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Sample records for native people study

  1. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Alaska Native people: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Kristen; Boles, Myde; Bushore, Chris J; Pizacani, Barbara A; Maher, Julie E; Peterson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%-44.4%) among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%-18.4%) among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.6-9.6) than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1), but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9). Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS) was very harmful (OR = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.8-7.2), to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) or in restaurants (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.5-6.9), to have a home smoking ban (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9), and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.6) than non-Natives. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse, and establish smoke-free environments.

  2. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among Alaska Native people: a population-based study

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    Kristen Rohde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Results. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%–44.4% among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%–18.4% among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6–9.6 than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1, but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9. Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8–7.2, to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1 or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–6.9, to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6–3.9, and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6 than non-Natives. Conclusion. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse

  3. Cancer survival among Alaska Native people.

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    Nash, Sarah H; Meisner, Angela L W; Zimpelman, Garrett L; Barry, Marc; Wiggins, Charles L

    2018-03-26

    Recent cancer survival trends among American Indian and Alaska Native (AN) people are not well understood; survival has not been reported among AN people since 2001. This study examined cause-specific survival among AN cancer patients for lung, colorectal, female breast, prostate, and kidney cancers. It evaluated whether survival differed between cancers diagnosed in 1992-2002 (the earlier period) and cancers diagnosed in 2003-2013 (the later period) and by the age at diagnosis (<65 vs ≥65 years), stage at diagnosis (local or regional/distant/unknown), and sex. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate univariate and multivariate-adjusted cause-specific survival for each cancer. An improvement was observed in 5-year survival over time from lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for the later period vs the earlier period, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.97), and a marginally nonsignificant improvement was observed for colorectal cancer (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-1.01). Site-specific differences in survival were observed by age and stage at diagnosis. This study presents the first data on cancer survival among AN people in almost 2 decades. During this time, AN people have experienced improvements in survival from lung and colorectal cancers. The reasons for these improvements may include increased access to care (including screening) as well as improvements in treatment. Improving cancer survival should be a priority for reducing the burden of cancer among AN people and eliminating cancer disparities. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  4. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh.

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    Islam, Md Khirul; Saha, Sanjib; Mahmud, Imran; Mohamad, Khalit; Awang, Khalijah; Jamal Uddin, Shaikh; Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Shilpi, Jamil A

    2014-02-03

    Madhupur forest area, Tangail is one of early human settlements in Bangladesh. Having abode in the vicinity of the forest, a strong ethnobotanical practice has prevailed in this area since ancient time. Due to the rapid deforestation during the last few decades, many plants have already disappeared or are facing extinction. Thus we attempted to document the medicinal plant use of Madhupur forest area with a view to preserve the ethnobotanical knowledge and in order to protect the biodiversity of this area. The fieldwork was conducted during a period of 1 year. Data was collected by interview, questionnaire, and group discussion with randomly selected informants including indigenous, tribal people, and Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) living in the study area. Recorded plants are listed along with their indication, part used, form of preparation and use value (UV). Results were also analysed to determine informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL) of the plants on the basis of their use under various ailment categories. The present study has documented 78 medicinal plant species from 45 families used for the treatment of at least 77 different major and minor ailments and conditions. Medicinal plant species were categorised as tree, shrub, tuber, herb, and climber. Leaves were found to be the most frequently used plant part while decoction is the major form of preparation. In most cases preparations are either administered orally or applied topically. The present study revealed that some of the well-known medicinal plants are used extensively demonstrating an effective ethnobotanical practice in the study area. Plants with high ICF and FL values can be subjected to bioassay guided investigation while plants which scored low UVs require bioactivity screening to justify their use for the reported ailment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

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    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  6. NativeView: Our Land, Our People, Our Future

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    Bennett, T.

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this discussion is to (1) discuss the chasm between the breadth of Tribal land and resource to be sustained compared to the finite number of Tribal people trained in the sciences; (2) illustrate the need for integrating scientific knowledge with cultural knowledge; and (3) discuss the emergence of NativeView as Tribal College (TCUs) initiative leading the integration of geoscience and geospatial technology (GIS, Remote Sensing) with cultural knowledge to meet the growing needs of indigenous communities. It's about our land, our people and the need for highly trained individuals to sustainable and manage our resources for the future. There is a tremendous gap between total acreage of land owned or managed and the level of education obtained by indigenous people. In the United States today, American Indians and Alaskan Natives account for less than one percent of the total population, yet are responsible for more than five percent of the total land area. In North Dakota, there are over 54 thousand American Indians responsible for more than 3.8 million acres of Tribal Land. In contrast, less than 15 percent of indigenous people finish a Bachelor's degree of any kind and far fewer finish a science degree that would help them become more effective and responsible land managers. This poses an important dilemma. How will the Tribes meet (1) the resource needs of a growing population, (2) the demand for a skilled workforce, and (3) resource management goals in ways that contribute to Tribal infrastructure and equate to sustainable resource management? The integration of geoscience and geospatial technologies into the curriculum of Tribal Colleges (TCU's) has quietly emerged as one of the leading initiatives across Indian Country. These skills are widely recognized as a vehicle to empower our constituents in the sciences, in the cultural values and the traditional land ethic that defines us as a people. NativeView has taken the lead in working with the

  7. Native on the net indigenous and diasporic peoples in the virtual age

    CERN Document Server

    Landzelius, Kyra; Shi, Xianglin

    2004-01-01

    Exploring the influence of the Internet on the lives of indigenous and diasporic peoples, Kyra Landzelius leads a team of expert anthropologists and ethnographers who go on-site and on-line to explore how a diverse range of indigenous and transnational diasporic communities actually use the Internet. From the Taino Indians of the Caribbean, the U'wa of the Amazon rainforest, and the Tunomans and Assyrians of Iraq, to the Tingas and Zapatistas, Native on the Net is a lively and intriguing exploration of how new technologies have enabled these previously isolated peoples to reach new levels of communication and community: creating new communities online, confronting global corporations, or even challenging their own native traditions. Featuring case studies ranging from the Artic to the Australian outback, this book addresses important recurrent themes, such as the relationship between identity and place, community, traditional cultures and the nature of the 'indigenous'. Native on the Net is a unique contribut...

  8. Mortality trends among Alaska Native people: successes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Current mortality rates are essential for monitoring, understanding and developing policy for a population's health. Disease-specific Alaska Native mortality rates have been undergoing change. Objective . This article reports recent mortality data (2004–2008 for Alaska Native/American Indian (AN/AI people, comparing mortality rates to US white rates and examines changes in mortality patterns since 1980. Design . We used death record data from the state of Alaska, Department of Vital Statistics and SEER*Stat software from the National Cancer Institute to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates. Results . Annual age-adjusted mortality from all-causes for AN/AI persons during the period 2004–2008 was 33% higher than the rate for US whites (RR=1.33, 95% CI 1.29–1.38. Mortality rates were higher among AN/AI males than AN/AI females (1212/100,000 vs. 886/100,000. Cancer remained the leading cause of death among AN/AI people, as it has in recent previous periods, with an age-adjusted rate of 226/100,000, yielding a rate ratio (RR of 1.24 compared to US whites (95% CI 1.14–1.33. Statistically significant higher mortality compared to US white mortality rates was observed for nine of the ten leading causes of AN/AI mortality (cancer, unintentional injury, suicide, alcohol abuse, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], cerebrovascular disease, chronic liver disease, pneumonia/influenza, homicide. Mortality rates were significantly lower among AN/AI people compared to US whites for heart disease (RR=0.82, the second leading cause of death. Among leading causes of death for AN/AI people, the greatest disparities in mortality rates with US whites were observed in unintentional injuries (RR=2.45 and suicide (RR=3.53. All-cause AN/AI mortality has declined 16% since 1980–1983, compared to a 21% decline over a similar period among US whites. Conclusion . Mortality rates and trends are essential to understanding the health of a

  9. Enhancing Cancer Education through the Arts: Building Connections with Alaska Native People, Cultures and Communities

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    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Cueva, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Building upon the dynamic traditions of Alaska Native people, which include the arts as a viable way of knowing, the expressive arts were woven into a five-day cancer education course for Alaska village-based Community Health Workers (CHWs). Cancer is the leading cause of mortality for Alaska Native people. Course learning modalities included…

  10. Occurrence of Endocrine and Thyroid Cancers Among Alaska Native People, 1969-2013.

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    Nash, Sarah H; Lanier, Anne P; Southworth, Molly B

    2018-04-01

    Nationwide, the incidence of thyroid cancer is lower among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people than among U.S. whites (USW). However, little is known about the incidence of thyroid or other endocrine cancers specifically among Alaska Native (AN) people. Data were examined from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Alaska Native Tumor Registry on endocrine cancers diagnosed among AN people from 1969-2013, with a specific focus on thyroid cancers. Frequencies of endocrine cancers by site and also of thyroid cancers by histology, size, and stage at diagnosis were evaluated. Distributions were compared to USW (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registries) using the chi-square test. Five-year average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of thyroid cancers were calculated, stratified by histology, age, and five-year period of diagnosis, and compared to those observed among USW. Five-year cause-specific survival was evaluated using cause of death data from the National Death Index Plus from the National Center for Health Statistics. During the 45-year period (1969-2013), 224 endocrine cancers were diagnosed among AN people, of which 210 (94%) were thyroid cancers. Compared to USW, AN people were diagnosed at a slightly younger age, had a higher proportion of thyroid cancers diagnosed with a size of 20-40 mm, and a larger proportion of patients with regional metastases. More than 85% of AN thyroid cancers were of papillary histology. The incidence of thyroid cancers was similar between AN people and USW, and appeared to increase among AN people over the period of surveillance. Finally, five-year cause-specific survival rate was 100% for papillary carcinoma patients and 86.3% [confidence interval 54.7-96.5] for follicular thyroid cancer patients. This study is the first report of endocrine cancers and the first detailed examination of thyroid cancer among AN people. The incidence of thyroid cancer was similar among

  11. Deconstructing Digital Natives: Young People, Technology, and the New Literacies

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    Thomas, Michael, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There have been many attempts to define the generation of students who emerged with the Web and new digital technologies in the early 1990s. The term "digital native" refers to the generation born after 1980, which has grown up in a world where digital technologies and the internet are a normal part of everyday life. Young people…

  12. Disparities in Infectious Disease Hospitalizations for American Indian/Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert C.; Folkema, Arianne M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Redd, John T.; Christensen, Krista Y.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Cheek, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We described disparities in infectious disease (ID) hospitalizations for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. Methods We analyzed hospitalizations with an ID listed as the first discharge diagnosis in 1998–2006 for AI/AN people from the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System and compared them with records for the general U.S. population from the Nationwide Inpatient Survey. Results The ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people declined during the study period. The 2004–2006 mean annual age-adjusted ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (1,708 per 100,000 populiation) was slightly higher than that for the U.S. population (1,610 per 100,000 population). The rate for AI/AN people was highest in the Southwest (2,314 per 100,000 population), Alaska (2,063 per 100,000 population), and Northern Plains West (1,957 per 100,000 population) regions, and among infants (9,315 per 100,000 population). ID hospitalizations accounted for approximately 22% of all AI/AN hospitalizations. Lower-respiratory--tract infections accounted for the largest proportion of ID hospitalizations among AI/AN people (35%) followed by skin and soft tissue infections (19%), and infections of the kidney, urinary tract, and bladder (11%). Conclusions Although the ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people has declined, it remains higher than that for the U.S. general population, and is highest in the Southwest, Northern Plains West, and Alaska regions. Lower-respiratory-tract infections; skin and soft tissue infections; and kidney, urinary tract, and bladder infections contributed most to these health disparities. Future prevention strategies should focus on high-risk regions and age groups, along with illnesses contributing to health disparities. PMID:21800745

  13. Autonomy-connectedness in collectivistic cultures: an exploratory cross-cultural study among Portuguese natives, Cape-Verdean and Chinese people residing in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Moleiro, C.; Ratinho, I.; Bernardes, S.

    2017-01-01

    WOS:000386402400005 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) The present investigation focuses on a recent personality trait construct, Autonomy-connectedness. This concept has been proposed as a three-dimensional variable (self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and capacity to manage new situations), which intends to reflect a more gender- and culture- sensitive notion of autonomy rather than a value based on individualism and hegemonic masculinity. Two studies were conducted. Study I (N = 185) aime...

  14. Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasupen, K

    2007-01-01

    In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional

  15. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  16. THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES

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    Irina Ancu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were identified numerous biotypes of cornelian cherry, rosehip and seabuckthorn. All these native biotypes were subjected to studies of phenology, productivity, and quality of fruits. These researches identified the highest productivity in the following biotypes: MS-40 (cornelian cherry, RC-CN (rose hip and MPR2P3 (seabuckthorn.

  17. Vitamin D deficiency among northern Native Peoples: a real or apparent problem?

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    Peter Frost

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency seems to be common among northern Native peoples, notably Inuit and Amerindians. It has usually been attributed to: (1 higher latitudes that prevent vitamin D synthesis most of the year; (2 darker skin that blocks solar UVB; and (3 fewer dietary sources of vitamin D. Although vitamin D levels are clearly lower among northern Natives, it is less clear that these lower levels indicate a deficiency. The above factors predate European contact, yet pre-Columbian skeletons show few signs of rickets—the most visible sign of vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, because northern Natives have long inhabited high latitudes, natural selection should have progressively reduced their vitamin D requirements. There is in fact evidence that the Inuit have compensated for decreased production of vitamin D through increased conversion to its most active form and through receptors that bind more effectively. Thus, when diagnosing vitamin D deficiency in these populations, we should not use norms that were originally developed for European-descended populations who produce this vitamin more easily and have adapted accordingly.

  18. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

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    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  19. Positive ageing perceptions among migrant Turkish and native Dutch older people: a matter of culture or resources?

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    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

    2017-07-21

    This study examined ethnic differences in ageing perceptions of migrant Turkish and native Dutch elders residing in Rotterdam, and explored whether such differences could be attributed to culture or resources (personal, physical, economic and/or social). This study was based on combined data from two research projects focusing on the health and well-being of community-dwelling elderly people in Rotterdam. The first dataset contained data from 994 native Dutch elders aged 70-99 years. The Rotterdam municipal register was used to randomly sample respondents, stratified by age group (70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years) and neighbourhood. Of the 2593 eligible respondents, 1075 returned filled-in questionnaires (41% response rate). Of these 1075 respondents a total of 994 were natives which is the sample we selected for the current study. The second dataset contained data from 680 Turkish migrants aged 65-90 years. All Turkish people aged ≥65 years were identified using the Rotterdam municipal register and invited to participate. In total, 680 Turkish respondents returned filled-in questionnaires (32% response rate; out of 2350). Ageing perceptions were measured using the 21-item Ageing Perceptions Questionnaire-Short (APQ-S). Respondents were additionally asked about their current general health, income, education, marital status, age and gender. The results of this study clearly reveal the importance of culture for all ageing perceptions among Turkish and Dutch elders. We found that age, health, and education were also important factors. For Turkish elders, health and education were the most important resources; for Dutch elders, age and health were most important in relation to ageing perceptions. Ageing perceptions were generally more negative among Turkish than among Dutch elders. Turkish elders reported more negative awareness of ageing, felt less in control of their ageing processes, and had more negative emotional reactions to ageing. They also believed

  20. Matis and Korubo, Contact, and Isolated Indigenous Peoples: Native Narratives and Ethnography in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Barbara Maisonnave Arisi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is about isolation, contact, and relations between two Amazonian indigenous peoples: the Matis and the Korubo. Both groups, of the Panoan linguistic family, live in the Vale do Javari Indigenous Land, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. The Matis were contacted by the Funai (the Brazilian agency for indigenous affairs in 1976, and they worked as intermediaries helping the Brazilian government to make contact with the Korubo in 1996. Since then, the Matis have been the main translators and mediators between the Korubo and the rest of the world (indigenous and non-indigenous. Based on my investigation, I propose to classify “isolation” in different ways and to relate the Matis’ own narratives about their contact with their neighbors the Korubo in order to approximate a native conception of what “isolation” and “isolated peoples” mean—if they mean anything at all.

  1. The Native American Studies Program at the University of Oklahoma.

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    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2001-01-01

    Begun in 1994, the Native American Studies program at the University of Oklahoma is an interdisciplinary B.A. program with a liberal arts orientation and strong emphasis on contemporary American Indian policy. Program strengths include the number and diversity of the faculty involved, the four Native languages taught, connections to tribal…

  2. Are New Hampshire "natives" different? A study of New Hampshire natives and three cohorts of in-migrants to New Hampshire

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    Robert A. Robertson

    2003-01-01

    Social science research is often used by resource management agencies to "obtain a balanced view of the preferences and needs of individuals, communities, and special interest publics potentially affected by agency activities." This study explores the extent that those people who are born in New Hampshire (i.e., natives) are different from persons who moved...

  3. Environmental niche separation between native and non-native benthic invertebrate species: Case study of the northern Baltic Sea.

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    Jänes, Holger; Herkül, Kristjan; Kotta, Jonne

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge and understanding of geographic distributions of species is crucial for many aspects in ecology, conservation, policy making and management. In order to reach such an understanding, it is important to know abiotic variables that impact and drive distributions of native and non-native species. We used an existing long-term macrobenthos database for species presence-absence information and biomass estimates at different environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea. Region specific abiotic variables (e.g. salinity, depth) were derived from previously constructed bathymetric and hydrodynamic models. Multidimensional ordination techniques were then applied to investigate potential niche space separation between all native and non-native invertebrates in the northern Baltic Sea. Such an approach allowed to obtain data rich and robust estimates of the current native and non-native species distributions and outline important abiotic parameters influencing the observed pattern. The results showed clear niche space separation between native and non-native species. Non-native species were situated in an environmental space characterized by reduced salinity, high temperatures, high proportion of soft seabed and decreased depth and wave exposure whereas native species displayed an opposite pattern. Different placement of native and non-native species along the studied environmental niche space is likely to be explained by the differences in their evolutionary history, human mediated activities and geological youth of the Baltic Sea. The results of this study can provide early warnings and effectively outline coastal areas in the northern Baltic Sea that are prone to further range expansion of non-native species as climate change is expected to significantly reduce salinity and increase temperature in wide coastal areas, both supporting the disappearance of native and appearance of non-native species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Terror Management in a Multicultural Society: Effects of Mortality Salience on Attitudes to Multiculturalism Are Moderated by National Identification and Self-Esteem Among Native Dutch People.

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    Tjew-A-Sin, Mandy; Koole, Sander Leon

    2018-01-01

    Terror Management Theory (TMT; Greenberg et al., 1997) proposes that mortality concerns may lead people to reject other cultures than their own. Although highly relevant to multiculturalism, TMT has been rarely tested in a European multicultural society. To fill this void, two studies examined the effects of mortality salience (MS) among native Dutch people with varying levels of national identification and self-esteem. Consistent with TMT, MS led to less favorable attitudes about Muslims and multiculturalism among participants with high (rather than low) national identification and low (rather than high) self-esteem (Study 1). Likewise, MS led participants with high national identification and low self-esteem to increase their support of Sinterklaas, a traditional Dutch festivity with purported racist elements (Study 2). Together, these findings indicate that existential concerns may fuel resistance against multiculturalism, especially among people with low self-esteem who strongly identify with their nationality.

  5. Autosomal and uniparental portraits of the native populations of Sakha (Yakutia): implications for the peopling of Northeast Eurasia.

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    Fedorova, Sardana A; Reidla, Maere; Metspalu, Ene; Metspalu, Mait; Rootsi, Siiri; Tambets, Kristiina; Trofimova, Natalya; Zhadanov, Sergey I; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Olivieri, Anna; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Osipova, Ludmila P; Platonov, Fedor A; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Torroni, Antonio; Villems, Richard

    2013-06-19

    Sakha--an area connecting South and Northeast Siberia--is significant for understanding the history of peopling of Northeast Eurasia and the Americas. Previous studies have shown a genetic contiguity between Siberia and East Asia and the key role of South Siberia in the colonization of Siberia. We report the results of a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of 701 mtDNAs and 318 Y chromosomes from five native populations of Sakha (Yakuts, Evenks, Evens, Yukaghirs and Dolgans) and of the analysis of more than 500,000 autosomal SNPs of 758 individuals from 55 populations, including 40 previously unpublished samples from Siberia. Phylogenetically terminal clades of East Asian mtDNA haplogroups C and D and Y-chromosome haplogroups N1c, N1b and C3, constituting the core of the gene pool of the native populations from Sakha, connect Sakha and South Siberia. Analysis of autosomal SNP data confirms the genetic continuity between Sakha and South Siberia. Maternal lineages D5a2a2, C4a1c, C4a2, C5b1b and the Yakut-specific STR sub-clade of Y-chromosome haplogroup N1c can be linked to a migration of Yakut ancestors, while the paternal lineage C3c was most likely carried to Sakha by the expansion of the Tungusic people. MtDNA haplogroups Z1a1b and Z1a3, present in Yukaghirs, Evens and Dolgans, show traces of different and probably more ancient migration(s). Analysis of both haploid loci and autosomal SNP data revealed only minor genetic components shared between Sakha and the extreme Northeast Siberia. Although the major part of West Eurasian maternal and paternal lineages in Sakha could originate from recent admixture with East Europeans, mtDNA haplogroups H8, H20a and HV1a1a, as well as Y-chromosome haplogroup J, more probably reflect an ancient gene flow from West Eurasia through Central Asia and South Siberia. Our high-resolution phylogenetic dissection of mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups as well as analysis of autosomal SNP data suggests that Sakha was colonized by

  6. Study on the genetic diversity of native chickens in northwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H Hassen, FWC Neser, A de Kock, E van Marle-Köster ... in the present study are in accordance with the origin and marketing systems of ... initial step to plan the characterization and conservation of native chickens in Amhara region, Ethiopia.

  7. Community of Learning: Music Learning and Performance Practices among the Native Peoples of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J. Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Through descriptions drawn from interviews of Native American musicians and observations of tribal musical events, this paper presents a challenge to the "conservative educational practices" in public schools of the United States. In conclusion, the paper suggests that by more closely examining different cultural learning, values and traditions,…

  8. Cultural context in the effort to improve oral health among Alaska Native people: the dental health aide therapist model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterhall, Scott; Burrus, Barri; Shugars, Daniel; Bader, James

    2011-10-01

    The Alaska Native people in rural Alaska face serious challenges in obtaining dental care. Itinerant care models have failed to meet their needs for more than 50 years. The dental health aide therapist (DHAT) model, which entails training midlevel care providers to perform limited restorative, surgical, and preventive procedures, was adopted to address some of the limitations of the itinerant model. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess residents' satisfaction with the model and the role of DHATs in the cultural context in which they operate. Our findings suggest that the DHAT model can provide much-needed access to urgent care and is beneficial from a comprehensive cultural perspective.

  9. People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aref

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze a part of the findings of documentation survey and field work carried out for five years in two cities and 67villages in Komeijan region of Markazi province, Iran, from some new perspectives such as ritual morphography, dramatic origin studies, eastern Scapegoat’s and anthropology of rituals. Using methods of current, and interviewing with 119 of the eldest native settlers ,as informants, and regarding the biochronology of man’s life in this region from the primitive form to civility which have been assigned to go back from the third millennium B.C.up to the present time, the morphography of 48 popular Dramatic Rituals has been determined. Among the findings of the study, one of the Archetypal Dramatic rituals, called Qaraiskurmah in the field of Anthropology of rituals, is Scapegoat’s. All these show the high IQ, innovative mind, and creative artistic tastes of the people in this region of Iran, whether they are Turkish, Persia, or Tats speakers.

  10. Sex, Adiposity, and Hypertension Status Modify the Inverse Effect of Marine Food Intake on Blood Pressure in Alaska Native (Yup'ik) People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; O'Brien, Diane M; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Moore, Jason H; Boyer, Bert B; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Alaska Native people currently have a higher prevalence of hypertension than do nonnative Alaskans, although in the 1950s hypertension was rare among Alaska Native people. A novel biomarker of marine foods, the nitrogen isotope ratio (δ¹⁵N) in RBCs was shown to be negatively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Few studies have examined how individual characteristics modify the association of marine food intake with blood pressure. This exploratory analysis examined whether sex, adiposity, and hypertension modify the inverse association between marine food intake and blood pressure. We used covariate-adjusted linear models to describe the association between δ¹⁵N and blood pressure in 873 adult Alaska Native (Yup'ik) people who resided in 8 communities in southwest Alaska. We separately stratified by sex, body mass index (BMI) group, abdominal obesity, and hypertension status and assessed the interaction between δ¹⁵N and participant characteristics on blood pressure via likelihood ratio tests. The association between δ¹⁵N and systolic blood pressure was modified by sex, BMI status, and abdominal obesity, with the inverse association observed only in the male (β = -1.5; 95% CI: -2.4, -0.6 : , nonobese BMI (β = -1.7; 95% CI: -2.5, -1.0), and non-abdominally obese (β = -1.6; 95% CI: -2.4, -0.9) strata (all P-interaction blood pressure associated with δ¹⁵N was observed in the nonobese BMI (β = -1.1; 95% CI: -1.7, -0.5) and non-abdominally obese (β = -1.1; 95% CI: -1.7, -0.5) strata, although only the interaction between BMI group and δ¹⁵N with diastolic blood pressure was significant. The inverse association between δ¹⁵N and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in nonhypertensive individuals, although the comparison had limited power. The results were consistent with those identified by using combined RBC concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as the biomarker of marine food

  11. Associations between diet and cardiometabolic risk among Yup'ik Alaska Native people using food frequency questionnaire dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, T K; Boyer, B B; Hopkins, S; Philip, J; Beresford, S A A; Thompson, B; Heagerty, P J; Pomeroy, J J; Thummel, K E; Austin, M A

    2015-12-01

    In previous analyses, we identified three dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaire data among a sample of Yup'ik Alaska Native people living in Southwest Alaska: a "subsistence foods" dietary pattern and two market-based dietary patterns "processed foods" and "fruits and vegetables". In this analysis, we aimed to characterize the association between the dietary patterns and cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors (lipids, blood pressure, glucose, adiposity). We used multilevel linear regression to estimate the mean of each CM risk factor, comparing participants in the 4th to the 1st quartile of each dietary pattern (n = 637). Models were adjusted for age, sex, past smoking, current smoking, and physical activity. Mean log triglyceride levels were significantly higher among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the processed foods dietary pattern (β = 0.11). Mean HbA1c percent was significantly lower (β = -0.08) and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) mm Hg was significantly higher (β = 2.87) among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the fruits and vegetables dietary pattern. Finally, mean log triglyceride levels and mean DBP mm Hg were significantly lower among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the subsistence foods dietary pattern (β = -0.10 and β = -3.99 respectively). We found increased CM risk, as reflected by increased triglycerides, associated with eating a greater frequency of processed foods, and reduced CM risk, as reflected by lower triglycerides and DBP, associated with eating a greater frequency of subsistence foods. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Contested Domains of Science and Science Learning in Contemporary Native American Communities: Three Case Studies from a National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Nancy Brossard

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of three informal science education partnerships that resulted from a 2003-2006 National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners" (ESI-0307858), hosted by the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center. This dissertation is designed to contribute to understandings of learning processes that occur within and at the intersection of diverse worldviews and knowledge systems, by drawing upon experiences derived from three disparate contexts: 1) The Navajo Nation Museum in Window Rock, Arizona; 2) The A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center on the Zuni Reservation in Zuni, New Mexico; and 3) Science learning camps at the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center for Native youth of southern New England. While informal science education is increasingly moving toward decolonizing and cross-cutting institutional boundaries of learning through critical thinking and real-world applications, the construction of "science" (even within diverse contexts) continues to be framed within a homogenous, predominantly Euro-American perspective. This study analyzes the language of Western science employed in these partnerships, with particular attention to the use of Western/Native binaries that shape perceptions of Native peoples and communities, real or imagined. Connections are drawn to broader nation-state interests in education, science, and the global economy. The role of educational evaluation in these case studies is also critically analyzed, by questioning the ways in which it is constructed, conducted, and evaluated for the purposes of informing future projects and subsequent funding. This study unpacks problems of the dominant language of "expert" knowledge embedded in Western science discourse, and highlights the possibilities of indigenous knowledge systems that can inform Western science frameworks of education and evaluation. Ultimately, this study suggests that research

  13. DIGITAL NATIVE: A STUDY ON THE FIRST-YEAR STUDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Efita Nur Rakhmawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digital native generation emergent triggers the educational practitioner to develop a new way of approaching the teaching practice in the classroom. As it is claimed that this generation has a unique characteristics and way of learning. Therefore, this paper explore the experience of the first year student of English language and letters department in using technology. Students were asked about their access to, use of and preferences for a wide range of established and emerging technologies and technology based tools using a questioner developed to assess their level of digital nativity. The results show that many first year students are highly tech-savvy. However, each student’s experience on the use of technologies and tools (e.g. computers, mobile phones show considerable variation. The findings are analyzed using the Prensky’s theory on the ‘Digital Natives’ and the implications for using technology to support teaching and learning in higher education. The reported data indicate that for a range of emerging technologies were used intensively by the students. Furthermore, the majority of the respondents also claimed that they used the tools and technology to support their study. However, it is inconclusive as how the student integrate the tools and technology in their study.

