en Abejas Sociales, FCEyN (Argentina); Bertran, Celso A. [University of Campinas, Chemistry Institute (Brazil); Mártire, Daniel O. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CONICET (Argentina); Churio, María S., E-mail: schurio@mdp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Química, FCEyN/IFIMAR, CONICET (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    Silica nanoparticles attached to gallic acid were synthesized from 7-nm diameter fumed silica particles by different functionalization methods involving the condensation of hydroxyl or carboxyl groups. The particles were characterized by thermal analyses and UV–vis, FTIR, NMR, and EPR spectroscopies. In comparison to free gallic acid, enhanced stability and increased antimicrobial activity against Paenibacillus larvae were found for the functionalized nanoparticles. Thus, both derivatization strategies result in improved properties of the natural polyphenol as antimicrobial agent for the treatment of honeybee pathologies.

  11. Reduced Susceptibility to Rifampicin and Resistance to Multiple Antimicrobial Agents among Brucella abortus Isolates from Cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pauletti, Rebeca; Reinato Stynen, Ana Paula; Pinto da Silva Mol, Juliana; Seles Dorneles, Elaine Maria; Alves, Telma Maria; de Sousa Moura Souto, Monalisa; Minharro, Silvia; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility profile of Brazilian Brucella abortus isolates from cattle to eight antimicrobial agents that are recommended for the treatment of human brucellosis and to correlate the susceptibility patterns with origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotype of the strains. Screening of 147 B. abortus strains showed 100% sensitivity to doxycycline and ofloxacin, one (0.68%) strain resistant to ciprofloxacin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to streptomycin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and five strains (3.40%) resistant to gentamicin. For rifampicin, three strains (2.04%) were resistant and 54 strains (36.73%) showed reduced sensitivity. Two strains were considered multidrug resistant. In conclusion, the majority of B. abortus strains isolated from cattle in Brazil were sensitive to the antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of human brucellosis; however, a considerable proportion of strains showed reduced susceptibility to rifampicin and two strains were considered multidrug resistant. Moreover, there was no correlation among the drug susceptibility pattern, origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotypes of these strains.

  12. DAMPD: A manually curated antimicrobial peptide database

    KAUST Repository

    Seshadri Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava

    2011-11-21

    The demand for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is rising because of the increased occurrence of pathogens that are tolerant or resistant to conventional antibiotics. Since naturally occurring AMPs could serve as templates for the development of new anti-infectious agents to which pathogens are not resistant, a resource that contains relevant information on AMP is of great interest. To that extent, we developed the Dragon Antimicrobial Peptide Database (DAMPD, http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/dampd) that contains 1232 manually curated AMPs. DAMPD is an update and a replacement of the ANTIMIC database. In DAMPD an integrated interface allows in a simple fashion querying based on taxonomy, species, AMP family, citation, keywords and a combination of search terms and fields (Advanced Search). A number of tools such as Blast, ClustalW, HMMER, Hydrocalculator, SignalP, AMP predictor, as well as a number of other resources that provide additional information about the results are also provided and integrated into DAMPD to augment biological analysis of AMPs. The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. DAMPD: A manually curated antimicrobial peptide database

    KAUST Repository

    Seshadri Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava; Gabere, Musa Nur; Pretorius, Ashley; Adam, Saleem; Christoffels, Alan; Lehvaslaiho, Minna; Archer, John A.C.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2011-01-01

    The demand for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is rising because of the increased occurrence of pathogens that are tolerant or resistant to conventional antibiotics. Since naturally occurring AMPs could serve as templates for the development of new anti-infectious agents to which pathogens are not resistant, a resource that contains relevant information on AMP is of great interest. To that extent, we developed the Dragon Antimicrobial Peptide Database (DAMPD, http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/dampd) that contains 1232 manually curated AMPs. DAMPD is an update and a replacement of the ANTIMIC database. In DAMPD an integrated interface allows in a simple fashion querying based on taxonomy, species, AMP family, citation, keywords and a combination of search terms and fields (Advanced Search). A number of tools such as Blast, ClustalW, HMMER, Hydrocalculator, SignalP, AMP predictor, as well as a number of other resources that provide additional information about the results are also provided and integrated into DAMPD to augment biological analysis of AMPs. The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of New Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Asım Kaplancıklı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop potent antimicrobial agents, new thiosemicarbazone derivatives were synthesized via the reaction of 4-[4-(trifluoromethylphenyl]thiosemicarbazide with aromatic aldehydes. The compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on pathogenic bacteria and yeasts using the CLSI broth microdilution method. Microplate Alamar Blue Assay was also carried out to determine the antimycobacterial activities of the compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Among these derivatives, compounds 5 and 11 were more effective against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 than chloramphenicol, whereas compounds 1, 2, and 12 and chloramphenicol showed the same level of antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. Moreover, compound 2 and chloramphenicol exhibited the same level of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, the most potent anticandidal derivatives were found as compounds 2 and 5. These derivatives and ketoconazole exhibited the same level of antifungal activity against Candida glabrata. According to the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay, the tested compounds showed weak to moderate antitubercular activity.

  15. Influence of Food Characteristics and Food Additives on the Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic and Oregano Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Juan; Alheiro, Joana; Pinto, Ana Luisa; Soares, Luciana; Falco, Virgilio; Fraqueza, Maria João; Patarata, Luis

    2017-06-10

    Utilization of essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobial agents against foodborne disease has gained importance, for their use as natural preservatives. Since potential interactions between EOs and food characteristics may affect their antimicrobial properties, the present work studies the influence of fat, protein, pH, a w and food additives on the antimicrobial effect of oregano and garlic EOs against Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that protein, pH, a w , presence of beef extract, sodium lactate and nitrates did not influence their antimicrobial effect. In contrast, the presence of pork fat had a negative effect against both EOs associated with their dilution of the lipid content. The addition of food phosphates also exerts a negative effect against EOs probably associated with their emulsification properties as observed with the addition of fat. The results may help the food industry to select more appropriate challenges to guarantee the food safety of foodstuffs.

  16. A Comparative Study of Natural Antimicrobial Delivery Systems for Microbial Safety and Quality of Fresh-Cut Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura E; Oliveira, Daniela A; Hills, Katherine; Giacobassi, Cassie; Johnson, Jecori; Summerlin, Harvey; Taylor, T Matthew; Gomes, Carmen L

    2017-05-01

    Nanoencapsulation can provide a means to effectively deliver antimicrobial compounds and enhance the safety of fresh produce. However, to date there are no studies which directly compares how different nanoencapsulation systems affect fresh produce safety and quality. This study compared the effects on quality and safety of fresh-cut lettuce treated with free and nanoencapsulated natural antimicrobial, cinnamon bark extract (CBE). A challenge study compared antimicrobial efficacy of 3 different nanoencapsulated CBE systems. The most effective antimicrobial treatment against Listeria monocytogenes was chitosan-co-poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (chitosan-PNIPAAM) encapsulated CBE, with a reduction on bacterial load up to 2 log 10 CFU/g (P lettuce was stored at 5 °C and 10 °C for 15 d. Subsequently, chitosan-PNIPAAM-CBE nanoparticles (20, 40, and 80 mg/mL) were compared to a control and free CBE (400, 800, and 1600 μg/mL) for its effects on fresh-cut lettuce quality over 15 d at 5 °C. By the 10th day, the most effective antimicrobial concentration was 80 mg/mL for chitosan-PNIPAAM-CBE, up to 2 log 10 CFU/g reduction (P lettuce shelf-life. Overall, nanoencapsulation provided a method to effectively deliver essential oil and enhanced produce safety, while creating little to no detrimental quality changes on the fresh-cut lettuce. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Brazilian Haemophilus parasuis field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Miani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease (GD, an ubiquitous infection of swine characterized by systemic fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in swine husbandries during the last years triggered the development of antibiotic resistances in bacterial pathogens. Thus, regular susceptibility testing is crucial to ensure efficacy of different antimicrobial agents to this porcine pathogen. In this study, 50 clinical isolates from South Brazilian pig herds were characterized and analyzed for their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotic. The identification and typing of clinical isolates was carried out by a modified indirect hemagglutination assay combined with a multiplex PCR. The susceptibility of each isolate was analyzed by broth microdilution method against a panel of 21 antimicrobial compounds. We found that field isolates are highly resistance to gentamycin, bacitracin, lincomycin and tiamulin, but sensitive to ampicillin, clindamycin, neomycin, penicillin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Furthermore, an individual susceptibility analysis indicated that enrofloxacin is effective to treat clinical isolates with the exception of those classified as serovar 1. The results presented here firstly demonstrate the susceptibility of Brazilian clinical isolates of H. parasuis to antimicrobials widely used by swine veterinary practitioners and strengthen the need to perform susceptibility test prior to antibiotic therapy during GD outbreaks. In addition, because only six antimicrobial drugs (28.6% were found effective against field isolates, a continuous surveillance of the susceptibility profile should be of major concern to the swine industry.

  18. Clinical Features and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacterial Agents of Ventilator-Associated Tracheobronchitis in Hamedan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hamid Hashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical course, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial agents of VAT in ICUs in Hamedan, Iran. Methods: During a 12-month period, all patients with VAT in a medical and a surgical ICU were included. The criteria for the diagnosis of VAT were fever, mucus production, a positive culture of tracheal secretions, and the absence of lung infiltration. Clinical course, including changes in temperature and tracheal secretions, and outcomes were followed. The endotracheal aspirates were cultured on blood agar and chocolate agar, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates were performed using the disk diffusion method. Results: Of the 1 070 ICU patients, 69 (6.4% were diagnosed with VAT. The mean interval between the patient’s intubation and the onset of symptoms was 4.7±8.5 days. The mean duration of response to treatment was 4.9±4.7 days. A total of 23 patients (33.3% progressed to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, and 38 patients (55.0% died. The most prevalent bacterial isolates included Acinetobacter baumannii (24.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.2%, and Enterobacter(13.0%. P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter were the most prevalent bacteria in surgical ICU, and A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were the most common in the medical ICU. All A. baumannii and Citrobacter species were multidrug-resistant (MDR. MDR pathogens were more prevalent in medical ICU compared to surgical ICU (p < 0.001. Conclusions: VAT increases the rates of progression to VAP, the need for tracheostomy, and the incidence of mortality in ICUs. Most bacterial agents of VAT are MDR. Preventive policies for VAP, including the use of ventilator care bundle, and appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy for VAT may reduce the incidence of VAP.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of camwood (Baphia nitida) dyes on common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... on common human pathogens. O. K. Agwa*, C. I. ... and have antimicrobial properties (Egharevba and. Ikhatua, 2008). ... properties. Antibiotic susceptibility is used to determine the efficacy of these plants for use as antibiotics. The most basic laboratory measurement of the activity of an antimicrobial agent ...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of barbitones as antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. SANGANI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Barbitones (3 were synthesised by the condensation of chalcones (2 with barbituric acid. The structure of the synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, NMR and mass spectral studies. All the products were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against various strains of bacteria and fungi.

  1. Use of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance in Veterinary Medicine as Exemplified by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Willenborg, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is essential to control infectious diseases, thereby keeping animals healthy and animal products safe for the consumer. On the other hand, development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is of major concern for public health. Streptococcus (S.) suis reflects a typical bacterial pathogen in modern swine production due to its facultative pathogenic nature and wide spread in the pig population. Thus, in the present review we focus on certain current aspects and problems related to antimicrobial use and resistance in S. suis as a paradigm for a bacterial pathogen affecting swine husbandry worldwide. The review includes (i) general aspects of antimicrobial use and resistance in veterinary medicine with emphasis on swine, (ii) genetic resistance mechanisms of S. suis known to contribute to bacterial survival under antibiotic selection pressure, and (iii) possible other factors which may contribute to problems in antimicrobial therapy of S. suis infections, such as bacterial persister cell formation, biofilm production, and co-infections. The latter shows that we hardly understand the complexity of factors affecting the success of antimicrobial treatment of (porcine) infectious diseases and underlines the need for further research in this field.

  2. Prophylaxis of post-ERC infectious complications in patients with biliary obstruction by adding antimicrobial agents into ERC contrast media- a single center retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobser, Hella; Gunesch, Agnetha; Klebl, Frank

    2017-01-13

    Patients with biliary obstruction are at high risk to develop septic complications after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). We evaluated the benefits of local application of antimicrobial agents into ERC contrast media in preventing post-ERC infectious complications in a high-risk study population. Patients undergoing ERC at our tertiary referral center were retrospectively included. Addition of vancomycin, gentamicin and fluconazol into ERC contrast media was evaluated in a case-control design. Outcomes comprised infectious complications within 3 days after ERC. In total, 84 ERC cases were analyzed. Primarily indications for ERC were sclerosing cholangitis (75%) and malignant stenosis (9.5%). Microbial testing of collected bile fluid in the treatment group was positive in 91.4%. Detected organisms were sensitive to the administered antimicrobials in 93%. The use of antimicrobials in contrast media was associated with a significant decrease in post-ERC infectious complications compared to non-use (14.3% vs. 33.3%; odds ratio [OR]: 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.114-0.978). After adjusting for the variables acute cholangitis prior to ERC and incomplete biliary drainage, the beneficial effect of intraductal antibiotic prophylaxis was even more evident (OR = 0.153; 95% CI: 0.039-0.598, p = 0.007). Patients profiting most obviously from intraductal antimicrobials were those with secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Local application of a combination of antibiotic and antimycotic agents to ERC contrast media efficiently reduced post-ERC infectious events in patients with biliary obstruction. This is the first study that evaluates ERC-related infectious complications in patients with secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Our first clinical results should now be prospectively evaluated in a larger patient cohort to improve the safety of ERC, especially in patients with secondary sclerosing cholangitis.

  3. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: antimicrobial therapy for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomi, Harumi; Solomkin, Joseph S.; Schlossberg, David; Okamoto, Kohji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Ukai, Tomohiko; Endo, Itaru; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Pitt, Henry A.; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Takamori, Yoriyuki; Umezawa, Akiko; Asai, Koji; Suzuki, Kenji; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Mori, Yasuhisa; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Yokoe, Masamichi; Kiriyama, Seiki; Itoi, Takao; Jagannath, Palepu; Garden, O. James; Miura, Fumihiko; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Wada, Keita; Honda, Goro; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Gouma, Dirk J.; Deziel, Daniel J.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Chen, Miin-Fu; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chan, Angus C. W.; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Choi, In-Seok; Jonas, Eduard; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Mukai, Shuntaro; Higuchi, Ryota; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a mainstay of the management for patients with acute cholangitis and/or cholecystitis. The Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18) provides recommendations for the appropriate use of antimicrobials for community-acquired and healthcare-associated infections. The listed agents are for

  4. Enhancing safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables using the antimicrobial and aromatic power of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; del-Toro-Sánchez, L

    2009-09-01

    Microbial and aroma attributes are within the most decisive factors limiting safety and sensory appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Alternatively, several plant essential oils (EOs) are constituted of several volatile active compounds and most of them present antimicrobial potential and had different aroma profile. Considering these premises, this hypothesis article states that safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut produce could be improved with EO treatment. EOs could prevent fresh-cut fruit decay; however, their volatile constituents could be sorbed by the produce, and according to the aroma notes of the antimicrobial oil, sensorial appealing of odor, and flavor of the treated produce might be affected positively or negatively. Specifically, garlic oil is a natural antimicrobial constituted by sulfur compounds, which are responsible for its odor and antimicrobial properties. Besides, fresh-cut tomato is a highly perishable product that needs antimicrobial agents to preserve its quality and safety for a longer period of time. From the sensorial point of view, aroma combination of garlic and tomato is a common seasoning practice in Europe and America and well accepted by consumers. Once the right combination of flavors between the EOs and the fresh-cut produce has been selected, safety and quality of the treated fruit could be improved by adding antimicrobial protection and extra aroma. Therefore, other combinations between EOs and fresh-cut produce are discussed. This approximation could reinforce the trends of natural food preservation, accomplishing the demands of the increasing sector of consumers demanding tasty and convenient fresh-cut produce, containing only natural ingredients.