  14. Digital Native Chilensis: The Young people, of South of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Felipe Andres Nesbet Montecinos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is undeniable that the Internet has a capital importance in the contemporary society. In the new technological paradigm, known as the Information Age, the relevance of the network is equivalent to that of oil in the Industrial Age. Although we can dissent of the prediction done by Nicholas Negroponte in 1995, in its famous book “Being Digital”, with respect to which the digital divide would be translated in a subject, net, generational, expressed in the dichotomy: young person-rich versus old-poor men. However, this author (1995 guessed right in his theory of the greater facility of the young people towards the new technologies. For that reason, the Internet is dominated by young people. The appearance of Wena Naty, a video uploaded to the network (with the explicit consent of their protagonists in which a 14 year old girl practiced oral sex to a partner in a public square, is the most dramatic demonstration of the use and abuse that young Chileans make new technologies.The present article reviews data collected on the use of technologies in Chile (INJUV 2002, Godoy 2006 y PNUD 2006. As well as it analyzes collected own data from the investigations of Carcamo “Percepción del tiempo y de la motivación ante tareas de búsqueda de información y conferencias de texto (Chat mediadas por computador en estudiantes secundarios de Chile” and Nesbet (2007, “Usos de la mensajería instantánea en estudiantes secundarios de Valdivia.”

  15. 20 CFR 668.100 - What is the purpose of the programs established to serve Native American peoples (INA programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... them more competitive in the workforce; (3) Promote the economic and social development of Indian... LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Purposes and... support comprehensive employment and training activities for Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian...

  16. A case study of cultural educational opportunities for Native students: The scientific storyteller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Shelly Ann

    2002-09-01

    This case study examines cultural educational opportunities for Native Alaskan students in Native Alaskan community schools. The study looks at three components of a larger initiative of systemic educational reform efforts for rural Alaskan communities: Native science fairs, summer science camps and involvement of elders. The study focuses on six Native Alaskan students from one Native Alaskan rural village in northern Alaska. The six students ranged from seventh, ninth and eleventh grades. Additionally twenty-one teachers, five Native Alaskan elders and four Alaskan Rural Systemic Initiative staff were interviewed as a part of this study. With interviews, observations, surveys, analysis of science and mathematics achievement scores, this case study will explore the effectiveness of including the science of Native Alaskan culture in the learning environment of rural Alaskan community schools. The outcomes of this study indicate that the self-esteem and attitudes of Native Alaskan students changed positively in relationship to pride in culture, honor of elders, interest in language maintenance and concern for inclusion of Native ways of knowing in school activities as a result of the cultural-rich experiences included in the learning environment. There were no significant results that indicated these types of cultural-rich experiences impacted positive gains in science and mathematics achievement scores of Native Alaskan students. At the end of the study several suggestions are made to improve and consider continued research in this area. It is hoped that this study will provide input to the continued dialogue on Indian Education.

  17. Process and Outcomes of Patient-Centered Medical Care With Alaska Native People at Southcentral Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David L.; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Johnston, Janet M.; Norman, Sara; Reilly, Katie M.; Shaw, Jennifer; Smith, Julia; Szafran, Quenna N.; Dillard, Denise

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study describes key elements of the transition to a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model at Southcentral Foundation (SCF), a tribally owned and managed primary care system, and evaluates changes in emergency care use for any reason, for asthma, and for unintentional injuries, during and after the transition. METHODS We conducted a time series analyses of emergency care use from medical record data. We also conducted 45 individual, in-depth interviews with PCMH patients (customer-owners), primary care clinicians, health system employees, and tribal leaders. RESULTS Emergency care use for all causes was increasing before the PCMH implementation, dropped during and immediately after the implementation, and subsequently leveled off. Emergency care use for adult asthma dropped before, during, and immediately after implementation, subsequently leveling off approximately 5 years after implementation. Emergency care use for unintentional injuries, a comparison variable, showed an increasing trend before and during implementation and decreasing trends after implementation. Interview participants observed improved access to primary care services after the transition to the PCMH tempered by increased staff fatigue. Additional themes of PCMH transformation included the building of relationships for coordinated, team-based care, and the important role of leadership in PCMH implementation. CONCLUSIONS All reported measures of emergency care use show a decreasing trend after the PCMH implementation. Before the implementation, overall use and use for unintentional injuries had been increasing. The combined quantitative and qualitative results are consistent with decreased emergency care use resulting from a decreased need for emergency care services due to increased availability of primary care services and same-day appointments. PMID:23690385

  18. The preparation of native livers for morphological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, J; Ottman, D M; Eichmann, T J

    1994-09-01

    We describe experiences with a perfusion fixation apparatus that was used for studies on approximately 500 native livers. Immediately after excision of the specimen, small samples from needle biopsy specimens are obtained for snap-freezing and the remaining portions of the specimens are fixed and embedded in paraffin. In the laboratory, the portal vein and, if possible, the hepatic artery or common hepatic duct are then cannulated and the livers are perfused for 3 days with Kaiserling's solution. An electric pump drives the perfusion apparatus and allows the formalin to cascade through stacked plastic containers, with the specimens attached to the inflow nozzles for the fixative. Eight or more livers (or other organs and specimens) can be accommodated simultaneously. Angiograms or cholangiograms can be prepared before or after fixation; we prefer the latter. The livers are then sliced with an extra-long knife, which minimizes cutting marks. Most preparations are thoroughly fixed and yield excellent specimens, not only for routine microscopic study but also for special methods such as scanning electron microscopy and trace metal analysis. The liver slices can be stored indefinitely, which allows long-range collection for routine review or research purposes. In approximately 5% of the cases, specimens cannot be perfused properly and thus are unsuitable for this type of preparation. With autopsy specimens this percentage is higher, probably because of postmortem clotting. Gravity perfusion of the livers before placement into the apparatus generally enables identification of specimens with incomplete filling of the vasculature.

  19. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli, Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  20. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  1. Cultivation studies of Taiwanese native Miscanthus floridulus lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.L.; Liao, W.C.; Lai, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    Four Taiwanese native Miscanthus floridulus lines, collected at altitudes of 260, 500, 1000, and 1500 m were cultivated in 2009 and 2010. The plant height and tiller numbers of four M. floridulus lines increased gradually along with the growing time. These M. floridulus lines had the tallest plant height and most tiller number after these species were planted 210 days. Line 3, which was collected at the altitude of 1000 m, had the ability to grow at low temperature. Line 3 M. floridulus had the highest plant height, tiller number, fresh and dry yields than other three lines. Fresh and dry yields of Line 3 were positively correlated to the plant height, tiller number, and leaf width, but showed no correlation with the leaf length. The correlation between agronomic traits and climatic data was also studied. Results can be used as a model for developing a non-food crop-based energy production system in the future. -- Highlights: → Miscanthus floridulus collected at 1000 m altitude had the highest plant height, tiller number, fresh and dry yields. → Fresh and dry yields of were positively correlated to the plant height, tiller number, and leaf width. → Fresh and dry yields showed no correlation with the leaf length. → The accumulative rainfall, temperature, radiation, and exposure time to radiation were positively correlated to the plant height, leaf length and leaf width.

  2. Are "Digital Natives" Really Digitally Competent?--A Study on Chinese Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ranieri, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Literature review has found that despite the considerable attention focused on "digital natives", few studies have carefully investigated the characteristics of this group. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the debate on digital natives by providing a "piece of evidence" on the digital competence status of a group…

  3. Genomic African and Native American Ancestry and Chagas Disease: The Bambui (Brazil) Epigen Cohort Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Macinko, James; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Mello; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2016-05-01

    The influence of genetic ancestry on Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease outcomes is unknown. We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual proportions of African, European and Native American genomic ancestry with T. cruzi infection and related outcomes in 1,341 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) of the Bambui (Brazil) population-based cohort study of aging. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic characteristics and an array of health measures. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.5% and 56.3% of those infected had a major ECG abnormality. Baseline T. cruzi infection was correlated with higher levels of African and Native American ancestry, which in turn were strongly associated with poor socioeconomic circumstances. Cardiomyopathy in infected persons was not significantly associated with African or Native American ancestry levels. Infected persons with a major ECG abnormality were at increased risk of 15-year mortality relative to their counterparts with no such abnormalities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% 1.41, 2.32). African and Native American ancestry levels had no significant effect modifying this association. Our findings indicate that African and Native American ancestry have no influence on the presence of major ECG abnormalities and had no influence on the ability of an ECG abnormality to predict mortality in older people infected with T. cruzi. In contrast, our results revealed a strong and independent association between prevalent T. cruzi infection and higher levels of African and Native American ancestry. Whether this association is a consequence of genetic background or differential exposure to infection remains to be determined.

  4. A Qualitative Study of a Native American Mascot at "Public University"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Michelle Lyn

    2010-01-01

    At the time this study began, there were approximately 60 senior colleges and universities using Native American mascots or nicknames to represent their athletic teams (Fournier, 2003). Many Native Americans, coalitions, organizations, and researchers (Connolly, 2000; Davis, 2002; King & Springwood, 2000; NCAA, 2001) believe that these mascots…

  5. THE USE OF DOCUMENTARY ÍNDIO CIDADÃO? IN A CULTURE PROJECT FOR THE REFLECTION ON THE RIGHTS OF BRAZILIAN NATIVE PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Siqueira da Silva Schneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the use of film source, which one has been worked in a culture project, that was approved and it has going on in the law school of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande  FURG. In this study, the methodology used is descriptive during the case study of culture project named I Ciclo de Estudos   Discutindo Direitos Históricos a partir do Documentário Índio Cidadão?, in that the film narrative, the documental research, and the bibliographic review are analyzed. It is discussed about the Brazilian native people rights which were declared by the Brazilian State since the Brasilian Constituent of 1987. It is reflected on the use of the film supply in the research and how it can be used in a specific way for the law study relating to the cultural projects. In relation to cultural project referred, it is questioned about the possible contributions that those actions can have in order to develop an awareness of academic society, including the acceptance and coexistence with cultural diversity at the University. It is concluded that the film source can contribute through cultural projects during the academic activities to promote the debate about the historical construction of rights and their effectiveness.

  6. Final Project Report, Bristol Bay Native Corporation Wind and Hydroelectric Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaught, Douglas J.

    2007-03-31

    The Bristol Bay Native Corporation (BBNC) grant project focused on conducting nine wind resource studies in eight communities in the Bristol Bay region of southwest Alaska and was administered as a collaborative effort between BBNC, the Alaska Energy Authority, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Nushagak Electric Cooperative (NEC), Naknek Electric Association (NEA), and several individual village utilities in the region. BBNC’s technical contact and the project manager for this study was Douglas Vaught, P.E., of V3 Energy, LLC, in Eagle River, Alaska. The Bristol Bay region of Alaska is comprised of 29 communities ranging in size from the hub community of Dillingham with a population of approximately 3,000 people, to a few Native Alaska villages that have a few tens of residents. Communities chosen for inclusion in this project were Dillingham, Naknek, Togiak, New Stuyahok, Kokhanok, Perryville, Clark’s Point, and Koliganek. Selection criteria for conduction of wind resource assessments in these communities included population and commercial activity, utility interest, predicted Class 3 or better wind resource, absence of other sources of renewable energy, and geographical coverage of the region. Beginning with the first meteorological tower installation in October 2003, wind resource studies were completed at all sites with at least one year, and as much as two and a half years, of data. In general, the study results are very promising for wind power development in the region with Class 6 winds measured in Kokhanok; Class 4 winds in New Stuyahok, Clark’s Point, and Koliganek; Class 3 winds in Dillingham, Naknek, and Togiak; and Class 2 winds in Perryville. Measured annual average wind speeds and wind power densities at the 30 meter level varied from a high of 7.87 meters per second and 702 watts per square meter in Kokhanok (Class 6 winds), to a low of 4.60 meters per second and 185 watts per square meter in Perryville (Class 2 winds).

  7. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  8. "We Don't Live like that Anymore": Native Peoples at the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife, 1970-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife, an annual event on the National Mall featuring tradition bearers from around the country, premiered a new American Indian program that combined presentations of Native traditions with panel discussions of contemporary social, political, and economic issues facing Native…

  9. Polysemous Verbs and Modality in Native and Non-Native Argumentative Writing: A Corpus-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Salazar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a corpus-based analysis of a selection of polysemous lexical verbs used to express modality in student argumentative writing. Twenty-three lexical verbs were searched for in three 100,000-word corpora of argumentative essays written in English by American, Filipino and Spanish university students. Concordance lines were examined to determine their use in the three corpora. After presenting the overall results for all verbs studied, more in-depth linguistic analysis was performed on the polysemous verb feel. These analyses revealed that the non-native writers, unlike their native counterparts, had a limited grasp of the full range of meanings of lexical verbs such as feel. It also showed that all student writers under study employed only a restricted range of lexical verbs to convey modal meanings in their writing.En este artículo presentamos un análisis de una selección de verbos polisémicos, utilizados para expresar modalidad, en tres corpus de textos argumentativos escritos en inglés por estudiantes universitarios americanos, filipinos y españoles. Después de exponer los resultados generales, se presenta un análisis más exhaustivo del verbo polisémico feel, que revela que los estudiantes no nativos, a diferencia de los nativos, tienen un conocimiento limitado de su diversidad de sentidos. También muestra que todos los estudiantes analizados usaron un repertorio restringido de verbos léxicos que expresan modalidad.

  10. Atomic force microscopy studies of native photosynthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, James N; Tucker, Jaimey D; Olsen, John D; Hunter, C Neil; Niederman, Robert A

    2009-05-05

    In addition to providing the earliest surface images of a native photosynthetic membrane at submolecular resolution, examination of the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) of purple bacteria by atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revealed a wide diversity of species-dependent arrangements of closely packed light-harvesting (LH) antennae, capable of fulfilling the basic requirements for efficient collection, transmission, and trapping of radiant energy. A highly organized architecture was observed with fused preparations of the pseudocrystalline ICM of Blastochloris viridis, consiting of hexagonally packed monomeric reaction center light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complexes. Among strains which also form a peripheral LH2 antenna, images of ICM patches from Rhodobacter sphaeroides exhibited well-ordered, interconnected networks of dimeric RC-LH1 core complexes intercalated by rows of LH2, coexisting with LH2-only domains. Other peripheral antenna-containing species, notably Rhodospirillum photometricum and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, showed a less regular organization, with mixed regions of LH2 and RC-LH1 cores, intermingled with large, paracrystalline domains. The ATP synthase and cytochrome bc(1) complex were not observed in any of these topographs and are thought to be localized in the adjacent cytoplasmic membrane or in inaccessible ICM regions separated from the flat regions imaged by AFM. The AFM images have served as a basis for atomic-resolution modeling of the ICM vesicle surface, as well as forces driving segregation of photosynthetic complexes into distinct domains. Docking of atomic-resolution molecular structures into AFM topographs of Rsp. photometricum membranes generated precise in situ structural models of the core complex surrounded by LH2 rings and a region of tightly packed LH2 complexes. A similar approach has generated a model of the highly curved LH2-only membranes of Rba. sphaeroides which predicts that sufficient space exists between LH2 complexes

  11. A 4-year study of invasive and native spider populations in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Elizabeth M.; Porter, Adam H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Bednarski, Julie V.; Houser, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Invasive spiders pose potential threats to native spiders. In 2002, the European spider Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) was discovered in all but one county in Maine. At Acadia National Park, we conducted a 4-year study of L. triangularis and three native linyphiid species of a similar size (Frontinella communis (Hentz, 1850), Pityohyphantes subarcticus Chamberlin and Ivie, 1943, and Neriene radiata (Walckenaer, 1842)). Using line-transect surveys, we measured population densities in coastal and forest habitat. The density of L. triangularis varied across years but was always significantly higher on the coast than in the forest. In contrast, only one native species was present on the coast and at very low numbers. Coastal L. triangularis were larger and in better condition than those in the forest, and numbers and biomass of insect prey were also higher on the coast. In 2 years, we also conducted transects at a second coastal location in Maine where the invader was at low density. At that site, native densities were substantially higher than at either Acadia site. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that L. triangularis is reducing populations of native spiders. Companion studies suggest that L. triangularis negatively impacts natives by usurping both web sites and webs.

  12. Native oxide formation on pentagonal copper nanowires: A TEM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimammadov, Rashad; Mohl, Melinda; Kordas, Krisztian

    2018-06-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized copper nanowires were allowed to oxidize in air at room temperature and 30% constant humidity for the period of 22 days. The growth of native oxide layer was followed up by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction to reveal and understand the kinetics of the oxidation process. Copper oxides appear in the form of differently oriented crystalline phases around the metallic core as a shell-like layer (Cu2O) and as nanoscopic islands (CuO) on the top of that. Time dependent oxide thickness data suggests that oxidation follows the field-assisted growth model at the beginning of the process, as practically immediately an oxide layer of ∼2.8 nm thickness develops on the surface. However, after this initial rapid growth, the local field attenuates and the classical parabolic diffusion limited growth plays the main role in the oxidation. Because of the single crystal facets on the side surface of penta-twinned Cu nanowires, the oxidation rate in the diffusion limited regime is lower than in polycrystalline films.

  13. Systematic study of metal-insulator-metal diodes with a native oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, E.; Gammon, P. M.; Pang, J. S.; Petrov, P. K.; Alford, N. McN.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a systematic analysis of native oxides within a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is carried out, with the goal of determining their practicality for incorporation into a nanoscale Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna). The requirement of having a sub-10nm oxide scale is met by using the native oxide, which forms on most metals exposed to an oxygen containing environment. This, therefore, provides a simplified MIM fabrication process as the complex, controlled oxide deposition step is omitted. We shall present the results of an investigation into the current-voltage characteristics of various MIM combinations that incorporate a native oxide, in order to establish whether the native oxide is of sufficient quality for good diode operation. The thin native oxide layers are formed by room temperature oxidation of the first metal layer, deposited by magnetron sputtering. This is done in-situ, within the deposition chamber before depositing the second metal electrode. Using these structures, we study the established trend where the bigger the difference in metal workfunctions, the better the rectification properties of MIM structures, and hence the selection of the second metal is key to controlling the device's rectifying properties. We show how leakage current paths through the non-optimised native oxide control the net current-voltage response of the MIM devices. Furthermore, we will present the so-called diode figures of merit (asymmetry, non-linearity and responsivity) for each of the best performing structures.

  14. Systematic study of metal-insulator-metal diodes with a native oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Donchev, E.

    2014-10-07

    © 2014 SPIE. In this paper, a systematic analysis of native oxides within a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is carried out, with the goal of determining their practicality for incorporation into a nanoscale Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna). The requirement of having a sub-10nm oxide scale is met by using the native oxide, which forms on most metals exposed to an oxygen containing environment. This, therefore, provides a simplified MIM fabrication process as the complex, controlled oxide deposition step is omitted. We shall present the results of an investigation into the current-voltage characteristics of various MIM combinations that incorporate a native oxide, in order to establish whether the native oxide is of sufficient quality for good diode operation. The thin native oxide layers are formed by room temperature oxidation of the first metal layer, deposited by magnetron sputtering. This is done in-situ, within the deposition chamber before depositing the second metal electrode. Using these structures, we study the established trend where the bigger the difference in metal workfunctions, the better the rectification properties of MIM structures, and hence the selection of the second metal is key to controlling the device\\'s rectifying properties. We show how leakage current paths through the non-optimised native oxide control the net current-voltage response of the MIM devices. Furthermore, we will present the so-called diode figures of merit (asymmetry, non-linearity and responsivity) for each of the best performing structures.

  15. Hemispheric asymmetry of emotion words in a non-native mind: a divided visual field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jończyk, Rafał

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates hemispheric specialization for emotional words among proficient non-native speakers of English by means of the divided visual field paradigm. The motivation behind the study is to extend the monolingual hemifield research to the non-native context and see how emotion words are processed in a non-native mind. Sixty eight females participated in the study, all highly proficient in English. The stimuli comprised 12 positive nouns, 12 negative nouns, 12 non-emotional nouns and 36 pseudo-words. To examine the lateralization of emotion, stimuli were presented unilaterally in a random fashion for 180 ms in a go/no-go lexical decision task. The perceptual data showed a right hemispheric advantage for processing speed of negative words and a complementary role of the two hemispheres in the recognition accuracy of experimental stimuli. The data indicate that processing of emotion words in non-native language may require greater interhemispheric communication, but at the same time demonstrates a specific role of the right hemisphere in the processing of negative relative to positive valence. The results of the study are discussed in light of the methodological inconsistencies in the hemifield research as well as the non-native context in which the study was conducted.

  16. Receptor protection studies comparing recombinant and native nicotinic receptors: Evidence for a subpopulation of mecamylamine-sensitive native alpha3beta4* nicotinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, R Benjamin; Kaser, Daniel J; Boyd, R Thomas; McKay, Dennis B

    2006-01-09

    Studies involving receptor protection have been used to define the functional involvement of specific receptor subtypes in tissues expressing multiple receptor subtypes. Previous functional studies from our laboratory demonstrate the feasibility of this approach when applied to neuronal tissues expressing multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the current studies, the ability of a variety of nAChR agonists and antagonists to protect native and recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs from alkylation were investigated using nAChR binding techniques. Alkylation of native alpha3beta4* nAChRs from membrane preparations of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells resulted in a complete loss of specific [(3)H]epibatidine binding. This loss of binding to native nAChRs was preventable by pretreatment with the agonists, carbachol or nicotine. The partial agonist, cytisine, produced partial protection. Several nAChR antagonists were also tested for their ability to protect. Hexamethonium and decamethonium were without protective activity while mecamylamine and tubocurarine were partially effective. Addition protection studies were performed on recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs. As with native alpha3beta4* nAChRs, alkylation produced a complete loss of specific [(3)H]epibatidine binding to recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs which was preventable by pretreatment with nicotine. However, unlike native alpha3beta4* nAChRs, cytisine and mecamylamine, provide no protection for alkylation. These results highlight the differences between native alpha3beta4* nAChRs and recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs and support the use of protection assays to characterize native nAChR subpopulations.

  17. A qualitative study of motivation in Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP) precollege students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatchmeneff, Michele

    successfully complete advanced high school and college-level mathematics and science courses prior to high school graduation. This study was designed to examine the motivations of Alaska Native high school students who participated in the ANSEP Precollege components to take advanced mathematics and science courses in high school or before college. Participants were 30 high school or college students, 25 of whom were Alaska Native, who were currently attending or had attended Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP) Precollege components in high school. Self-determination theory was used as this study's theoretical framework to develop the semi-structured interview questions and also analyze the interviews. A thematic approach was used to analyze the interviews. The results of this study indicated that ANSEP helped the Alaska Native high school students gain a sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in order to be motivated to take advanced mathematics and science courses in high school or before college. In particular, Alaska Native high school students described that relatedness was an important element to them being motivated to take advanced mathematics and science courses. More specifically, participants reported that the Alaska Native community developed at the ANSEP Building and the relationships they developed with their Alaska Native high school peers and staff played an influential role in the motivation of these students. These findings are important because research suggests that autonomy and competence are more important elements than relatedness because they generate or maintain intrinsic motivation. Alaska Native high school students reported that ANSEP was more successful in helping them gain a sense of competence and relatedness than at helping them gain a sense of autonomy. More specifically, the reason the participants did not feel ANSEP developed their sense of autonomy was because ANSEP restricted their actions during the ANSEP Precollege

  18. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  19. Comparative study of laterality in people with fragile X syndrome, people with intellectual disabilities, and people with typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niort, Jannick; Hernández Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2017-07-01

    Following on from the studies by McManus and Cornish [(1997). Fractionating handedness in mental retardation: What is the role of the cerebellum? Laterality, 2(2), 81-89] and Cornish, Pigram, and Shaw [(1997). Do anomalies of handedness exist in children with fragile-X syndrome? Laterality, 2(2), 91-101], the aim of this paper was to determine laterality in people with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The sample comprised three study groups: the first with 30 people with FXS (mean age 17.9 years), the second 34 people with various intellectual disabilities (ID, mean age 20.9 years), and the third 160 people with typical development (mean age 14.7 years). Laterality was assessed with a test adapted for this study. The results confirm the preponderance of right-handedness (93.3%) in people with FXS and present new data regarding footedness and sensory dominance (eyedness and earedness), indicating inconsistent footedness and ocular cross-dominance. Almost three-quarters (73.5%) of people with other ID were right-handed. The results corroborate those of McManus and Cornish (1997). People with FXS tend to be right-handed but have ocular cross-dominance.

  20. Cancer incidence among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes--a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Krasnik, A; Pipper, C

    2007-01-01

    STUDY AIMS: To investigate the incidence of cancer among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes, including time trends in the risk of cancer among migrants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design. Migrants were matched 1:4 on age and sex with a Danish born reference population....... The time trends of the study are interesting and a relevant topic for further research....

  1. A within-country study of leadership perceptions and outcomes across native and immigrant employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Bøllingtoft, Anne; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the universality of transformational leadership with respect to employee perceptions and three outcomes: job satisfaction, self-rated health, and well-being. We do so among employees of different national and cultural backgrounds, yet within a shared national and sectorial...... setting. Our study has a repeated measures design based on survey data from 2,947 employees (2,836 natives Danes and 111 immigrants) in the Danish elder care sector. While we find no difference between native Danes and immigrants in their perception of transformational leadership, we find...

  2. Prevalence and description of selective mutism in immigrant and native families: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Yoel; Perednik, Ruth

    2003-12-01

    To assess the incidence of selective mutism (SM) in West Jerusalem's state preschools and evaluate social anxiety/phobia disposition (SAP), social competence (SC), markers of neurodevelopmental delay/disorder (NDD), mothers' psychological adjustment, and marital conflict in immigrant and native children with SM and their matched controls. Mothers of 9 immigrant and 10 native children with SM and their matched controls completed questionnaires evaluating themselves, their marriages, and their children. A response rate of 30% (19/64) was obtained. The general prevalence of SM was 0.76%, while the rate among immigrants was 2.2%. Except for mothers' adjustment, all immigrant/native group effects were significant. There were significant interactions between the SM/control and immigrant/native groups for SAP, NDD, and SC. Immigrant children with SM had higher SAP and SC scores and lower NDD scores than native children with SM. This study distinguished between homogenous (socially anxious) and comorbid children with SM. In this sample, the disorder appeared to be associated with a combination of a specific diathesis (SAP) with intrinsic (NDD) and/or environmental (family immigration) vulnerabilities. Marital discord appeared to be a general risk factor for SM.

  3. A radiographic study of growth plate closure compared with age in the Korean native goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H.J.; Shin, H.J.; Kang, S.K.; Cho, J.K.; Chang, D.W.; Lee, Y.W.; Jeong, S.M.; Park, S.J.; Shin, S.T.; Lee, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the growth plate closure time with aging in the Korean native goat. Radiographs of proximal and distal epiphysis of humerus, radius, ulna, femur and tibia were obtained at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, 30, 43 and 52 weeks after birth in 30 Korean native goats. The secondary ossification centers were scrutinized and assessed the maturity process on the basis of the criteria (stage 0 to 10). The secondary ossification centers of proximal and distal epiphysis of humerus, radius, femur and tibia and proximal ulna epiphysis appeared immediately after birth

  4. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms, leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective was to carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 m NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50), and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labeled with 29.6 MBq of I using chloramine T method and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35 @ 5 g) were injected IP with 0.1 mL (2.4x10 cpm/mouse) of I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 cpm/mouse) of I irradiated crotamine. The animals were sacrificed by ether inhalation at 0.08, 0.25, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, or protein primary structure, although differences could be seen by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity, but did not eliminate bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. Native and irradiated crotamine have an affinity to skeletal muscle and did not cross the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  5. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  6. A Study of Recurrent and Convolutional Neural Networks in the Native Language Identification Task

    KAUST Repository

    Werfelmann, Robert

    2018-05-24

    Native Language Identification (NLI) is the task of predicting the native language of an author from their text written in a second language. The idea is to find writing habits that transfer from an author’s native language to their second language. Many approaches to this task have been studied, from simple word frequency analysis, to analyzing grammatical and spelling mistakes to find patterns and traits that are common between different authors of the same native language. This can be a very complex task, depending on the native language and the proficiency of the author’s second language. The most common approach that has seen very good results is based on the usage of n-gram features of words and characters. In this thesis, we attempt to extract lexical, grammatical, and semantic features from the sentences of non-native English essays using neural networks. The training and testing data was obtained from a large corpus of publicly available essays written by authors of several countries around the world. The neural network models consisted of Long Short-Term Memory and Convolutional networks using the sentences of each document as the input. Additional statistical features were generated from the text to complement the predictions of the neural networks, which were then used as feature inputs to a Support Vector Machine, making the final prediction. Results show that Long Short-Term Memory neural network can improve performance over a naive bag of words approach, but with a much smaller feature set. With more fine-tuning of neural network hyperparameters, these results will likely improve significantly.

  7. A Comparative Study on the Use of Compliment Response Strategies by Persian and English Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Mansour; Zeinali, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The significance of pragmatic knowledge and politeness strategies has recently been emphasized in language learning and teaching. Most communication failures originate in the lack of pragmatic awareness which is evident among EFL learners while communicating with English native speakers. The present study aimed at investigating compliment response…

  8. A Comparative Study of Vygotsky's Perspectives on Child Language Development with Nativism and Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastpak, Mehdi; Behjat, Fatemeh; Taghinezhad, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the similarities and differences between Vygotsky's perspectives on child language development with nativism and behaviorism. Proposing the idea of the Zone of Proximal Development, Vygotsky emphasized the role of collaborative interaction, scaffolding, and guided participation in language learning. Nativists, on…

  9. Do Digital Natives Differ by Computer Self-Efficacy and Experience? An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This study serves to validate a Chinese translation of the Digital Native Assessment Scale (C-DNAS) and assess if significant differences exist between a sample of students and teachers from a culture different than the one used in the development of the DNAS. Participants were 402 university students from one province in Mainland China. Results…

  10. Encouraging Students to Engage with Native Speakers during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadd, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Students, their parents, and educators trust that a study-abroad experience is the best way to increase linguistic proficiency. The professional literature, however, shows a much more complex picture. Gains in linguistic proficiency appear to depend on variables such as whether the students experience a homestay or dormitory, the length of time…

  11. A new self-expandable aortic valved stent deployed above native leaflets for aortic insufficiency: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H; Zhou, Y; Shao, J; Cai, J; Mei, Y; Wang, Y

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop a new self-expandable aortic valved stent following the shape of the sinus of Valsalva, which can be deployed above native leaflets for aortic regurgitation, and study it's effect on coronary artery flow when orthotopic implantation in and above native leaflets. New self-expandable aortic valved stent consist of nitinol stent and bovine pericardium, and was designed following the shape of the sinus of Valsalva, the bovine pericardium was tailed as native leaflet. Thirty-six swine hearts were divided into three equal groups of twelve. In Group A (N.=12), the new self-expandable aortic valved stents deployed in native leaflets. In Group B (N.=12), the new self-expandable aortic valved stents deployed above native leaflets. In Group C (N.=12), the cylinder-like valved stents deployed only in native leaflets. The measurements of each coronary flow rate and endoscopic inspections were repeated post-implantation. In Group A and C, valve implantation in native leaflets resulted in a significant decrease in both left and right coronary flows. In Group B, no significant change in either right or left coronary flow was found after new self-expandable aortic valved stent placement. Endoscopic inspections showed that in group A and C the native leaflets sandwiched between valved stent and aortic wall, whereas, in group B the native leaflets were under the artificial leaflets. Two kinds of stents deployed in native leaflets affect left and right coronary flows significantly. No significant effect was found when the new self-expandable aortic valved stent deployed above native leaflets. This new self-expandable aortic valved stent can be deployed above the native leaflets, which avoids the obstruction of native leaflets on coronary flow.

  12. Trends in the social and interpersonal relations of young people and digital natives in the Web 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes-Ainhoa Hermida-Ayala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Web towards a Universal Digital Network entails a change in the behaviours, uses and competences of internet users. There are new forms to access, manage and design information and they are generating different behaviours in the management of such information and in social relations. Those who make greater use of such new resources and services are the so-called “digital natives”. The purpose of this research is to evaluate and analyse the socio-communicative behaviours and competences that young people and “digital natives” are developing in the Web. This phase of analysis is purely qualitative so the conclusions are only about trends. The results show that there are clear differences in the online behaviours of two age groups: the “digital natives” (14 to 17 year-olds and the “digital immigrants” (18 to 35 year-olds.

  13. Comparative study between reconstructed and native human epidermis using nuclear microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ynsa, M.D.; Gontier, E.; Mavon, A.; Moretto, P.; Rosdy, M.

    2006-01-01

    The physiological status of native skin is suffering from large inter-individual variations, especially in terms of inorganic ions content. For this reason, together with the advent of ethic laws on animal experimentation, reconstructed skin or epidermis models are extensively employed nowadays in penetration studies for cosmetic or pharmacological applications. It has been already verified that reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) has similar physiological mechanisms to native human skin, but until now, there are few studies where the elemental concentrations of both skins, reconstructed and native, are compared. In this work, freeze-dried thin sections of human native skin obtained from surgery have been characterized using PIXE, RBS and STIM at the CENBG nuclear microprobe. RHE samples were treated and analyzed in the same conditions for comparison. The combination of the different imaging and analysis techniques made possible a clear delimitation and identification of skin ultrastructure. The elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K and Ca were measured in the different strata. For both skins, concentrations have been compared and significant differences in terms of elemental concentrations have been determined using statistical approaches. Similar physiological characteristics were pointed out in both skin models, in particular the Ca gradient presumably involved in the regulation of the barrier effect

  14. Comparative study between reconstructed and native human epidermis using nuclear microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ynsa, M.D. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3-CNRS/Unite Interface Physique-Biologie, BP 120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)]. E-mail: ynsa@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Gontier, E. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3-CNRS/Unite Interface Physique-Biologie, BP 120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Mavon, A. [Institut de Recherche Pierre FABRE, Castanet Tolosan (France); Moretto, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3-CNRS/Unite Interface Physique-Biologie, BP 120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Rosdy, M. [SkinEthic Laboratories, 45 rue St. Philippe, 06000 Nice (France)

    2006-08-15

    The physiological status of native skin is suffering from large inter-individual variations, especially in terms of inorganic ions content. For this reason, together with the advent of ethic laws on animal experimentation, reconstructed skin or epidermis models are extensively employed nowadays in penetration studies for cosmetic or pharmacological applications. It has been already verified that reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) has similar physiological mechanisms to native human skin, but until now, there are few studies where the elemental concentrations of both skins, reconstructed and native, are compared. In this work, freeze-dried thin sections of human native skin obtained from surgery have been characterized using PIXE, RBS and STIM at the CENBG nuclear microprobe. RHE samples were treated and analyzed in the same conditions for comparison. The combination of the different imaging and analysis techniques made possible a clear delimitation and identification of skin ultrastructure. The elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K and Ca were measured in the different strata. For both skins, concentrations have been compared and significant differences in terms of elemental concentrations have been determined using statistical approaches. Similar physiological characteristics were pointed out in both skin models, in particular the Ca gradient presumably involved in the regulation of the barrier effect.

  15. Comparative study of native and irradiated crotoxin. Biochemical and pharmacological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, N. do.

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venom, without affecting significantly their antigenic and immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative biochemical and pharmacological study between native and gamma irradiated (2000Gy) crotoxin, main toxin of south american rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified from crude venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and then irradiated. Immunodiffusion, electrophoresis and gel filtration showed that the molecular integrity was preserved after irradiation with some higher molecular weight aggregate formation and maintenance of its antigenic capacity. The antibodies induced by irradiated toxin had a similar titer to the antibodies induced by native crotoxin; however with higher protective effects in mice. Crotoxin toxicity became 15 times lower after irradiation, as determined by LD sub(50) in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution occurred with a similar general pattern, with renal elimination. In contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native crotoxin is initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3hs) occurs in phagocyticmononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junctions rich organs (muscle and brain). (author)

  16. Consumer panel study on elderly people's wishes concerning services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkila, Noora; Litja, Heli; Aalto, Leena; Saari, Arto

    2010-01-01

    This study informs on the wishes and needs of elderly people themselves regarding services for the elderly. The data for the study were gathered using a consumer panel method. Elderly people desire assistance in heavy cleaning chores, in outdoor activities and in carrying out their personal business. Elderly people felt that there should be more recreational services available. Elderly people link aging with feelings of insecurity and loneliness. Becoming a service user for the first time is felt to be a very difficult step to take, and so this decision is postponed as long as possible. The elderly people desire a service for assessing their individual service needs in an organized, expert and objective fashion. The study indicates that elderly people value the human contact gained through service provision. The consumer panel method for collecting data was successful. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Study of Jordanian University Students' Perceptions of Using Email Exchanges with Native English Keypals for Improving Their Writing Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Safi Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    English foreign language learners generally tend to consider email exchanges with native speakers (NSs) as an effective tool for improving their foreign language proficiency. This study investigated Jordanian university students' perceptions of using email exchanges with native English keypals (NEKs) for improving their writing competency. A…

  18. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of this thesis was carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with 60 Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M Na Cl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a 60 Co source. The native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD 50 and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labelled with 29.6 MBq of 125 I using chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35± 5 g), were injected i.p. with o.1 mL (2.4 x 10 6 cpm/mouse) of 125 I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 6 cpm/mouse) of 125 I irradiated crotamine. At 0.08; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 12 and 24 hours the animal were killed by ether inhalation. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration, the electroforetic profile or the primary structure of the protein, although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of crotamine, but it did not abolish bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The native and irradiated crotamine have affinity by skeletal muscle and they did not pass the blood - brain

  19. Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Structural Studies of Native and N-Bromosuccinimide-Modified Mushroom Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Emami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Mushroom tyrosinase (MT as a metalloenzyme is a good model for mechanistic studies of melanogenesis. To recognize the mechanism of MT action, it is important to investigate its inhibition, activation, mutation, and modification properties. Objectives In this study, the chemical modification of MT tryptophan residues was carried out by using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS and then, the activity, stability, and structure of the native and modified enzymes were compared. Methods Chemical modification of MT tryptophan residues was accomplished by enzyme incubation with different concentrations of NBS. The relative activity of native and modified MT was investigated through catecholase enzyme reaction in presence of dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa as substrate. Thermodynamic parameters including standard Gibbs free energy change (∆G25°C and Melting temperature (Tm were obtained from thermal denaturation of the native and modified enzymes. The circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence techniques were used to study secondary and tertiary structure of MT, respectively. All experiments were conducted in 2015 in biophysical laboratory of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences and Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran. Results The relative activity reduced from 100% for native enzyme to 10%, 7.9%, and 6.4% for modified MT with different NBS of concentrations 2, 10, and 20 mM, respectively. Thermal instability of modified enzyme was confirmed by decreased Tm and ∆G25°C values after modification. In accordance with kinetic and thermodynamic results, the lower stability of modified MT was observed from the changes occurred on its secondary and tertiary structures. Conclusions Chemical modification of tryptophan residues with NBS reduces the activity and stability of MT simultaneously with its structural change. Thus, this study emphasizes the crucial role of tryptophan residues in the structure-function relationship of MT

  20. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  1. A preliminary study of effects of feral pig density on native Hawaiian montane rainforest vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Pamela Y.; Pratt, Linda; Foote, David; Magnacca, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of different levels of pig density on native Hawaiian forest vegetation. Pig sign was measured across four pig management units in the 'Öla'a Forest from 1998 through 2004 and pig density estimated based upon pig activity. Six paired vegetation monitoring plots were established in the units, each pair straddling a pig fence. Percent cover and species richness of understory vegetation, ground cover, alien species, and preferred pig forage plants were measured in 1997 and 2003 and compared with pig density estimates. Rainfall and hunting effort and success by management personnel were also tracked over the study period. Vegetation monitoring found a higher percentage of native plants in pig-free or low-pig areas compared to those with medium or high pig densities, with no significant change in the percent native plant species between the first and second monitoring periods. Differences between plots were strongly affected by location, with a higher percentage of native plants in western plots, where pig damage has historically been lower. Expansion of this survey with more plots would help improve the statistical power to detect differences in vegetation caused by pigs. Because of the limited vegetation sampling in this study, the results must be viewed as descriptive. We compare the vegetation within 30 x 30 m plots across three thresholds of historical pig density and show how pig densities can change in unanticipated directions within management units. While these results cannot be extrapolated to area-wide effects of pig activity, these data do contribute to a growing body of information on the impacts of feral pigs on Hawaiian plant communities.

  2. Study on influence of native oxide and corrosion products on atmospheric corrosion of pure Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanjie; Wang, Zhenyao; Ke, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Corrosion products layer is only formed in coastal atmosphere. •In coastal atmosphere, rate controlling step is diffusion process. •In rural atmosphere, rate controlling step is charge transfer process. •Pitting area increases greatly in coastal site, but slightly in rural site. -- Abstract: Effects of native oxide and corrosion products on atmospheric corrosion of aluminium in rural and coastal sites were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open-circuit potential (OCP) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques after outdoor exposure. In the rural atmosphere, only the compact, adhesive native oxide layer exists, and the rate controlling step is diffusion process, while in the coastal atmosphere, another loose, inadhesive corrosion products layer exists, and a charge transfer process controls the corrosion process. The pitting area in the coastal atmosphere increases over time more obviously than that in the rural atmosphere

  3. Native language effects on spelling in English as a foreign language: a time-course study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Pedersen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The study explores first language (L1) influences on the mechanisms of spelling in English as a foreign language (EFL). We hypothesized that the transparency of L1 orthography influences (a) the amount of hesitation associated with spelling irregular English words, and (b) the size of units EFL...... spellers operate. Participants were adult speakers of three languages differing by the degree of transparency, Danish, Russian, and Italian (n = 60), and a group of English native speakers (n = 20). We analyzed keystroke logs from typed spellings of 30 English words. The amount of hesitation (number...... of corrections and number of long within-word pauses), was equal across all participants groups, thus disconfirming our first hypothesis. Inter-key intervals between onsets and rhymes were longer than within-rhyme intervals, but only in Danes and native English speakers, and not in Russians and Italians. We...

  4. Study of polymorphism in Mazandaran and Esfahan native chicken population using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Esmaeilkhanian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to studying of genetic variation in Mazandaran and Esfahan native chickens, twenty microsatellite markers were evaluated. These microsatellite markers were MCW0014, MCW0081, MCW0183, MCW0067, MCW0104, MCW0123, MCW0330, MCW0165, MCW0069, MCW0020, MCW0222, LEI0094, MCW0295, MCW0034, MCW0216, ADL0268, ADL0112, ADL0278 and lEI0166. Blood samples of 90 and 150 native chickens of Mazandaran and Esfahan were randomly taken respectively. Genomic DNAs were isolated through optimized and modified salting-out procedure. The number of alleles varied from 1 to 6. In Mazandaran population one locus (MCW0216 and in Esfahan population three loci (MCW0216, MCW67 and MCW222 were monomorphic. The other loci were showed appropriate polymorphism. All the loci except MCW222 and MCW165 in Mazandaran population showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p

  5. Demand of elderly people for residential care: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, P.; Hamers, J.; Groot, W.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Because of the rapid aging population, the demand for residential care exceeds availability. This paper presents the results of a study that focuses on the demand of elderly people for residential care and determinants (elderly people's personal characteristics, needs and resources) that

  6. Autism spectrum disorders and race, ethnicity, and nativity: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Tracy A; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Heck, Julia E; Olsen, Jorn; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Jeste, Shafali S; Rodriguez, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2014-07-01

    Our understanding of the influence of maternal race/ethnicity and nativity and childhood autistic disorder (AD) in African Americans/blacks, Asians, and Hispanics in the United States is limited. Phenotypic differences in the presentation of childhood AD in minority groups may indicate etiologic heterogeneity or different thresholds for diagnosis. We investigated whether the risk of developing AD and AD phenotypes differed according to maternal race/ethnicity and nativity. Children born in Los Angeles County with a primary AD diagnosis at ages 3 to 5 years during 1998-2009 were identified and linked to 1995-2006 California birth certificates (7540 children with AD from a cohort of 1,626,354 births). We identified a subgroup of children with AD and a secondary diagnosis of mental retardation and investigated heterogeneity in language and behavior. We found increased risks of being diagnosed with AD overall and specifically with comorbid mental retardation in children of foreign-born mothers who were black, Central/South American, Filipino, and Vietnamese, as well as among US-born Hispanic and African American/black mothers, compared with US-born whites. Children of US African American/black and foreign-born black, foreign-born Central/South American, and US-born Hispanic mothers were at higher risk of exhibiting an AD phenotype with both severe emotional outbursts and impaired expressive language than children of US-born whites. Maternal race/ethnicity and nativity are associated with offspring's AD diagnosis and severity. Future studies need to examine factors related to nativity and migration that may play a role in the etiology as well as identification and diagnosis of AD in children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Enhancing native defect sensitivity for EUV actinic blank inspection: optimized pupil engineering and photon noise study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yow-Gwo; Neureuther, Andrew; Naulleau, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the impact of optimized pupil engineering and photon noise on native defect sensitivity in EUV actinic blank inspection. Native defects include phase-dominated defects, absorber defects, and defects with a combination of phase and absorption behavior. First, we extend the idea of the Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) method and study the impact of optimum phase shift in the pupil plane on native defect sensitivity, showing a 23% signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement compare to bright field (BF) for a phase defect with 20% absorption. We also describe the possibility to increase target defect SNR on target defect sizes at the price of losing the sensitivity on smaller (non-critical) defects. Moreover, we show the advantage of the optimized phase contrast (OZPC) method over BF EUV actinic blank inspection. A single focus scan from OZPC has better inspection efficiency over BF. Second, we make a detailed comparison between the phase contrast with apodization (AZPC) method and dark field (DF) method based on defect sensitivity in the presence of both photon shot noise and camera noise. Performance is compared for a variety of photon levels, mask roughness conditions, and combinations of defect phase and absorption.

  8. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  9. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  10. Managers versus Digital Natives Employees. A Study Regarding the Perceptions of the Romanian Managers Working with Youngsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina PÎNZARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, the concerns regarding the youth in the European Union have become a topic of high interest for the European Commission. The official data gathered by the European authorities show that the early school leaving and youth unemployment, coined under the umbrella term of NEETs phenomena, plague the young generation, thing which, along with the aging of the population, gives rise to many questions related to the future of the European construct in terms of economic evolution. Some authors have written since the 90s about the emergence of a new generation, comprising of people born roughly between the 1980s and the year 2000, who are digitally savvy and seem to embrace a different life outlook than the previous generations. In Romania academics and the media have become interested in this generation not because of their prolific activities and professional success, but because many of them seem to lack the desire to take a job or to invest in a solid career. Previous studies have shown that there are indeed digital natives who seem to be extremely proficient with technology, innovative, problem solvers who bring increased profit to the companies they work for, but also that there is another category of youngsters who expect much from their managers and from the companies they work for, in terms of salary and work conditions, but who are not well prepared professionally and who are not ready to respect the discipline required by their employers. The present study has the objective to reveal what Romanian managers think about the young employees (the so called digital natives and about the prospective employees belonging to the same generation. Data has been collected using in depth interviews with Romanian managers who are currently working with digital natives and with managers who recruit youngsters. The results show that there is a remarkable gap between various groups in this generation. There seem to be two large

  11. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Gersing, Kenneth R.; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S.; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N=4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1–90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ≥2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

  12. Do jobs follow people or people follow jobs? A meta-analysis of Carlino–Mills studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra, Gerke J.; Van Dijk, Jouke; Florax, Raymond J. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Do jobs follow people or people follow jobs? A meta-analysis of Carlino–Mills studies. Spatial Economic Analysis. This study examines the classic question as to whether ‘jobs follow people’ or ‘people follow jobs’ by performing a meta-analysis of 321 results from 64 Carlino–Mills studies. It is

  13. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  14. Adding More Fuel to the Fire: An Eye-Tracking Study of Idiom Processing by Native and Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Conklin, Kathy; Schmitt, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Using eye-tracking, we investigate on-line processing of idioms in a biasing story context by native and non-native speakers of English. The stimuli are idioms used figuratively ("at the end of the day"--"eventually"), literally ("at the end of the day"--"in the evening"), and novel phrases ("at the end of the war"). Native speaker results…

  15. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  16. Oligomerisation of Synaptobrevin-2 Studied by Native Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Cross-Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Sabine; Haupt, Caroline; Hoffmann, Waldemar; Kostmann, Susann; Pagel, Kevin; Schmidt, Carla

    2018-06-01

    Synaptobrevin-2 is a key player in signal transmission in neurons. It forms, together with SNAP25 and Syntaxin-1A, the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex and mediates exocytosis of synaptic vesicles with the pre-synaptic membrane. While Synaptobrevin-2 is part of a four-helix bundle in this SNARE complex, it is natively unstructured in the absence of lipids or other SNARE proteins. Partially folded segments, presumably SNARE complex formation intermediates, as well as formation of Synaptobrevin-2 dimers and oligomers, were identified in previous studies. Here, we employ three Synaptobrevin-2 variants—the full-length protein Syb(1-116), the soluble, cytosolic variant Syb(1-96) as well as a shorter version Syb(49-96) containing structured segments but omitting a trigger site for SNARE complex formation—to study oligomerisation in the absence of interaction partners or when incorporated into the lipid bilayer of liposomes. Combining native mass spectrometry with chemical cross-linking, we find that the truncated versions show increased oligomerisation. Our findings from both techniques agree well and confirm the presence of oligomers in solution while membrane-bound Synaptobrevin-2 is mostly monomeric. Using ion mobility mass spectrometry, we could further show that lower charge states of Syb(49-96) oligomers, which most likely represent solution structures, follow an isotropic growth curve suggesting that they are intrinsically disordered. From a technical point of view, we show that the combination of native ion mobility mass spectrometry with chemical cross-linking is well-suited for the analysis of protein homo-oligomers. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  18. Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiaxing

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA residents as compared to native sea level (SL residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV, which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

  19. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    How and why we teach An interview with Mick Nott conducted by David Sang Mick Nott teaches at Sheffield Hallam University. He is editor of School Science Review, and over the last three years he has been organizing a website, book and display for the ASE's Science Teacher Festival. Mick Nott You studied Logic with Physics as your undergraduate degree course, at Sussex, at the end of the 1960s. Wasn't this a rather unusual choice? At school, I loved chemistry, particularly physical chemistry. However, physical chemistry didn't love me when I studied it at university. I grew resentful of the demands made on me with the overcrowded morning lecture programme that was mainly a board-copying exercise and the afternoon hours of labs. I felt stifled; there didn't seem to be any space to express oneself. I wanted a course that allowed me some freedom of thought. So in the summer of 1969 I transferred to the Logic with Physics course. Alongside our 'straight' physics we studied the history of topics like atomic and quantum theory, thermodynamics, mechanics from the Greeks to the Newtonian synthesis and we also had a couple of units in the sociology of science. Amongst the set texts of our first class in the summer of 1969 was Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Now well worn with its cover repaired by sticky tape, it still rests on my bookshelves. Reading Kuhn, I understood why I had been dissatisfied with my chemistry course. If I wanted to make it in chemistry I was going to have to conform to thinking exactly like all the other chemists. That wasn't for me. What attracted you into teaching? And where did you teach? I think it was a vocation in that, from the age of 15, I could imagine myself in the role and it was a job I could 'see' myself doing. Now thinking back I suppose it was an obvious way in which a working class child could transcend class barriers. I did my postgraduate teacher training at Sussex because it was assessed by coursework and

  20. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Exploring Mercury PhD student Mark Bentley explains how and why he got involved Mark Bentley is studying for a PhD in planetary science. He is helping to design and build instruments for a forthcoming ESA mission to explore the surface of Mercury. Mark Bentley Space has excited and inspired me for as long as I can remember; my earliest memory of this is being allowed to stay up 'really late' to watch the Space Shuttle Columbia land in 1981, at the age of five. Science in general has always interested me. Although I probably didn't recognize it as such at the time, my fascination with collecting all sorts of equipment (or as my parents called it, 'junk') and finding out what made them tick was an early demonstration of this. At school it seemed natural to take science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Maths A-levels) and then to consider University though physics was not my first thought. I was all set for the respectable career of computer science, not realizing that my space interests could lead anywhere, until I flicked through the first prospectus I received. By luck it was from Leicester University, and while computer science was offered it also had something called 'Physics with Space Science and Technology'. The rest, as they say, is history... After graduating I spent the following two years working for a UK company developing satellite simulators. But then I started thinking about doing a PhD attracted by the flexibility of directing my own research. I knew that I wanted something that involved space science and the element of discovery, but also something that looked at the engineering and technology of a space mission. The timing was fortuitous shortly after I committed myself to a PhD, the European Space Agency announced the selection of BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, as one of its 'Cornerstone' (large scale) missions. Here was a mission big on science (no spacecraft has ever orbited Mercury, let alone landed on it) and technology as well! So that

  1. Incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and native Finns: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Niina; Lehti, Venla; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    Migrants appear to have a higher risk of mental disorders, but findings vary across country settings and migrant groups. We aimed to assess incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and Finnish-born controls in a register-based cohort study. A register-based cohort study of 184.806 immigrants and 185.184 Finnish-born controls (1.412.117 person-years) was conducted. Information on mental disorders according to ICD-10 was retrieved from the Hospital Discharge Register, which covers all public health care use. The incidence of any mental disorder was lower among male (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87) and female (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) immigrants, being lowest among Asian and highest among North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. The incidence of bipolar, depressive and alcohol use disorders was lower among immigrants. Incidence of psychotic disorders was lower among female and not higher among male immigrants, compared with native Finns. Incidence of PTSD was higher among male immigrants (aHR 4.88, 95% CI 3.38-7.05). The risk of mental disorders varies significantly across migrant groups and disorders and is generally lower among immigrants than native Finns.

  2. Studies on voltammetric determination of cadmium in samples containing native and digested proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz@ch.pw.edu.pl; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Proteins exhibit diverse impact on the DPASV cadmium signals. • Proteins subjected to HNO{sub 3} introduce less interference, than the native ones. • Optimal amount of SDS depends on the kind of protein. • Presence of thiolated coating agents of QDs do not influence the analysis. - Abstract: This work focuses on determination of cadmium ions using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on thin film mercury electrode in conditions corresponding to those obtained after digestion of cadmium-based quantum dots and their conjugates. It presents the impact of selected proteins, including potential receptors and surface blocking agents on the voltammetric determination of cadmium. Experiments regarding elimination of interferences related to proteins presence using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are also shown. Effect of SDS on selected analytical parameters and simplicity of analyses carried out was investigated in the framework of current studies. The significant differences of influence among tested proteins on ASV cadmium determination, as well as the variability in SDS effectiveness as the antifouling agent were observed and explained. This work is especially important for those, who design new bioassays and biosensors with a use of quantum dots as electrochemical labels, as it shows what problems may arise from presence of native and digested proteins in tested samples.