  5. The use of antimicrobial drugs in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W D

    1984-08-01

    Antibacterial drugs have been used widely in animal production for treatment and prevention of disease and for growth promotion. Concern has been expressed about possible harm to humans, through the use of drugs, in the following ways: increased microbial drug resistance; drug residues in food; allergic reactions and sensitization to antimicrobials; and drug toxicity. Research has shown that microbial resistance in people can develop from drugs used in animals. Farmers, butchers, etc., have been shown to have an increased incidence of drug-resistant organisms. Resistance to antibiotics can develop in two ways; genetic mutation and natural selection, and through R-factor plasmid transfer. Allergic reactions have been reported following the ingestion of penicillin-containing milk; however, residues in other foods have not caused allergic reactions. Sensitization of humans to antimicrobials through the consumption of drug residues in foods has never been documented. Evidence suggests that the residue levels in food are too low to cause sensitization. Drug toxicity, other than allergic reactions, appears not to result from residues of antimicrobial drugs in food. While it has been studied many times, monitoring programs have failed to find any evidence of a problem. This appears to reflect the low toxicity of these agents and the small amounts obtained in the food, however, it could also reflect failure of the monitoring systems.

  6. Antimicrobial durability of air filters coated with airborne Sophora flavescens nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Eui-seok; Hwang, Gi Byoung; Nho, Chu Won; Kwon, Bo Mi; Lee, Jung Eun; Seo, SungChul; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2013-01-01

    Airborne biological particles containing viruses, bacteria, and/or fungi can be toxic and cause infections and allergy symptoms. Recently, natural materials such as tea tree oil and Sophora flavescens have shown promising antimicrobial activity when applied as air filter media. Although many of these studies demonstrated excellent antimicrobial efficacy, only a few of them considered external environmental effects such as the surrounding humidity, temperature, and natural degradation of chemicals, all of which can affect the antimicrobial performance of these natural materials. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial durability of air filters containing airborne nanoparticles from S. flavescens for 5 months. Antimicrobial tests and quantitative chemical analyses were performed every 30 days. Morphological changes in the nanoparticles were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The major antimicrobial compounds remained stable and active for ∼ 90 days at room temperature. After about 90 days, the quantities of major antimicrobial compounds decreased noticeably with a consequent decrease in antimicrobial activity. These results are promising for the implementation of new technologies using natural antimicrobial products and provide useful information regarding the average life expectancy of antimicrobial filters using nanoparticles of S. flavescens. - Graphical abstract: Variations in (a) the concentrations of major antimicrobial chemical compounds on S. flavescens nanoparticle-coated filters: kurarinone, kuraridin, and sophoraflavanone-G and (b) the inactivation rate of antimicrobial filters as a function of time.

  7. Antimicrobial durability of air filters coated with airborne Sophora flavescens nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Eui-seok; Hwang, Gi Byoung [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Chu Won [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST Gangneung Institute), Gangneung, Gangwon-do 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Bo Mi [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun [Biosafety Research Team, National Institute of Environmental Research, Kyungseo-Dong, Seo-Gu, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, SungChul [Department of Environmental Health, College of Medicine, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gwi-Nam, E-mail: gnbae@kist.re.kr [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee, E-mail: jaehee@kist.re.kr [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    Airborne biological particles containing viruses, bacteria, and/or fungi can be toxic and cause infections and allergy symptoms. Recently, natural materials such as tea tree oil and Sophora flavescens have shown promising antimicrobial activity when applied as air filter media. Although many of these studies demonstrated excellent antimicrobial efficacy, only a few of them considered external environmental effects such as the surrounding humidity, temperature, and natural degradation of chemicals, all of which can affect the antimicrobial performance of these natural materials. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial durability of air filters containing airborne nanoparticles from S. flavescens for 5 months. Antimicrobial tests and quantitative chemical analyses were performed every 30 days. Morphological changes in the nanoparticles were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The major antimicrobial compounds remained stable and active for ∼ 90 days at room temperature. After about 90 days, the quantities of major antimicrobial compounds decreased noticeably with a consequent decrease in antimicrobial activity. These results are promising for the implementation of new technologies using natural antimicrobial products and provide useful information regarding the average life expectancy of antimicrobial filters using nanoparticles of S. flavescens. - Graphical abstract: Variations in (a) the concentrations of major antimicrobial chemical compounds on S. flavescens nanoparticle-coated filters: kurarinone, kuraridin, and sophoraflavanone-G and (b) the inactivation rate of antimicrobial filters as a function of time.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of latex silver nanoparticles using Calotropis procera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Hussein Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that serum latex of Calotropis procera was found to display strong potential for the synthesis of AgNPs as antimicrobial agents through rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0. The green synthesized AgNPs were found to show higher antimicrobial efficacy than crude latex.

  9. Control of the development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of food animal origin in Japan: a new approach for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tetsuo; Hiki, Mototaka; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Eguchi, Kaoru; Kawanishi, Michiko; Kojima, Akemi; Endoh, Yuuko S; Hamamoto, Shuichi; Sakai, Masato; Sekiya, Tatsuro

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial agents are essential for controlling bacterial disease in food-producing animals and contribute to the stable production of safe animal products. The use of antimicrobial agents in these animals affects the emergence and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and animal products. As disease-causing bacteria are often transferred from food-producing animals to humans, the food chain is considered a route of transmission for the resistant bacteria and/or resistance genes. The Food Safety Commission of Japan (FSC) has been assessing the risk posed to human health by the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from livestock products via the food chain. In addition to the FSC's risk assessments, the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has developed risk-management guidelines to determine feasible risk-management options for the use of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products during farming practices. This report includes information on risk assessment and novel approaches for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products for mitigating the risk of development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria originating from food-producing animals in Japan.

  10. Sales of veterinary antibacterial agents in nine European countries during 2005-09: trends and patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Kari; Greko, Christina; Kvaale, Mari K; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Mackay, David; Muller, Arno; Moulin, Gerard

    2012-12-01

    To identify trends and patterns of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in nine European countries during 2005-09 in order to document the situation. Existing sales data, in tonnes of active ingredients, of veterinary antimicrobial agents by class were collected from nine European countries in a standardized manner for the years 2005-09 (one country for 2006-09). A population correction unit (PCU) is introduced as a proxy for the animal population potentially treated with antimicrobial agents. The sales data are expressed as mg of active substance/PCU. Data coverage was reported to be 98%-100% for the nine countries. Overall, sales of veterinary antimicrobials agents, in mg/PCU, declined during the reporting period in the nine countries. Substantial differences in the sales patterns and in the magnitude of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents, expressed as mg/PCU, between the nine countries are observed. The major classes sold were penicillins, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. The sales accounted for by the various veterinary antimicrobial agents have changed substantially for most countries. An increase in the sales of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were observed for the majority of the countries. Through re-analysis of existing data by application of a harmonized approach, an overall picture of the trends in the sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in the nine countries was obtained. Notable differences in trends in sales between the countries were observed. Further studies, preferably including data by animal species, are needed to understand the factors that explain these observations.

  11. Evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Nisin, Lysozyme and Ethylenediaminetetraacetate incorporated in starch based active food packaging film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sugandha; Bharti, Anoop

    2015-06-01

    The pleothera of micro organisms obtained from contaminated food cultured in a starch broth was effectively tested against antibacterial agents, i.e. nisin, lysozyme and chelating agent EDTA. A variety of combination treatments of these antimicrobial agents and their incorporation in Starch based active packaging film according to their permissibility standards was done. 4 variables of Nisin concentration (ranging from 0 to 750 IU/ml), 3 variables of lysozyme concentration (ranging from 0 to 500 IU/ml) and 3 variables of EDTA concentration from (0 to 20 μM) were chosen. Bacterial inhibition by combination of different levels of different factors without antimicrobial films was evaluated using a liquid incubation method. The samples were assayed for turbidity at interval of 2, 4 and 24 h to check effectiveness of combined effects of antimicrobial agents which proved a transitory bactericidal effect for short incubation times. Zone of Inhibition was observed in the antimicrobial films prepared by agar diffusion method. Statistical analysis of experimental data for their antimicrobial spectrum was carried out by multi regression analysis and ANOVA using Design-Expert software to plot the final equation in terms of coded factors as antimicrobial agents. The experimental data indicated that the model was highly significant. Results were also evaluated graphically using response surface showing interactions between two factors, keeping other factor fixed at values at the center of domain. Synergy was also determined among antibacterial agents using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index which was observed to be 0.56 supporting the hypothesis that nisin and EDTA function as partial synergistically. The presented work aimed to screen in quick fashion the combinatorial effect of three antimicrobial agents and evaluating their efficacy in anti microbial film development.

  12. Leaching and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles loaded onto natural zeolite clinoptilolite by ion exchange and wet impregnation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Missengue, RNM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the leaching and antimicrobial properties of silver that was loaded onto the natural zeolite clinoptilolite by ion exchange and wet impregnation. Silver ions were reduced using sodium borohydride (NaBH(sub4...

  13. Biofilm disruption with rotating microrods enhances antimicrobial efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mair, Lamar O., E-mail: Lamar.Mair@gmail.com [Weinberg Medical Physics, Inc., North Bethesda, MD (United States); Nacev, Aleksandar; Hilaman, Ryan; Stepanov, Pavel Y.; Chowdhury, Sagar; Jafari, Sahar [Weinberg Medical Physics, Inc., North Bethesda, MD (United States); Hausfeld, Jeffrey [School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, WA (United States); Karlsson, Amy J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Shirtliff, Mark E. [School of Dentistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Shapiro, Benjamin [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Weinberg, Irving N. [Weinberg Medical Physics, Inc., North Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Biofilms are a common and persistent cause of numerous illnesses. Compared to planktonic microbes, biofilm residing cells often demonstrate significant resistance to antimicrobial agents. Thus, methods for dislodging cells from the biofilm may increase the antimicrobial susceptibility of such cells, and serve as a mechanical means of increasing antimicrobial efficacy. Using Aspergillus fumigatus as a model microbe, we magnetically rotate microrods in and around biofilm. We show that such rods can improve the efficacy of antimicrobial Amphotericin B treatments in vitro. This work represents a first step in using kinetic magnetic particle therapy for disrupting fungal biofilms. - Highlights: • Fungal biofilms have been implicated in a variety of medical ailments. • Magnetic microrods, grown via electroplating, were rotated in and around fungal biofilms. • Rotating microrods potentiate the effectiveness of antimicrobial drug. • Antimicrobial efficacy may be enhanced due to increased mixing.

  14. Biofilm disruption with rotating microrods enhances antimicrobial efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, Lamar O.; Nacev, Aleksandar; Hilaman, Ryan; Stepanov, Pavel Y.; Chowdhury, Sagar; Jafari, Sahar; Hausfeld, Jeffrey; Karlsson, Amy J.; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Shapiro, Benjamin; Weinberg, Irving N.

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are a common and persistent cause of numerous illnesses. Compared to planktonic microbes, biofilm residing cells often demonstrate significant resistance to antimicrobial agents. Thus, methods for dislodging cells from the biofilm may increase the antimicrobial susceptibility of such cells, and serve as a mechanical means of increasing antimicrobial efficacy. Using Aspergillus fumigatus as a model microbe, we magnetically rotate microrods in and around biofilm. We show that such rods can improve the efficacy of antimicrobial Amphotericin B treatments in vitro. This work represents a first step in using kinetic magnetic particle therapy for disrupting fungal biofilms. - Highlights: • Fungal biofilms have been implicated in a variety of medical ailments. • Magnetic microrods, grown via electroplating, were rotated in and around fungal biofilms. • Rotating microrods potentiate the effectiveness of antimicrobial drug. • Antimicrobial efficacy may be enhanced due to increased mixing.

  15. Effect of natural ageing on surface of silver loaded TPE and its influence in antimicrobial efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomacheski, Daiane, E-mail: daitomacheski@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Laboratory of Polymers – LAPOL, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 9500 Bento Gonçalves Avenue, Postal Code 15010, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil); Softer Brasil Compostos Termoplásticos LTDA, 275 Edgar Hoffmeister Avenue, Campo Bom 93700-000 (Brazil); Pittol, Michele [Softer Brasil Compostos Termoplásticos LTDA, 275 Edgar Hoffmeister Avenue, Campo Bom 93700-000 (Brazil); Simões, Douglas Naue; Ribeiro, Vanda Ferreira [Department of Materials Engineering, Laboratory of Polymers – LAPOL, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 9500 Bento Gonçalves Avenue, Postal Code 15010, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil); Softer Brasil Compostos Termoplásticos LTDA, 275 Edgar Hoffmeister Avenue, Campo Bom 93700-000 (Brazil); Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes [Department of Materials Engineering, Laboratory of Polymers – LAPOL, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 9500 Bento Gonçalves Avenue, Postal Code 15010, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Ag loaded TPE lost their antimicrobial efficacy after polymer degradation. • Modifications in Ag loaded TPE surface provide conditions to bacteria settlement. • Rough TPE surface and the low γ{sub S}{sup +} was more favorable for bacterial development. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to characterize the modifications in silver loaded TPE surfaces exposed to weathering and their relation to susceptibility to microbial attack. Silver loaded TPE materials were exposed to natural ageing for nine months and modifications in antimicrobial properties and surface characteristics were evaluated. Chemical changes were investigated by using the infrared spectra. The average surface roughness and topography were determined by atomic force microscopy. Contact angle was measured to verify wettability conditions and surface free energy (SFE). After nine months of exposure, a decrease in the antimicrobial properties of loaded TPE compounds was observed. A reduction in surface roughness and improvement in wettability and high values of polar component of SFE were verified. The best antibacterial action was noticed in the sample with high Lewis acid force, lower roughness and lower carbonyl index.

  16. Emerging role of phenolic compounds as natural food additives in fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Benjakul, Soottawat; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological deteriorations are principal causes of quality loss of fish and fish products during handling, processing, and storage. Development of rancid odor and unpleasant flavor, changes of color and texture as well as lowering nutritional value in fish can be prevented by appropriate use of additives. Due to the potential health hazards of synthetic additives, natural products, especially antioxidants and antimicrobial agents, have been intensively examined as safe alternatives to synthetic compounds. Polyphenols (PP) are the natural antioxidants prevalent in fruits, vegetables, beverages (tea, wine, juices), plants, seaweeds, and some herbs and show antioxidative and antimicrobial activities in different fish and fish products. The use of phenolic compounds also appears to be a good alternative for sulphiting agent for retarding melanosis in crustaceans. Phenolic compounds have also been successfully employed as the processing aid for texture modification of fish mince and surimi. Thus, plant polyphenolic compounds can serve as potential additives for preventing quality deterioration or to retain the quality of fish and fish products.

  17. Cyclodextrins: A Weapon in the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chew Ee; Dolzhenko, Anton V.; Lee, Sui Mae; Young, David James

    Antimicrobial resistance poses one of the most serious global challenges of our age. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are widely utilized excipients in formulations because of their solubilizing properties, low toxicity, and low inflammatory response. This review summarizes recent investigations of antimicrobial agents involving CDs and CD-based antimicrobial materials. CDs have been employed for antimicrobial applications either through formation of inclusion complexes or by chemical modification of their hydroxyl groups to tailor pharmaceutically active compounds. Applications of these CD inclusion complexes include drug delivery, antimicrobial coatings on materials (e.g., biomedical devices and implants) and antimicrobial dressings that help to prevent wound infections. There are relatively limited studies of chemically modified CDs with antimicrobial activity. The mechanism of action of antimicrobial CD inclusion complexes and derivatives needs further elucidation, but activity of CDs and their derivatives is often associated with their interaction with bacterial cell membranes.

  18. Naturally Occurring Wound Healing Agents: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagioti, E G; Assimopoulou, A N

    2016-01-01

    Nature constitutes a pool of medicines for thousands of years. Nowadays, trust in nature is increasingly growing, as many effective medicines are naturally derived. Over the last decades, the potential of plants as wound healing agents is being investigated. Wounds and ulcers affect the patients' life quality and often lead to amputations. Approximately 43,000,000 patients suffer from diabetic foot ulcers worldwide. Annually, $25 billion are expended for the treatment of chronic wounds, with the number growing due to aging population and increased incidents of diabetes and obesity. Therefore a timely, orderly and effective wound management and treatment is crucial. This paper aims to systematically review natural products, mainly plants, with scientifically well documented wound healing activity, focusing on articles based on animal and clinical studies performed worldwide and approved medicinal products. Moreover, a brief description of the wound healing mechanism is presented, to provide a better understanding. Although a plethora of natural products are in vitro and in vivo evaluated for wound healing activity, only a few go through clinical trials and even fewer launch the market as approved medicines. Most of them rely on traditional medicine, indicating that ethnopharmacology is a successful strategy for drug development. Since only 6% of plants have been systematically investigated pharmacologically, more intensified efforts and emerging advancements are needed to exploit the potentials of nature for the development of novel medicines. This paper aims to provide a reliable database and matrix for thorough further investigation towards the discovery of wound healing agents.