  3. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  4. Enhanced hepatic insulin signaling in the livers of high altitude native rats under basal conditions and in the livers of low altitude native rats under insulin stimulation: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dera, Hussain; Eleawa, Samy M; Al-Hashem, Fahaid H; Mahzari, Moeber M; Hoja, Ibrahim; Al Khateeb, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of the liver in lowering fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) in rats native to high (HA) and low altitude (LA) areas. As compared with LA natives, besides the improved insulin and glucose tolerance, HA native rats had lower FBG, at least mediated by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and activation of glycogen synthesis. An effect that is mediated by the enhancement of hepatic insulin signaling mediated by the decreased phosphorylation of TSC induced inhibition of mTOR function. Such effect was independent of activation of AMPK nor stabilization of HIF1α, but most probably due to oxidative stress induced REDD1 expression. However, under insulin stimulation, and in spite of the less activated mTOR function in HA native rats, LA native rats had higher glycogen content and reduced levels of gluconeogenic enzymes with a more enhanced insulin signaling, mainly due to higher levels of p-IRS1 (tyr612).

  5. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Duran, Bonnie M.; Walters, Karina L.; Pearson, Cynthia R.; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals. PMID:25317980

  6. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7% and emotional abuse (71.8% among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively. Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals.

  7. The PPET Study: people and pets exercising together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Blatner, Dawn Jackson; Jewell, Dennis E; Rudloff, Kimberly

    2006-10-01

    Obesity is a significant public health problem that is affecting people and their pets. The human-companion animal bond and the role of pets in providing social support provides a rationale framework for studying the effectiveness of a combined people and pets (PP) exercising together (PPET) weight loss program. Thirty-six pairs of overweight or obese people with an obese pet (PP) and 56 overweight or obese people only (PO) participated in a 1-year prospective controlled weight loss study. In a group format, people received dietary and physical activity counseling, and dogs were fed a calorie-controlled prescription diet. Physical activity was recorded using the physical activity recall questionnaire. Completion rates at 1 year were 61% for the PP group and 58% for the PO group. Mean weight losses at 12 months using last observation carried forward were 4.7% (PP) and 5.2% (PO). Mean weight loss among the dogs was 15%. Time spent in physical activity increased in both groups to 3.9 (PP) and 3.5 (PO) h/wk. Two-thirds of total physical activity in the PP group was spent with the dogs. The PPET study is the first program to demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined PP weight loss program. This fresh approach to the dual obesity epidemic builds on the human-companion animal bond. Consideration of social support for weight loss of family members, friends, and coworkers should be extended to include pets.

  8. Measuring the value of older people's production: a diary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlen Klas-Göran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The productive capacity of retired people is usually not valued. However, some retirees produce much more than we might expect. This diary-based study identifies the activities of older people, and suggests some value mechanisms. One question raised is whether it is possible to scale up this diary study into a larger representative study. Methods Diaries kept for one week were collected among 23 older people in the north of Sweden. The texts were analysed with a grounded theory approach; an interplay between ideas and empirical data. Results Some productive activities of older people must be valued as the opportunity cost of time or according to the market value, and others must be valued with the replacement cost. In order to make the choice between these methods, it is important to consider the societal entitlement. When there is no societal entitlement, the first or second method must be used; and when it exists, the third must be used. Conclusions An explicit investigation of the content of the entitlement is needed to justify the choice of valuation method for each activity. In a questionnaire addressing older people's production, each question must be adjusted to the type of production. In order to fully understand this production, it is important to consider the degree of free choice to conduct an activity, as well as health-related quality of life.

  9. Polysemous Verbs and Modality in Native and Non-Native Argumentative Writing: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Danica; Verdaguer, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a corpus-based analysis of a selection of polysemous lexical verbs used to express modality in student argumentative writing. Twenty-three lexical verbs were searched for in three 100,000-word corpora of argumentative essays written in English by American, Filipino and Spanish university students. Concordance lines were…

  10. A comparative study of recombinant and native frutalin binding to human prostate tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues Lucília

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies indicate that cancer cells present an aberrant glycosylation pattern that can be detected by lectin histochemistry. Lectins have shown the ability to recognise these modifications in several carcinomas, namely in the prostate carcinoma, one of the most lethal diseases in man. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate if the α-D-galactose-binding plant lectin frutalin is able to detect such changes in the referred carcinoma. Frutalin was obtained from different sources namely, its natural source (plant origin and a recombinant source (Pichia expression system. Finally, the results obtained with the two lectins were compared and their potential use as prostate tumour biomarkers was discussed. Results The binding of recombinant and native frutalin to specific glycoconjugates expressed in human prostate tissues was assessed by using an immuhistochemical technique. A total of 20 cases of prostate carcinoma and 25 cases of benign prostate hyperplasia were studied. Lectins bound directly to the tissues and anti-frutalin polyclonal antibody was used as the bridge to react with the complex biotinilated anti-rabbit IgG plus streptavidin-conjugated peroxidase. DAB was used as visual indicator to specifically localise the binding of the lectins to the tissues. Both lectins bound to the cells cytoplasm of the prostate carcinoma glands. The binding intensity of native frutalin was stronger in the neoplasic cells than in hyperplasic cells; however no significant statistical correlation could be found (P = 0.051. On the other hand, recombinant frutalin bound exclusively to the neoplasic cells and a significant positive statistical correlation was obtained (P Conclusion Native and recombinant frutalin yielded different binding responses in the prostate tissues due to their differences in carbohydrate-binding affinities. Also, this study shows that both lectins may be used as histochemical biomarkers for the prostate

  11. Systematic reviews: guidance relevant for studies of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D; Harrison, Jennifer K; Wilkinson, Tim; Dodds, Richard M; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-09-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are increasingly common. This article aims to provide guidance for people conducting systematic reviews relevant to the healthcare of older people. An awareness of these issues will also help people reading systematic reviews to determine whether the results will influence their clinical practice. It is essential that systematic reviews are performed by a team which includes the required technical and clinical expertise. Those performing reviews for the first time should ensure they have appropriate training and support. They must be planned and performed in a transparent and methodologically robust way: guidelines are available. The protocol should be written-and if possible published-before starting the review. Geriatricians will be interested in a table of baseline characteristics, which will help to determine if the studied samples or populations are similar to their patients. Reviews of studies of older people should consider how they will manage issues such as different age cut-offs; non-specific presentations; multiple predictors and outcomes; potential biases and confounders. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may provide evidence to improve older people's care, or determine where new evidence is required. Newer methodologies, such as meta-analyses of individual level data, network meta-analyses and umbrella reviews, and realist synthesis, may improve the reliability and clinical utility of systematic reviews. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  12. People with learning disabilities who have cancer: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila

    2009-07-01

    Cancer incidence among people with learning disabilities is rising. There have been no published studies of the needs and experiences of people with learning disabilities and cancer, from their own perspective. To provide insight into the experiences and needs of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. Prospective qualitative study, using ethnographic methods. Participants' homes, hospitals, nursing homes, and hospices in London and surrounding areas. The participants were 13 people with learning disabilities ranging from mild to severe, who had a cancer diagnosis. The main method of data collection was participant observation (over 250 hours). The median length of participation was 7 months. Participants' cancer experiences were shaped by their previous experience of life, which included deprivation, loneliness, and a lack of autonomy and power. They depended on others to negotiate contact with the outside world, including the healthcare system. This could lead to delayed cancer diagnosis and a lack of treatment options being offered. Most participants were not helped to understand their illness and its implications. Doctors did not make an assessment of capacity, but relied on carers' opinions. Urgent action is warranted by findings of late diagnosis, possible discrimination around treatment options, and lack of patient involvement and assessment of capacity in decision making. There are significant gaps in knowledge and training among most health professionals, leading to disengaged services that are unaware of the physical, emotional, and practical needs of people with learning disabilities, and their carers.

  13. Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Leading to Development of the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolyn Stewart; Tracey LeBeau

    2008-01-31

    DOE-funded renewable energy feasibility study conducted by Red Mountain Tribal Energy on behalf of the Southwest Tribal Energy Consortium (SWTEC). During the course of the study, SWTEC members considered multiple options for the organization structure, selected a proposed organization structure, and drafted a Memorandum of Understanding for the SWTEC organization. High-level resource assessments for SWTEC members were completed; surveys were developed and completed to determine each member’s interest in multiple participation options, including on-reservation projects. With the survey inputs in mind, multiple energy project options were identified and evaluated on a high-level basis. That process led to a narrowing of the field of technology options to solar generation, specifically, utility-scale Concentrating Solar-Powered Generation projects, with a specific, tentative project location identified at the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation -- the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility.

  14. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, T.

    1992-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  15. Body consciousness of people with intestinal stomach: A phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Dean Barbosa Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the bodily awareness of people with stomies. Method: a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, carried out in the Ostomized Association of the State of Ceará, through semi-structured interviews with ten people with intestinal stomies, according to Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological thinking. Results: two categories of analysis emerged: The body that I have, in which the sensations of deficiency, imperfection and bad odor add to the feeling of strangeness towards one's own body, affecting the way of being in the world of each deponent; and The body that others perceive, in which the stoma is seen as an embarrassing and complex experience, since it hampers daily activities and conviviality with other people. Final considerations: The corporeal consciousness of Being-Stomp-in-the-world requires the movement to reconstruct the senses of the body from the body I have and from that which others perceive.

  16. Ab initio study of native defects in SnO under strain

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi Granato, Danilo

    2014-04-01

    Tin monoxide (SnO) has promising properties to be applied as a p-type semiconductor in transparent electronics. To this end, it is necessary to understand the behaviour of defects in order to control them. We use density functional theory to study native defects of SnO under tensile and compressive strain. We show that Sn vacancies are less stable under tension and more stable under compression, irrespectively of the charge state. In contrast, O vacancies behave differently for different charge states. It turns out that the most stable defect under compression is the +1 charged O vacancy in an Sn-rich environment and the charge neutral O interstitial in an O-rich environment. Therefore, compression can be used to transform SnO from a p-type into either an n-type or an undoped semiconductor. Copyright © EPLA, 2014.

  17. Disability Studies, Disabled People and the Struggle for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mike; Barnes, Colin

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the relationship between the emergence of disability studies and the struggle for meaningful inclusion for disabled people with particular reference to the work of a pivotal figure in these developments: Len Barton. It is argued that the links between disability activism and the academy were responsible for the emergence of…

  18. The Phonotactic Influence on the Perception of a Consonant Cluster /pt/ by Native English and Native Polish Listeners: A Behavioral and Event Related Potential (ERP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monica; Shafer, Valerie L.; Martin, Brett; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exposure to the contextual features of the /pt/ cluster was investigated in native-English and native-Polish listeners using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) methodology. Both groups experience the /pt/ cluster in their languages, but only the Polish group experiences the cluster in the context of word onset examined in…

  19. Native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the

  20. Epidemic pox and malaria in native forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C. T.; Dusek, R. J.; Iko, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies by Warner in the 1950’s and van Riper in the 1970’s identified disease as a potential limiting factor in the distribution and abundance of Hawaii’s native forest birds. Mosquito-transmitted protozoan and viral infections caused by malarial parasites and pox virus were especially significant. Both organisms were introduced to the islands after the arrival of Europeans and are thought to have affected avian communities the same way that measles devastated native Hawaiian peoples.

  1. Study of Subjective Life Quality in Young People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanova Yu.E.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.

  2. Which Frail Older People Are Dehydrated? The UK DRIE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane K; Downing, Alice; Jimoh, Florence O; Groves, Joyce; Free, Carol; Cowap, Vicky; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul R; Shepstone, Lee

    2016-10-01

    Water-loss dehydration in older people is associated with increased mortality and disability. We aimed to assess the prevalence of dehydration in older people living in UK long-term care and associated cognitive, functional, and health characteristics. The Dehydration Recognition In our Elders (DRIE) cohort study included people aged 65 or older living in long-term care without heart or renal failure. In a cross-sectional baseline analysis, we assessed serum osmolality, previously suggested dehydration risk factors, general health, markers of continence, cognitive and functional health, nutrition status, and medications. Univariate linear regression was used to assess relationships between participant characteristics and serum osmolality, then associated characteristics entered into stepwise backwards multivariate linear regression. DRIE included 188 residents (mean age 86 years, 66% women) of whom 20% were dehydrated (serum osmolality >300 mOsm/kg). Linear and logistic regression suggested that renal, cognitive, and diabetic status were consistently associated with serum osmolality and odds of dehydration, while potassium-sparing diuretics, sex, number of recent health contacts, and bladder incontinence were sometimes associated. Thirst was not associated with hydration status. DRIE found high prevalence of dehydration in older people living in UK long-term care, reinforcing the proposed association between cognitive and renal function and hydration. Dehydration is associated with increased mortality and disability in older people, but trials to assess effects of interventions to support healthy fluid intakes in older people living in residential care are needed to enable us to formally assess causal direction and any health benefits of increasing fluid intakes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Rotational digital subtraction angiography of the renal arteries: technique and evaluation in the study of native and transplant renal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, H R; Matson, M B; Belli, A M; Morgan, R; Kyriou, J; Patel, U

    2001-02-01

    Rotational digital subtraction angiography (RDSA) allows multidirectional angiographic acquisitions with a single injection of contrast medium. The role of RDSA was evaluated in 60 patients referred over a 7-month period for diagnostic renal angiography and 12 patients referred for renal transplant studies. All angiograms were assessed for their diagnostic value, the presence of anomalies and the quantity of contrast medium used. The effective dose for native renal RDSA was determined. 41 (68.3%) native renal RDSA images and 8 (66.7%) transplant renal RDSA images were of diagnostic quality. Multiple renal arteries were identified in 9/41 (22%) native renal RDSA diagnostic images. The mean volume of contrast medium in the RDSA runs was 51.2 ml and 50 ml for native and transplant renal studies, respectively. The mean effective dose for 120 degrees native renal RDSA was 2.36 mSv, equivalent to 1 year's mean background radiation. Those RDSA images that were non-diagnostic allowed accurate prediction of the optimal angle for further static angiographic series, which is of great value in transplant renal vessels.

  4. Reflections on Native Ethnography by a Nurse Researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrehman, Munib Said

    2017-03-01

    There are benefits and challenges associated with conducting research in a familiar setting, especially when the researcher is more an insider than an outsider. The aim of this article is to explore the author's experience as a native scholar conducting ethnographic research among the Swahili peoples of Lamu, Kenya. This article focuses on methodological issues related to conducting ethnographic research among the author's own people, including examining the issues of anthropological reflexivity as a native ethnographer and highlighting the author's experiences embodying multiple identities. Native ethnographers must consider the challenges associated with negotiating multiple roles in the research setting, especially in the presence of sociocultural factors such as gender stratification, complex kinship networks, socioeconomic hierarchies, illiteracy, and poverty. Embracing rather than being confused by the multiple levels of understanding native researchers bring to studies of their communities opens up new avenues of research and possibilities.

  5. Native Geoscience: Pathways to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Seielstad, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent accumulated knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have embraced the critical need of understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the continued growth of Native earth and environmental scientists The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on building and maintaining Native/Tribal students in earth and environmental sciences; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native leadership development in earth and environmental sciences; and 4) forward thinking for creating proaction collaborations addressing sustainable environmental, educational and social infrastructures for all people. Humboldt State University (HSU) and the University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment and the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. Unique collaborations are emerging "bridging" Native people across geographic areas in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive earth/environmental knowledge of tribal people. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native earth system students and scientists.

  6. Correlates of social support in older American Indians: the Native Elder Care Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Kathleen P.; Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examined social support and identified demographic and health correlates among American Indians aged 55 years and older. Methods Data were derived from the Native Elder Care Study, a cross-sectional study of 505 community-dwelling American Indians aged ≥55 years. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey measure (MOS-SSS) of which psychometric properties were examined through factor analyses. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, depressive symptomatology, lower body physical functioning, and chronic pain and social support. Results Study participants reported higher levels of affectionate and positive interaction social support (88.2% and 81.8%, respectively) than overall (75.9%) and emotional (69.0%) domains. Increased age, being married/partnered, and female sex were associated with high social support in the final model. Decreased depressive symptomatology was associated with high overall, affectionate, and positive interaction support, and decreased chronic pain with affectionate support. The count of chronic conditions and functional disability were not associated with social support. Conclusions Overall, we found high levels of social support for both men and women in this population, with the oldest adults in our study exhibiting the highest levels of social support. Strong cultural values of caring for older adults and a historical tradition of community cooperation may explain this finding. Future public health efforts may be able to leverage social support to reduce health disparities and improve mental and physical functioning. PMID:25322933

  7. Regions for Servicing Old People: Case study of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobne Samo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is one of the most serious problems that most developed countries are facing in the 21st century. In the European Union, Member States are responsible for the planning, funding and administration of health care and social protection systems. Local authorities and state governments should undertake research toward developing an appropriate array of community-based care services for old people. Objectives: This study analyses the regions of Slovenia for servicing old people in the 2000-2010 time horizon. Methods/Approach: Sets of functional regions were modelled for each year in the analysed period using the Intramax method. Functional regions were evaluated based on the attractiveness of central places for labour commuters and the propensity to commute between regions. Results: The results show that in addition to the nominally declared regional centres of Slovenia, there are also some other local centres that should be potentially included in the functional areas for servicing old people. Conclusions: The results suggest that the regionalization into seven functional regions is the most convenient for servicing old people in the region. Furthermore, some additional functional regions at a lower level are suggested.

  8. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular.…

  9. Systematic study of metal-insulator-metal diodes with a native oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Donchev, E.; Gammon, P. M.; Pang, J. S.; Petrov, P. K.; Alford, N. McN.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 SPIE. In this paper, a systematic analysis of native oxides within a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is carried out, with the goal of determining their practicality for incorporation into a nanoscale Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna

  10. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  11. Hobbies of Retired People in the People's Republic of China: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-Chen

    1990-01-01

    Described and analyzed hobbies of over 500 individuals in the People's Republic of China. Results indicated there were significant differences between the hobbies of retired and younger people; reading was the hobby most preferred; and gender, age, education, and previous occupation were factors that most influenced the retired person's choice of…

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma screening by combinations of ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein among Alaska Native people, 1983–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu P. Gounder

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD recommends semi-annual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC screening using ultrasound (US in persons with chronic hepatitis B (CHB virus infection at high risk for HCC such as Asian males aged ≥40 years and Asian females aged ≥50 years. Objective: To analyse the cost-effectiveness of 2 HCC screening methods in the Alaska Native (AN health system: US-alone, or screening by alpha-fetoprotein (AFP initially and switching to US for subsequent screenings if AFP >10 ng/mL (AFP→US. Design: A spreadsheet-based model was developed for accounting the costs of 2 hypothetical HCC screening methods. We used epidemiologic data from a cohort of 839 AN persons with CHB who were offered HCC screening by AFP/US semi-annually during 1983–2012. We assumed that compared with AFP→US, US-alone identifies 33% more tumours at an early stage (defined as a single tumour ≤5 cm or ≤3 tumours ≤3 cm in diameter. Years of life gained (YLG attributed to screening was estimated by comparing additional years of survival among persons with early- compared with late-stage tumours. Screening costs were calculated using Medicare reimbursement rates in 2012. Future screening costs and YLG were projected over a 30-year time horizon using a 3% discount rate. Results: The total cost of screening for the cohort by AFP→US would have been approximately $357,000 ($36,000/early-stage tumour detected compared to $814,000 ($59,000/early-stage tumour detected by US-alone. The AFP→US method would have yielded an additional 27.8 YLG ($13,000/YLG compared with 38.9 YLG ($21,000/YLG for US-alone. Screening by US-alone would incur an additional $114,000 per extra early-tumour detected compared with AFP→US and $41,000 per extra YLG. Conclusions: Although US-alone HCC screening might have yielded more YLG than AFP→US, the reduced costs of the AFP→US method could expand access to HCC screening in resource

  13. Affinity purification of native glycodelin from amniotic fluid for biological investigations and development of a glycodelin ELISA for clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; Myrhøj, Vibeke; Nguyen, Thanh Ha

    2017-01-01

    for functional studies because the carbohydrate part can be lacking or be insufficient in recombinant glycodelin from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems. METHODS AND RESULTS: Native glycodelin was purified from amniotic fluid by a series of affinity chromatography steps and had many glycosylated forms...

  14. Study on the Tribological Characteristics of Australian Native First Generation and Second Generation Biodiesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesels are a renewable energy source, and they have the potential to be used as alternatives to diesel fuel. The aim of this study is to investigate the wear and friction characteristics of Australian native first generation and second generation biodiesels using a four-ball tribo tester. The biodiesel was produced through a two-step transesterification process and characterized according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards. The tribological experiment was carried out at a constant 1800 rpm and different loads and temperatures. In addition, the surface morphology of the ball was tested by scanning electron microscope (SEM/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis. The test results indicated that biodiesel fuels have a lower coefficient of frictions (COF and lower wear scar diameter (WSD up to 83.50% and 41.28%, respectively, compared to conventional diesel fuel. The worn surface area results showed that biodiesel fuel has a minimum percentage of C and O, except Fe, compared to diesel. In addition, the worn surface area for diesel was found (2.20%–27.92% to be higher than biodiesel. The findings of this study indicated that both first and second generation biodiesel fuels have better tribological performance than diesel fuel, and between the biodiesel fuels, macadamia biodiesel showed better lubrication performance.

  15. Case Study on Ancestry Estimation in an Alaskan Native Family: Identity and Safeguards Against Reductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Alyssa C; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the complexities of ancestry-related identity is a necessary component of ethically sound research related to the genetic ancestry of modern-day communities. This is especially true when working with indigenous populations, given the legal and social implications that genetic ancestry interpretations may have in these communities. This study employs a multicomponent approach to explore the intricacies of ancestry-related identity within one extended family with members who identify as Alaskan Native. The seven participants were interviewed about their own self-identity, perceptions regarding genetic ancestry estimation, and their knowledge of oral family history. Additionally, each participant consented to having his or her genetic ancestry estimated. The researchers also surveyed ancestry-related documents, such as census records, birth certificates, and Certificates of Indian Blood. These three different perspectives-oral family history and self-identity, genetic ancestry estimation, historical and legal documentation-illustrate the complex nature of ancestry-related identity within the context of indigenous and colonial interactions in North America. While estimates of genetic ancestry broadly reflected each individual's self-reported biogeographic ancestry and supported all described and historically reported biological relationships, the estimates did not always match federally recorded blood quantum values, nor did they provide any information on relationships at the tribe or clan level. Employing a multicomponent approach and engaging study participants may help to safeguard against genetic essentialism and provide a more nuanced understanding of ancestry-related identity within a larger political, legal, and historical context.

  16. Effect of polyols on the native structure of {alpha}-chymotrypsin: A comparable study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Awanish; Attri, Pankaj [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007 (India); Venkatesu, Pannuru, E-mail: venkatesup@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007 (India)

    2012-05-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have studied stability of {alpha}-chymotrypsin in polyols. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have performed DSC, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our {Delta}G{sub u} of CT in polyol increase as polyol concentration increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All polyols acted as enhancers for CT stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results show that trehalose is strong stabilizer. - The influence of polyols on the structure and stability of {alpha}-chymotrypsin (CT) have been explored by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have predicted the thermodynamic folding properties (transition temperature (T{sub m}), enthalpy change ({Delta}H), heat capacity change ({Delta}C{sub p}) and Gibbs free energy change ({Delta}G{sub u}) from DSC to understand the clear picture of folding studies of CT. All polyols (trehalose, sucrose, sorbitol, and glycerol) acted as enhancers for CT stability, with varying efficacies and efficiencies. The DSC, CD and fluorescence spectral analysis clearly showed the ability of polyols to protect the native structural conformation of enzyme and preventing the unfolding which occurs in the aqueous media. These results explicitly explain that stabilizing polyols are preferentially excluded from the surface of CT, since water has a higher tendency toward favourable interactions with functional groups of the CT than with polyols.

  17. A study on fungal flora of the normal eye surface in Iranian native cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tohid nouri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of the normal ocular surface is one of the sources supplying fungal agents for keratomycosis. This study was conducted to identify fungal isolates of the conjunctiva in clinically healthy Iranian native cattle in Urmia district. Swabs were taken from both eyes of cattle (n=45 and cultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and malt extract agar. Plates were incubated at 25°C and examined for 7 days. Data were analyzed for the effect of age and sex by fisher’s exact test. Thirteen cattle (28.89% were found to be positive for fungal growth. The isolated fungal genera were Aspergillus spp-7 cases (53.84%, Penicillium spp-6 cases (46.15%, Rhodotorula sp-1 case (7.69% and Candida sp-1 case (7.69%. Yeast genera represented 13.3% of all the isolates. Sex and age of cattle had no significant effect on prevalence of isolates. Incidence of fungal colonization of the eyes compared with similar studies was low which may reflect differences in season and technique of sampling. Unexpected high frequency of Aspergillus may be due to geographic differences.

  18. Horizontal Bone Reconstruction on sites with different amounts of native bone: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Antonio Pelegrine

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The lack of guidelines for bone augmentation procedures might compromise decision making in implantology. The objective of this study was to perform a retrospective study to verify the outcomes of horizontal bone reconstruction in implant dentistry with different types of materials and amounts of native bone in the recipient bed to allow for a new guideline for horizontal bone reconstruction. One hundred preoperative CT scans were retrospectively evaluated and categorized in accordance to horizontal bone defects as presence (Group P or absence (Group A of cancellous bone in the recipient bed. Different approaches were used to treat the edentulous ridge and the outcomes were defined either as satisfactory or unsatisfactory regarding the possibility of implant placement. The percentage distribution of the patients according to the presence or absence of cancellous bone was 92% for Group P and 8% for Group A. In Group P, 98% of the patients had satisfactory outcomes, and the use of autografts had 100% of satisfactory outcomes in this group. In Group A, 37.5% of the patients had satisfactory outcomes, and the use of autografts also yielded 100% of satisfactory outcomes. The use of allografts and xenografts in Group A had 0% and 33.3% of satisfactory outcomes, respectively. Therefore, it seems reasonable to speculate that the presence of cancellous bone might be predictive and predictable when the decision includes bone substitutes. In cases of absence of cancellous bone in the recipient bed, the use of a vitalized graft seems to be mandatory.

  19. Career exploration in young people: Study with specific groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents two studies of career exploration with specific groups of youth, using the Career Exploration Survey (CES. The first study compares the career exploration process of 136 foster-care youth and 186 youth living with their families, using the One-Way MANOVA. In the second study we analyzed the process of career exploration of 323 young people in vocational education, comparing it with the 208 regular education using the T-Test. Implications for career intervention with specific groups will be taken based on the results.

  20. Thermodynamic study of the native and phosphorylated regulatory domain of the CFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasini, Carlotta, E-mail: marasini@ge.ibf.cnr.it [Istituto di Biofisica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Galeno, Lauretta; Moran, Oscar [Istituto di Biofisica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFTR mutations produce cystic fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloride transport depends on the regulatory domain phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulatory domain is intrinsically disordered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary structure and protein stability change upon phosphorylation. -- Abstract: The regulatory domain (RD) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the defective protein in cystic fibrosis, is the region of the channel that regulates the CFTR activity with multiple phosphorylation sites. This domain is an intrinsically disordered protein, characterized by lack of stable or unique tertiary structure. The disordered character of a protein is directly correlated with its function. The flexibility of RD may be important for its regulatory role: the continuous conformational change may be necessary for the progressive phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the channel. However, the lack of a defined and stable structure results in a considerable limitation when trying to in build a unique molecular model for the RD. Moreover, several evidences indicate significant structural differences between the native, non-phosphorylated state, and the multiple phosphorylated state of the protein. The aim of our work is to provide data to describe the conformations and the thermodynamic properties in these two functional states of RD. We have done the circular dichroism (CD) spectra in samples with a different degree of phosphorylation, from the non-phosphorylated state to a bona fide completely phosphorylated state. Analysis of CD spectra showed that the random coil and {beta}-sheets secondary structure decreased with the polypeptide phosphorylation, at expenses of an increase of {alpha}-helix. This observation lead to interpret phosphorylation as a mechanism favoring a more structured state. We also studied the thermal denaturation curves of the protein in the two

  1. Thermodynamic study of the native and phosphorylated regulatory domain of the CFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasini, Carlotta; Galeno, Lauretta; Moran, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CFTR mutations produce cystic fibrosis. ► Chloride transport depends on the regulatory domain phosphorylation. ► Regulatory domain is intrinsically disordered. ► Secondary structure and protein stability change upon phosphorylation. -- Abstract: The regulatory domain (RD) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the defective protein in cystic fibrosis, is the region of the channel that regulates the CFTR activity with multiple phosphorylation sites. This domain is an intrinsically disordered protein, characterized by lack of stable or unique tertiary structure. The disordered character of a protein is directly correlated with its function. The flexibility of RD may be important for its regulatory role: the continuous conformational change may be necessary for the progressive phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the channel. However, the lack of a defined and stable structure results in a considerable limitation when trying to in build a unique molecular model for the RD. Moreover, several evidences indicate significant structural differences between the native, non-phosphorylated state, and the multiple phosphorylated state of the protein. The aim of our work is to provide data to describe the conformations and the thermodynamic properties in these two functional states of RD. We have done the circular dichroism (CD) spectra in samples with a different degree of phosphorylation, from the non-phosphorylated state to a bona fide completely phosphorylated state. Analysis of CD spectra showed that the random coil and β-sheets secondary structure decreased with the polypeptide phosphorylation, at expenses of an increase of α-helix. This observation lead to interpret phosphorylation as a mechanism favoring a more structured state. We also studied the thermal denaturation curves of the protein in the two conditions, monitoring the changes of the mean residue ellipticity measured at 222 nm as a function of temperature

  2. INTERACTION BETWEEN NATIVE AND ALIEN SPECIES OF CRAYFISH IN AUSTRIA: CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÖCKL M.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In Austria, three indigenous crayfish species occur: the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus, the stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium, and the white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes. It is not known if Astacus leptodactylus is autochthonous in the very eastern part of Austria, near the border with Hungary and Slovakia. In other parts of Austria the Turkish crayfish has been transplanted into several gravel pits and ponds. Up to now, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii is not known to occur in the wild, but can be bought alive in fish markets, restaurants, and the aquarium trade. The Nearctic spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus and the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus have been introduced since the 1970s by crayfish farmers because these species are resistant to the crayfish plague fungus (Aphanomyces astaci. There are just a few populations of O. limosus, and the species is not spreading actively. However, P. leniusculus is widespread all over Austria, and was illegally introduced from one water body to another. It can be characterized as an aggressive, invasive North American species, spreading actively and acting as a vector of the crayfish plague. Unfortunately the habitat requirements of the native noble crayfish and the alien signal crayfish are nearly the same. Case studies are given in the following chapters: the first group of examples refers to water bodies where the alien signal crayfish is most probably the cause of displacement of the indigenous noble crayfish: 1 Hintersee, 2 Irrsee (« Zeller See », 3 north-western Lower Austria (« Waldviertel », 4 Merzenstein (aquacultural enterprise, 5 Neufelder See. The second group of examples refers to water bodies where alien and indigenous species are able to coexist: a the confluence of the main course of the Danube River, the Ölhafen and the Neue Donau in the southeast part of Vienna, b the Schönauer Wasser, a backwater of the Danube River downstream

  3. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiovascular Disease among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanayagam, Ch.; Shankar, A.; Sabanayagam, Ch.; Buchwald, D.; Goins, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American Indians. It is not known if symptoms of insomnia are associated with CVD in this population. Methods. We examined 449 American Indians aged =55 years from the Native Elder Care Study. The main outcome-of-interest was self-reported CVD. Results. Short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep were positively associated with CVD after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors. Compared with a sleep duration of 7 h, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of CVD among those with sleep duration =5 h was 2.89 (1.17-7.16). Similarly, the multivariable OR (95% CI) of CVD was 4.45 (1.85-10.72) and 2.60 (1.25-5.42) for daytime sleepiness >2 h and difficulty falling asleep often/always. Conclusion. Symptoms of insomnia including short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep are independently associated with CVD in American Indians aged =55 years

  4. Traumatic Stress, Social Support, and Health Among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Melissa; Buchwald, Dedra; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Omidpanah, Adam; Manson, Spero M; Goins, R Turner

    2017-01-03

    To estimate the prevalence of lifetime traumatic experiences, describe related symptoms of traumatic stress, and examine their association with perceived social support and physical and mental health among older American Indians. Analyses of existing interview data from the Native Elder Care Study, a random age-stratified sample of 505 tribal members ≥55 years of age conducted in partnership with a large Southeastern tribe. Interviews assessed trauma exposure, traumatic stress, measures of social support, and physical and mental health status. Overall, 31% of participants had experienced a traumatic event; of these, 43% reported traumatic stress at the time of the interview. Higher perceived social support was associated with a reduced prevalence of traumatic stress. Compared to their counterparts without traumatic stress, women participants reporting traumatic stress reported more symptoms of depression, and both symptomatic men and women had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic pain. Traumatic stress was associated with less perceived social support and poorer health. Social support was not found to moderate the relationship between traumatic stress and physical and mental health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of native and mutant intimin from enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Yong; Gao, Feng; Mao, Xuhu; Xiao, Ming; Luo, Ping; Qi, Jianxun; Guo, Gang; Jing, Hua; Cui, Yan; Zou, Quanming

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of native intimin and its N916Y mutant from enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 diffracted to 2.8 and 2.6 Å resolution, respectively. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a primarily food-borne bacterial pathogen that is capable of causing life-threatening human infections and poses a serious challenge to public health worldwide. The bacterial outer-membrane protein intimin plays a key role in the initiation process of EHEC infection. In this study, intimin from EHEC O157:H7 (Int188) and its N916Y mutant (IntN916Y) were purified and crystals of both were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Data were collected from Int188 and IntN916Y crystals to 2.8 and 2.6 Å resolution, respectively. The crystal of Int188 belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 235.16, b = 44.81, c = 129.12 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 97.53°. The crystal of IntN916Y belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 43.78, b = 92.49, c = 100.05 Å, α = β = γ = 90°

  6. Trans people's experiences with assisted reproduction services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Abra, S; Tarasoff, L A; Green, D; Epstein, R; Anderson, S; Marvel, S; Steele, L S; Ross, L E

    2015-06-01

    What are the experiences of trans persons (i.e. those whose gender identity does not match the gender assigned to them at birth) who sought or accessed assisted reproduction (AR) services in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2010? The majority of trans persons report negative experiences with AR service providers. Apart from research examining desire to have children among trans people, most of the literature on this topic has debated the ethics of assisting trans persons to become parents. To-date, all of the published research concerning trans persons' experiences with AR services is solely from the perspective of service providers; no studies have examined the experiences of trans people themselves. Secondary qualitative research study of data from nine trans-identified people and their partners (total n = 11) collected as part of a community-based study of access to AR services for sexual and gender minority people between 2010 and 2012. Trans-identified volunteers (and their partners, when applicable) who had used or attempted to access AR services since 2007 from across Ontario, Canada, participated in a 60-90 minute, semi-structured qualitative interview. Qualitative analysis was performed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Emerging themes were continually checked against the data as part of an iterative process. The data highlight barriers to accessing AR services for trans people. Participant recommendations for improving AR service provision to better meet the needs of this population are presented. These recommendations address the following areas: (i) AR service provider education and training; (ii) service provider and clinic practices and (iii) clinic environment. The majority of study participants were trans people who identified as men and who resided in major urban areas; those living in smaller communities may have different experiences that were not adequately captured in this analysis. While existing literature debates the ethics of

  7. Similar associations between personality dimensions and anxiety or depressive disorders in a population study of Turkish-Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch, and native Dutch subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Agnes C; de Wit, Matty A S; Krol, Anneke; Fassaert, Thijs J L; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Kupka, Ralph W; Dekker, Jack; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2013-05-01

    It is well established that personality traits are associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in Western populations, but it is not known whether this is true also for people from non-Western cultures. In this study, we examined whether ethnicity moderates the association between personality dimensions and anxiety or depressive disorders or symptoms. In a random urban population sample, stratified by ethnicity, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we interviewed 309 native Dutch subjects, 203 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 170 Moroccan-Dutch subjects. Dimensions of personality were measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Anxiety and depressive disorders and symptom levels were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The association between personality factors and disorders or symptoms of anxiety and depression was very similar in the three ethnic groups: all show the typical profile of high neuroticism and low extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

  8. Native American gene continuity to the modern admixed population from the Colombian Andes: Implication for biomedical, population and forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criollo-Rayo, Angel A; Bohórquez, Mabel; Prieto, Rodrigo; Howarth, Kimberley; Culma, Cesar; Carracedo, Angel; Tomlinson, Ian; Echeverry de Polnaco, Maria M; Carvajal Carmona, Luis G

    2018-06-07

    Andean populations have variable degrees of Native American and European ancestry, representing an opportunity to study admixture dynamics in the populations from Latin America (also known as Hispanics). We characterized the genetic structure of two indigenous (Nasa and Pijao) and three admixed (Ibagué, Ortega and Planadas) groups from Tolima, in the Colombian Andes. DNA samples from 348 individuals were genotyped for six mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), seven non-recombining Y-chromosome (NRY) region and 100 autosomal ancestry informative markers. Nasa and Pijao had a predominant Native American ancestry at the autosomal (92%), maternal (97%) and paternal (70%) level. The admixed groups had a predominant Native American mtDNA ancestry (90%), a substantial frequency of European NRY haplotypes (72%) and similar autosomal contributions from Europeans (51%) and Amerindians (45%). Pijao and nearby Ortega were indistinguishable at the mtDNA and autosomal level, suggesting a genetic continuity between them. Comparisons with multiple Native American populations throughout the Americas revealed that Pijao, had close similarities with Carib-speakers from distant parts of the continent, suggesting an ancient correlation between language and genes. In summary, our study aimed to understand Hispanic patterns of migration, settlement and admixture, supporting an extensive contribution of local Amerindian women to the gene pool of admixed groups and consistent with previous reports of European-male driven admixture in Colombia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comparison of Student Management and Secondary School Organization in the Peoples' Republic of China, France, and America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Comparative study of the effects of school physical setting, attendance requirements and schedules, and homeroom system on daily lives of secondary school students in The People's Republic of China, Japan, and France based on interviews with three native French residents, five native Japanese residents, and two native Chinese residents. (Contains…

  10. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species: A case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Struelens

    Full Text Available Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas. Here we explored some of the social-economical and environmental drivers that motivate Bolivian pastoralists to prefer exotic over native livestock species, based on 36 household surveys in the Cordillera Real. We constructed a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model in order to assess the relationships between these drivers. Our results suggest that the access to market influenced pastoralists to reshape their herd composition, by increasing the number of sheep. They also suggest that community size increased daily grazing time in pastures, therefore intensifying the grazing pressure. At a broader scale, this study highlights the effects of some social-economical and environmental drivers on mountain herding systems.

  11. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species: A case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, Quentin; Gonzales Pomar, Karina; Loza Herrera, Susi; Nina Huanca, Gaby; Dangles, Olivier; Rebaudo, François

    2017-01-01

    Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas. Here we explored some of the social-economical and environmental drivers that motivate Bolivian pastoralists to prefer exotic over native livestock species, based on 36 household surveys in the Cordillera Real. We constructed a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model in order to assess the relationships between these drivers. Our results suggest that the access to market influenced pastoralists to reshape their herd composition, by increasing the number of sheep. They also suggest that community size increased daily grazing time in pastures, therefore intensifying the grazing pressure. At a broader scale, this study highlights the effects of some social-economical and environmental drivers on mountain herding systems.

  12. T2' imaging of native kidneys and renal allografts. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathys, C.; Blondin, D.; Wittsack, H.J.; Miese, F.R.; Rybacki, K.; Walther, C.; Holstein, A.; Lanzman, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of T2' mapping in native kidneys and renal allografts. Materials and Methods: Following approval of the local ethics committee, 24 renal allograft recipients and 10 control subjects (healthy volunteers) were included in this study. Multi-echo T2 and T2 * imaging was performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Allograft recipients were assigned to two groups: group (a), 8 patients with good (glomerular filtration rate of more than 40 ml/min) allograft function and no evidence of transplant rejection, transplant renal artery stenosis or ureteral obstruction; group (b), 16 patients with deterioration of renal graft function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 40 ml/min or less). Two different imaging protocols were tested. Results: The mean T2' relaxation parameters were 108.33 msec ± 13.34, 100.00 msec ± 18.89 and 124.57 msec ± 6.51 for groups (a), (b) and for control subjects, respectively. The reduction of T2' values in patient group (b) was not statistically significant. However, significant correlations could be demonstrated between T2' values and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of renal allograft function. The reproducibility was tested and the coefficients of variation of T2' values in the cortex of transplanted kidneys were 11.1 % within subjects and 11.3 % between subjects. Conclusion: Our results indicate that T2' imaging is a promising non-enhanced technique, which seems to reveal information on transplant function. Further studies are required to determine the clinical value of T2' mapping for monitoring renal allograft recipients. (orig.)

  13. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  14. Fluorescence studies on native and bound to trifluraline soy bean Lb "a" in the enhanced N 2 fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, Kolyo; Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina

    2001-10-01

    The differences in the tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence of native (control) Lb "a" and experimental substance isolated from nodules of the 'Williams' soy beans variety treated with trifluraline at a concentration of 2.1×10 -10 M have been studied. A positively charged environment has been proved for the tryptophans of the native Lb "a" and a negative one for the tryptophans of the experimental Lb "a". The difference in the tryptophan emission spectra at λex=280 and 300 nm may be assigned to conformational alterations occurring in the experimental Lb "a". This is also confirmed by the greater energy transfer from tyrosine to tryptophan in the experimental Lb "a"—30% compared to the 10% in the native Lb "a". The value of the constant of acrylamide quenching ( Ksv=2.77 M -1) shows that the tryptophans are buried more deeply in the experimental Lb "a" than in the native Lb "a" ( Ksv=4 M -1). They are substantially lower than Ksv of the standard compound N-Ac-Trp-NH 2 (16.30 M -1). The activation energy ( Ea) of the thermal quenching of tryptophan fluorescence is higher for the experimental Lb "a" (37 kJ mol -1) as compared to the standard compound N-Ac-Trp-NH 2 (24 kJ mol -1) and the native Lb "a" (32 kJ mol -1). The dissociation constant of the complex of trifluraline with Lb "a" (6.32×10 -11 M) has been determined as well as the stoichiometric ratio trifluraline/Lb "a" (1:1). The estimated nitrogenase activity (μM/gfrw h) and the total Lb (mg/gfrw) for trifluraline are higher as compared to those for the control.

  15. Synthetic study on prion protein fragments using a SPPS and native chemical ligation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zawada, Z.; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Bednárová, Lucie; Bouř, Petr; Hlaváček, Jan; Stibor, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 37, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 44-44 ISSN 0939-4451. [International Congress on Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins /11./. 03.08.2009-07.08.2009, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prion protein * SPPS * native chemical ligation * fragments Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Older people dying with dementia: a nationwide study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, K.; van den Block, L.; Echteld, M.; Boffin, N.; Bilsen, J.; van Casteren, V.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Large-scale nationwide data describing the end-of-life characteristics of older people with dementia are lacking. This paper describes the dying process and end-of-life care provided to elderly people with mild or severe dementia in Belgium. It compares with elderly people dying without

  17. Socio spatial adaptation as a resilience form of native unplanned settlement in confrontation with new planned settlement development pressure (case study: enclave native settlement in Serpong, Tangerang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischak, Mohammad; Setioko, Bambang; Nurgandarum, Dedes

    2017-12-01

    Urban growth refers to expansion of a metropolitan into sub urban areas as the surrounding environment, with no exception of Jakarta city due to limited availability and high price of land within the city. The city of Jakarta, as a metropolitan, carries of expansion in its surrounding environment including Tangerang. Privat developers may an important role in this urban growth through their large scale of new settlement development project. The formation of establishment of enclave native unplanned sub urban settlement scattered within planned new settlement in Tangerang is to be an consequence of Jakarta urban growth. This fenomena could be comprehended as a form of resilience native settlement in confrontation with the new planned settlement pressure. The aim of this research, presented in this paper is to understand the socio-spatial concept of those enclave native settlement as an adaptation form to the new planned settlement pressure. Through descriptive qualitative research method, with indepth interview as a main research instrument, this research could depict or uncover the facts that there are various form of socio-spatial adaptation as the main theme of resilience native suburban settlement formation.

  18. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  19. An ERP study of structural anomalies in native and semantic free artificial grammar: evidence for shared processing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabullo, Ángel; Sevilla, Yamila; Segura, Enrique; Zanutto, Silvano; Wainselboim, Alejandro

    2013-08-21

    Artificial grammars have been widely applied to the study of sequential learning in language, but few studies have directly compared the neural correlates of artificial and native grammar processing. In this study, we examined Event Related Potentials (ERPs) elicited by structural anomalies in semantic-free artificial grammar sequences and sentences in the subjects' native language (Spanish). Although ERPs differed during early stages, we observed similar posterior negativities (N400) and P600 effects in a late stage. We interpret these results as evidence of at least partially shared neural mechanisms for processing of language and artificial grammars. We suggest that in both the natural and artificial grammars, the N400 and P600 components we observed can be explained as the result of unfulfilled predictions about incoming stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Current Conditions in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    The school experience of American Indian and Alaska Native children hinges on the context in which their schooling takes place. This context includes the health and well-being of their families, communities, and governments, as well as the relationship between Native and non-Native people. Many Native children are in desperate straits because of…

  1. Sociocultural Variables That Impact High School Students' Perceptions of Native Fauna: A Study on the Species Component of the Biodiversity Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M.; Battistón, Luisina V.; García Capocasa, María C.; De Longhi, Ana L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school sector (private versus state schools) and student gender on knowledge of native fauna. Our main objectives were (a) to describe the knowledge of high school students from the province of Cordoba, Argentina with respect to native animal species, (b) to determine if any exotic species (introduced or…

  2. Literature review and ethnohistory of Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Olmsted, J.E.; Evans, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a review of the literature concerning Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain area and vicinity. It draws on a wide range of material, including early traveler reports, government documents, ethnographic and historical works, and local newspapers. The report complements two other concurrent studies, one focused on the cultural resources of Native American people in the study area and the other an ethnobotanical study of plant resources used by Native American people in the study area. The literature review has had two principal purposes: to determine the completeness of the Yucca Mountain Native American study design and to contribute to the understanding of the presence of Native American people in the Yucca Mountain area. A review of the existing literature about the Yucca Mountain area and southern Nye County, supplemented by the broader literature about the Great Basin, has verified three aspects of the study design. First, the review has aided in assessing the completeness of the list of Native American ethnic groups that have traditional or historical ties to the site. Second, it has aided in the production of a chronology of Native American activities that occurred on or near the site during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Third, it has helped to identify the location of cultural resources, including burials and other archaeological sites, in the study area and vicinity. 200 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  3. People diagnosed with dementia in Sweden: What type of home care services and housing are they granted? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odzakovic, Elzana; Hydén, Lars-Christer; Festin, Karin; Kullberg, Agneta

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to examine what types of home care services and housing are granted to people with a dementia diagnosis and how these types are associated with socio-demographic factors (sex, age, marital status, native or foreign born, and regional area). A cross-sectional study of all people diagnosed with dementia in three Swedish counties was conducted from the medical records in 2012. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to investigate associations between home care services and housing and socio-demographic variables. In total, 17,405 people had a dementia diagnosis, and the majority were women, aged 80+ years, and unmarried. Some 72% were living in ordinary housing and 28% lived in special housing. Of those who lived in ordinary housing, 50% did not receive any home care service. Not receiving any type of home care services was less common for older people and was also associated with being married and living in rural municipalities. The most common home care services granted were home help and personal care. Special housing was more common for older people, unmarried persons, and those living in rural municipalities. Most people with a dementia diagnosis were living in ordinary housing, and, surprisingly, half of those did not receive any type of home care service. This knowledge is essential for making the living conditions and needs of people living with dementia more visible and to provide good home care services for people with dementia and their families.

  4. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  5. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms "Alaska Native", "children" and "oral health" were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970-2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising approaches to improve the oral and systemic health of Alaska Native

  6. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Li people in Ledong, Hainan Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents on the uses of traditional medicinal plants used for treating human ailments in three villages of Ledong, a county inhabited by Li ethnic group in the southwest of Hainan Province, China. Semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews and participatory observations were used to collect ethnobotanical data from February to March 2012 and in July 2013. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Thirty native knowledgeable people were interviewed. The Li community uses 50 plant species in 36 families for medicinal purposes. The most common medicinal plant families were Leguminosae (14%, Compositae (6%, and Euphorbiaceae (6%, and the most common preparations methods were decoction (84%, crushing (38%, and poultice (34%. The traditional medicinal plants were mainly used for hemostasis (12.9%, body pains (11.4%, gastrointestinal disorders (11.4%, and trauma (10%. Twenty-four species of medicinal plants (48% have never been reported in the literature of Li medicines. In addition, 22 species (44% have already been studied by researchers and their extracts or compounds were good bio-actives. However, the rapid socio-economic development in the county is the main threat to the conservation of Li medicine and has resulted in the decrease in the abundance and use of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Other factors accounting for a decrease in the use of Li medicinal plants like loss of plant diversity, change of land use, and threatened traditional knowledge were equally discussed.

  7. MOTION STUDY OF A WHEELCHAIR PROTOTYPE FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut GEONEA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the design and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. The motion controller developed uses PWM technology (pulse wave modulation. The wheelchair has the ability of forward – backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it’s implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.

  8. Scottish young people's perceptions of standardised packs - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Macgregor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Standardised cigarette packs were introduced into the UK in May 2016. Retailers could sell old stock until May 2017 after which only the sale of cigarettes and tobacco in standardised packs was allowed. As in Australia, pack shape, colour, opening mechanism and font are regulated, together with the size and position of health warnings and number of cigarettes in a pack. This paper explores Scottish young people's awareness of and views about standardised packs in Spring 2017. Methods The DISPLAY study is a five year study established to evaluate the national tobacco point-of sale (POS promotions ban in four communities in Scotland. This paper is based on the qualitative component, annual focus groups carried out with Secondary 2 (13 year olds and Secondary 4 (15 year olds students in four secondary schools. 16 groups (82 students convened in February - March 2017 explored students' perceptions of standardised packaging. Results There was a high level of awareness of standardised packs prior to their full implementation. Smokers had bought them, and they and other participants had seen them in possession of friends and family members, and in litter. Participants' views of the new packaging were generally negative, described as unappealing and depressing, particularly the pictorial health warnings. Packs were compared unfavourably with previous non-standardised versions. However, there was no consensus on their likely impact. Some participants argued that their impact would be widespread, while others thought that any impact would be confined to young non/occasional smokers and that established smokers would be unaffected. Conclusions In early 2017 young people in Scotland had high awareness and knowledge of standardised tobacco packs before their full implementation. Despite differing views about their likely impact on youth smoking, participants irrespective of smoking status overwhelmingly regarded them as unattractive and less

  9. A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of Apology Strategies Employed by Iranian EFL Learners and English Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Abedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of speech-act theory has provided the hearers with a better understanding of what speakers intend to perform in the act of communication. One type of speech act is apologizing. When an action or utterance has resulted in an offense, the offender needs to apologize. In the present study, an attempt was made to compare the apology strategies employed by Iranian EFL learners and those of English native speakers in order to find out the possible differences and similarities. To this end, a discourse completion test (DCT was given to 100 male and female Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers. The respondents were supposed to complete the DCTs based on nine situations, which varied in terms of power between the interlocutors and level of imposition. This study employed Cohen and Olshtain's (1981 model to classify various types of apology strategies. The obtained results revealed some similarities along with some (statistically insignificant differences between EFL learners and American English speakers in terms of their use of apology strategies. Furthermore, it was found that the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs, such as request for forgiveness and an offer of apology were the strategies mostly employed by the Iranian EFL learners while taking on responsibility such as explicit self-blame, and expression of self-deficiency were found to be the strategies mostly used by English native speakers. In terms of gender, the male and female respondents more or less used the same apology strategies in response to the situations. The findings of the present research can be used by language teachers as well as sociolinguists. Keywords: Speech act theory, Speech act of apology, Apology strategies, Iranian EFL learners, English Native speakers, Gender

  10. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Deena; de Schweinitz, Peter; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69). High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.

  11. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Elwan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Methods: Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7. SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69. Results: High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Conclusion: Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.

  12. Trainable estimators for indirect people counting : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Percannella, G.; Vento, M.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the number of people in a scene is a very relevant issue due to the possibility of using it in a large number of contexts where it is necessary to automatically monitor an area for security/safety reasons, for economic purposes, etc. The large number of people counting approaches

  13. Inequalities in mortality among refugees and immigrants compared to native Danes--a historical prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norredam, Marie; Olsbjerg, Maja; Petersen, Jorgen H; Juel, Knud; Krasnik, Allan

    2012-09-10

    Comparisons of mortality patterns between different migrant groups, and between migrants and natives, are relevant to understanding, and ultimately reducing, inequalities in health. To date, European studies on migrants' mortality patterns are scarce and are based solely on country of birth, rather than migrant status. However, mortality patterns may be affected by implications in relation to migrant status, such as health hazards related to life circumstances before and during migration, and factors related to ethnic origin. Consequently, we investigated differences in both all-cause and cause-specific mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease among refugees and immigrants, compared with the mortality among native Danes. A register-based, historical prospective cohort design. All refugees (n = 29,139) and family-reunited immigrants (n = 27,134) who, between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1999, were granted right of residence in Denmark were included and matched 1:4 on age and sex with native Danes. To identify deaths, civil registration numbers were cross-linked to the Register of Causes of Death (01.01.1994-31.12.2007) and the Danish Civil Registration System (01.01.1994-31.12.2008). Mortality rate ratios were estimated separately for men and women by migrant status and region of birth, adjusting for age and income and using a Cox regression model, after a median follow-up of 10-13 years after arrival. Compared with native Danes, all-cause mortality was significantly lower among female (RR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.71;0.85) and male (RR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.59-0.69;) refugees. The rates were also significantly lower for immigrants: women (RR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.38;0.51) and men (RR = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.37;0.51). Both migrant groups also had lower cause-specific mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. For both all-cause and cause-specific mortality, immigrants generally had lower mortality than refugees, and differences were observed according to ethnic origin

  14. Anxiety disorders in young people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíse Campos Mondin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.

  15. De etiske journalister: Native Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Asger Bach; Jeppesen, Annika; Turunen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the opinions about Native Advertising, among RUC-students who study journalism. In qualitative interviews a number of students point out advantages and disadvantages of Native Advertising as they see them, as well as they reflect upon if they eventually can see themselves work with Native Advertising.A selection of their responds are analysed with the use of a pragmatic argument analysis. The outcome of the analysis is the base of a discussion, which also include the...

  16. Experiences and perceptions of people with headache: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Alison M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few qualitative studies of headache have been conducted and as a result we have little in-depth understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people with headache. The aim of this paper was to explore the perceptions and experiences of individuals with headache and their experiences of associated healthcare and treatment. Methods A qualitative study of individuals with headache, sampled from a population-based study of chronic pain was conducted in the North-East of Scotland, UK. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults aged 65 or less. Interviews were analysed using the Framework approach utilising thematic analysis. Results Almost every participant reported that they were unable to function fully as a result of the nature and unpredictability of their headaches and this had caused disruption to their work, family life and social activities. Many also reported a negative impact on mood including feeling depressed, aggressive or embarrassed. Most participants had formed their own ideas about different aspects of their headache and several had searched for, or were seeking, increased understanding of their headache from a variety of sources. Many participants reported that their headaches caused them constant worry and anguish, and they were concerned that there was a serious underlying cause. A variety of methods were being used to manage headaches including conventional medication, complementary therapies and self-developed management techniques. Problems associated with all of these management strategies emerged. Conclusion Headache has wide-ranging adverse effects on individuals and is often accompanied by considerable worry. The development of new interventions or educational strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disorder and associated anxiety are needed.