  19. Antimicrobial nature and use of some medicinal plants in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight medicinal plants in Nigeria were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Twenty three (47.91%) of the plants caused over 70% mortality of the test organism which include anopheline and culicine larva. Bacillus spp. and Escherichia coli were shown to be susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of some plants.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Subarna; Haq, Sabah; Hasan, Mohammad Rokibul; Haq, Jalaluddin Ashraful

    2017-07-20

    Melioidosis an infectious disease, caused by a Gram negative bacterium called Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in Bangladesh. This organism is sensitive to limited number of antimicrobial agents and need prolonged treatment. There is no comprehensive data on the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of B. pseudomallei isolated in Bangladesh over last several years. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of B. pseudomallei isolated in a tertiary care hospital of Dhaka city from 2009 to 2015. All B. pseudomallei isolated from melioidosis patients over a period of 7 years (2009-2015) in the Department of Microbiology of a 725-bed tertiary care referral hospital in Dhaka city, Bangladesh were included in the study. B. pseudomallei was identified by Gram stain, culture, specific biochemical tests, serology and PCR using specific primers constructed from 16s rRNA region of B. pseudomallei. Antimicrobial susceptibility to specific agents was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. A total of 20 isolates of B. pseudomallei which were isolated from patients coming from different geographic locations of Bangladesh were included in the study. All the isolates were uniformly sensitive (100%) to ceftazidime, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and tetracycline by both disk diffusion and MIC methods. Two strains were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by disk diffusion method but were sensitive by MIC method. The MIC 50 and MIC 90 values of the above antimicrobial agents were almost similar. All the isolates were resistant to amikacin by both MIC and disk diffusion methods. The results of the study suggest that B. pseudomallei prevalent in Bangladesh were still susceptible to all recommended antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of melioidosis. However, regular monitoring is needed to detect any emergence of resistance and shifting of MIC 50 and MIC 90 values.

  1. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of two peptide LyeTx I derivatives modified with the chelating agent HYNIC for radiolabeling with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuscaldi, Leonardo Lima; Dos Santos, Daniel Moreira; Pinheiro, Natália Gabriela Silva; Araújo, Raquel Silva; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Resende, Jarbas Magalhães; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; de Lima, Maria Elena; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic methods and imaging techniques are not able to differentiate septic and aseptic inflammation. Thus, reliable methods are sought to provide this distinction and scintigraphic imaging is an interesting option, since it is based on physiological changes. In this context, radiolabeled antimicrobial peptides have been investigated as they accumulate in infectious sites instead of aseptic inflammation. The peptide LyeTx I, from the venom of Lycosa erythrognatha, has potent antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study aimed to synthesize LyeTx I derivatives with the chelating compound HYNIC, to evaluate their antimicrobial activity and to radiolabel them with (99m)Tc. Two LyeTx I derivatives, HYNIC-LyeTx I (N-terminal modification) and LyeTx I-K-HYNIC (C-terminal modification), were synthesized by Fmoc strategy and purified by RP-HPLC. The purified products were assessed by RP-HPLC and MALDI-ToF-MS analysis. Microbiological assays were performed against S. aureus (ATCC® 6538) and E. coli (ATCC® 10536) in liquid medium to calculate the MIC. The radiolabeling procedure of LyeTx I-K-HYNIC with (99m)Tc was performed in the presence of co-ligands (tricine and EDDA) and reducing agent (SnCl2 (.) 2H2O), and standardized taking into account the amount of peptide, reducing agent, pH and heating. Radiochemical purity analysis was performed by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel strips and the radiolabeled compound was assessed by RP-HPLC and radioactivity measurement of the collected fractions. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Tukey test (p-values EDDA). The binding of HYNIC to the N-terminal portion of LyeTx I seems to affect its activity against bacteria. Nevertheless, the radiolabeling of the C-terminal derivative, LyeTx I-K-HYNIC, must be better investigated to optimize the radiolabeled compound, in order to use it as a specific imaging agent to distinguish septic and aseptic inflammation.

  2. The antimicrobial action of resveratrol against Listeria monocytogenes in food-based models and its antibiofilm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Domingues, Fernanda

    2016-10-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural phytoalexin synthesized by plants in response to stress. This compound has several beneficial documented properties, namely anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and antimicrobial activities. In this study the antimicrobial activity of resveratrol against Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua was investigated. Resveratrol had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 µg mL(-1) for the tested strains, with time-kill curves demonstrating bacteriostatic activity. Inhibition of biofilm formation was also assessed, with resveratrol strongly inhibiting biofilm formation by both species even at subinhibitory concentrations. Overall, resveratrol showed antimicrobial properties on planktonic cells and on biofilm formation ability. Considering the potential use of resveratrol as a food preservative, the antimicrobial efficacy of resveratrol in food was studied in milk, lettuce leaf model and chicken juice. Resveratrol retained greater efficacy in both lettuce leaf model and chicken juice, but milk had a negative impact on its antilisterial activity, indicating a possible reduction of resveratrol availability in milk. This study reinforces resveratrol as an antimicrobial agent, pointing out its antibiofilm activity and its potential use as preservative in some food matrices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO3 prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollfrank, Cordt; Gutbrod, Kai; Wechsler, Peter; Guggenbichler, Josef Peter

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H 2 MoO 4 ), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO 3 particles or sol–gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: ► The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO 3 are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. ► The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. ► Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  4. Antimicrobial commodities. 7. Biocide for water treatment; Kokin seikatsu yohin. 7. Suraimu control zai no kokin bo kabi sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugi, T. [Kurita Water Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Outlined in this report are microbe-caused troubles that happen in manufacturing processes particularly in water treatment systems, measures for dealing with such troubles, and the antimicrobial and fungicidal functions presented by slime inhibiting agents. In heat exchangers in production lines in chemical and iron-making industries, and in paper making processes in paper and pulp industry, deposits, called slime and composed mainly of microbes, occur to cause various troubles such as reduction in production efficiency. In general, vermicides and multiplication depressants are used for the prevention and removal of slime deposition. They include chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, chlorinated isocyanuric acid, and dibromohydantoin, which are used for slime control mainly in cooling water systems. Slime inhibitors are needed for paper pulp, antiseptic agents with its effect lasting long are required for industrial production, and, in small cooling towers where chlorine management is demanding, antimicrobial agents of the organic nature are used. In case water treatment is inappropriately performed, troubles may be caused by Legionella microbes, for whose destruction chemical-aided washing is necessary. (NEDO)

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, J.M.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Saarela, M.; Huys, G.; Tosi, L.; Mayrhofer, S.; Wright, A.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (n=75) strains, to study their antibiotic resistance genes with microarray, and to assess the microbiological cut-off values of tested antimicrobial agents. L. rhamnosus strains were tested with agar

  6. Novel Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Device-Related Infections Using Fibrinolytic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, S; O'Gara, J P; O'Neill, E

    2018-02-01

    Staphylococcal infections involving biofilms represent a significant challenge in the treatment of patients with device-related infections. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms have been shown to be SaeRS regulated and dependent on the coagulase-catalyzed conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin on surfaces coated with human plasma. Here we investigated the treatment of staphylococcal biofilm device-related infections by digesting the fibrin biofilm matrix with and without existing antimicrobials. The fibrinolytic agents plasmin, streptokinase, and nattokinase, and TrypLE, a recombinant trypsin-like protease, were used to digest and treat S. aureus biofilms grown in vitro using in vivo -like static biofilm assays with and without antimicrobials. Cytotoxicity, the potential to induce a cytokine response in whole human blood, and the risk of induction of tolerance to fibrinolytic agents were investigated. A rat model of intravascular catheter infection was established to investigate the efficacy of selected fibrinolytic agents in vivo Under biomimetic conditions, the fibrinolytic agents effectively dispersed established S. aureus biofilms and, in combination with common antistaphylococcal antimicrobials, effectively killed bacterial cells being released from the biofilm. These fibrinolytic agents were not cytotoxic and did not affect the host immune response. The rat model of infection successfully demonstrated the activity of the selected fibrinolytic agents alone and in combination with antimicrobials on established biofilms in vivo TrypLE and nattokinase most successfully removed adherent cells from plasma-coated surfaces and significantly improved the efficacy of existing antimicrobials against S. aureus biofilms in vitro and in vivo These biofilm dispersal agents represent a viable future treatment option for S. aureus device-related infections. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Monodora myristica seed oil | Odoh | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil is colourless, bitter with nice smell and the density is 0.789 g/ml. The oil had antimicrobial activity of the oil against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus among the tested organism and can be incorporated into cream as antimicrobial agent and as a perfume. Key words: Monodora ...

  8. Antimicrobial drug use in a small Indian community hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, M; Jensen, M Blomberg; Henry, A

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug use and overuse have been a topic of interest for many years, lately focusing on the growing resistance worldwide. This study was conducted in a small Indian hospital, where more than 80% of all admitted patients received antimicrobial drugs. Penicillin, gentamycin, co......-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were most commonly used and all antimicrobial drugs were given empirically with no confirmation of the infective agent. Reports of increasing resistance to antimicrobial drugs in India, and elsewhere, necessitates a focus on how antimicrobials drugs are used in relation...... to investigations of resistance patterns among the local strains of pathogens. This study may be considered a base-line study, though of relevance for other hospitals, in particular in low-income areas, where development of resistance to standard antimicrobial drugs may have severe implications for both patients...

  9. Antimicrobial Substances for Food Packaging Products: The Current Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerito, Alessandra; Ameen, Sara M; Micali, Maria; Caruso, Giorgia

    2018-04-04

    Antimicrobial substances are widely used in many anthropic activities, including sanitary and military services for the human population. These compounds are also known to be used in food production, agricultural activities, and partially correlated industrial sectors. However, there are concerns regarding the link between the abuse of antimicrobial agents in these ambits and the possible detection of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Modern food and beverage products are generally found on the market as prepackaged units, with several exceptions. Consequently, positive and negative features of a specific food or beverage should be considered as the result of the synergic action of different components, including the container (or the assembled sum of packaging materials). At present, the meaning of food container also includes the creation and development of new packaging materials that are potentially able to interact with the contained food. "Active" packaging systems can be realized with antimicrobial substances. On the other hand, a careful evaluation of risks and advantages correlated with antimicrobial agents is needed because of possible negative and/or unexpected failures.

  10. Natural Pathogen Control Chemistry to Replace Toxic Treatment of Microbes and Biofilm in Cooling Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouse, Lon; Brouse, Richard; Brouse, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Application of toxic antibacterial agents is considered necessary to control prevalent fresh water microorganisms that grow in evaporative cooling water systems, but can adversely affect the environment and human health. However, natural antibacterial water chemistry has been applied in industrial cooling water systems for over 10 years to inhibit microorganisms with excellent results. The water chemistry method concentrates natural minerals in highly-softened water to produce elevated pH and dissolved solids, while maintaining low calcium and magnesium content. The method provides further benefits in water conservation, and generates a small volume of non-toxic natural salt concentrate for cost efficient separation and disposal if required. This report describes the antimicrobial effects of these chemistry modifications in the cooling water environment and the resultant collective inhibition of microbes, biofilm, and pathogen growth. This article also presents a novel perspective of parasitic microbiome functional relationships, including “Trojan Protozoans” and biofilms, and the function of polyvalent metal ions in the formation and inhibition of biofilms. Reducing global dependence on toxic antibacterial agents discharged to the environment is an emerging concern due to their impact on the natural microbiome, plants, animals and humans. Concurrently, scientists have concluded that discharge of antibacterial agents plays a key role in development of pathogen resistance to antimicrobials as well as antibiotics. Use of natural antibacterial chemistry can play a key role in managing the cooling water environment in a more ecologically sustainable manner. PMID:28420074

  11. Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-02-15

    The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chimeric Peptides as Implant Functionalization Agents for Titanium Alloy Implants with Antimicrobial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucesoy, Deniz T.; Hnilova, Marketa; Boone, Kyle; Arnold, Paul M.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Tamerler, Candan

    2015-04-01

    Implant-associated infections can have severe effects on the longevity of implant devices and they also represent a major cause of implant failures. Treating these infections associated with implants by antibiotics is not always an effective strategy due to poor penetration rates of antibiotics into biofilms. Additionally, emerging antibiotic resistance poses serious concerns. There is an urge to develop effective antibacterial surfaces that prevent bacterial adhesion and proliferation. A novel class of bacterial therapeutic agents, known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are receiving increasing attention as an unconventional option to treat septic infection, partly due to their capacity to stimulate innate immune responses and for the difficulty of microorganisms to develop resistance towards them. While host and bacterial cells compete in determining the ultimate fate of the implant, functionalization of implant surfaces with AMPs can shift the balance and prevent implant infections. In the present study, we developed a novel chimeric peptide to functionalize the implant material surface. The chimeric peptide simultaneously presents two functionalities, with one domain binding to a titanium alloy implant surface through a titanium-binding domain while the other domain displays an antimicrobial property. This approach gains strength through control over the bio-material interfaces, a property built upon molecular recognition and self-assembly through a titanium alloy binding domain in the chimeric peptide. The efficiency of chimeric peptide both in-solution and absorbed onto titanium alloy surface was evaluated in vitro against three common human host infectious bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli. In biological interactions such as occur on implants, it is the surface and the interface that dictate the ultimate outcome. Controlling the implant surface by creating an interface composed chimeric peptides may therefore

  13. Antimicrobial and anti-Quorum Sensing activities of selected medicinal plants of Ethiopia: Implication for development of potent antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Ketema; Tariku, Yinebeb; Gebreyesus, Fisseha; Zerihun, Shibru; Mohammed, Ali; Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Schmitz, Ruth A; Mulat, Mulugeta

    2016-07-11

    the control antibiotic [Gentamycin sulfate, (IZ, 25-30 mm)]. The lowest MIC value (12.5 mg/mL) was recorded for oil from husk of A. corrorima against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of the total eighteen extracts evaluated, two of the extracts [Methanol extract of root of Albiza schimperiana (ASRM) and petroleum ether extract of seed of Justica schimperiana (JSSP)] interfered with cell-cell communication most likely by interacting with the signaling molecules. Traditional medicinal plants from Ethiopia are potential source of alternative medicine for the local community and scientific research in search for alternative drugs to halt challenges associated with the emerging antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, the Quorum Quenching activities observed in two of the plant extracts calls for more comprehensive evaluation of medicinal plants for the control of many bacterial processes and phenotypic behaviors such as pathogenicity, swarming, and biofilm formation. Being the first assessment of its kind on the potential application of Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants for interference in microbial cell-cell communication (anti-Quorum Sensing activities), the detailed chemistry of the active compounds and possible mechanism(s) of actions of the bio-molecules responsible for the observed interference were not addressed in the current study. Thus, further evaluation for the nature of those active compounds (bio-molecules) and detailed mechanism(s) of their interaction with microbial processes are recommended.

  14. Antimicrobial Activities and Time-Kill Kinetics of Extracts of Selected Ghanaian Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Appiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem. This has necessitated the need to search for new antimicrobial agents. Mushrooms are rich sources of potential antimicrobial agents. This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of methanol extracts of Trametes gibbosa, Trametes elegans, Schizophyllum commune, and Volvariella volvacea. Agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-kill kinetic assays were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts against selected test organisms. Preliminary mycochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinones, and alkaloids in the extracts. Methanol extracts of T. gibbosa, T. elegans, S. commune, and V. volvacea showed mean zone of growth inhibition of 10.00±0.0 to 21.50±0.84, 10.00±0.0 to 22.00±1.10, 9.00±0.63 to 21.83±1.17, and 12.00±0.0 to 21.17±1.00 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of methanol extracts of T. gibbosa, T. elegans, S. commune, and V. volvacea ranged from 4.0 to 20, 6.0 to 30.0, 8.0 to 10.0, and 6.0 to 20.0 mg/mL, respectively. Time-kill kinetics studies showed that the extracts possess bacteriostatic action. Methanol extracts of T. gibbosa, T. elegans, S. commune, and V. volvacea exhibited antimicrobial activity and may contain bioactive compounds which may serve as potential antibacterial and antifungal agents.