  17. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  18. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  19. Preventing HIV with young people: a case study from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gill; Mwale, Vincent

    2006-11-01

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is funding thousands of community-based organisations, international NGOs and government services in high HIV prevalence countries to persuade young people to abstain from sex until marriage (Abstinence, Behaviour Change, Youth--ABY). This paper describes how this strategy is being implemented in Zambia, and community responses to it. It is derived from published information and observations and discussions in the Eastern Province in 2005-2006. A few NGOs have challenged the strategy, but many took the funds and are paying large numbers of peer educators to promote abstinence only. Messages are rife that condoms have holes or don't work sufficiently well to make them worth using. Condom promotion materials have been replaced. Service providers refuse to give condoms to young people. Young people who had attended sexuality and life skills programmes that gave them accurate information are rejecting inaccurate messages and demanding condoms. Without this education, however, inaccurate messages will spread quickly. It is not possible to promote condoms only for high risk people without stigmatising both the people and condoms, and it also jeopardises promoting condom use for contraception. Everything possible must be done to reduce negative messages about condoms. Everyone involved in HIV/AIDS needs to reflect on their own work in relation to this new climate and ensure that all prevention options are widely available, correct information is given and condoms are available for everyone who needs them.

  20. Native defects in ZnO films studied by slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chengxiao; Weng Huimin; Ye Bangjiao; Zhou Xianyi; Han Rongdian; Yang Xiaojie

    2005-01-01

    Native defects in ZnO films grown by radio frequency (RF) reactive magnetron sputtering under variable oxygen fraction conditions have been investigated by using monoenergetic positrons beam technique. The results show that the same type defects dominate in these ZnO samples grown at oxygen fraction less than 70% in the process chamber; and zinc vacancies are preponderant in the ZnO films fabricated in richer oxygen environment. The concentration of zinc vacancies increases with oxygen partial fraction rising. While oxygen fraction reaches 85%, zinc vacancies that could trap positrons decrease, which suggests that impurities could shield zinc vacancies. A combination between hydrogen atoms and the dangling bonds in the lattice could weaken the trap of positrons under the 50% oxygen fraction condition. The concentration of zinc vacancies varies in different oxygen fraction films, which is in agreement with the conclusion of photoluminescence spectroscopy. (authors)

  1. Schooling's Contribution to Social Capital: Study from a Native Amazonian Society in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Ricardo; Seyfried, Craig; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Huanca, Tomas; Leonard, William R.; McDade, Thomas; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Understanding why traditional cultures weaken matters because they embody humanity's heritage. Schooling has been singled out as an abrader of traditional culture. We assess whether schooling erodes one aspect of traditional culture: social capital as shown by generosity to people outside the household. In industrial nations researchers find…

  2. The Function of Native American Storytelling as Means of Education in Luci Tapahonso's Selected Poems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddam, Widad Allawi; Ya, Wan Roselezam Wan

    2015-01-01

    Native American storytelling has become a very vital issue in education. It preserves Native American history for the next generation and teaches them important lessons about the Native American culture. It also conveys moral meanings, knowledge and social values of the Native American people to the universe. More importantly, Native American…

  3. “These classes have been my happy place”: Feasibility study of a self-care program in Native Hawaiian custodial grandparents

    OpenAIRE

    Loriena Yancura; Heather Greenwood-Junkermeier; Christine A. Fruhauf

    2017-01-01

    Native Hawaiian custodial grandparents have a distinctive set of strengths and challenges that may lead them to benefit from a structured self-care program. The purpose of this paper is to describe a feasibility study with nine Native Hawaiian custodial grandparents who participated in a 6-week self-care intervention. Based on open-ended questions during the post-questionnaire and at the 6-month follow-up focus group, grandparent participants noted that their grandchildren needed education an...

  4. Native American Indian Successes in Natural Resources, Science and Engineering: PreK through Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have recognized the critical need in understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the growth of Native people in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) professions. The presentation will highlight: 1) current philosophies on building a STEM Native workforce; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native professionals, their research and tribal applicability; and 4) forwarding thinking for creating sustainable environmental and social infrastructures for all people. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T) and Humboldt State University (HSU) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. SDSM&T has set record numbers for graduating Native students in science and engineering. SDSM&T had 27 graduates in five years (2000-2005) and hosted more than 1000+ Native students for programs and activities. Humboldt State University is the only university in the CSU system with a program focusing specifically on Natives in natural resources, science and engineering as well as a Native American Studies degree. Both universities have designed programs to meet current needs and address challenging issues in Earth, Wind, Fire and Water. The programs are funded through NASA, NSF, NIH and

  5. Why Do People Like Loud Sound? A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David; Fremaux, Guy

    2017-08-11

    Many people choose to expose themselves to potentially dangerous sounds such as loud music, either via speakers, personal audio systems, or at clubs. The Conditioning, Adaptation and Acculturation to Loud Music (CAALM) Model has proposed a theoretical basis for this behaviour. To compare the model to data, we interviewed a group of people who were either regular nightclub-goers or who controlled the sound levels in nightclubs (bar managers, musicians, DJs, and sound engineers) about loud sound. Results showed four main themes relating to the enjoyment of loud sound: arousal/excitement, facilitation of socialisation, masking of both external sound and unwanted thoughts, and an emphasis and enhancement of personal identity. Furthermore, an interesting incidental finding was that sound levels appeared to increase gradually over the course of the evening until they plateaued at approximately 97 dBA Leq around midnight. Consideration of the data generated by the analysis revealed a complex of influential factors that support people in wanting exposure to loud sound. Findings were considered in terms of the CAALM Model and could be explained in terms of its principles. From a health promotion perspective, the Social Ecological Model was applied to consider how the themes identified might influence behaviour. They were shown to influence people on multiple levels, providing a powerful system which health promotion approaches struggle to address.

  6. Qualitative Study of Malnutrition in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Janine J. L.; Maaskant, Marian A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of underweight status is relatively high in persons with intellectual disabilities. However, it is not clear whether this is due to malnourishment. The authors sought to examine the awareness and knowledge of physicians, dieticians, and direct care staff regarding malnutrition in people with intellectual disabilities. They also…

  7. People's Intuitions about Randomness and Probability: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Marie-Paule; Rovira, Katia; Lecoutre, Bruno; Poitevineau, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    What people mean by randomness should be taken into account when teaching statistical inference. This experiment explored subjective beliefs about randomness and probability through two successive tasks. Subjects were asked to categorize 16 familiar items: 8 real items from everyday life experiences, and 8 stochastic items involving a repeatable…

  8. Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

  9. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, S.; Olsthoorn, N.; van Beuningen, C.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation

  10. Chinese College Students' Views on Native English and Non-Native English in EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…

  11. Self-Determination in Health Research: An Alaska Native Example of Tribal Ownership and Research Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka; Julie A. Beans; Renee F. Robinson; Jennifer L. Shaw; Ileen Sylvester; Denise A. Dillard

    2017-01-01

    Alaska Native (AN) and American Indian (AI) people are underrepresented in health research, yet many decline to participate in studies due to past researcher misconduct. Southcentral Foundation (SCF), an Alaska Native-owned and operated health care organization, is transforming the relationship between researchers and the tribal community by making trust and accountability required features of health research in AN/AI communities. In 1998, SCF assumed ownership from the federal government of ...

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of native acromioclavicular joint ligaments and two reconstruction techniques in the presence of the sternoclavicular joint: A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masionis, Povilas; Šatkauskas, Igoris; Mikelevičius, Vytautas; Ryliškis, Sigitas; Bučinskas, Vytautas; Griškevičius, Julius; Martin Oliva, Xavier; Monzó Planella, Mariano; Porvaneckas, Narūnas; Uvarovas, Valentinas

    2017-01-01

    Where is over 100 reconstruction techniques described for acromioclavicular (AC) joint reconstruction. Although, it is not clear whether the presence of the sternoclavicular (SC) joint influences the biomechanical properties of native AC ligaments and reconstruction techniques. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of native AC joint ligaments and two reconstruction techniques in cadavers with the SC joint still present. We tested eight fresh-frozen cadaver hemithoraces for superior translation (70 N load) and translation increment after 1000 cycles (loading from 20 to 70 N) in a controlled laboratory study. There were three testing groups created: native ligaments, the single coracoclavicular loop (SCL) technique, and the two coracoclavicular loops (TCL) technique. Superior translation was measured after static loading. Translation increment was calculated as the difference between superior translation after cyclic and static loading. Native AC ligaments showed significantly lower translation than the SCL ( p = 0.023) and TCL ( p = 0.046) groups. The SCL had a significantly lower translation increment than native AC ligaments ( p = 0.028). There was no significant difference between reconstruction techniques in terms of translation ( p = 0.865) and translation increment ( p = 0.113). Native AC joint ligaments had better static properties than both reconstruction techniques and worse dynamic biomechanical properties than the SCL technique. The SCL technique appeared to be more secure than the TCL technique. The presence of the SC joint did not have an observable influence on test results.

  13. Initial Development of a Cultural Values and Beliefs Scale among Dakota/Nakota/Lakota People: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W. Rusty; Quevillon, Randal P.; Boyd, Beth; Mackey, Duane

    2006-01-01

    This study was the initial phase in the development of a mental health assessment tool. The Native American Cultural Values and Beliefs Scale is a 12-item instrument that assesses three dimensions of American Indian/Alaska Native values and beliefs: 1) the importance, 2) the frequency of practicing, and 3) the amount of distress caused by not…

  14. Native Music in College Curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Loran

    1986-01-01

    Culminating a 10-year effort to include the study of Native Americans and their music as it reflects cultural realities, life, thought, religion, and history as a choice in requirements for graduation, the elective course, "Native Music of North America," is now recognized at Washington State University as meeting both…

  15. THE ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH SYLLABLE TIMING BY NATIVE SPANISH SPEAKERS LEARNERS OF ENGLISH. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gutierrez Diez

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present part of the results of an empirical research on contrastive rhythm (English-Spanish. Of the several points dealt with in such a research (syllable compression, foot timing, syllable timing and isochrony of rhythmic units, we refer here to syllable duration in English and Spanish as well as the leaming of syllable duration by a group of advanced leamers of English whose first language is Spanish. Regarding the issue of syllable timing, a striking result is the equal duration of unstressed syllables in both languages, which challenges an opposite view underlying a teaching practice common among Spanish teachers of English to Spanish learners of that language. As for the interlanguage of the group of Spanish leamers of English, we comment on the presence of an interference error represented by a stressed/unstressed durational ratio mid way between the ratios for Spanish and English; we have also detected a developmental error related to the tempo employed by the leamers in their syllable timing, which is slower than the tempo produced by native speakers of English.

  16. Perturbations of Native Membrane Protein Structure in Alkyl Phosphocholine Detergents: A Critical Assessment of NMR and Biophysical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Membrane proteins perform a host of vital cellular functions. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms whereby they fulfill these functions requires detailed biophysical and structural investigations. Detergents have proven pivotal to extract the protein from its native surroundings. Yet, they provide a milieu that departs significantly from that of the biological membrane, to the extent that the structure, the dynamics, and the interactions of membrane proteins in detergents may considerably vary, as compared to the native environment. Understanding the impact of detergents on membrane proteins is, therefore, crucial to assess the biological relevance of results obtained in detergents. Here, we review the strengths and weaknesses of alkyl phosphocholines (or foscholines), the most widely used detergent in solution-NMR studies of membrane proteins. While this class of detergents is often successful for membrane protein solubilization, a growing list of examples points to destabilizing and denaturing properties, in particular for α-helical membrane proteins. Our comprehensive analysis stresses the importance of stringent controls when working with this class of detergents and when analyzing the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins in alkyl phosphocholine detergents. PMID:29488756

  17. Inpatient Hospitalization Costs: A Comparative Study of Micronesians, Native Hawaiians, Japanese, and Whites in Hawai‘i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hagiwara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable interest exists in health care costs for the growing Micronesian population in the United States (US due to their significant health care needs, poor average socioeconomic status, and unique immigration status, which impacts their access to public health care coverage. Using Hawai‘i statewide impatient data from 2010 to 2012 for Micronesians, whites, Japanese, and Native Hawaiians (N = 162,152 hospitalizations, we compared inpatient hospital costs across racial/ethnic groups using multivariable models including age, gender, payer, residence location, and severity of illness (SOI. We also examined total inpatient hospital costs of Micronesians generally and for Medicaid specifically. Costs were estimated using standard cost-to-charge metrics overall and within nine major disease categories determined by All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups. Micronesians had higher unadjusted hospitalization costs overall and specifically within several disease categories (including infectious and heart diseases. Higher SOI in Micronesians explained some, but not all, of these higher costs. The total cost of the 3486 Micronesian hospitalizations in the three-year study period was $58.1 million and 75% was covered by Medicaid; 23% of Native Hawaiian, 3% of Japanese, and 15% of white hospitalizations costs were covered by Medicaid. These findings may be of particular interests to hospitals, Medicaid programs, and policy makers.

  18. Homosexuality among People with a Mild Intellectual Disability: An Explorative Study on the Lived Experiences of Homosexual People in the Netherlands with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffelen, J.; Kok, G.; Hospers, H.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research on homosexuality among people with an intellectual disability (ID) is limited and, to date, very little is known regarding the personal experiences of gay and lesbian people with an ID. This study set out to answer the question: "What are the lived experiences of a specific cohort of homosexual people with an…

  19. Dakota and Ojibwe People in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Frances

    1977-01-01

    A biographical sketch of Frances Densmore, ethnologist of Native American music, and seven articles describing the lives of the Dakota and Ojibwe people as Densmore saw them are presented. The biographical sketch recounts Ms. Densmore's study of Ojibwe music and her ability to copy songs from memory when listening to them at fairs or attending…

  20. Identification of Dried Native Chili Markets in the International Tourism Sector in Peru: An Open-Ended Contingent Valuation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Many native chili varieties are becoming extinct due to the lack of economic incentives for farmers to their continued cultivation in Peru. A potential high value pro-poor market for selling native chilies is the international tourism segment. The objectives of this research were to assess the acceptability of the potential introduction of dried native chilies in the international tourism segment by identifying the motivations for buying dried chilies as souvenirs, and then by evaluating the ...

  1. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  2. Characterization study of native oxides on GaAs(100) surface by XPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liu; Zhang, Lian-dong; Liu, Hui; Gao, Xiang; Miao, Zhuang; Cheng, Hong-chang; Wang, Long; Niu, Sen

    2013-08-01

    In order to know more about the surface state of GaAs(100) epitaxial wafer during a storage period of two years, the XPS analysis was carried out four times on the surface, respectively polished by chemical etching, stored in desiccator for half a year, one year and two years. The results indicated that even after cleaned by proper etchant solutions, the fresh surface was slightly oxidized with Ga2O3, As2O3 and organic contaminant. The epi-wafer was always exposed to air during the storage period, so more and more oxides turned out. The mixed oxide layer comprised of C-OR, COOR, Ga2O3, As2O3 and As2O5 appeared after only half a year. In the ageing process of two years, the oxide types of gallium or arsenic did not change with stable content of Ga2O3 and remarkably fluctuating relative contents of As2O3 and As2O5. Based on the intensity ratio of Ga 3d-Ga2O3 to Ga 3d-GaAs, the thickness of oxide layer was estimated. The oxide layer generated after chemical polishing was very thin, just only 0.435nm thick, and then it grew rapidly, approximately 1.822nm after one year while almost no change any more subsequently. It was indicated that after the epi-wafer was stored for one year, because of volatile As2O3 or As2O5, there remained a large amount of Ga2O3 in oxide layer, which prevented the reactions between bulk material and oxide layer with oxygen. So native oxide layer plays a role as passive film to protect epi-wafer against the environment during a long storage period.

  3. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M. Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  4. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: a lion case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sam M; Maruping, Nkabeng T; Schoultz, Darius; Smit, Travis R

    2013-05-24

    Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  5. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  6. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark

    2016-12-01

    People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.

  7. STUDY OF PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERS VARIABILITY OF THE SILKMOTH COCOON FROM THE NATIVE GENETIC STOCK OF BOMBYX MORI L. SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRA MATEI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study had aims the analysis of phenotypic characters variability of silkmoth cocoon within the native genetic stock of Bombyx mori L. sp. The biological material was represented by 72 races consisting of the gene stock of Bombyx mori sp., grouped by their origin. The main phenotypical ad quantitative parameters of the races that represent the gene stock of Bombyx mori sp., present the following values: raw cocoon weight (1.445-2.361 g, cocoon shell weight (0.240-0.520 g, fiber length (746-1356 m, metric number of fiber (2917-3764 m/g. Depending on the quantitative parameters value, the silkworm races are being used differently, entire genetic stock being destined for various technological levels, as follows: 4 active races (parents of hybrids, 4 candidate races for parents of hybrids, 64 races in preservation.

  8. Miami's Tequesta Site: Could It Be a Native American Study Site For Natural Periodicities Associated With Tornados, Hurricanes, or Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, David M.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Florida invested in preserving the Tequesta Indians' "Stonehenge-like" site along the Miami River. Direct observation, and telecast reports, show that a strong association exists between this area and Native American place names, hurricanes, tornados, a waterspout, and other nearby phenomena. Electromagnetic stimulation of human nervous systems in areas like these, discernable by appropriately sensitive individuals when these types of events occur, could plausibly account for some correct "predictions" of events like earthquakes. Various sensory modalities may be activated there. It may be important to understand other historic aspects associated with cultural artifacts like Miami's Tequesta remains. If it also generates instrumentally detectable signals that correlate with visual, "auditory," or nerve ending "tinglings" like those cited by the psychiatrist Arthur Guirdham in books like his Obsessions, applied physicists could partly vindicate the investment and also provide a net return. Society and comparative religious study may benefit.

  9. Review: Biodiversity conservation strategy in a native perspective; case study of shifting cultivation at the Dayaks of Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2010. Biodiversity conservation strategy in a native perspective; case study of shifting cultivation at the Dayaks of Kalimantan. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 97-108. Native tribes generally are original conservationists; they build genuine conservation strategy of natural resources and environment for sustainable living. Dayak is a native tribe of Kalimantan that has been living for thousands of years; they use shifting cultivation to manage the communal forest lands due to Kalimantan’s poor soil of minerals and nutrients, where the presence of phosphorus becomes a limiting factor for crops cultivation. In tropical forests, phosphorus mostly stored in the trees, so to remove it, the forest burning is carried out. Nutrients released into the soil can be used for upland rice (gogo cultivation, until depleted; after that, cultivators need to open a forest, while the old land was abandoned (fallow until it becomes forest again (for 20-25 years. The consecutive land clearing causes the formation of mosaics land with different succession ages and diverse biodiversity. This process is often combined with agroforestry systems (multicultural forest gardens, where the will-be-abandoned fields are planted with a variety of useful trees that can be integrated in forest ecosystems, especially rubber and fruits. These systems of shifting cultivation are often blamed as the main factor of forest degradation and fires, but in the last 300 years, this system has little impact on forest degradation. But, this is relatively low in productivity and subsistent, so it is not suitable for the modern agriculture which demands high productivity and measurable, mass and continuous yield, as well as related to the market. The increased population and industrial development of forestry, plantation, mining, etc. make the communal forest become narrower, so the fallow periods are shortened (5-15 years and the lands are degraded into grasslands. In the future

  10. Studying Legacy Uranium Contamination On Navajo, Laguna, and Isleta Lands In Collaboration With Native American Undergraduate Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadol, D. D.; Frey, B.; Chee, C.

    2017-12-01

    Personally relevant research experiences at key points in a student's education are potentially powerful influences on their long-term career path. With this in mind, New Mexico EPSCoR created the STEM Advancement Program (STEMAP) to provide a summer research experience for students from the non-graduate-degree granting institutions in New Mexico. Recruitment focused on underrepresented minorities, primarily Native American and Hispanic students, who applied to work with one of six research components. Our research component focused on understanding the fate and transport of environmental uranium in the Four Corners region. The geosciences are especially amenable to providing meaningful research experiences, particularly for groups that have a strong cultural connection with the land. Uranium mining activities were extensive on several reservations in the 1950s to 1980s, and many of the sites have not been remediated. The impact of mining likely contributed to the high interest among Native American (especially Navajo) STEMAP applicants in this research topic. In four years of summer research we mentored four Native American students (two male and two female) and one white non-Hispanic female. Following their work in our research group, one student extended her research, three graduated, and one transferred to a research institution. This success likely reflects a combination of recruitment efforts, which built on community connections, as well as efforts to provide personal mentoring and to create an inclusive environment. The work of these students has advanced our understanding of fluvial transport of uranium from inactive mining districts, an important pathway given the role of these streams in providing water for agriculture and aggregate for construction. Findings demonstrate an affinity of uranium to sorb to fine-grained sediment, meaning standing water in stock ponds is of particular concern. The students also studied uranium-bearing dust generated from

  11. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Chi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Design. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012 for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions

  12. Credibility of native and non-native speakers of English revisited: Do non-native listeners feel the same?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Skarnitzl, Radek

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on research stimulated by Lev-Ari and Keysar (2010) who showed that native listeners find statements delivered by foreign-accented speakers to be less true than those read by native speakers. Our objective was to replicate the study with non-native listeners to see whether this effect is also relevant in international communication contexts. The same set of statements from the original study was recorded by 6 native and 6 nonnative speakers of English. 121 non-native listen...

  13. The MATISSE study: a randomised trial of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, M. J.; Killaspy, H.; Kalaitzaki, E.; Barrett, B.; Byford, S.; Patterson, S.; Soteriou, T.; O Neill, F. A.; Clayton, K.; Maratos, A.; Barnes, T. R.; Osborn, D.; Johnson, T.; King, M.; Tyrer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Art Therapy has been promoted as a means of helping people who may find it difficult to express themselves verbally engage in psychological treatment. Group Art Therapy has been widely used as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia but there have been few attempts to examine its effects and cost effectiveness has not been examined. The MATISSE study aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of group Art Therapy for people with schizophrenia.Method/Design:...

  14. An example of niche partitioning between Dikerogammarus villosus and other invasive and native gammarids: a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The invasive gammarid Dikerogammarus villosus is known to be a strong predator preying voraciously on a wide array of prey organisms including other gammarids. Predation by D. villosus on other gammarids is regarded as a main reason which led to the elimination of native and invasive gammarids in many reaches of European streams. At several sites in the River Danube and in a Rhine tributary, D. villosus was found co-existing with other gammarids. We studied whether predatory D. villosus is spatially segregated from other gammarids which would reduce predatory interactions. Two sites were investigated, one in the Danube (site 1 where D. villosus co-existed with the invasives Echinogammarus ischnus and Dikerogammarus bispinosus and another site in a Rhine tributary (site 2 where D. villosus co-existed with the invasive gammarid Echinogammarus berilloni and two native gammarids, Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli. At site 1, D. villosus was spatially segregated from E. ischnus but not from D. bispinosus; E. ischnus lived at the uppermost shoreline in boulder substrate while Dikerogammarus spp. lived in greater depth in stony to gravelly substrate. At site 2, D. villosus prevailed in greater depth and gravelly to stony substrate where Corbicula molluscs were present while the other species lived in near-shore areas in macrophytes. Our results suggest that co-existence of predatory D. villosus with gammarids is possible by niche partitioning and that high habitat complexity as at site 2 facilitates co-existence. The fact that at site 1 D. bispinosus occupied approximately the same spatial niche than D. villosus cannot be explained at present time.

  15. Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Young Children with Biliary Atresia and Native Liver: Results from the ChiLDReN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Vicky L; Sorensen, Lisa G; Alonso, Estella M; Fredericks, Emily M; Ye, Wen; Moore, Jeff; Karpen, Saul J; Shneider, Benjamin L; Molleston, Jean P; Bezerra, Jorge A; Murray, Karen F; Loomes, Kathleen M; Rosenthal, Philip; Squires, Robert H; Wang, Kasper; Arnon, Ronen; Schwarz, Kathleen B; Turmelle, Yumirle P; Haber, Barbara H; Sherker, Averell H; Magee, John C; Sokol, Ronald J

    2018-05-01

    To assess neurodevelopmental outcomes among participants with biliary atresia with their native liver at ages 12 months (group 1) and 24 months (group 2), and to evaluate variables predictive of neurodevelopmental impairment. Participants enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study underwent neurodevelopmental testing with either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, or Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition. Scores (normative mean = 100 ± 15) were categorized as ≥100, 85-99, and Development, 2nd edition, or Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition, scales) was analyzed using logistic regression. There were 148 children who completed 217 Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition, examinations (group 1, n = 132; group 2, n = 85). Neurodevelopmental score distributions significantly shifted downward compared with test norms at 1 and 2 years of age. Multivariate analysis identified ascites (OR, 3.17; P = .01) and low length z-scores at time of testing (OR, 0.70; P cognitive/language impairment at 1 year of age. An unsuccessful hepatoportoenterostomy was predictive of both physical/motor (OR, 4.88; P cognitive/language impairment (OR, 4.76; P = .02) at 2 years of age. Participants with biliary atresia surviving with native livers after hepatoportoenterostomy are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental delays at 12 and 24 months of age. Those with unsuccessful hepatoportoenterostomy are >4 times more likely to have neurodevelopmental impairment compared with those with successful hepatoportoenterostomy. Growth delays and/or complications indicating advanced liver disease should alert clinicians to the risk for neurodevelopmental delays, and expedite appropriate interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00061828 and NCT00294684. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Security Awareness of the Digital Natives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Gkioulos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Young generations make extensive use of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablets and laptops, while a plethora of security risks associated with such devices are induced by vulnerabilities related to user behavior. Furthermore, the number of security breaches on or via portable devices increases exponentially. Thus, deploying suitable risk treatments requires the investigation of how the digital natives (young people, born and bred in the digital era use their mobile devices and their level of security awareness, in order to identify common usage patterns with negative security impact. In this article, we present the results of a survey performed across a multinational sample of digital natives with distinct backgrounds and levels of competence in terms of security, to identify divergences in user behavior due to regional, educational and other factors. Our results highlight significant influences on the behavior of digital natives, arising from user confidence, educational background, and parameters related to usability and accessibility. The outcomes of this study justify the need for further analysis of the topic, in order to identify the influence of fine-grained semantics, but also the consolidation of wide and robust user-models.

  17. “These classes have been my happy place”: Feasibility study of a self-care program in Native Hawaiian custodial grandparents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriena Yancura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Native Hawaiian custodial grandparents have a distinctive set of strengths and challenges that may lead them to benefit from a structured self-care program. The purpose of this paper is to describe a feasibility study with nine Native Hawaiian custodial grandparents who participated in a 6-week self-care intervention. Based on open-ended questions during the post-questionnaire and at the 6-month follow-up focus group, grandparent participants noted that their grandchildren needed education and clothing. Most grandparents did not endorse statements that their grandchildren had any mental or physical health conditions. Grandparents reflected that the intervention provided them with skills to help cope with raising grandchildren and helped them realize the importance of their health to providing care to their grandchildren. Based on the findings from this pilot study, the self-care approach may have benefits for Native Hawaiian custodial grandparents.

  18. digital natives and digital immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardina, Bruno; Francisco, Jerónimo; Reis, Pedro; trad. Silva, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the generational gaps in school learning. Initially, we have tried to provide the framework in relation to the term digital native in order to understand the key aspects of the generation born after the advent and the global use of the Internet. They were found to be “multitasking” people, linked to technology and connectivity, as opposed to digital immigrants, born in an earlier period and seeking to adapt to the technological world. We also present some r...