  15. Studying antimicrobial-induced morphostructural damage of bacteria by Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM method was used to examine the morphostructural changes in bacterial cells induced by antimicrobial agents. SEM-based visual approach is referred the study of bacterial cells and their physiological consequences when affected by antibiotics or antibacterial agents permitting the observation of characteristic morphological defects of cell wall, and provides valuable insights into processes involved in bacterial cell death. This experiment visualized various step-by-step techniques used in the slide preparation of bacterial cells treated with specific antimicrobial agent for analyzing the morphological alterations such as increase of cell wall roughness, cell disruption, cell swelling and lysed cell formation due to loss of intracellular material using SEM analysis when compared with untreated normal cells as a control. The SEM approach used in this visual experiment may analyze the antimicrobial effect of any commercially known or new compounds in a very conducive manner.

  16. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, B; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y; Sreedhara Reddy, P

    2014-07-15

    This study reports the simple green synthesis method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract. The pathway of nanoparticles formation is by means of reduction of AgNO3 by leaf extract, which acts as both reducing and capping agents. Synthesized Ag NPs were subjected to different characterizations for studying the structural, chemical, morphological, optical and antimicrobial properties. The bright circular fringes in SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile reveals high crystalline nature of biosynthesized Ag NPs. Morphological studies shows the formation of nearly spherical nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum confirms the existence of various functional groups of biomolecules capping the nanoparticles. UV-visible spectrum displays single SPR band at 428 nm indicating the absence of anisotropic particles. The synthesized Ag NPs exhibited better antimicrobial property towards gram negative Escherichia coli and towards tested Penicillium spp. than other tested microorganisms using disc diffusion method. Finally it has proven that the synthesized bio-inspired Ag NPs have potent antimicrobial effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial beta-peptides and alpha-peptoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Troels; Nilsson, Line L.; Petersen, Pernille D.

    2011-01-01

    candidates is derived from naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. However, despite promising results in early-stage clinical trials, these molecules have faced some difficulties securing FDA approval, which can be linked to their poor metabolic stability. Hence, mimetics of these antimicrobial peptides...

  18. Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of preparing antimicrobialcoated granules for disinfecting flowing potable water have been developed. Like the methods reported in the immediately preceding article, these methods involve chemical preparation of substrate surfaces (in this case, the surfaces of granules) to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the surfaces via covalent bonds. A variety of granular materials have been coated with a variety of antimicrobial agents that include antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, bactericides, and fungicides. When employed in packed beds in flowing water, these antimicrobial-coated granules have been proven effective against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Composite beds, consisting of multiple layers containing different granular antimicrobial media, have proven particularly effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. These media have also proven effective in enhancing or potentiating the biocidal effects of in-line iodinated resins and of very low levels of dissolved elemental iodine.

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of different natural extracts against persistent root canal pathogens: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Noushad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The spread of drug-resistant pathogens is one of the most serious threats to successful treatment of microbial diseases. Extracts of plants such as flowers, buds, seeds, leaves, twigs, bark, herbs, wood, fruits, and roots have evoked interest as sources of natural products. Irrigation with a broad-spectrum antiseptic substance and inter-appointment intracanal medication has become a standard regimen in root canal therapy. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of different natural extracts such as guava leaf extract, Aloe vera extract, papaya leaf extract, and cashew apple extract against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined using agar diffusion test. The solutions were divided into four groups: Group I – guava leaf extract, Group II – A. vera extract, and Group III – papaya leaf extract, and Group IV – cashew apple extract. The zones of inhibition of growth were recorded. The strains used for this study were E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and C. albicans ATCC 90028. Results and Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite had demonstrated the best results among the tested solutions. Among the herbal extracts, cashew apple extract and guava leaf extract had shown statistically significant activity against E. faecalis and C. albicans.

  20. [Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals to ofloxacin and commonly used antimicrobial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, I; Yoshida, T; Higashide, Y; Sakano, T

    1990-01-01

    Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chickens, pigs and cattle to ofloxacin (OFLX) and commonly used antimicrobial agents were investigated. 1. E. coli (28 isolates) demonstrated the highest level of susceptibility of OFLX (MIC 0.10-0.39 micrograms/ml for all the isolates) among all the test drugs. Commonly used antimicrobial agents to which these isolates responded with relatively high susceptibilities (MIC50 0.78-6.25 micrograms/ml) included oxolinic acid (OXA), ampicillin (ABPC), kanamycin (KM) and chloramphenicol (CP) with their MIC50 values in the increasing order as above. Drugs to which these isolates responded with moderate to weak susceptibilities (MIC50 25 approximately greater than 800 micrograms/ml) were doxycycline (DOXY), streptomycin (SM), spectinomycin (SPCM) and sulfadimethoxine (SDMX) in the increasing order of MIC50. E. coli isolates with resistances to all the test drugs other than OFLX and OXA amounted to 7.1-57.1% of the isolates examined and 20 isolates (71.4%) in total. 2. Susceptibilities to OFLX and 4 existing pyridonecarboxylic acid derivatives of E. coli (48 samples) isolated recently from diarrheal pigs were compared. When evaluated in terms of MIC50, the values of OFLX and norfloxacin were both 0.10 micrograms/ml. The values increased by differences of 0.39-3.13 micrograms/ml in an order of OXA, pipemidic acid and nalidixic acid. 3. Salmonella (28 isolates) demonstrated the highest level of susceptibility to OFLX (MIC 0.20-0.39 micrograms/ml for all the isolates) among all the test drugs. The drugs to which these isolates responded with relatively high to moderate susceptibilities (MIC50 0.78-12.5 micrograms/ml) included ABPC, OXA, DOXY, KM, CP and SM with their MIC50 values increasing in this order. The drugs to which the isolates responded with low susceptibilities (MIC50 above 100 micrograms/ml) were SPCM and SDMX. Of all the 28 Salmonella isolates tested, 7.1-32.1% were resistant

  1. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform risk analyses and guide public policy regarding antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to selected antimicrobial agents over time. We collected data retrospectively for all bovine E. coli isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We investigated temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant E. coli for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 3373 bovine E. coli isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 2.7% (enrofloxacin) to 91.3% (oxytetracycline). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to several agents: chlortetracycline, florfenicol, neomycin, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, a significantly increasing trend in prevalence of resistance to enrofloxacin was also evident. These results do not support the idea that current antimicrobial use practices on dairy operations are driving a general increase in the emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant E. coli in the region served by the laboratory. However, resistance to some drugs remained consistently high during the study period, and increasing resistance to enrofloxacin is a key area of concern.

  2. Multicenter Study in Taiwan of the In Vitro Activities of Nemonoxacin, Tigecycline, Doripenem, and Other Antimicrobial Agents against Clinical Isolates of Various Nocardia Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tan, Hon-Ren; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (a novel nonfluorinated quinolone), doripenem, tigecycline, and 16 other antimicrobial agents against Nocardia species. The MICs of the 19 agents against 151 clinical isolates of Nocardia species were determined by the broth microdilution method. The isolates were identified to the species level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results showed that N. brasiliensis (n = 60; 40%) was the most common species, followed by N. cyriacigeorgica (n = 24; 16%), N. farcinica (n = 12; 8%), N. beijingensis (n = 9), N. otitidiscaviarum (n = 8), N. nova (n = 8), N. asiatica (n = 7), N. puris (n = 6), N. flavorosea (n = 5), N. abscessus (n = 3), N. carnea (2), and one each of N. alba, N. asteroides complex, N. rhamnosiphila, N. elegans, N. jinanensis, N. takedensis, and N. transvalensis. The MIC90s of the tested quinolones against the N. brasiliensis isolates were in the order nemonoxacin = gemifloxacin Nocardia isolates. Among the four tested carbapenems, imipenem had the lowest MIC90s. All of the clinical isolates of N. beijingensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. puris and more than half of the N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. The results of this in vitro study suggest that nemonoxacin, linezolid, and tigecycline are promising treatment options for nocardiosis. Further investigation of their clinical role is warranted. PMID:21343461

  3. Multicenter study in Taiwan of the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin, tigecycline, doripenem, and other antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of various Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tan, Hon-Ren; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (a novel nonfluorinated quinolone), doripenem, tigecycline, and 16 other antimicrobial agents against Nocardia species. The MICs of the 19 agents against 151 clinical isolates of Nocardia species were determined by the broth microdilution method. The isolates were identified to the species level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results showed that N. brasiliensis (n=60; 40%) was the most common species, followed by N. cyriacigeorgica (n=24; 16%), N. farcinica (n=12; 8%), N. beijingensis (n=9), N. otitidiscaviarum (n=8), N. nova (n=8), N. asiatica (n=7), N. puris (n=6), N. flavorosea (n=5), N. abscessus (n=3), N. carnea (2), and one each of N. alba, N. asteroides complex, N. rhamnosiphila, N. elegans, N. jinanensis, N. takedensis, and N. transvalensis. The MIC90s of the tested quinolones against the N. brasiliensis isolates were in the order nemonoxacin=gemifloxacinNocardia isolates. Among the four tested carbapenems, imipenem had the lowest MIC90s. All of the clinical isolates of N. beijingensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. puris and more than half of the N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. The results of this in vitro study suggest that nemonoxacin, linezolid, and tigecycline are promising treatment options for nocardiosis. Further investigation of their clinical role is warranted.

  4. Nanoparticles for antimicrobial purposes in Endodontics: A systematic review of in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samiei, Mohammad [Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Advanced Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjami, Afsaneh; Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki [Hematology & Oncology Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfipour, Farzaneh, E-mail: lotfipoor@tbzmed.ac.ir [School of Advanced Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hematology & Oncology Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Antimicrobial nanoparticles with enhanced physiochemical properties have attracted attention as modern antimicrobials, especially in the complicated oral cavity environment. The goal of the present article is to review the current state of nanoparticles used for antimicrobial purposes in root canal infections. Methods: A review was conducted in electronic databases using MeSH keywords to identify relevant published literature in English. The analysis and eligibility criteria were documented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA-guidelines). No restrictions on publication date were imposed. Data regarding root canal disinfections, general antimicrobial mechanisms of nanoparticles, type of nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in endodontics were collected and subjected to descriptive data analysis. Results: The literature search in electronic databases according to the inclusion criteria provided 83 titles and abstracts. Among them 15 papers were related to antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in Endodontics. Silver nanoparticles with sustainable activity were the most studied agent for its antimicrobial behavior in root canal infection. Aided polymeric nanoparticles with photo or ultrasound, glass bioactive nanoparticles as well as Calcium derivative based nanoparticles, with improved activity in comparison with the non-nano counterparts, are of importance in infection control of dental root canal. Bioactive Non-organic nanoparticles with structural capabilities present enhanced antimicrobial activity in root canal infections. Discussion: All included studies showed an enhanced or at least equal effect of nanoparticulate systems to combat dental root canal infections compared to conventional antimicrobial procedures. However, it is crucial to understand their shortcomings and their probable cellular effects and toxicity as well as environmental effects

  5. Optimized dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles and antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Espitia, Paula Judith; Ferreira Soares, Nilda de Fatima, E-mail: nfsoares1@gmail.com [Department of Food Technology, Federal University of Vicosa (Brazil); Teofilo, Reinaldo F. [Federal University of Vicosa, Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Vitor, Debora M.; Reis Coimbra, Jane Selia dos; Andrade, Nelio Jose de [Department of Food Technology, Federal University of Vicosa (Brazil); Sousa, Frederico B. de; Sinisterra, Ruben D. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Medeiros, Eber Antonio Alves [Department of Food Technology, Federal University of Vicosa (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Single primary nanoparticles of zinc oxide (nanoZnO) tend to form particle collectives, resulting in loss of antimicrobial activity. This work studied the effects of probe sonication conditions: power, time, and the presence of a dispersing agent (Na{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}), on the size of nanoZnO particles. NanoZnO dispersion was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and characterized by the zeta potential (ZP) technique. NanoZnO antimicrobial activity was investigated at different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 % w/w) against four foodborne pathogens and four spoilage microorganisms. The presence of the dispersing agent had a significant effect on the size of dispersed nanoZnO. Minimum size after sonication was 238 nm. An optimal dispersion condition was achieved at 200 W for 45 min of sonication in the presence of the dispersing agent. ZP analysis indicated that the ZnO nanoparticle surface charge was altered by the addition of the dispersing agent and changes in pH. At tested concentrations and optimal dispersion, nanoZnO had no antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Listeria monocytogenes. However, it did have antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. Based on the exhibited antimicrobial activity of optimized nanoZnO against some foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, nanoZnO is a promising antimicrobial for food preservation with potential application for incorporation in polymers intended as food-contact surfaces.

  6. Optimized dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles and antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Espitia, Paula Judith; Ferreira Soares, Nilda de Fátima; Teófilo, Reinaldo F.; Vitor, Débora M.; Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia dos; Andrade, Nélio José de; Sousa, Frederico B. de; Sinisterra, Rubén D.; Medeiros, Eber Antonio Alves

    2013-01-01

    Single primary nanoparticles of zinc oxide (nanoZnO) tend to form particle collectives, resulting in loss of antimicrobial activity. This work studied the effects of probe sonication conditions: power, time, and the presence of a dispersing agent (Na 4 P 2 O 7 ), on the size of nanoZnO particles. NanoZnO dispersion was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and characterized by the zeta potential (ZP) technique. NanoZnO antimicrobial activity was investigated at different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 % w/w) against four foodborne pathogens and four spoilage microorganisms. The presence of the dispersing agent had a significant effect on the size of dispersed nanoZnO. Minimum size after sonication was 238 nm. An optimal dispersion condition was achieved at 200 W for 45 min of sonication in the presence of the dispersing agent. ZP analysis indicated that the ZnO nanoparticle surface charge was altered by the addition of the dispersing agent and changes in pH. At tested concentrations and optimal dispersion, nanoZnO had no antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Listeria monocytogenes. However, it did have antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. Based on the exhibited antimicrobial activity of optimized nanoZnO against some foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, nanoZnO is a promising antimicrobial for food preservation with potential application for incorporation in polymers intended as food-contact surfaces.

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides: Multifunctional Drugs for Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Jessica Albrecht

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (APs are an important part of the innate immune system in epithelial and non-epithelial surfaces. So far, many different antimicrobial peptides from various families have been discovered in non-vertebrates and vertebrates. They are characterized by antibiotic, antifungal and antiviral activities against a variety of microorganisms. In addition to their role as endogenous antimicrobials, APs participate in multiple aspects of immunity. They are involved in septic and non-septic inflammation, wound repair, angiogenesis, regulation of the adaptive immune system and in maintaining homeostasis. Due to those characteristics AP could play an important role in many practical applications. Limited therapeutic efficiency of current antimicrobial agents and the emerging resistance of pathogens require alternate antimicrobial drugs. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent literature on functions and mechanisms of APs. It also shows their current practical applications as peptide therapeutics and bioactive polymers and discusses the possibilities of future clinical developments.

  8. Synthesis of Functionalized Arylaziridines as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Giovine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available By using the Suzuki-Miyaura protocol, a simple straightforward synthesis of functionalized 2-arylaziridines has been developed. By means of this synthetic strategy from readily available ortho-, meta- and para-bromophenylaziridines and aryl- or heteroarylboronic acids, new aziridines could be obtained. The cross-coupling reactions occurred without ring opening of the three membered ring. Preliminary results on the antimicrobial activity of the heterosubstituted biaryl compounds have been also included.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary Klebsiella pneumoniae and the emergence of carbapenem-resistant strains: A retrospective study from a university hospital in Morocco, North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. El Bouamri

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of urinary K. pneumoniae isolates showed a significantly high resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents. These data highlight the need for regular surveillance of microbial resistance to improve infection control and guide the use of antimicrobial agents.

  10. Oral administration of antimicrobials increase antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from chicken--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, C; Burow, E; Tenhagen, B-A; Käsbohrer, A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobials play an important role in animal and human health care. It was the aim of this systematic review to assess the effects of oral administration of antimicrobials on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) from chickens. Moreover, the effects of the administration of more than one antimicrobial and of different dosages were studied. Literature was searched in November 2012 from the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and a national literature database (DIMDI) as well as the database ProQuest LLC. The search was updated in March 2014. Original studies describing a treatment (A) and a control group of either non-treatment (C) or initial value (0) and determining AMR in E. coli at different sample points (SP) were included. The literature search resulted in 35 full text articles on the topic, seven (20%) of which contained sufficient information on the administered antimicrobial and the impact of treatment on AMR. Most papers described the use of more than one antimicrobial, several dosages, controls (non-treatment or pre-treatment) and measured AMR at different SPs leading to a total of 227 SPs on the impact of the use of antimicrobials on AMR in chickens. 74% of the SPs (168/227) described a higher AMR-rate in E. coli from treated animals than from controls. After the administration of a single antimicrobial, AMR increased at 72% of the SPs. Administration of more than one antimicrobial increased AMR at 82% of the SPs. Higher dosages were associated with similar or higher AMR rates. The limited number of studies for each antimicrobial agent and the high variability in the resistance effect call for more well designed studies on the impact of oral administration on AMR development and spread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Lucía Leal

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8% presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7% a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS, 49 (15,1% al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6% a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6% y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%. Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%, 14 (25,6%, 6B (7,7%, 9V (5,1%, 19F (5,1% y 34 (2,6%. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%, 23F (7,5%, 14 (18,8% y 6B (13,8%. Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus

  12. Antimicrobial agents are societal drugs: how should this influence prescribing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Paul; Gould, Ian M

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how those who prescribe antimicrobials should consider the wider repercussions of their actions. It is accepted that in an ecological system, pressure will cause evolution; this is also the case with antimicrobials, the result being the development of resistance and the therapeutic failure of drugs. To an extent, this can be ameliorated through advances by the pharmaceutical industry, but that should not stop us from critically appraising our use and modifying our behavior to slow this process down. Up to 50% of prescribing in human medicine and 80% in veterinary medicine and farming has been considered questionable. The Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antimicrobials (APUA) was approached by the WHO to review the situation. Their recommendations include decreasing the prescribing of antibacterials for nonbacterial infections. In the UK, there has been an initiative called "the path of least resistance". This encourages general practitioners to avoid prescribing or reduce the duration of prescriptions for conditions such as upper respiratory tract infections and uncomplicated urinary tract infections; this approach has been successful. Another recommendation is to reduce the prescribing of broad-spectrum antibacterials. In UK hospitals, the problems identified with the inappropriate use of antibacterials are insufficient training in infectious disease, difficulty in selecting empirical antibacterial therapy, poor use of available microbiological information, the fear of litigation and the fact that the majority of antibacterials are prescribed by the least experienced doctors. With close liaison between the laboratories and clinicians, and the development of local protocols, this can be addressed. Another recommendation is to tighten the use of antibacterial prophylaxis and to improve patient compliance. Through a combination of improved education for doctors and patients, and improved communication skills, these problems can be

  13. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Chun eSu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate (POC showed approximately 70-80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers (CUPEs and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers (BPLPs also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20% and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that they are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance among enterococci from pigs in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    to the amounts of antimicrobial agents used in food animal production in those countries. Similar genes were found to encode resistance in the different countries, but the tet(L) and let(S) genes were more frequently found among isolates from Spain. A recently identified transferable copper resistance gene......Enterococci from pigs in Denmark, Spain, and Sweden were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and copper and the presence of selected resistance genes. The greatest levels of resistance were found among isolates from Spain and Denmark compared to those from Sweden, which corresponds...... was found in all copper-resistant isolates from the different countries....

  15. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Novosphingobium sp. THG-C3 and their antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Singh, Hina; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-03-01

    The present study described biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a bacterial strain Novosphingobium sp. THG-C3, isolated from soil, and their application in antibacterial activity. The maximum absorbance values of the synthesized AgNPs was measured at 406 nm in ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and were mostly spherical in shape with particle size in range of 8-25 nm by field emission transmission electron microscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction pattern corresponding to planes (111), (200), (220), and (311) demonstrated the crystalline nature of the AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited antimicrobial activity against various pathogens inculding Staphylococcus aureus, Candida tropicalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Candida albicans, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus. In addition, the AgNPs in combination with commercial antibiotics enhanced antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, S. enterica, E. coli, and V. parahaemolyticus. The AgNPs synthesized by strain Novosphingobium sp. THG-C3 are comparatively simple, green, cost-effective, and may serve as a potential antimicrobial agent.

  16. D-amino acid substitution enhances the stability of antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fengjing; Wang, Jiayi; Peng, Jinxiu; Zhao, Ping; Kong, Ziqing; Wang, Kairong; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing emergence of resistant microbes toward conventional antimicrobial agents, there is an urgent need for the development of antimicrobial agents with novel action mode. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are believed to be one kind of ideal alternatives. However, AMPs can be easily degraded by protease, which limited their therapeutic use. In the present study, D-amino acid substitution strategy was employed to enhance the stability of polybia-CP. We investigated the stability of peptides against the degradation of trypsin and chymotrypsin by determining the antimicrobial activity or determining the HPLC profile of peptides after incubation with proteases. Our results showed that both the all D-amino acid derivative (D-CP) and partial D-lysine substitution derivative (D-lys-CP) have an improved stability against trypsin and chymotrypsin. Although D-CP takes left-hand α-helical conformation and D-lys-CP loses some α-helical content, both of the D-amino acid-substituted derivatives maintain their parental peptides' membrane active action mode. In addition, D-lys-CP showed a slight weaker antimicrobial activity than polybia-CP, but the hemolytic activity decreased greatly. These results suggest that D-CP and D-lys-CP can offer strategy to improve the property of AMPs and may be leading compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Addition of antimicrobial/antimold feature and antistatic treatment by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Shinobu

    1996-01-01

    A plastic which has a high insulation resistance and is apt to build up static causes an electrostatic problem during the process or other problem like an attraction of dust or small particle. Bacteria and fungus are suspended in the air by sticking to the dust/small particle/waterdrop or in the form of spore, and are apt to stick to the substance bearing the static electricity, which may lead to a microbial problem. In order to avoid these problems, an antistatic agent is mixed in a plastic so that the insulation resistance is decreased to prevent the static electricity. Also for the addition of antimicrobial/antimold feature to a plastic, a mixing-in of antimicrobial/antimold agent is adopted. However, problems still remain in the antistatic treatment, such as that an antistatic effect finally becomes invalid due to the loss of the antistatic agent after some time or the surface of the substance becomes viscous and consequently can not maintain the hardness. As to the antimicrobial/antimold treatment, a difficulty remains in selecting a suitable antimicrobial/antimold agent which must be resistant to high temperature during a mixing-in of the agent. In our test, an electron beam-induced technology (EB) by which a non-solvent resin can be hardened at room temperature and provided with a surface hardening is evaluated. An antimicrobial effect was tested by using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. No live bacteria was observed in a bacteria solution which had been kept overnight in contact with the test film, and the result was proved to successful. As to the antimold effect, a drop of a suspension of 5 different spores including Aspergillus niger was applied to a culture medium, and it was kept in contact with the test film for culturing. On the untreated sample, a growth of the mold was observed approx. 2 weeks later, but on the test film, a growth of the mold was not observed, and the result was proved to be successful. (J.P.N.)

  18. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Novel Imidazolopyridinyl Indoles as Potent Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiprakash S. Biradar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe herein the design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of novel series of imidazolopyridinyl indole analogues as potent antioxidants and antimicrobials. These novel compounds (3a–i were synthesized by reacting 3,5-disubstituted-indole-2-carboxylic acid (1a–i with 2,3-diamino pyridine (2 in excellent yield. The novel products were confirmed by their IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectral, and analytical data. These compounds were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Among the compounds tested, 3a–d showed the highest total antioxidant capacity, scavenging, and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 3c-d and 3g-h have shown excellent ferric reducing activity.

  19. Effect of Food Sources of Natural Chemo preventive Agents on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The work attempted to evaluate the potential of natural products containing cancer chemopreventive agents in increasing the level of some endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as Glutathione STransferase (GST), Glutathione reductase (GR), catalase, superoxide dismutase(SOD-1,2) in brain and kidney ...

  20. Evolution of natural agents: preservation, advance, and emergence of functional information

    OpenAIRE

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological evolution is often viewed narrowly as a change of morphology or allele frequency in a sequence of generations. Here I pursue an alternative informational concept of evolution, as preservation, advance, and emergence of functional information in natural agents. Functional information is a network of signs (e.g., memory, transient messengers, and external signs) that are used by agents to preserve and regulate their functions. Functional information is preserved in evolution via comp...

  1. Comparrisson of MICs of ceftioufur and other antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens of swine from the United States, Canada and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmon, S.A.; Watts, J.L.; Case, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    , sulfamethazine, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (1:19), erythromycin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin-spectinomycin (1:8), tilmicosin, and tetracycline. Tilmicosin was only tested against the U.S. isolates. Overall, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin were the most active antimicrobial agents tested against all isolates.......0 and 8.0 mu g/ml, respectively). However, this compound was not active against the remaining U.S. isolates (MIC(90)s, >64.0 mu g/ml), Differences in the MICs from one country to another were not detected with enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, or lincomycin for the strains tested, but variations in the MICs...

  2. How to measure and monitor antimicrobial consumption and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Santiago; Bou, Germán; Fondevilla, Esther; Nicolás, Jordi; Rodríguez-Maresca, Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2013-09-01

    Collateral damage caused by antibiotic use includes resistance, which could be reduced if the global inappropriate use of antibiotics, especially in low-income countries, could be prevented. Surveillance of antimicrobial consumption can identify and target practice areas for quality improvement, both in the community and in healthcare institutions. The defined daily dose, the usual adult dose of an antimicrobial for treating one patient for one day, has been considered useful for measuring antimicrobial prescribing trends within a hospital. Various denominators from hospital activity including beds, admissions and discharges have been used to obtain some standard ratios for comparing antibiotic consumption between hospitals and countries. Laboratory information systems in Clinical Microbiology Services are the primary resource for preparing cumulative reports on susceptibility testing results. This information is useful for planning empirical treatment and for adopting infection control measures. Among the supranational initiatives on resistance surveillance, the EARS-Net provides information about trends on antimicrobial resistance in Europe. Resistance is the consequence of the selective pressure of antibiotics, although in some cases these agents also promote resistance by favouring the emergence of mutations that are subsequently selected. Multiple studies have shown a relationship between antimicrobial use and emergence or resistance. While in some cases a decrease in antibiotic use was associated with a reduction in resistance rates, in many other situations this has not been the case, due to co-resistance and/or the low biological cost of the resistance mechanisms involved. New antimicrobial agents are urgently needed, which coupled with infection control measures will help to control the current problem of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Shell crosslinked nanoparticles carrying silver antimicrobials as therapeutics†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yali; Hindi, Khadijah; Watts, Kristin M.; Taylor, Jane B.; Zhang, Ke; Li, Zicheng

    2010-01-01

    Amphiphilic polymer nanoparticles loaded with silver cations or/and N-heterocyclic carbene–silver complexes were assessed as antimicrobial agents against Gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:20024313

  4. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Nazar, Mudassar; Naz, Sania; Hussain, Talib; Jabeen, Nyla; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq

    This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO 2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO 2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm -1 , showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO 2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  5. Membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malekkhaiat Häffner, S; Nyström, L; Nordström, R

    2017-01-01

    Membrane interactions are critical for the successful use of inorganic nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents and as carriers of, or co-actives with, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In order to contribute to an increased understanding of these, we here investigate effects of particle size (42-208 nm...... into size-dependent synergistic effects with the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Due to strong interactions with anionic lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan layers, direct membrane disruption of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria is suppressed. However, LDH nanoparticles cause size-dependent charge...

  6. Development of antimicrobial optimum glass ionomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angioletto, E.; Tezza, V.B.; Santos, M.J.; Montedo, O.R.K.; Pich, C.T.; Fiori, M.A.; Angioletto, Ev.

    2010-01-01

    The use of glass ionomer for restorations in dentistry for lower income population is a well established practice in public clinics of Brazil. However the average price of this kind of material and its low durability still have a negative impact on public health for being imported and frequently replaced it becomes expensive for the manufacturers and for public agencies. In glass ionomer the main antimicrobial agent is fluoride, which is released gradually. The material used for filling provides an average life of five years and its durability can be increased if the ionomer contains other oligodynamic elements. It was formulated, merged a new optimized glass ionomer which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ion measurement and antimicrobial activity. This new product showed promising results, that pointed structural stability an increase of antimicrobial efficiency. (author)

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of gram-negative bacteria causing infections collected across India during 2014–2016: Study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trend report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Veeraraghavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in the hospital and community has increased the concern to the health-care providers due to the limited treatment options. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in frequently isolated bacterial pathogens causing severe infections is of great importance. The data generated will be useful for the clinicians to decide empiric therapy on the local epidemiological resistance profile of the antimicrobial agents. This study aims to monitor the distribution of bacterial pathogen and their susceptibility pattern to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: This study includes Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal, urinary tract and respiratory tract infections during 2014–2016. Isolates were collected from seven hospitals across India. All the study isolates were characterised up to species level, and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for a wide range of antimicrobials included in the study panel. The test results were interpreted as per standard Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 2731 isolates of gram-negative bacteria were tested during study period. The most frequently isolated pathogens were 44% of Escherichia coli (n = 1205 followed by 25% of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 676 and 11% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 308. Among the antimicrobials tested, carbapenems were the most active, followed by amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive isolates were ranged from 66%–77% in E. coli to 61%–72% in K. pneumoniae, respectively. Overall, colistin retains its activity in > 90% of the isolates tested and appear promising. Conclusion: Increasing rates of ESBL producers have been noted, which is alarming. Further, carbapenem resistance was also gradually increasing, which needs much attention. Overall, this study data show that

  8. Phenotypically anchored transcriptome profiling of developmental exposure to the antimicrobial agent, triclosan, reveals hepatotoxicity in embryonic zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggard, Derik E.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent commonly found in a variety of personal care products and cosmetics. TCS readily enters the environment through wastewater and is detected in human plasma, urine, and breast milk due to its widespread use. Studies have implicated TCS as a disruptor of thyroid and estrogen signaling; therefore, research examining the developmental effects of TCS is warranted. In this study, we used embryonic zebrafish to investigate the developmental toxicity and potential mechanism of action of TCS. Embryos were exposed to graded concentrations of TCS from 6 to 120 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and the concentration where 80% of the animals had mortality or morbidity at 120 hpf (EC 80 ) was calculated. Transcriptomic profiling was conducted on embryos exposed to the EC 80 (7.37 μM). We identified a total of 922 significant differentially expressed transcripts (FDR adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05; fold change ≥ 2). Pathway and gene ontology enrichment analyses identified biological networks and transcriptional hubs involving normal liver functioning, suggesting TCS may be hepatotoxic in zebrafish. Tissue-specific gene enrichment analysis further supported the role of the liver as a target organ for TCS toxicity. We also examined the in vitro bioactivity profile of TCS reported by the ToxCast screening program. TCS had a diverse bioactivity profile and was a hit in 217 of the 385 assay endpoints we identified. We observed similarities in gene expression and hepatic steatosis assays; however, hit data for TCS were more concordant with the hypothesized CAR/PXR activity of TCS from rodent and human in vitro studies. - Highlights: • Triclosan is a common antimicrobial agent with widespread human exposure. • Exposure to the triclosan EC 80 causes robust gene expression changes in zebrafish. • The liver may be a target organ of triclosan toxicity in embryonic zebrafish. • Triclosan disrupts normal liver functioning and development in