  19. Blogging as a viable research methodology for young people with arthritis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Gray, Nicola J; Smith, Felicity J; McDonagh, Janet E

    2015-03-05

    The development of services that are responsive to the needs of users is a health policy priority. Finding ways of engaging young people in research to gain insights into their particular experiences, perspectives, and needs is vital but challenging. These data are critical to improving services in ways that meet the needs of young people. Our aim was to evaluate Web-based blogging as a viable method for understanding the daily experiences and condition management strategies of young people with juvenile arthritis. To meet the objectives of the study, a qualitative approach was required to gather information on the experiences and perspectives of young people regarding the management of their condition and its daily impact. In collaboration with a group of young people with arthritis, a custom website was developed. This website provided the opportunity for young people (aged 11-19) with arthritis from a United Kingdom pediatric hospital to contribute blogs. It was designed so that young people were free to write about whatever was important to them, but the site also included some structure and prompts to facilitate the writing of blogs. Qualitative analytical procedures were employed, supported by NVivo software. Engagement in the study by young people was variable in terms of their participation rates, frequency of website visits, and the length of their blogs. Young people used the site in different ways, some responding to the website categories and prompts that the team created, while others used it as a diary to record their experiences and thoughts. In line with principles of qualitative inquiry, the data collection was participant-led. Young people were in control of what, how much, and how often they wrote. However, some young people expressed difficulty regarding knowing what they should blog about. For a number of reasons, discussed here, the blogs may also not be fully reflective of experiences and perspectives of the participants. However, the data

  20. The Impact of Enterprise Education on Attitudes to Enterprise in Young People: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present evidence on the impact of enterprise education on young people still at school in London, UK. The study was designed to measure the effect of participation in a Young Enterprise (YE) Company Program on young people's attitudes toward starting a business, and on their enterprise potential.…

  1. End-of-life decisions for people with intellectual disabilities, an interview study with patient representatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, A.M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M. van; Proot, I.M.; Metsemakers, J.; Tuffrey-Wijne, I.; Curfs, L.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities. Aim: To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of patient representatives. Design: A qualitative study

  2. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. RESULTS...... made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer....

  3. Barriers to Physical Activity for People with Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Hilda F.; Hale, Leigh A.; Whitehead, Lisa; Baxter, G. David

    2012-01-01

    People with disability are insufficiently physically active for health. This study identified the volume, quality, and findings of research that exposes environmental and personal barriers of physical activity participation for people with neurological conditions. CINAHL, Sport Discus, EMBASE, Medline, and AMED were systematically searched between…

  4. Interviews on end-of-life care with older people: reflections on six european studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pleschberger, S.; Seymour, J.E.; Payne, S.; Deschepper, R.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Rurup, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research provides important insights into the experiences and perspectives of older people on end-of-life issues, but such research is methodologically and ethically complex. We offer a set of reflections from six end-of-life care studies conducted with older people in four European

  5. Studying Young People's New Media Use: Methodological Shifts and Educational Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    A lack of good information about what youth are doing with new media stimulates fears and hopes about the relationship between young people and digital technologies. This article focuses on new modes of inquiry into youth new media use, highlighting the challenges, complexities, and opportunities inherent in studying young people's digital…

  6. Motivational determinants of exergame participation for older people in assisted living facilities : Mixed-methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, W.M.A.; Stanmore, E.K.

    2017-01-01

    Exergames (exercise-based videogames) for delivering strength and balance exercise for older people are growing in popularity with the emergence of new Kinect-based technologies; however, little is known about the factors affecting their uptake and usage by older people.The aim of this study was to

  7. TOWARD DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION, REHABILITATUION OF HANDICAPPED PEOPLE IN MACEDONIA (basis for furtherer studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupco AJDINSKI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work gives an detailed review of the basic issues of development of protection and rehabilitation of handicapped people in Macedonia with data especially for the period pf the last five decades.A plentitude of documentary materials proved to be important starting assumption for further historical studies on protection and rehabilitation of handicapped people in the Republic of Macedonia.

  8. Acceptability of the Components of a Loneliness Intervention among Elderly Dutch People: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigh-de Vlaming, R.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Ziylan, C.; Renes, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthy Ageing is a complex intervention aimed at reducing the prevalence of loneliness among elderly Dutch people. Purpose: This study aimed to assess how mass media communication materials, information meetings, and psychosocial courses were received by elderly people at high risk of loneliness. Methods: Face-to-face interviews with…

  9. Field study of visual and biological light conditions of independently-living elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Westerlaken, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A field study was carried out to learn more about the influence of light on the lives of elderly people . The results should lead to the development and design of a light concept for elderly people that will improve their everyday health and well-being. Methods: Ninetyone independently-living

  10. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  11. Determinants of resilience for people ageing in remote places: a case study in northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Gibb

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how people managed to stay resilient as they aged in remote places. In Western developed countries, 'successful ageing' is associated with older people's right to age in their chosen place. To remain resilient, older people require support to supplement diminishing self-reliance associated with increasing frailty. Such support services do not extend to remote communities, making it difficult to age in place. This article reports on a case study of ageing in remote places, from the perspective of seniors within a small community in remote northern Australia. The study found how older people attempt through volunteer efforts, to supplement the gaps in aged support services. This collective effort to achieve ageing in place demonstrated greater integration with place and social resilience within the community. However, seniors' social resilience was seen as tenuous, given collective self-reliance is based on volunteer efforts of older people.

  12. An Observational Study of Suicide Death in Homeless and Precariously Housed People in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyor, Mark; Kozloff, Nicole; Reis, Catherine; Schaffer, Ayal

    2017-07-01

    Homelessness has been identified as an important risk factor for suicide death, but there is limited research characterising homeless people who die by suicide. The goal of this study is to identify personal, clinical, and suicide method-related factors that distinguish homeless and precariously housed people who die from suicide from those who are not homeless at the time of suicide. Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in Toronto from 1998 to 2012. Data abstracted included housing status as well as other demographics, clinical variables such as the presence of mental illness, and suicide method. Of 3319 suicide deaths, 60 (1.8%) were homeless and 230 (6.9%) were precariously housed. Homeless and precariously housed people were each younger than nonhomeless people ( P suicide note. Homeless people and precariously housed were more likely to have died by fall/jump than nonhomeless people (62%, 57%, and 29%, respectively). Homeless and precariously housed people are overrepresented among suicide deaths in a large urban center and differ demographically, clinically, and in their suicide method from nonhomeless people who die by suicide. Targeted suicide prevention strategies should aim to address factors specific to homeless people.

  13. The Work-It Study for people with arthritis: Study protocol and baseline sample characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysor, Julie J; AlHeresh, Rawan; Vaughan, Molly; LaValley, Michael P; Allaire, Saralynn

    2016-06-14

    People with arthritis are at risk of work disability. Job accommodation and educational programs delivered before imminent work loss can minimize work disability, yet are not currently being widely implemented. The Work-It Study is a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a problem solving program delivered by physical and occupational therapy practitioners to prevent work loss over a two-year period among people with arthritis and rheumatological conditions. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of the randomized controlled trial, and describe the baseline characteristics of the subjects and their work outcomes. 287 participants were recruited from the Boston area in Massachusetts, USA. Eligible participants were aged between 21-65, self-reported a physicians' diagnosis of arthritis, rheumatic condition, or chronic back pain, reported a concern about working now or in the near future due to your health, worked at least 15 hours a week, had plans to continue working, and worked or lived in Massachusetts. Subjects were recruited through community sources and rheumatology offices. Participants in the experimental group received a structured interview and an education and resource packet, while participants in the control received the resource packet only. The baseline characteristics and work related outcomes of the participants were analyzed. To our knowledge, the Work-It Study is the largest and most diverse randomized controlled trial to date aiming to identify and problem solve work-related barriers, promote advocacy, and foster work disability knowledge among people with chronic disabling musculoskeletal conditions. Despite advances in medical management of arthritis and other rheumatological and musculoskeletal conditions, many people still have concerns about their ability to remain employed and are seeking strategies to help them sustain employment.

  14. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1994-01-01

    International Chinese migration has spanned five periods: 1) an initial period of random and short-term migration dating back to the Qing and Han dynasties; 2) a spontaneous period since the Sui and Tang dynasties along trade routes; 3) a transition period during the Ming dynasty and the early Qing dynasty with war, poverty, and population growth as push factors; 4) peak migration during the Opium War period due to economic depression, population pressure, and the "coolie" trade; and 5) continuous development between the 1920s and 1949. Migration tended to occur between Guangdong and Fujian provinces and other southeast Asian countries. Four factors were identified as necessary for international migration to occur: the origin of migration, the destination factor, the middle link factor, and the immigrant characteristics. The origins of early Chinese migration appeared in a country of political corruption, population pressure, a backward economy, and social chaos. The pull factors at destination end were demand for labor. The middle link was the short distance between Guangdong and Fujian provinces and southeast Asian countries and longstanding nongovernmental exchanges. Other links were the similarity of climate, similar racial features, cultural lifestyle similarities, and convenient transportation. The people in these two provinces had a history of migration and a personality suitable for the spirit of adventure. Peak migration occurred during the late Qing dynasty and during the continuous development period. Between 1840 and 1911 there were about 10 million Chinese immigrants and during 1911 and 1949 there were about 6 million. In general, over 20 million immigrated prior to 1949, of which about 50% migrated during the peak period, 33% during the continuous period, and 20% before 1840. This amounted to about 33% of European migration and two times African migration. 60% were from Guangdong, and 30% were from Fujian province, of whom most were from counties

  15. A cross-sectional study of PRNP gene in two native Sicilian goat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sergio Migliore

    Prion protein gene (PRNP) analysis revealed that none of the scrapie cases carried the p. ... low presence of wild-type goats and the lack of protective alleles. ... Recent association studies showed that allelic vari- .... healthy goats (94 males and 63 females) in more than 20 ..... Results from a retrospective cohort study. Vet.

  16. Nativity differences in allostatic load by age, sex, and Hispanic background from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R. Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allostatic load (AL, an index of biological “wear and tear” on the body from cumulative exposure to stress, has been little studied in US Hispanics/Latinos. We investigated AL accumulation patterns by age, sex, and nativity in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 15,830 Hispanic/Latinos of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent aged 18–74 years, 77% of whom were foreign-born. Consistent with the conceptualization of AL, we developed an index based upon 16 physiological markers that spanned the cardiometabolic, parasympathetic, and inflammatory systems. We computed mean adjusted AL scores using log-linear models across age-groups (18–44, 45–54, 55–74 years, by sex and nativity status. Among foreign-born individuals, differences in AL by duration of residence in the US (<10, ≥10 years and age at migration (<24, ≥24 years were also examined. In persons younger than 55 years old, after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors, AL was highest among US-born individuals, intermediate in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos with longer duration in the US (≥10 years, and lowest among those with shorter duration in the US (<10 years (P<0.0001 for increasing trend. Similarly, AL increased among the foreign-born with earlier age at immigration. These trends were less pronounced among individuals ≥55 years of age. Similar patterns were observed across all Hispanic/Latino heritage groups (P for interaction=0.5. Our findings support both a “healthy immigrant” pattern and a loss of health advantage over time among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse heritages. Keywords: Allostatic load, Physiological dysregulation, Hispanic ethnicity, Nativity, Age patterns

  17. Can native plant species be preserved in an anthropogenic forest landscape dominated by aliens? A case study from Mediterranean Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Heinrichs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantations with fast growing exotic tree species can negatively affect native plant species diversity and promote the spread of alien species. Mediterranean Chile experienced major landscape changes with a vast expansion of industrial plantations of Pinus radiata in the past. However, with increasing knowledge of biodiversity effects on ecosystem services Chilean forest owners now aim to integrate the conservation of native biodiversity into forest management, but data on native species diversity and establishment within a plantation landscape is scarce. Here we investigated plant species diversity and composition in four forest management options applied within a landscape dominated by P. radiata plantations in comparison to an unmanaged reference: (i a clear cut, (ii a strip cut, (iii a native canopy of Nothofagus glauca and (iv a young P. radiata plantation. We wanted to assess if native plant species can be maintained either by natural regeneration or by planting of native tree species (Nothofagus glauca, N. obliqua, Quillaja saponaria within this landscape. Results show a high diversity of native and forest plant species within the different management options indicating a high potential for native biodiversity restoration within an anthropogenic landscape. In particular, herbaceous species can benefit from management. They are rare in unmanaged natural forests that are characterized by low light conditions and a thick litter layer. Management, however, also promoted a diversity of alien species. The rapid spread of alien grass species after management can deter an initial establishment of native tree species or the survival and growth after planting mainly under dry but less under sufficient moisture conditions. The most unsuccessful option for promoting native plant species was clear cutting in a dry area where alien grasses were abundant. For drought-tolerant tree species such as Quillaja saponaria, though

  18. Metacognitive and language-specific knowledge in native and foreign language reading comprehension: an emprical study among Dutch students in grades 6, 8 and 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.; Bossers, B.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives the results of a study among 685 students in grades 6, 8 and 10 in the Netherlands to whom we administered grade-appropriate measures of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge in their native language (NL), Dutch, as well as, in grades 8 and 10, in English as a foreign

  19. A Study on Metadiscoursive Interaction in the MA Theses of the Native Speakers of English and the Turkish Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroglu, Zehra; Tüm, Gülden

    2017-01-01

    This study has been conducted to evaluate the TM usage in the MA theses written by the native speakers (NSs) of English and the Turkish speakers (TSs) of English. The purpose is to compare the TM usage in the introduction, results and discussion, and conclusion sections by both groups' randomly selected MA theses in the field of ELT between the…

  20. From Marginalized to Validated: An In-Depth Case Study of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Gasman, Marybeth; Conrad, Clifton

    2018-01-01

    This article highlights the capacity of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Institution (AANAPISI) to serve as an institutional convertor--by addressing challenges commonly associated with marginalized students--for low-income, Asian American and Pacific Islander students entering college. Through an in-depth case study, we…

  1. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    management of non-native species has only just begun but some promising results have already emerged (see below), giving hope to a very difficult conservation issue. This chapter provides an overview of the role of non-native species in amphibian declines and summarizes the current state of knowledge of non-native species that are known, or considered to be, a threat to amphibian species and populations. The biological and socio-economic issues of non-native species control are examined and brief case studies of successful eradication programmes are provided.

  2. A longitudinal study of change in falls risk and balance and mobility in healthy older people and people with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttanon, Plaiwan; Hill, Keith D; Said, Catherine M; Dodd, Karen J

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of change in falls risk and balance and mobility performance in people with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with those of healthy older people over a 1-yr period. A 1-yr follow-up study of change in levels of falls risk, balance, and mobility performance in 15 community-dwelling older people with mild to moderate AD and 15 healthy age-matched older people was conducted. Each participant completed a comprehensive assessment of balance and mobility, falls and falls risk, and level of physical activity at baseline and 1 yr later. The rate of increase in the number of falls and risk of falling was greater in people with AD. The rate of deterioration on a number of balance and mobility measures was also significantly greater in people with AD compared with the healthy older people. People with mild to moderate AD have an increased rate of decline in falls risk, balance, and mobility over a 12-mo period compared with age-matched healthy older people. Given this increased rate of decline, intermittent review of falls, balance and mobility, and interventions to address identified contributory risk factors should be considered by health practitioners.

  3. A qualitative study of recently bereaved people's beliefs about death: implications for bereavement care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Peter; Holloway, Margaret; Adamson, Susan

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the beliefs of recently bereaved people about death and to explore the implications of these beliefs for bereavement care. Little is known about recently bereaved people's beliefs about death, although there is evidence that these beliefs may have an impact on health. The funeral provides an opportunity for bereaved people to reflect on their beliefs about death. A qualitative approach. This paper describes one aspect of an interdisciplinary study of the spirituality of contemporary funerals. We obtained access to 46 funerals through funeral directors and other contacts, and interviewed principal mourners to explore their beliefs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Three themes emerged that reflected the beliefs and experiences of bereaved people. The first theme describes people's understanding of death in terms of five positions: religious, dualist, eco-spiritualist, materialist and death-as-transition. The second theme addresses a range of views about the possibility of life after death: resurrection, reuniting and reincarnation. The third theme describes ways in which people felt that their relationship with the deceased person continues after death: continuity as sense of presence and continuity as memory, legacy and love. Some people were reluctant to express a firm view about death. People express a spectrum of beliefs about death. Their beliefs are infrequently linked to formal religious or spiritual perspectives but seem to have an important role in coping with bereavement. This is a unique study illustrating the complexity of bereaved people's beliefs about death. The study provides a research-based framework within which to understand contemporary beliefs about death, and contributes to our understanding of how health professionals can support recently bereaved people. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ab initio study of native defects in SnO under strain

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi Granato, Danilo; Albar, Arwa; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Tin monoxide (SnO) has promising properties to be applied as a p-type semiconductor in transparent electronics. To this end, it is necessary to understand the behaviour of defects in order to control them. We use density functional theory to study

  5. Size Distributions and Characterization of Native and Ground Samples for Toxicology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; Taylor, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation shows charts and graphs that review the particle size distribution and characterization of natural and ground samples for toxicology studies. There are graphs which show the volume distribution versus the number distribution for natural occurring dust, jet mill ground dust, and ball mill ground dust.

  6. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  7. A cross-sectional study on person-centred communication in the care of older people: the COMHOME study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafskjold, L.; Sundler, A.J.; Holmstrom, I.K.; Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Eide, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper presents an international cross-sectional study on person-centred communication with older people receiving healthcare (COMHOME). Person-centred care relies on effective communication, but few studies have explored this with a specific focus on older people. The main aim of

  8. A cross-sectional study on person-centred communication in the care of older people: the COMHOME study protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafskjold, L.; Sundler, A.J.; Holmström, I.K.; Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Eide, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an international cross-sectional study on person-centred communication with older people receiving healthcare (COMHOME). Person-centred care relies on effective communication, but few studies have explored this with a specific focus on older people. The main aim of

  9. What young people want from health-related online resources: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona

    2013-08-01

    The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it.

  10. A Review Study on Effective Factors in Prevention of Falling and Osteoporosis Fracture in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Esmaieli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim The geriatric process consists of stages of progressive and unrevisable changes during the life. This change starts from the age of 35 to 40, but usually a person over 60 years old is considered as elderly. With regard to the geriatric physiopathology process, osteoporosis and the following bone fracture caused by a fall, is one of the most common and serious problems in elderly people. Other important factors responsible for old people`s bedridden at hospital are respectively as follow: femoral fractures, sub durra hemorrhage, and injury or damage of brain. Only after being involved in a problem or injury the elders notice the risk factors and the ways to prevent them. Therefore, the investigation and recognition of precaution measures are necessary in case of osteoporosis and falling in elder people. The primary prevention of falling in elderly people is the prevention of osteoporosis. Therefore, screening of peripheral and central bone density is necessary for those who are at risk.The present article is a review study which has been prepared by gathering and reviewing thirty articles about recognition of risk factors and preventing osteoporosis and falling down in elderly people. From review of literature it was concluded that the following measures should be taken in order to prevent the elderly people from any kind of injury:A - Identification and Assessment of elderly people with high risk exposure B - Decreasing or eliminating the risk factors by:- Body & physical exercise - Taking tablets - Appropriate diet- Multiple interventions

  11. Digital volume tomography in the diagnosis of peri-implant defects: an in vitro study on native pig mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Reiner; Kruse, Björn; Flores-de-Jacoby, Lavin

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study of native pig mandibles was to investigate the accuracy and quality of the representation of peri-implant defects by intraoral radiography (IR), panoramic radiography (PR), computer tomography (CT), and digital volume tomography (DVT). The examination was carried out on 19 native pig mandibles. In the toothless sections of the mandibles, one or two implants were inserted. Following the standardized preparation of peri-implant defects (11 each of dehiscences, fenestrations, and 2- to 3-walled intrabony defects), IR, PR, CT, and DVT were performed. The peri-implant defects were measured using appropriate software on the digitized IR and PR image programs. As a control method, the peri-implant bone defects were measured directly using a reflecting stereomicroscope with measuring ocular. The statistical comparison between the measurements of the radiographic scans and those of the direct readings of the peri-implant defects was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient. The quality of the radiographic scans was determined through the subjective perception and detectability of the peri-implant defects by five independent observers. In the DVT and CT scans, it was possible to measure all the bone defects in three planes. Comparison with the direct peri-implant defect measurements yielded a mean deviation of 0.17+/-0.11 mm for the DVT scans and 0.18+/-0.12 mm for the CT scans. On the IR and PR images, the defects could be detected only in the mesio-distal and cranio-caudal planes. In comparison with the direct measurements of the peri-implant defects, the IR images revealed a mean deviation of 0.34+/-0.30 mm, and the PR images revealed a mean deviation of 0.41+/-0.35 mm. The quality rating of the radiographic images was highest for the DVT scans. Overall, the CT and DVT scans displayed only a slight deviation in the extent of the peri-implant defects. Both radiographic imaging techniques permitted imaging of peri-implant defects in three

  12. Native alunogen: A Raman spectroscopic study of a well-described specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košek, Filip; Culka, Adam; Žáček, Vladimír; Laufek, František; Škoda, Radek; Jehlička, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Alunogen (Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O) is a common secondary mineral in the terrestrial environment (acid mine drainage, volcanic or coal-fire fumaroles), and is also formed through the acidic weathering of aluminosilicates. Moreover, alunogen has been suggested as a part of the Al-bearing deposits on Mars. The identification of alunogen in secondary sulfate mixtures by Raman spectroscopy strictly depends on good knowledge of alunogen spectral features and band positions. However, comprehensive Raman data of alunogen of natural origin are lacking. This study reports on Raman spectra obtained from two natural specimens originating from a burning coal dump at the Schoeller mine, Kladno, Czech Republic, along with the additional characterizations by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe. For comparison purposes, a Raman spectrum of a synthetic analogue was also obtained. The studied specimens have (Al1.99Fe3+0.01)2 (SO4)3·17H2O as their calculated empirical formula, and the structural parameters correspond to the previously reported data for alunogen. Both natural specimens and the synthetic analogue showed uniform Raman spectra with no extensive band splitting in the sulfate vibrational regions. The most intensive Raman band associated with the symmetric stretching vibration of the SO4 tetrahedra (ν1) is located at 992 cm-1. A multicomponent band was observable in the characteristic region for OH-related vibrations. A small variation in the spectral intensity of the hydroxyl bands suggests that the studied specimens could possibly be slightly dehydrated.

  13. Native Hawaiian Ethnographic Study for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Proposed for Puna and Southeast Maui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, J.K; Minerbi, L. [Cultural Advocacy Network for Developing Options (CANDO) (United States); Kanahele, P.; Kelly, M.; Barney-Campbell, N.; Saulsbury [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Trettin, L.D. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report makes available and archives the background scientific data and related information collected for an ethnographic study of selected areas on the islands of Hawaii and Maui. The task was undertaken during preparation of an environmental impact statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. Information is included on the ethnohistory of Puna and southeast Maui; ethnographic fieldwork comparing Puna and southeast Maui; and Pele beliefs, customs, and practices.

  14. A first principles study of native defects in alpha-quartz

    CERN Document Server

    Roma, G

    2003-01-01

    We present a study of several neutral and charged oxygen and silicon defects in alpha-quartz. We performed plane waves pseudopotential calculations in the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation. We will show the structures that we obtained for vacancies and interstitials in several charge states and the corresponding formation energies. We discuss the reciprocal dependence of formation energies of charged defects (and thus concentrations) and the electron chemical potential on each other and we determine the latter by iterative self-consistent solution of the equation imposing charge neutrality. Results on defect concentrations, their dependence on oxygen partial pressure, and self-doping effects are presented.

  15. Comparative study of radio sensibility between local breeds native of Mexico pseudo cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno G, A.

    2014-01-01

    Having in mind the objective of assessing the gamma radiation effect in two species of pseudo cereals, April 2012 to August 2013 in the National Institute of Nuclear Research Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores, seeds from different collections of Amaranthus hypochondria cus and Chenopodium berlandieri nuttalliae, were subjected to different doses of irradiation (from 0 to 450 Gy, within an interval of 50 Gy) that were compared with a control of (0 Gy). For amaranth, the collection A1 showed the best feedback among 0 and 300 Gy in the 15 studied variables, the one that stood out was the 200 Gy doses in seed weight per plant (SWP) with 1.33 g. Huauzontle H3 to 50 Gy showed the best results for weight and seed diameter. High doses (from 300 to 450 Gy) showed higher percentage of mortality in spite of the fact that in some cases germination was stimulated. It is advisable for future studies about these pseudo cereals doses among 50 and 250 Gy. (Author)

  16. Sexual functioning of people with rheumatoid arthritis: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berlo, Willy T.M.; van de Wiel, Harry B.M.; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Johannes J.; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C.M.; van Rijswijk, Martin H.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare men and women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to controls regarding sexual motivation, activity, satisfaction, and specific sexual problems, and to determine the correlation of physical aspects of the disease with sexual functioning. Questionnaire for

  17. Sexual functioning of people with rheumatoid arthritis : a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berlo, W.T.M.; van de Wiel, H.B.M.; Taal, E.; Rasker, J.J.; Schultz, W.C.M.W.; van Rijswijk, M.H.

    The objective of this study is to compare men and women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to controls regarding sexual motivation, activity, satisfaction, and specific sexual problems, and to determine the correlation of physical aspects of the disease with sexual functioning. Questionnaire for

  18. Falls prediction in elderly people : A 1-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; de Bruin, Eling D.; Uebelhart, Daniel; Mulder, Theo

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether force plate variables in single- and dual-task situations are able to predict the risk of multiple falls in a community-dwelling elderly population. Two hundred and seventy elderly persons (225 females, 45 males; age, 73 7 years) performed

  19. Hydraulic redistribution study in two native tree species of agroforestry parklands of West African dry savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Jules; Heng, Lee Kheng; van Noordwijk, Meine; Ouedraogo, Sibiri Jean

    2008-11-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) in karité ( Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré ( Parkia biglobosa) tree species was studied by monitoring the soil water potential ( ψs) using thermocouple psychrometers at four compass directions, various distances from trees and at different soil depths (max depth 80 cm) during the dry seasons of 2004 and 2005. A modified WaNuLCAS model was then used to infer the amount of water redistribued based on ψs values. Tree transpiration rate was also estimated from sap velocity using thermal dissipative probes (TDP) and sapwood area, and the contribution of hydraulically redistributed water in tree transpiration was determined. The results revealed on average that 46% of the psychrometer readings under karité and 33% under néré showed the occurrence of HR for the two years. Soil under néré displayed significantly lower fluctuations of ψs (0.16 MPa) compared to soil under karité (0.21 MPa). The results of this study indicated that the existence of HR leads to a higher ψs in the plant rhizosphere and hence is important for soil water dynamics and plant nutrition by making more accessible the soluble elements. The simulation showed that the amount of water redistributed would be approximately 73.0 L and 247.1 L per tree per day in 2005 for karité and néré, and would represent respectively 60% and 53% of the amount transpired a day. Even though the model has certainly overestimated the volume of water hydraulically redistributed by the two species, this water may play a key role in maintaining fine root viability and ensuring the well adaptation of these species to the dry areas. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of such transfers and of the seasonal patterns is required and is of paramount importance in parkland systems both for trees and associated crops.