  9. Phenotypically anchored transcriptome profiling of developmental exposure to the antimicrobial agent, triclosan, reveals hepatotoxicity in embryonic zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, Derik E. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Noyes, Pamela D. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Office of Science Coordination and Policy (OSCP), Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: Robert.Tanguay@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent commonly found in a variety of personal care products and cosmetics. TCS readily enters the environment through wastewater and is detected in human plasma, urine, and breast milk due to its widespread use. Studies have implicated TCS as a disruptor of thyroid and estrogen signaling; therefore, research examining the developmental effects of TCS is warranted. In this study, we used embryonic zebrafish to investigate the developmental toxicity and potential mechanism of action of TCS. Embryos were exposed to graded concentrations of TCS from 6 to 120 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and the concentration where 80% of the animals had mortality or morbidity at 120 hpf (EC{sub 80}) was calculated. Transcriptomic profiling was conducted on embryos exposed to the EC{sub 80} (7.37 μM). We identified a total of 922 significant differentially expressed transcripts (FDR adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05; fold change ≥ 2). Pathway and gene ontology enrichment analyses identified biological networks and transcriptional hubs involving normal liver functioning, suggesting TCS may be hepatotoxic in zebrafish. Tissue-specific gene enrichment analysis further supported the role of the liver as a target organ for TCS toxicity. We also examined the in vitro bioactivity profile of TCS reported by the ToxCast screening program. TCS had a diverse bioactivity profile and was a hit in 217 of the 385 assay endpoints we identified. We observed similarities in gene expression and hepatic steatosis assays; however, hit data for TCS were more concordant with the hypothesized CAR/PXR activity of TCS from rodent and human in vitro studies. - Highlights: • Triclosan is a common antimicrobial agent with widespread human exposure. • Exposure to the triclosan EC{sub 80} causes robust gene expression changes in zebrafish. • The liver may be a target organ of triclosan toxicity in embryonic zebrafish. • Triclosan disrupts normal liver functioning and

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliwal B.B.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis in and around Dharwad region. A total of 310 samples were screened and 180 confirmed Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were obtained. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci against 10 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. The highest numbers of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were susceptible to ceftriaxone 83.88% followed by cefotaxime 79.41%, methicillin 76.47%, ciprofloxacin 73.52%, erythromycin 70.05%, amikacin 66.11%, gentamycin 42.94%, amoxicillin 36.76%, ampicillin 29.41%, and the lowest susceptibility was shown in penicillin 23.23% . The results indicated that the increase in prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis exhibited the highest degree of susceptible to ceftriaxone of all the tested antimicrobial agents. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 158-161

  11. Chemotherapeutic Impact Of Natural Antioxidant Flavonoids Gallic Acid Rutin Quercetin And Mannitol On Pathogenic Microbes And Their Synergistic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Ghosh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that natural flavonoids with antioxidants and can influence the response to chemotherapy as well as the development of adverse side effects that results from treatment with antineoplastic agents and Its prevalence over Multi drug resistant bacterial strain revived interest on Flavonoids. Synergistic effect is defined as passive interaction arises when two agents combine and together they exert an inhibitory effect that is greater than the sum of individual effect The new Synergistic therapy so that antioxidant are more effective in combination on multi drug resistant bacterial strain. Interaction between natural antioxidants and topoisomerase enzyme can be seen through Quercetin as a potent antimicrobial compound alone and in combination with other natural antioxidant like rutin. MICMBC result show antibacterial activity of the flavonoids were enhanced when used in combination against Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Bacillus subtilis Klebsiella pneumonae Escherichia coli as the test bacteria. The combination of rutin and quercetin rutin and gallic acid mannitol and gallic acid were much more effective than either flavonoid alone. Furthermore Its gave a good relation between these antioxidant compound and antimicrobial activity. Flavonoids as a chemotherapeutic agent and its Synergistic effect can be solution for various microbial disease conditions.

  12. Effects of dentin on the antimicrobial properties of endodontic medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, Markus; Qian, Wei; Portenier, Isabelle; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2007-08-01

    Successful treatment of apical periodontitis is dependent on the elimination of the infective microflora from the necrotic root canal system. Antimicrobial irrigating solutions and other locally used disinfecting agents and medicaments have a key role in the eradication of the microbes. While most if not all presently used disinfecting agents rapidly kill even the resistant microbes when tested in vitro in a test tube, the effectiveness of the same agents is clearly weaker in the in vivo conditions. Recent studies have given valuable information about the interaction of endodontic disinfecting agents with dentin and other compounds present in the necrotic root canal. As a result of such interactions the antimicrobial effectiveness of several of our key disinfectants may be weakened, or even eliminated under certain circumstances. Different disinfectants show different sensitivity to the action by the various potential inactivators, such as dentin, serum proteins, hydroxyapatite, collagen derived from different sources, and microbial biomass. This review is a summary of our present knowledge of the mostly negative interactions between endodontic disinfecting agents and the various compounds present in the root canal environment.

  13. Synthesis and antimicrobial studies of novel derivatives of 4-(4-formyl-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)benzoic acid as potent anti-Acinetobacter baumanni agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Devin; Delancey, Evan; Ramey, Hunter; Williams, Conrad; Alsharif, Zakeyah Ali; Al-khattabi, Hessa; Ontko, Allyn; Gilmore, David

    2017-01-01

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified antimicrobial resistance as one the three greatest threats for human beings in the 21st century. Without urgent and coordinated action, the world is moving toward a post-antibiotic era, in which normal infections or minor injuries may become fatal. In an effort to find new agents, we report the synthesis and antimicrobial activities of 40 novel 1,3-diphenyl pyrazole derivatives. These compounds have shown zones of growth inhibition up to 85 mm against Acinetobacter baumannii. We tested the active compounds against this Gram-negative bacterium in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests and found activity with concentration as low as 4 μg/mL. PMID:28065568

  14. Current and Emerging Topical Antibacterials and Antiseptics: Agents, Action, and Resistance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Deborah A; Carter, Glen P; Howden, Benjamin P

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Challenges involved in the use of topical antimicrobials include increasing rates of bacterial resistance, local hypersensitivity reactions (particularly to older agents, such as bacitracin), and concerns about the indiscriminate use of antiseptics potentially coselecting for antibiotic resistance. We review the evidence for the major clinical uses of topical antibiotics and antiseptics. In addition, we review the mechanisms of action of common topical agents and define the clinical and molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in these agents. Moreover, we review the potential use of newer and emerging agents, such as retapamulin and ebselen, and discuss the role of antiseptic agents in preventing bacterial skin infections. A comprehensive understanding of the clinical efficacy and drivers of resistance to topical agents will inform the optimal use of these agents to preserve their activity in the future. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Identification of natural antimicrobial agents to treat dengue infection: In vitro analysis of latarcin peptide activity against dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Hussin A; Bahrani, Hirbod; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2014-05-31

    Although there have been considerable advances in the study of dengue virus, no vaccines or anti-dengue drugs are currently available for humans. Therefore, new approaches are necessary for the development of potent anti-dengue drugs. Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with potent antiviral activities are potential hits-to-leads for antiviral drug discovery. We performed this study to identify and characterise the inhibitory potential of the latarcin peptide (Ltc 1, SMWSGMWRRKLKKLRNALKKKLKGE) against dengue virus replication in infected cells. The Ltc 1 peptide showed a significantly inhibitory effect against the dengue protease NS2B-NS3pro at 37°C, a physiological human temperature, (IC50, 12.68 ± 3.2 μM), and greater inhibitory effect was observed at 40°C, a temperature similar to a high fever (IC50, 6.58 ± 4.1 μM). A greater reduction in viral load (p.f.u./ml) was observed at simultaneous (0.7 ± 0.3 vs. 7.2 ± 0.5 control) and post-treatment (1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 6.8 ± 0.6 control) compared to the pre-treatment (4.5 ± 0.6 vs. 6.9 ± 0.5 control). Treatment with the Ltc 1 peptide reduced the viral RNA in a dose-dependent manner with EC50 values of 8.3 ± 1.2, 7.6 ± 2.7 and 6.8 ± 2.5 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The Ltc 1 peptide exhibited significant inhibitory effects against dengue NS2B-NS3pro and virus replication in the infected cells. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to develop the Ltc 1 peptide as a new anti-dengue therapeutic.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe: the missing link between consumption and resistance in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Hendriksen, Rene S; Fraile, Lorenzo; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2014-05-14

    The emergence of resistance in food animals has been associated to the consumption of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine. Consequently, monitoring programs have been designed to monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. This study analyses the amount of antimicrobial agents used in nine European countries from 2005 to 2011, and compares by univariate analysis the correlations between consumptions of each of the following antimicrobial classes; tetracycline, penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones and macrolides. An overview of resistance in zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe focusing on Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter sp. and Enterococcus sp., during the same period of time based on monitoring programs is also assessed. With the exception of cephalosporins, linear regressions showed strong positive associations between the consumption of the four different antimicrobial classes. Substantial differences between countries were observed in the amount of antimicrobials used to produce 1 kg of meat. Moreover, large variations in proportions of resistant bacteria were reported by the different countries, suggesting differences in veterinary practice. Despite the withdrawn of a specific antimicrobial from "on farm" use, persistence over the years of bacteria resistant to this particular antimicrobial agent, was still observed. There were also differences in trends of resistance associated to specific animal species. In order to correlate the use of antimicrobial agents to the presence of resistance, surveillance of antimicrobial consumption by animal species should be established. Subsequently, intervention strategies could be designed to minimize the occurrence of resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial activities of pomelo (Citrus maxima) seed and pulp ethanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Damayanti, Vina; Tristantini, Dewi; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Olivia, Yuko

    2018-02-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seed extract is generally used as naturopathic medications, supplements, antiseptic and disinfecting agents and also as preservatives in food and cosmetics products. In vitro studies have demonstrated that grapefruit seed extract has anti bacterial properties against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Indonesian grapefruit, known as pomelo (C. maxima), has similar characteristics, contents and is under the same genus (Citrus) as grapefruit; however it has not been completely utilized as a preservative. In this work we analyze the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to the grapefruit (C. paradisi) seeds and pulp ethanolic extract. Ethanolic extracts of pomelo and grapefruit seeds and pulp are investigated for activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The level of antimicrobial effects is established using agar diffusion method. Both of the ethanolic do not show any antimicrobial activities against C. albicans. The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp used in this research give positive results with growth inhibition effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. The zones of inhibition ranges from 22 - 30 mm in diameter, which is higher to grapefruit seeds and pulp ethanolic extract (17 - 25 mm). Ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp has an antimicrobial effect, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic.

  18. State of the Art of Antimicrobial Edible Coatings for Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu Valdés

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the development of new active packaging materials has rapidly increased in the last few years. Antimicrobial active packaging is a potential alternative to protect perishable products during their preparation, storage and distribution to increase their shelf-life by reducing bacterial and fungal growth. This review underlines the most recent trends in the use of new edible coatings enriched with antimicrobial agents to reduce the growth of different microorganisms, such as Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, molds and yeasts. The application of edible biopolymers directly extracted from biomass (proteins, lipids and polysaccharides or their combinations, by themselves or enriched with natural extracts, essential oils, bacteriocins, metals or enzyme systems, such as lactoperoxidase, have shown interesting properties to reduce the contamination and decomposition of perishable food products, mainly fish, meat, fruits and vegetables. These formulations can be also applied to food products to control gas exchange, moisture permeation and oxidation processes.

  19. Antimicrobial compounds targeting Gram-negative bacteria in food: Their mode of action and combinational effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    compromising food shelf-life or safety. Natural antimicrobial compounds have therefore gained increased interest as a label-friendly alternative that can be added directly to food products. Although natural antimicrobials constitute an interesting source of compounds, it is often not understood how...... they interact with bacterial cells to exert their mechanism of inhibition or killing. Furthermore, natural antimicrobials are often not potent enough as single compounds, and may cause unwanted sensory side-effects, which limit the quantities that can be applied to food. These problems might be circumvented...... by combining antimicrobials to decrease the concentrations needed without compromising their antimicrobial activity. The work described in this dissertation presents two projects concerning the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobial compounds primarily against Gram-negative bacteria, and two...

  20. Emerging Resistance, New Antimicrobial Agents  …  but No Tests! The Challenge of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in the Current US Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R M; Hindler, J A

    2016-07-01

    Accurate and timely performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by the clinical laboratory is paramount to combating antimicrobial resistance. The ability of laboratories in the United States to effectively perform ASTs is challenged by several factors. Some, such as new resistance mechanisms and the associated evolution of testing recommendations and breakpoints, are inevitable. Others are entirely man-made. These include unnecessarily strict US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limitations on how commercial AST systems can be used for diagnostic testing, the absence of up-to-date performance data on these systems, and the lack of commercially available FDA-cleared tests for newer antimicrobial agents or for older agents with updated breakpoints. This viewpoint will highlight contemporary AST challenges faced by the clinical laboratory, and propose some solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Evaluation of natural antimicrobial substances in the conservation of sinuana oatmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenis Ibeth Pastrana-Puche

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of globalization of indigenous foods is to contribute to the expansion of exports and the spread of different food cultures, but in the global market, competition is strong and requires products to be different, to remain competitive. Currently, society demands natural products with less chemical additives, so that food producers have found it necessary to try to completely remove the use of chemical antimicrobial products and adopt natural alternatives for the maintenance or extension of the lifetime of their products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lifetime of Sinuana oatmeal, a native drink of the Department of Córdoba (Colombia, spiked with cloves (Syzygium aromaticum and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum at three different concentrations (0.073, 0.146 and 0.219 % v/v, packaged in plastic bottles (PET and 500 mL glass and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. An analysis of variance and a Tukey comparison test (p≤0.05 was performed using the SAS statistical package, version 8 for Windows, licensed to University of Córdoba. Oats with the highest concentration of spices (0.219 % v/v achieved greater storage time

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance and Reduced Susceptibility in Clostridium difficile: Potential Consequences for Induction, Treatment, and Recurrence of C. difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Simon D.; Wilcox, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a substantial burden on healthcare systems and is likely to remain so given our reliance on antimicrobial therapies to treat bacterial infections, especially in an aging population in whom multiple co-morbidities are common. Antimicrobial agents are a key component in the aetiology of CDI, both in the establishment of the infection and also in its treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarise the role of antimicrobial agents in primary and recurrent CDI; assessing why certain antimicrobial classes may predispose to the induction of CDI according to a balance between antimicrobial activity against the gut microflora and C. difficile. Considering these aspects of CDI is important in both the prevention of the infection and in the development of new antimicrobial treatments. PMID:27025625

  3. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from macroalgae Ulva lactuca against clinically important Staphylococci is impacted by lunar phase of macroalgae harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, A M; Miller-Hope, Z; Lloyd, E; Williams, B S; Bolduc, C; Meader, J M; Weiss, F; Burkholder, K M

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human bacterial pathogen that causes skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) are increasingly drug-resistant, and thus there is great need for new therapeutics to treat Staph. aureus infections. Attention has focused on potential utility of natural products, such as extracts of marine macroalgae, as a source of novel antimicrobial compounds. The green macroalgae Ulva lactuca produces compounds inhibitory to human pathogens, although the effectiveness of U. lactuca extracts against clinically relevant strains of Staph. aureus is poorly understood. In addition, macroalgae produce secondary metabolites that may be influenced by exogenous factors including lunar phase, but whether lunar phase affects U. lactuca antimicrobial capacity is unknown. We sought to evaluate the antibacterial properties of U. lactuca extracts against medically important Staphylococci, and to determine the effect of lunar phase on antimicrobial activity. We report that U. lactuca methanolic extracts inhibit a range of Staphylococci, and that lunar phase of macrolagae harvest significantly impacts antimicrobial activity, suggesting that antimicrobial properties can be maximized by manipulating time of algal harvest. These findings provide useful parameters for future studies aimed at isolating and characterizing U. lactuca anti-Staphylococcal agents. The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant human pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has intensified efforts towards discovery and development of novel therapeutics. Marine macroalgae like Ulva lactuca are increasingly recognized as potential sources of antimicrobials, but the efficacy of U. lactuca extracts against common, virulent strains of Staph. aureus is poorly understood. We demonstrate that U. lactuca methanolic extracts inhibit a variety of clinically relevant Staphylococcus strains, and that the antimicrobial activity can

  4. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Though Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease, antimicrobial agents are recommended for extraintestinal infections and for treating immunocompromised persons. ... The in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing for all organisms was performed by employing the Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method.

  5. Invitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of bacterial isolates from wound infections in university of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. ... The Fluoroquino lones are the favoured antimicrobial agents nowadays, ... In our environment however, a combination of Cloxacillin and Gentamicin is an ...

  6. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The synthesized chelating agent and metal(II) complexes were screened for ... Coordination compounds, Antimicrobial study ... The biological activity of Zn(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) with imidazole derivative (DIPO) ... product in 86% yield. .... [Ni(DIPO)Br2]. 2.0. 2.5. 2.5. 3.0. 3.0. 3.0. 9. Maxipime. 10.6. D iam eter o f in h ib itio.

  7. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Various Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golnari Maranni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Prevalence extension of antibiotic resistant bacteria has raised concerns about control of infections especially nosocomial infections. Many attempts have been done to replace antibiotics or limit their use. The use of antimicrobial agents produced by bacteria as antibiotic replacement has been promising in recent years. The goal of this study was to isolate Bacillus strains and evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some standard pathogens and clinical antibiotic resistant strains. Materials and Methods: In the present study, Bacillus strains were isolated from various resources and identified by 16S rDNA PCR method. Then, the phylogenetic tree of the isolates was constructed and antimicrobial activity of the isolates was investigated against some standard pathogens and clinical antibiotic resistant strains using spotting and well diffusion methods. Results: Eight Bacillus strains were isolated from 15 different samples. Based on the molecular identification, the isolates were identified as B.pumilus, B.coagulans, B.licheniformis, B.endophitycus and B.amiloliquefaciens. The results showed that isolates have antimicrobial activity against meticilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistant enterococci, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: In this study, isolated Bacillus strains produced antimicrobial agents against pathogens and antibiotic resistant strains and inhibited their growth.

  8. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial agents against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hideaki; Inuzuka, Hiroko; Hori, Nobuhide; Takahashi, Nobumichi; Ishida, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Muraosa, Yasunori; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  9. The quest for optimal antimicrobial therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Petrus Gerardus Maria

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of sulphonam ides and penicillin in the 1930's, and their widespread use in clinical practice during World War II a plethora of new antimicrobial agents have entered the market. Initial optim ism has faded that these new drugs would eliminate infectious diseases as killer

  10. Use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals and Enterococcus faecium resistance to therapeutic antimicrobial drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1999-01-01

    on the Tn1546 transposon. Furthermore, glycopeptide-resistant strains, as well as resistance determinants, can be transmitted from animals to humans. Two antimicrobial classes expected to provide the future therapeutic options for treatment of infections with vancomycin-resistant enterococci have analogues......Supplementing animal feed with antimicrobial agents to enhance growth has been common practice for more than 30 years and is estimated to constitute more than half the total antimicrobial use worldwide. The potential public health consequences of this use have been debated; however, until recently......, clear evidence of a health risk was not available. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the use of the glycopeptide avoparcin as a growth promoter has created in food animals a major reservoir of Enterococcus faecium, which contains the high level glycopeptide resistance determinant vanA, located...

  11. Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy--49th annual meeting. Part 2. 12-15 September 2009, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ben; Murch, Lisa

    2009-11-01

    The Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy held in San Francisco included topics covering new therapeutic developments for the treatment of infectious diseases. This conference report highlights selected presentations on several antibiotics in development including a broad-spectrum penem beta-lactam antibiotic, a novel siderophore monobactam, as well as other novel antibiotics. Investigational drugs discussed include sulopenem and sulopenem etzadroxil (both Pfizer Inc), BAL-30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd), TP-120 and TP-787 (both Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc), NAI-107 (New Anti Infectives Consortium/NexThera Biosciences) and ABI-200 (AdRem Biotech/US Department of Agriculture).

  12. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.

    2006-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans....... The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial-resistant...... to change the current view that antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from animals pose a threat to human health. On the contrary, antimicrobial resistance genes appear to spread freely between enterococci from different reservoirs, irrespective of their apparent host association....

  13. Towards the Development of Synthetic Antibiotics: Designs Inspired by Natural Antimicrobial Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Fazren; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every living organism produces gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that provide an immediate defence against pathogen invasion. Many AMPs have been isolated and used as antibiotics that are effective against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Although encouraging, AMPs have such poor drug-like properties that their application for clinical use is restricted. In turn, this has diverted research to the development of synthetic molecules that retain the therapeutic efficacy of AMPs but are endowed with greater biological stability and safety profiles. Most of the synthetic molecules, either based on a peptidic or non-peptidic scaffold, have been designed to mimic the amphiphilic properties of native AMPs, which are widely believed to be the key determinant of their antibacterial activity. In this review, the structural, chemical and biophysical features that govern the biological activities of various synthetic designs are discussed extensively. Recent innovative approaches from the literature that exhibit novel concepts towards the development of new synthetic antibacterial agents, including the engineered delivery platform incorporated with AMP mimetics, are also emphasised.

  14. Synthetic biology platform technologies for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Dana; Shis, David; Collins, James J

    2016-10-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance calls for new approaches in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Likewise, improved diagnostic measures are essential in guiding the application of targeted therapies and preventing the evolution of therapeutic resistance. Discovery platforms are also needed to form new treatment strategies and identify novel antimicrobial agents. By applying engineering principles to molecular biology, synthetic biologists have developed platforms that improve upon, supplement, and will perhaps supplant traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. Efforts in engineering bacteriophages and synthetic probiotics demonstrate targeted antimicrobial approaches that can be fine-tuned using synthetic biology-derived principles. Further, the development of paper-based, cell-free expression systems holds promise in promoting the clinical translation of molecular biology tools for diagnostic purposes. In this review, we highlight emerging synthetic biology platform technologies that are geared toward the generation of new antimicrobial therapies, diagnostics, and discovery channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A potential photocatalytic, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of chitosan-copper nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Nithya; Singaravelu, Chandra Mohan; Kulanthaivel, Jeganathan; Kandasamy, Jothivenkatachalam

    2017-11-01

    In this study, chitosan-copper (CS-Cu) nanocomposite was synthesized without the aid of any external chemical reducing agents. The optical, structural, spectral, thermal and morphological analyses were carried out by several techniques. The prepared nanocomposite acts as a photocatalyst for the removal of Rhodamine B (RhB) and Conge red (CR) dyes under visible light irradiation. The pseudo first order kinetics was derived according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model. The nanocomposite also proved to be an excellent antimicrobial agent against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; and also show activity against fungus. The advanced material was used for the major research areas which include photocatalytic materials for waste water treatment; biological applications in the development of drug resistant antimicrobials and anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chromatographic analysis of natural pigments L. and quercus infectoria oliv: produced from datisca cannabina plants and their antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveoglu, O.; Muhammed, A.; Fouad, A.; Torgan, E.; Karadag, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, natural pigments from the hemp (Datisca cannabina L.) and dyer's oak ). 12H/sub 2/O (alum) mordant. A (Quercus infectoria Oliv.) dye plants were prepared by using KAl(SO/sub 4)/sub 2/ reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD) method was used in the identification of dyes in the natural pigments. The dye extractions from the natural pigments were carried out with 37% HCl/MeOH/H/sub 2/O (2:1:1 v/v/v) mixture. Also, antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of plants and pigments were investigated. (author)

  17. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Characterization of Half-Calycanthaceous Alkaloid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojun Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 29 novel tetrahydropyrroloindol-based calycanthaceous alkaloid derivatives were synthesized from indole-3-acetonitrile in good yields. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against nine strains of bacteria and a wide range of plant pathogen fungi. Bioassay results revealed that majority of the compounds displayed similar or higher in vitro antimicrobial activities than the positive control. The biological activities also indicated that substituents at R4 and R5 significantly affect the activities. Notably, compound c4 was found to be most active among the tested calycanthaceous analogues and might be a novel potential leading compound for further development as an antifungal agent. The results could pave the way for further design and structural modification of calycanthaceous alkaloids as antimicrobial agents.

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of glycerol monolaurate nanocapsules against American foulbrood disease agent and toxicity on bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Q S; Santos, Cayane G; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Gende, Liesel; Raffin, Renata P; Santos, Roberto C V

    2016-08-01

    The American Foulbrood Disease (AFB) is a fatal larval bee infection. The etiologic agent is the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. The treatment involves incineration of all contaminated materials, leading to high losses. The Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a known antimicrobial potential compound, however its use is reduced due to its low solubility in water and high melting point. The nanoencapsulation of some drugs offers several advantages like improved stability and solubility in water. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against P. larvae and the toxicity in bees of GML nanoparticles. The nanocapsules were produced and presented mean diameter of 210 nm, polydispersity index of 0.044, and zeta potential of -23.4 mV demonstrating the acceptable values to predict a stable system. The microdilution assay showed that it is necessary 142 and 285 μg/mL of GML nanocapsules to obtain a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect respectively. The time-kill curve showed the controlled release of compound, exterminating the microorganism after 24 h. The GML nanocapsules were able to kill the spore form of Paenibacillus larvae while the GML do not cause any effect. The assay in bees showed that the GML has a high toxicity while the GML nanoparticles showed a decrease on toxic effects. Concluding, the formulation shows positive results in the action to combat AFB besides not causing damage to bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Practical use of registered veterinary medicinal products in Macedonia in identifying the risk of developing of antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of antimicrobial agents is the key risk factor for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is therefore generally recognized that data on the usage of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals are essential for identifying and quantifying the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance in the food-chain. According to the WHO guidelines, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system for the classification of veterinary medicines (ATC-vet is widely recognized as a classification tool. The aim of this work is to analyze the list of registered veterinary medicinal products in R. Macedonia and to evaluate the quality and practical use of this list according to the ATC-vet classification in order to identify the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance.

  20. Nanoparticles for antimicrobial purposes in Endodontics: A systematic review of in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Mohammad; Farjami, Afsaneh; Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki; Lotfipour, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial nanoparticles with enhanced physiochemical properties have attracted attention as modern antimicrobials, especially in the complicated oral cavity environment. The goal of the present article is to review the current state of nanoparticles used for antimicrobial purposes in root canal infections. A review was conducted in electronic databases using MeSH keywords to identify relevant published literature in English. The analysis and eligibility criteria were documented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA-guidelines). No restrictions on publication date were imposed. Data regarding root canal disinfections, general antimicrobial mechanisms of nanoparticles, type of nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in endodontics were collected and subjected to descriptive data analysis. The literature search in electronic databases according to the inclusion criteria provided 83 titles and abstracts. Among them 15 papers were related to antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in Endodontics. Silver nanoparticles with sustainable activity were the most studied agent for its antimicrobial behavior in root canal infection. Aided polymeric nanoparticles with photo or ultrasound, glass bioactive nanoparticles as well as Calcium derivative based nanoparticles, with improved activity in comparison with the non-nano counterparts, are of importance in infection control of dental root canal. Bioactive Non-organic nanoparticles with structural capabilities present enhanced antimicrobial activity in root canal infections. All included studies showed an enhanced or at least equal effect of nanoparticulate systems to combat dental root canal infections compared to conventional antimicrobial procedures. However, it is crucial to understand their shortcomings and their probable cellular effects and toxicity as well as environmental effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Solvent exchange-induced in situ forming gel comprising ethyl cellulose-antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Mahadlek, Jongjan

    2015-10-15

    Solvent-exchanged in situ forming gel is a drug delivery system which is in sol form before administration. When it contacts with the body fluid, then the water miscible organic solvent dissipates and water penetrates into the system, leading the polymer precipitation as in situ gel at the site of injection. The aim of this research was to study the parameters affecting the gel properties, drug release and antimicrobial activities of the in situ forming gels prepared from ethyl cellulose (EC) dissolved in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) to deliver the antimicrobial agents (doxycycline hyclate, metronidazole and benzyl peroxide) for periodontitis treatment. The gel appearance, pH, viscosity, rheology, syringeability, gel formation, rate of water diffusion into the gels, in vitro degradation, drug release behavior and antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyrommonas gingivalis were determined. Increasing the amount of EC increased the viscosity of system while still exhibiting Newtonian flow and increased the work of syringeability whereas decreased the releasing of drug. The system transformed into the rigid gel formation after being injected into the simulated gingival crevicular fluid. The developed systems containing 5% w/w antimicrobial agent showed the antimicrobial activities against all test bacteria. Thus the developed solvent exchange-induced in situ forming gels comprising EC-antimicrobial drugs exhibited potential use for periodontitis treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial potential of a lipopeptide biosurfactant derived from a marine Bacillus circulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P; Mukherjee, S; Sen, R

    2008-06-01

    and lichenysin, proving this biosurfactant fraction to be a lipopeptide. The biosurfactant did not show any haemolytic activity when tested on blood agar plates, unlike the lipopeptide biosurfactant surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis. The biosurfactant produced by marine B. circulans had a potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic and semi-pathogenic microbial strains including MDR strains. Only one of the HPLC fractions of the crude biosurfactants was responsible for its antimicrobial action. The antimicrobial lipopeptide biosurfactant fraction was also found to be nonhaemolytic in nature. This work presents a nonhaemolytic lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by a marine micro-organism possessing a pronounced antimicrobial action against a wide range of bacteria. There is a high demand for new antimicrobial agents because of the increased resistance shown by pathogenic micro-organisms against the existing antimicrobial drugs. This study provides an insight into the search of new bioactive molecules from marine micro-organisms.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Halyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to determine in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of various Ficus species against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated locally from infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum with the aim of providing scientific rationale for the use of the plant in the treatment of bacterial infections induced by Aeromonas spp. in fish. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Muller-Hinton agar with the disc diffusion method. In the present study, most ethanolic extracts proved effective against the A. hydrophila tested, with 10-12 mm inhibition zones observed. A. hydrophila demonstrated the highest susceptibility to F. pumila. Among various species of Ficus with moderate activity against A. hydrophila, the highest antibacterial activities were noted for F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea, F. hispida, and F. lyrata. Thus, Ficus can be used as a natural antiseptic and antimicrobial agent in veterinary practice. Further investigations need to be conducted to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds that can then be subjected to detailed pharmacological studies and the development of clinical applications. The alarming rate of increasing resistance in bacterial pathogens in aquaculture environments means that medicinal plants with antibacterial properties are very important as natural resources of new active compounds.

  4. Use of natural ingredients to control growth of Clostridium perfringens in naturally cured frankfurters and hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Armitra L; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sullivan, Gary A; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

    2011-03-01

    A major concern for processed meats marketed as natural/organic is that they do not contain nitrite in concentrations known to be most effective for inhibiting foodborne pathogens. Supplemental treatments to increase the level and consistency of antimicrobial protection in these products may be important to provide consumers with the degree of safety that they have come to expect from conventionally cured meats. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and test ingredients that might improve processed meat product safety without altering their natural/organic status. Eight treatments of hams and frankfurters were prepared: (A) uncured control (typical ingredients except nitrite and nitrate); (B) conventionally cured control (erythorbate, nitrite, and a lactate-diacetate blend); (C) natural nitrate cure (including starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus); (D) natural nitrate cure (culture and natural antimicrobial A containing a vinegar, lemon, and cherry powder blend); (E) natural nitrate cure (culture and antimicrobial B containing a cultured sugar and vinegar blend); (F) natural nitrite cure without additional antimicrobials; (G) natural nitrite cure with natural antimicrobial A; and (H) natural nitrite cure with antimicrobial B. For the hams, treatments C, D, E, and H impacted growth of Clostridium perfringens to the same extent (P cured control (approximately 2 log less growth over time than uncured control). For frankfurters, treatments D, G, and H had an effect (approximately 1 log) on growth equivalent to that of the conventionally cured control (P cured meats have more potential for pathogen growth than conventionally cured products, but supplemental natural ingredients offer safety improvement.

  5. Acinetobacter baumannii: Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance—Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yohei; Murray, Gerald L.; Peleg, Anton Y.

    2015-01-01

    The first decade of the 20th century witnessed a surge in the incidence of infections due to several highly antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in hospitals worldwide. Acinetobacter baumannii is one such organism that turned from an occasional respiratory pathogen into a major nosocomial pathogen. An increasing number of A. baumannii genome sequences have broadened our understanding of the genetic makeup of these bacteria and highlighted the extent of horizontal transfer of DNA. Animal models of disease combined with bacterial mutagenesis have provided some valuable insights into mechanisms of A. baumannii pathogenesis. Bacterial factors known to be important for disease include outer membrane porins, surface structures including capsule and lipopolysaccharide, enzymes such as phospholipase D, iron acquisition systems, and regulatory proteins. A. baumannii has a propensity to accumulate resistance to various groups of antimicrobial agents. In particular, carbapenem resistance has become commonplace, accounting for the majority of A. baumannii strains in many hospitals today. Carbapenem-resistant strains are often resistant to all other routinely tested agents. Treatment of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infection therefore involves the use of combinations of last resort agents such as colistin and tigecycline, but the efficacy and safety of these approaches are yet to be defined. Antimicrobial-resistant A. baumannii has high potential to spread among ill patients in intensive care units. Early recognition and timely implementation of appropriate infection control measures is crucial in preventing outbreaks. PMID:25643273

  6. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In social insects, antimicrobial secretions are often used collectively for the benefit of the whole colony, which is an important component in social immunity. Many ant species build nests in which air circulation can be controlled. Volatile antimicrobial agents would be ideal in implementing socia...

  7. Machine learning: novel bioinformatics approaches for combating antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesic, Nenad; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2017-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to global health and new approaches to combating AMR are needed. Use of machine learning in addressing AMR is in its infancy but has made promising steps. We reviewed the current literature on the use of machine learning for studying bacterial AMR. The advent of large-scale data sets provided by next-generation sequencing and electronic health records make applying machine learning to the study and treatment of AMR possible. To date, it has been used for antimicrobial susceptibility genotype/phenotype prediction, development of AMR clinical decision rules, novel antimicrobial agent discovery and antimicrobial therapy optimization. Application of machine learning to studying AMR is feasible but remains limited. Implementation of machine learning in clinical settings faces barriers to uptake with concerns regarding model interpretability and data quality.Future applications of machine learning to AMR are likely to be laboratory-based, such as antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype prediction.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide induces amyloid formation of antimicrobial peptide HAL-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiarong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Wei; Sun, Hongbin; Wang, Junfeng

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the important component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contributes to the integrity of the outer membrane and protects the cell against bactericidal agents, including antimicrobial peptides. However, the mechanisms of interaction between antimicrobial peptides and LPS are not clearly understood. Halictines-2 (HAL-2), one of the novel antimicrobial peptides, was isolated from the venom of the eusocial bee Halictus sexcinctus. HAL-2 has exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and even against cancer cells. Here, we studied the interactions between HAL-2 and LPS to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of HAL-2 in vitro. Our results show that HAL-2 adopts a significant degree of β-strand structure in the presence of LPS. LPS is capable of inducing HAL-2 amyloid formation, which may play a vital role in its antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Clean-Label Antimicrobials and Nitrite Derived from Natural Sources on the Outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens during Cooling of Deli-Style Turkey Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Amanda M; Glass, Kathleen A; Milkowski, Andrew L; Sindelar, Jeffrey J

    2015-05-01

    Organic acids and sodium nitrite have long been shown to provide antimicrobial activity during chilling of cured meat products. However, neither purified organic acids nor NaNO2 is permitted in products labeled natural and both are generally avoided in clean-label formulations; efficacy of their replacement is not well understood. Natural and clean-label antimicrobial alternatives were evaluated in both uncured and in alternative cured (a process that uses natural sources of nitrite) deli-style turkey breast to determine inhibition of Clostridium perfringens outgrowth during 15 h of chilling. Ten treatments of ground turkey breast (76% moisture, 1.2% salt) included a control and four antimicrobials: 1.0% tropical fruit extract, 0.7% dried vinegar, 1.0% cultured sugar-vinegar blend, and 2.0% lemon-vinegar blend. Each treatment was formulated without (uncured) and with nitrite (PCN; 50 ppm of NaNO2 from cultured celery juice powder). Treatments were inoculated with C. perfringens spores (three-strain mixture) to yield 2.5 log CFU/g. Individual 50-g portions were vacuum packaged, cooked to 71.1°C, and chilled from 54.4 to 26.7°C in 5 h and from 26.7 to 7.2°C in an additional 10 h. Triplicate samples were assayed for growth of C. perfringens at predetermined intervals by plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar. Uncured control and PCN-only treatments allowed for 4.6- and 4.2-log increases at 15 h, respectively, and although all antimicrobial treatments allowed less outgrowth than uncured and PCN, the degree of inhibition varied. The 1.0% fruit extract and 1.0% cultured sugar-vinegar blend were effective at controlling populations at or below initial levels, whether or not PCN was included. Without PCN, 0.7% dried vinegar and 2.0% lemon-vinegar blend allowed for 2.0- and 2.5-log increases, respectively, and ∼1.5-log increases with PCN. Results suggest using clean-label antimicrobials can provide for safe cooling following the study parameters, and greater

  10. Enhanced antimicrobial activity in biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Niraj; Kumari, Priti; Jha, Anal K.; Prasad, K.

    2018-05-01

    Biological synthesis of different metallic and/or oxide nanoparticles and their applications especially in agriculture and biomedical sciences are gaining prominence nowadays due to their handy and reproducible synthetic protocols which are cost-effective and eco-friendly. In this work, green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using the alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica as a reducing and stabilizing agent has been presented. Formation of ZnO NPs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The phytochemicals responsible for nano-transformation were principally alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids, tannins and organic acids present in the Azadirachta indica leaves. The synthesized ZnO NPs were used for antimicrobial assays by disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Results showed that ZnO NPs may act as antimicrobial agent especially against skin infections.

  11. Synthesis, molecular modeling and structural characterization of vanillin derivatives as antimicrobial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Yin, Yong; Sheng, Gui-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Bo; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2013-05-01

    Two vanillin derivatives have been designed and synthesized and their biological activities were also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Their chemical structures are characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, 1H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. Structural stabilization of them followed by intramolecular as well as intermolecular H-bonds makes these molecules as perfect examples in molecular recognition with self-complementary donor and acceptor units within a single molecule. Docking simulations have been performed to position compounds into the FtsZ active site to determine their probable binding model. Compound 3a shows the most potent biological activity, which may be a promising antimicrobial leading compound for the further research.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of anti-biofilm agents for use in dental unit waterlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiller, T F; Kelley, J I; Baqui, A A; DePaola, L G

    2001-01-01

    Dental unit waterline biofilm has been recognized as a potential point of contamination and a risk to patients with any level of immunocompromise. Biofilm in dental unit waterlines, once established, has proven formidable to efforts in disinfection/disruption. This project compared standardized evaluation techniques by assessing the efficacy of a variety of agents that have been reported or suggested as useful in surface disinfection and/or antiseptic protocols. The zones of inhibition, minimum inhibitory/bactericidal concentrations and use-dilution with stainless steel carrier replicates tests assessed the disinfection of planktonic organisms using standardized microbial testing procedures. The disruption and/or disinfection of planktonic and biofilm organisms within naturally occurring dental unit waterlines were evaluated by culture and scanning electron microscopy. The six commercially available antimicrobial agents used to assess the techniques were bleach (sodium hypochlorite), Cavicide, glutaraldehyde, Listerine Antiseptic, Peridex and Sterilex Ultra. Comparisons between the results for each technique evaluated were determined for each product. All six agents demonstrated antimicrobial efficacy at the working concentrations designated by the manufacturers. Biofilm matrix elimination evaluated by scanning electron microscopy found virtually 0% elimination by glutaraldehyde to an estimated 90% elimination by Sterilex Ultra and bleach after one treatment. Treatment with Cavicide, Listerine Antiseptic and Peridex resulted in negligible elimination of the biofilm matrix. For comparability, the use of standardized testing techniques to evaluate a disinfection agent's efficacy against dental unit waterline contamination is essential. This project demonstrates a model system for evaluating disinfection agents potentially useful in the management of dental unit waterline biofilm, and should assist in educating the dental clinician in the appraisal of existing and

  13. antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of gongronema latifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    antimicrobial agents (Esimone et al., 2005). G. latifolia has been ... (Levine et al., 1993; Okeke et al., 2000; Oronsaye and. Oziegbe, 2002). .... availabilities of their chemical diversity (Abad et al.,. 2007). ... Akpan, P.A., 2004. Food from the ...

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Littorina littorea and Galatea paradoxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Sheringham Borquaye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment is a vital resource for bioprospecting pharmacologically important natural products. Molluscs are known to harbour compounds with antimicrobial, antitumor and antioxidant activities. This study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of ethyl acetate and methanol tissue extracts of two molluscs, Littorina littorea (L. littorea and Galatea paradoxa (G. paradoxa. Agar diffusion and broth dilution assays were used to test for antimicrobial activity against nine microbes. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method was used to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Extracts of both molluscs showed significant activity against all the bacteria strains tested but were inactive towards the fungus. The best antibacterial activity was recorded by methanol extract of L. littorea towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In comparison to ethyl acetate extracts, methanol extracts were more efficient in scavenging the DPPH radical. Methanol extracts of L. littorea had an IC50 of 0.37 mg/mL which was closer to that of the standard ascorbic acid drug (0.0048 mg/mL than any of the other extracts. The findings of this work indicate that the tissue extracts of L. littorea and G. paradoxa are promising sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that can be utilized for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  15. Oregano essential oil-based natural antimicrobial packaging film to inactivate Salmonella enterica and yeasts/molds in the atmosphere surrounding cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sang-Jo; Chang, Yoonjee; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film containing the natural antimicrobial oregano essential oil (OEO) as an active packaging application for decreasing the microbial growth. The film exerted an antimicrobial effect via the atmosphere surrounding the food rather than direct contact, thereby preserving the quality of cherry tomatoes. A packaging film containing microencapsulated OEO was developed. The loading content increased gradually (104.29-234.29 μg OEO/mg film) with the amount of OEO incorporated (1%, 2%, and 3%), where the PVA films containing 2% OEO had the highest loading efficiency (91.64%), followed by 1% OEO (90.96%) and 3% OEO (88.38%). The antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated by applying it to fresh cherry tomatoes at 4 °C and 22 °C for 7 days. The large 2% OEO film as well as both the small and large 3% OEO films had strong antimicrobial effects against Salmonella enterica, molds and yeasts, and mesophilic aerobic bacteria. The changes in the hardness, weight, and color of the cherry tomatoes during storage did not differ significantly. The films could be utilized as a packaging material for fresh produce with antimicrobial effects because of the controlled atmosphere surrounding the food rather than by direct contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial and anticancer activities of extracts from Urginea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Increasing antibiotic resistance among human pathogenic microorganisms and the failure of conventional cancer therapies attracting great attention among scientists in the field of herbal medicine to develop natural antimicrobial and anticancer drugs. Thus, the antimicrobial and anticancer activities from fruits ...

  17. A Review of Promising Natural Chemopreventive Agents for Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooker, Kyle; Aliani, Rana; Ananth, Megha; Arnold, Levi; Anant, Shrikant; Thomas, Sufi Mary

    2018-03-30

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accounts for 300,000 deaths per year worldwide and overall survival rates have shown little improvement over the past three decades. Current treatment methods including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy leave patients with secondary morbidities. Thus, treatment of HNSCC may benefit from exploration of natural compounds as chemopreventive agents. With excellent safety profiles, reduced toxicities, antioxidant properties, and general acceptance for use as dietary supplements, natural compounds are viewed as a desirable area of investigation for chemoprevention. Though most of the field is early in development, numerous studies display the potential utility of natural compounds against HNSCC. These compounds face additional challenges such as low bioavailability for systemic delivery, potential toxicities when consumed in pharmacological doses, and acquired resistance. However, novel delivery vehicles and synthetic analogs have shown overcome some of these challenges. This review covers eleven promising natural compounds in the chemoprevention of HNSCC including vitamin A, curcumin, isothiocyanate, green tea, luteolin, resveratrol, genistein, lycopene, bitter melon, withaferin A, and guggulsterone. The review discusses the therapeutic potential and associated challenges of these agents in the chemopreventive efforts against HNSCC. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Antimicrobial consumption, costs and resistance patterns: a two year prospective study in a Romanian intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axente, Carmen; Licker, Monica; Moldovan, Roxana; Hogea, Elena; Muntean, Delia; Horhat, Florin; Bedreag, Ovidiu; Sandesc, Dorel; Papurica, Marius; Dugaesescu, Dorina; Voicu, Mirela; Baditoiu, Luminita

    2017-05-22

    Due to the vulnerable nature of its patients, the wide use of invasive devices and broad-spectrum antimicrobials used, the intensive care unit (ICU) is often called the epicentre of infections. In the present study, we quantified the burden of hospital acquired pathology in a Romanian university hospital ICU, represented by antimicrobial agents consumption, costs and local resistance patterns, in order to identify multimodal interventional strategies. Between 1 st January 2012 and 31 st December 2013, a prospective study was conducted in the largest ICU of Western Romania. The study group was divided into four sub-samples: patients who only received prophylactic antibiotherapy, those with community-acquired infections, patients who developed hospital acquired infections and patients with community acquired infections complicated by hospital-acquired infections. The statistical analysis was performed using the EpiInfo version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20. A total of 1596 subjects were enrolled in the study and the recorded consumption of antimicrobial agents was 1172.40 DDD/ 1000 patient-days. The presence of hospital acquired infections doubled the length of stay (6.70 days for patients with community-acquired infections versus 16.06/14.08 days for those with hospital-acquired infections), the number of antimicrobial treatment days (5.47 in sub-sample II versus 11.18/12.13 in sub-samples III/IV) and they increased by 4 times compared to uninfected patients. The perioperative prophylactic antibiotic treatment had an average length duration of 2.78 while the empirical antimicrobial therapy was 3.96 days in sample II and 4.75/4.85 days for the patients with hospital-acquired infections. The incidence density of resistant strains was 8.27/1000 patient-days for methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 7.88 for extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and 4.68/1000 patient-days for multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Some of the most

  19. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TB DRUGS AND ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vasilyeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study: to study the effect of specific TB drugs and antimicrobial agents constituting chemotherapy regimens on the efficiency of treatment of tuberculosis patients with various patterns of multiple drug resistance.Subjects and Methods. 412 pulmonary tuberculosis patients with bacillary excretion and various patterns of multiple drug resistance were enrolled into the study (117 patients with MDR TB (non pre-XDR and non-XDR; 120 patients with pre-XDR TB and 175 with XDR TB. Patients in the subgroups were compatible regarding sex and age. The patients were prescribed regimens including 5-6 drugs in accordance with their drug resistance pattern. The time of sputum conversion (by culture versus the year of treatment was selected as a surrogate endpoint. The effect of specific TB drugs and antimicrobial agents on treatment efficiency was assessed through calculation of odds ratio (OR of achieving a surrogate endpoint in the patients receiving and not receiving a certain drug.Results. In the subgroup of pre-XDR TB, the following drugs demonstrated the valid increase of odds of sputum conversion: ethambutol (OR 11.8, pyrazinamide (OR 10.2, moxifloxacin (OR 7.8, capreomicin (OR 4.41. Sputum conversion was achieved in all 11 patients treated with bedaquiline.In the subgroup of XDR TB, the following drugs provided a positive effect on the achievement of sputum conversion: bedaquiline (OR 9.62, linezolid (OR 8.15, cycloserine (OR 7.88, pyrazinamide (OR 7.29, moxifloxacin (OR 7.08, and ethambutol (OR 6.69. Ofloxacin demonstrated a confident negative effect on achieving sputum conversion (95% CI 0.06-0.32. 

  20. Current Trends of Using Antimicrobial Drugs in the ICU at a Tertiary Level Teaching Hospital in Mymensingh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S K; Shaha, K C; Haque, M F; Khatun, S; Akhter, S M; Akhter, H

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the current trends of using antimicrobial drugs in the ICU at a tertiary level teaching hospital in Mymensingh. The study of prescribing patterns seeks to monitor, evaluate and suggest modifications in clinicians prescribing habits so as to make medical care rational. It was an observational type of descriptive study, conducted in the Mymensingh medical college hospital, Mymensingh, during the study period of June 2016 to September 2016.The study was approved by the institutional ethical committee. Most patients in the ICU belonged to the older age group >60 years. Male patients were more than the female patients in ICU. Averag