  20. Language lateralization of hearing native signers: A functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) study of speech and sign production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Daws, Richard; Payne, Heather; Blott, Jonathan; Marshall, Chloë; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest greater involvement of the left parietal lobe in sign language compared to speech production. This stronger activation might be linked to the specific demands of sign encoding and proprioceptive monitoring. In Experiment 1 we investigate hemispheric lateralization during sign and speech generation in hearing native users of English and British Sign Language (BSL). Participants exhibited stronger lateralization during BSL than English production. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether this increased lateralization index could be due exclusively to the higher motoric demands of sign production. Sign naïve participants performed a phonological fluency task in English and a non-sign repetition task. Participants were left lateralized in the phonological fluency task but there was no consistent pattern of lateralization for the non-sign repetition in these hearing non-signers. The current data demonstrate stronger left hemisphere lateralization for producing signs than speech, which was not primarily driven by motoric articulatory demands. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of travel-related hepatitis A and B among native adult Danes: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ulla Schierup; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Cowan, Susan; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Petersen, Eskild

    2012-04-01

    To assess journey length and other predictors of travel-related acute hepatitis A (HAV) and B (HBV) virus infection among native Danes and determine the sensitivity and specificity of current pre-travel vaccination guidelines. A nationwide case-control study was perfomed involving 60 Danes with HAV and 14 with HBV who acquired hepatitis in non-western countries from 2000 to 2010. Non-immune travellers from a nationwide survey (1188 HAV and 1709 HBV) served as controls. The odds ratios (ORs) for HAV and HBV increased with increasing journey length (p<0.0001). However, 90% of HAV and 62% of HBV cases travelled for less than 4 weeks, and the daily infection rate did not increase with journey length; rather, for HAV it decreased. Increasing age (p<0.0001) and journeys to Africa (OR 6.1 (3.2-11)) raised the risk of acute HAV. Travelling alone or with friends as compared to travelling with a partner/family (OR: 15 (3.2-134)) strongly predicted HBV risk. Danish vaccination guidelines had HAV/HBV sensitivities of 86%/31%, and specificities of 27%/95%, respectively. Incidence rates were 12.8 (HAV) and 10.2 (HBV) per 100,000 non-immune travel months, and acute disease severity affected HAV and HBV cases equally. These results may support revision of current pre-travel vaccination guidelines. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethnozoological Study of Native Birds and Mammals Associated to Fruit Orchards of Zacualpan de Amilpas, Morelos, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García-Flores

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is an ethnozoologic study based on the analysis of the traditional knowledge that the autochthonous inhabitants of the community of Zacualpan de Amilpas, Morelos, Mexico, have in what refers to the native birds and mammals associated with groves. The methodology was applied in four stages: contact with the pertinent authorities, identification of key informants, grove survey, interviewing and sampling to observe and corroborate the species identified by the informants. Thus, 34 bird common names pertaining to 26 species, 6 orders and 15 families were registered. Passeriformes was the order with the highest species number, and Tyrannidae and Icteridae were the most representative families. For mammals, 16 common names were recognized pertaining to 18 species, 6 orders and 10 families; the order Carnivora and the family Mephitidae had the largest species number. The use values registered were: alimentary, medicinal, ornamental and as good-luck charms. Species are hunted using shotguns and slingshots. Community members recognize three environmental services (seed dispersion, insect predation and pollination that 16 species carry out. We conclude that the reassessment of local traditional knowledge is important for the use, management and conservation of birds and mammals associated with traditional groves.

  3. Genetic Diversity and Taxonomic Studies of Allium Akaka and A. Elburzense Native to Iran Using Morphological Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Sajad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Allium species (A. akaka S.G. Gmelin and A. elburzense W. native to Iran are used locally as the fresh vegetables and in medical therapy. They are not cultivated, but are collected from the wild, thus, will soon be threatened with extinction. In this study, the diversity of 15 wild accessions (4 accessions of A. elburzense endemic of Iran and 11 accessions of A. akaka collected from the north-western part of Iran were evaluated with the use of 16 qualitative and 16 quantitative characteristics. The morphological characters with high heritability included leaf length, flower number in umbel, inflorescence diameter, leaf dry weight, bulb fresh weight, weight of 100 seeds, seed length and seed length/width. Results of the principal component analysis indicated that 92.52% of the observed variability was explained by the first six components. The first two components explained about 64.74% of the total observed variability. The first and third hierarchical cluster analysis included all accessions of A. akaka. The accessions of A. elburzense, except one, were placed in a separate cluster. These morphological descriptors can successfully apply for evaluating morphological diversity of Allium wild accessions and can help in horticultural usage.

  4. Identification of Dried Native Chili Markets in the International Tourism Sector in Peru: An Open-Ended Contingent Valuation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many native chili varieties are becoming extinct due to the lack of economic incentives for farmers to their continued cultivation in Peru. A potential high value pro-poor market for selling native chilies is the international tourism segment. The objectives of this research were to assess the acceptability of the potential introduction of dried native chilies in the international tourism segment by identifying the motivations for buying dried chilies as souvenirs, and then by evaluating the factors influencing the price premiums’ magnitudes related to different label information conditions, such as information about the farmer community, traditional cooking recipes, organic certification, and Fairtrade certification. A face-to-face survey was conducted with 200 international tourists at the airport in Cuzco, Peru. The data were analyzed using a probit and tobit models with sample selection. The results suggest that dried native chilies would have a relatively good acceptance among international tourists. About 62% of the respondents indicated they would buy dried native chilies, and of them, 62%–74% would pay an average price premium ranging from S/1.16–1.58 for different label information conditions. Nevertheless specific marketing campaigns should be designed for different types of international tourists in order to maximize the economic benefits for small-holder farmers.

  5. Near-infrared-spectroscopic study on processing of sounds in the brain; a comparison between native and non-native speakers of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Koichi; Sekimoto, Sotaro; Itoh, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions The result suggested that mother tongue Japanese and non- mother tongue Japanese differ in their pattern of brain dominance when listening to sounds from the natural world-in particular, insect sounds. These results reveal significant support for previous findings from Tsunoda (in 1970). Objectives This study concentrates on listeners who show clear evidence of a 'speech' brain vs a 'music' brain and determines which side is most active in the processing of insect sounds, using with near-infrared spectroscopy. Methods The present study uses 2-channel Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to provide a more direct measure of left- and right-brain activity while participants listen to each of three types of sounds: Japanese speech, Western violin music, or insect sounds. Data were obtained from 33 participants who showed laterality on opposite sides for Japanese speech and Western music. Results Results showed that a majority (80%) of the MJ participants exhibited dominance for insect sounds on the side that was dominant for language, while a majority (62%) of the non-MJ participants exhibited dominance for insect sounds on the side that was dominant for music.

  6. Monitoring mutations in people: an in vivo study of people accidentally or occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular biology and medicine now permit the monitoring of mutation in humans 'in vivo'. The most commonly used approach, and the main one reported in this paper, is the study of mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in peripheral T-lymphocytes. This paper deals with evidence from the radiological accident in Goiania, Brazil (where several hundred people were accidentally exposed to cesium-137), from a study of Soviet cosmonauts, and from monozygotic twins. The conclusions from Brazil are: mutation at hprt increases with age and is higher in smokers; in adults a linear dose response was found; no radiation-induced mutational fingerprint was found; children are particularly sensitive; the level of mutation dropped over several years (probably reflecting natural T-cell turnover). The conclusions from cosmonauts are: each cosmonaut had a significantly above-average level of mutation, but this may not be due to radiation at all; no 'fingerprint' was found, and there was no apparent dependence on dose. The study of twins showed a very strong correlation of mutant frequencies between one twin and the other, but this correlation decreased with age, presumably due to environmental effects. 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. Comparative Study on Production Efficiency in Native Romanian Carpatina and Banat White Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the current study was to evaluate the milk yield, health, reproductive rate and fitness indicators in two Romanian indigenous goat breeds, selected for milk (Banat White and unimproved (Carpatina, managed under extensive rearing conditions. Milk yield in Carpatina goats was on average 323.6±1.68 kg/lactation, compared to that of Banat’s White does of 561.4±1.43 kg, differences for milk production under identical rearing conditions being significant (p≤0.001. Prolificacy in the two breeds was significantly influenced by the genotype (p≤0.001, with average litter size of 148.0±0.49% in Carpatina, and 184.8±0.51% in Banat’s White does. Growth rates in the un-weaned kids were on average of 119.8±0.86 g/day in Carpatina and of 134.3±0.76 g/day in Banat’s White breeds (p≤0.05. Adult does annual voluntary culling rate was on average 16.4±1.46 % in Carpatina and of 20.6±1.88% in Banat’s White breed (p≤0.05. Clinical mastitis incidence was significantly lower (p≤0.05 in Carpatina goats (2.88±1.65% compared to that of Banat White (4.65±2.28%. Significant differences (p≤0.05 for lameness were found between Carpatina and Banat White populations, with occurrence rates of 3.85±1.89% and 5.81±2.54%, respectively. Abortion and pneumonia incidence were not affected (p>0.05 by selection pressure among the two breeds.

  8. Postural control deficits in people with fibromyalgia: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Postural instability and falls are increasingly recognized problems in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The purpose of this study was to determine whether FM patients, compared to age-matched healthy controls (HCs), have differences in dynamic posturography, including sensory, motor, and limits of stability. We further sought to determine whether postural instability is associated with strength, proprioception and lower-extremity myofascial trigger points (MTPs); FM symptoms and physical function; dyscognition; balance confidence; and medication use. Last, we evaluated self-reported of falls over the past six months. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we compared middle-aged FM patients and age-matched HCs who underwent computerized dynamic posturography testing and completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQR) and balance and fall questionnaires. All subjects underwent a neurological and musculoskeletal examination. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and explore the relationships between variables. The relationships between subjective, clinical and objective variables were evaluated by correlation and regression analyses. Results Twenty-five FM patients and twenty-seven HCs (combined mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 48.6 ± 9.7 years) completed testing. FM patients scored statistically lower on composite sensory organization tests (primary outcome; P < 0.010), as well as with regard to vestibular, visual and somatosensory ratio scores on dynamic posturography. Balance confidence was significantly different between groups, with FM patients reporting less confidence than HCs (mean ± SD: 81.24 ± 19.52 vs. 98.52 ± 2.45; P < 0.001). Interestingly, 76% to 84% of FM patients had gastrocnemius and/or anterior tibialis MTPs. Postural stability was best predicted by dyscognition, FIQR score and body mass index. Regarding falls, 3 (11%) of 27 HCs had fallen only once during the past 6 months, whereas 18 (72

  9. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Indian Health Board) Welcome to the Native Health Database. Please enter your search terms. Basic Search Advanced ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Tutorial Video The NHD has made ...

  10. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of Co{sup 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitake, M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mbmitake@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been widely employed to attenuate venoms and toxins, preserving and even enhancing their immunogenic properties. However, little is know about molecular changes in irradiated proteins. In this work, we compared native and irradiated bothropstoxin-1, with the aim of characterizing the structural modifications induced by radiation. Our results indicate that radiation promotes a transition from the multimeric to the monomeric state in a dose-dependent manner. Spectral and calorimetric analysis suggest that the irradiation molecules undergo oxidation and partially unfold the remaining elements being stabilized by the seven disulphide bonds. The binding pattern of monoclonal antibodies raised against irradiated bothropstoxin indicates that most of the recognized epitopes are linear present on the surface of both native and irradiated toxin. Also, irradiated toxin appears to be more immunogenic, inducing the formation of native toxin-binding antibodies. (author)

  11. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal years 2007 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1800s, John Wesley Powell, the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), followed his interest in the tribes of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau and studied their cultures, languages, and surroundings. From that early time, the USGS has recognized the importance of Native knowledge and living in harmony with nature as complements to the USGS mission to better understand the Earth. Combining traditional ecological knowledge with empirical studies allows the USGS and Native American governments, organizations, and people to increase their mutual understanding and respect for this land. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and is not responsible for regulations or land management. Climate change is a major current issue affecting Native lives and traditions throughout the United States. Climate projections for the coming century indicate an increasing probability for more frequent and more severe droughts in the Southwest, including the Navajo Nation. Erosion has claimed Native homes in Alaska. Fish have become inedible due to diseases that turn their flesh mushy. Native people who rely on or who are culturally sustained by hunting, fishing, and using local plants are living with climate change now. The traditional knowledge of Native peoples enriches and confirms the work of USGS scientists. The results are truly synergistic-greater than the sum of their parts. Traditional ecological knowledge is respected and increasingly used in USGS studies-when the holders of that knowledge choose to share it. The USGS respects the rights of Native people to maintain their patrimony of traditional ecological knowledge. The USGS studies can help Tribes, Native organizations, and natural resource professionals manage Native lands and resources with the best available unbiased data and information that can be added to their traditional knowledge. Wise Native leaders have noted that traditional

  12. Germination responses of an invasive species in native and non-native ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose L. Hierro; Ozkan Eren; Liana Khetsuriani; Alecu Diaconu; Katalin Torok; Daniel Montesinos; Krikor Andonian; David Kikodze; Levan Janoian; Diego Villarreal; Maria Estanga-Mollica; Ragan M. Callaway

    2009-01-01

    Studying germination in the native and non-native range of a species can provide unique insights into processes of range expansion and adaptation; however, traits related to germination have rarely been compared between native and nonnative populations. In a series of common garden experiments, we explored whether differences in the seasonality of precipitation,...

  13. Factors associated with intensiveness of use of child preventive health services in Taiwan: a comparative study between cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Su-Chen; Yeh, Yen-Po; Wu, Jyun-Yi; Lin, Chun-Hsiu; Chang, Pei-Chi; Fang, Chiung-Hui; Yang, Hao-Jan

    2013-01-01

    To compare intensiveness of use of child preventive health services (CPHS) between cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan and to explore factors associated with differences in intensiveness of CPHS use. Cross-cultural immigrant families were defined as families where the mother was an immigrant from another southeast Asian country. In native-born families, both parents were Taiwanese-born. Data were collected from 318 immigrant mothers and 340 native-born mothers of children aged 7 years or younger in a cross-sectional survey in central Taiwan. A social determinants framework of health inequities was constructed, and ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of four domains of intermediary determinants on the relationship between family type and underuse of CPHS: CPHS-related factors, medical-related factors, maternal acculturation factors, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics. Cross-cultural immigrant families were less likely to intensively use CPHS than native-born families. This difference appeared to be mediated by the greater likelihood of having an older child or a lower educated father in cross-cultural families. Findings of this study highlight the importance of promoting health behaviors and combating health inequities and social inequalities for cross-cultural immigrant families in Taiwan from a sociodemographic/socioeconomic and political context.

  14. Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R

    2017-06-23

    A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 older people and 19 professionals in proactive elderly care. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. From the interviews with older people important themes in relation to health and living environment emerged, such as maintaining independence, appropriate housing, social relationships, a supporting network and a sense of purpose and autonomy. Older people preferred to remain self-sufficient, and they would rather not ask for help for psychological or social problems. However, the interviews also highlighted that they were not always able or willing to anticipate future needs, which can hinder early detection or early intervention. At the same time, professionals indicated that older people tend to over-estimate their self-reliance and therefore advocated for early detection and intervention, including social and psychological issues. Older people have a broad range of needs in different domains of life. Discrepancies exist between older people and professionals with regard to their views on timing and scope of early detection initiatives. This study aimed

  15. A qualitative study of young people's perspectives on receiving psychiatric services via televideo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Volpe, Tiziana; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    It is critical to consult young people about their experiences. This study addresses the paucity of research on the perspective of young people in general, and in paediatric telepsychiatry specifically. The goal is to understand the experience of young people receiving telepsychiatry. Interpretive interactionism (Denzin, 1989) was used to interview 30 young people; immediately following the consultation and four to six weeks later. Analysis occurred via a series of steps in keeping with the interpretive interactionist framework. Four themes arose repeatedly: the encounter with the psychiatrist and experience of having others in the room; the helpfulness of the session; a sense of personal choice during the consultation; and, the technology. Participants highlighted the importance of their relationship with the psychiatrist. Participant's narratives were replete with examples of ways that they actively took responsibility and exerted control within the session itself. Young people have a significant role to play in their own care. It is critical that telepsychiatry recommendations be explained and opportunities for young people to express their concerns and discuss alternatives are provided. Further efforts to include young people may include ensuring offering alternate treatments and/or negotiated when recommended treatments are unacceptable and/or resisted.

  16. Gotta survey somebody : Methodological challenges in population studies of older people

    OpenAIRE

    Kelfve, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Conducting representative surveys of older people is challenging. This thesis aims to analyze a) the characteristics of individuals at risk of being underrepresented in surveys of older people, b) the systematic errors likely to occur as a result of these selections, and c) whether these systematic errors can be minimized by weighting adjustments.   In Study I, we investigated a) who would be missing from a survey that excluded those living in institutions and that did not use indirect interv...

  17. A study of behaviour problems and psychiatric disorders among people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Myrbakk, Even

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates behaviour problems and their relationship to psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability living in the northern part of Norway, as well as the concordances between four of the most commonly used assessment instruments for psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability. A total of one hundred and eighty-one individuals with intellectual disability living in the counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark participated in the studies. ...

  18. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Giday Mirutse; Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2007-01-01

    Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fideli...

  19. Catabolism of native and oxidized low density lipoproteins: in vivo insights from small animal positron emission tomography studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzsch, J; Bergmann, R; Wuest, F; Pawelke, B; Hultsch, C; van den Hoff, J

    2005-12-01

    The human organism is exposed to numerous processes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS may directly or indirectly cause oxidative modification and damage of proteins. Protein oxidation is regarded as a crucial event in the pathogenesis of various diseases ranging from rheumatoid arthritis to Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. As a representative example, oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Data concerning the role of circulating oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in the development and outcome of diseases are scarce. One reason for this is the shortage of methods for direct assessment of the metabolic fate of circulating oxLDL in vivo. We present an improved methodology based on the radiolabelling of apoB-100 of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL, respectively, with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ((18)F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB). Radiolabelling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [(18)F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively, in vitro. The method was further evaluated with respect to the radiopharmacological properties of both [(18)F]fluorobenzoylated nLDL and oxLDL by biodistribution studies in male Wistar rats. The metabolic fate of [(18)F]fluorobenzoylated nLDL and oxLDL in rats in vivo was further delineated by dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) using a dedicated small animal tomograph (spatial resolution of 2 mm). From this study we conclude that the use of [(18)F]FB-labelled LDL particles is an attractive alternative to, e.g., LDL iodination methods, and is of value to characterize and to discriminate the kinetics and the metabolic fate of nLDL and oxLDL in small animals in vivo.

  20. What matters most to people in musculoskeletal physiotherapy consultations? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Rob; Palmer, Shea; Hammond, Ralph

    2018-06-01

    Person-centred approaches to care require clinicians to engage in trying to understand the full range of problems and concerns, treatment and investigation requests, and emotional and social issues that people bring to the consultation. If, however, the main issues of importance are not openly declared and discussed they cannot be addressed. This is likely to result in people receiving the care that clinicians think they need, rather than care based on individual needs and preferences. To understand people's abilities to express the issues of importance to them within a consultation and clinicians' abilities to acknowledge and address those issues. A qualitative study using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Fifteen people and their physiotherapists were interviewed and their consultations recorded. The resulting data sets were analysed to identify and report themes within the data. The findings revealed that people present with what are often simple issues, but which are sometimes expressed in an unstructured way in clinical encounters and are often difficult for clinicians to establish. Three linked themes emerged: (1) clear versus unstructured agendas; (2) people need information and understanding; and (3) developing a sense of collaboration. The issues of importance that people bring to a consultation are varied and often vague. This research highlights the importance of communication to elicit, identify and address the issues of importance to people in clinical encounters to ensure a positive experience and outcome for both the individual person and clinician. Achieving desirable health outcomes is more likely when people are supported to think about their priorities and 'what matters to them'. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. GPs' perspectives on preventive care for older people: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Yvonne M; Koenen, Julia M; de Ruijter, Wouter; van Dijk-van Dijk, D J Annemarie; van der Weele, Gerda M; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Reis, Ria; Assendelft, Willem J J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2012-11-01

    Preventive care traditionally aims to prevent diseases or injuries. For older people, different aims of prevention, such as maintenance of independence and wellbeing, are increasingly important. To explore GPs' perspectives on preventive care for older people. Qualitative study comprising six focus groups with GPs in the Netherlands. The focus-group discussions with 37 GPs were analysed using the framework analysis method. Whether or not to implement preventive care for older people depends on the patient's individual level of vitality, as perceived by the GP. For older people with a high level of vitality, GPs confine their role to standardised disease-oriented prevention on a patient's request; when the vitality levels in older people fall, the scope of preventive care shifts from prevention of disease to prevention of functional decline. For older, vulnerable people, GPs expect most benefit from a proactive, individualised approach, enabling them to live as independently as possible. Based on these perspectives, a conceptual model for preventive care was developed, which describes GPs' different perspectives toward older people who are vulnerable and those with high levels of vitality. It focuses on five main dimensions: aim of care (prevention of disease versus prevention of functional decline), concept of care (disease model versus functional model), initiator (older persons themselves versus GP), target groups (people with requests versus specified risk groups), and content of preventive care (mainly cardiovascular risk management versus functional decline). GPs' perspectives on preventive care are determined by their perception of the level of vitality of their older patients. Preventive care for older people with high levels of vitality may consist of a standardised disease-oriented approach; those who are vulnerable will need an individualised approach to prevent functional decline.

  2. Physical activity and exercise priorities in community dwelling people with multiple sclerosis: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stennett, Andrea; De Souza, Lorraine; Norris, Meriel

    2018-07-01

    Exercise and physical activity have been found to be beneficial in managing disabilities caused by multiple sclerosis. Despite the known benefits, many people with multiple sclerosis are inactive. This study aimed to identify the prioritised exercise and physical activity practices of people with multiple sclerosis living in the community and the reasons why they are engaged in these activities. A four Round Delphi questionnaire scoped and determined consensus of priorities for the top 10 exercise and physical activities and the reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 101) are engaged in these activities. Data were analysed using content analysis, descriptive statistics, and non-parametric tests. The top 10 exercise and physical activity practices and the top 10 reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 70) engaged in these activities were identified and prioritised. Consensus was achieved for the exercise and physical activities (W = 0.744, p multiple sclerosis engaged in exercise and physical activity were diverse. These self-selected activities and reasons highlighted that people with multiple sclerosis might conceptualise exercise and physical activity in ways that may not be fully appreciated or understood by health professionals. Considerations of the views of people with multiple sclerosis may be essential if the goal of increasing physical activity in this population is to be achieved. Implications for Rehabilitation Health professionals should work collaboratively with people with multiple sclerosis to understand how they prioritise activities, the underlying reasons for their prioritisations and embed these into rehabilitation programmes. Health professionals should utilise activities prioritised by people with multiple sclerosis in the community as a way to support, promote, and sustain exercise and physical activity in this population. Rehabilitation interventions should include both the activities people with multiple

  3. The Trail of Tears Continues: Dispossession and Genocide of the Native American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Albert M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the high cultural level of native American Indian populations at the time of conquest. Illustrates how cultural breakdown and demographic decimation have resulted from systematic policies that focused on exploiting natural resources at the expense of native peoples. (GC)

  4. A qualitative study: experiences of stigma by people with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Charlotte; Birtel, Michèle D; Awenat, Yvonne F; Fleming, Paul; Wilkes, Sophie; Williams, Shirley; Haddock, Gillian

    2018-01-18

    Prior research has examined various components involved in the impact of public and internalized stigma on people with mental health problems. However, studies have not previously investigated the subjective experiences of mental health stigma by those affected in a non-statutory treatment-seeking population. An in-depth qualitative study was conducted using thematic analysis to investigate the experiences of stigma in people with mental health problems. Eligible participants were recruited through a local mental health charity in the North West of England. The topic of stigma was examined using two focus groups of thirteen people with experience of mental health problems and stigma. Two main themes and five subthemes were identified. Participants believed that (1) the 'hierarchy of labels' has a profound cyclical impact on several levels of society: people who experience mental health problems, their friends and family, and institutional stigma. Furthermore, participants suggested (2) ways in which they have developed psychological resilience towards mental health stigma. It is essential to utilize the views and experiences gained in this study to aid understanding and, therefore, develop ways to reduce the negative impact of public and internal stigma. People referred to their mental health diagnosis as a label and associated that label with stigmatizing views. Promote awareness and develop improved strategies (e.g., training) to tackle the cyclical impact of the 'hierarchy of labels' on people with mental health problems, their friends and family, and institutional stigma. Ensure the implementation of clinical guidelines in providing peer support to help people to combat feeling stigmatized. Talking about mental health in psychological therapy or health care professional training helped people to take control and develop psychological resilience. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  5. A Comparative Study of Refereed Journal Articles Published by Native and Foreign Born Faculty in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zeng, Gao, Yan-he

    2010-01-01

    One of the key features of American hegemonic power is the ability to attract talents from all over the world, especially in those shortage areas of science and technology. To explore what is behind the advanced American higher education system, this research compares native and foreign born faculty using four dimensions: demographics, field of…

  6. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  7. Increasing illness among people out of labor market - A Danish register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2016-01-01

    In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i....... The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk...... of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4...

  8. Serum PCB profiles in Native Americans from Wisconsin based on region, diet, age, and gender: Implications for epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, David J.; Dellinger, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Hansen, Larry G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Different PCB congeners and different mixtures of congeners have been demonstrated to have different biological actions. More complete characterization of congener profiles in exposure sources may assist in predicting health outcomes. Methods: Thirty-six (36) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in 314 serum samples from Native Americans in Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota. Five dietary groups were established based on the quantity and species of fish consumed and the waters from which the fish were caught. Multivariate statistical methods were able to resolve gender and dietary differences in PCB homologue and PCB congener patterns. Results: Females had higher proportions of lower chlorinated homologues, including a consistently higher proportion of pentaCB 118. The relative presence of the very labile and volatile PCB 18, above 1% of the total PCB in females from the minimal fish consumption and 'other' groups, suggests possible exposure to PCBs in the atmosphere. The dietary group consuming predatory fishes from Lakes Michigan and Superior had the highest serum concentrations of total PCB (mean of 3.1 ng/ml) and the most distinct congener profile. The two dietary groups least dependent on fishing or fishing mostly from inland lakes (non-Great Lakes) had the lowest total PCB concentrations, both with means of 1.4 ng/ml. Conclusions: These serum PCB concentrations were less than those found in earlier studies of fish consumers in the Great Lakes region and may reflect the decrease in PCBs in these lakes

  9. Cardiac structure and function in elite Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Rugby Football League athletes: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher; Forsythe, Lynsey; Somauroo, John; Papadakis, Michael; George, Keith; Oxborough, David

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to define the Athletes Heart (AH) phenotype in Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander (NH&PI) Rugby Football League (RFL) athletes. Specifically, (1) to describe conventional echocardiographic indices of left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) structure and function in NH&PI RFL players and matched RFL Caucasian controls (CC) and (2) to demonstrate LV and RV mechanics in these populations. Ethnicity is a contributory factor to the phenotypical expression of the AH. There are no data describing the cardiac phenotype in NH&PI athletes. Twenty-one male elite NH&PI RFL athletes were evaluated using conventional echocardiography and myocardial speckle tracking, allowing the assessment of global longitudinal strain (ε) and strain rate (SR); and basal, mid and global radial and circumferential ε and SR. Basal and apical rotation and twist were also assessed. Results were compared with age-matched Caucasian counterparts (CC; n = 21). LV mass [42 ± 9 versus 37 ± 4 g/(m 2.7 )], mean LV wall thickness (MWT: 9.5 ± 0.7 and 8.7 ± 0.4 mm), relative wall thickness (RWT: 0.35 ± 0.04 and 0.31 ± 0.03) and RV wall thickness (5 ± 1 and 4 ± 1 mm, all p rugby players have a greater LV mass, MWT and RWT with concomitant reductions in circumferential and twist mechanics. This data acts to prompt further research in NH&PI athletes.

  10. Adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by native and activated bentonite: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kul, Ali Riza [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 65080 Van (Turkey); Koyuncu, Huelya, E-mail: hkoyuncu@yyu.edu.tr [Forensic Medicine Foundation, Felek Street No. 45, 06300 Kecioren, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of Pb(II) ions on native (NB) and acid activated (AAB) bentonites were examined. The specific surface areas, pore size and pore-size distributions of the samples were fully characterized. The adsorption efficiency of Pb(II) onto the NB and AAB was increased with increasing temperature. The kinetics of adsorption of Pb(II) ions was discussed using three kinetic models, the pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order and the intra-particle diffusion model. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The initial sorption rate and the activation energy were also calculated. The activation energy of the sorption was calculated as 16.51 and 13.66 kJ mol{sup -1} for NB and AAB, respectively. Experimental results were also analysed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R) isotherm equations at different temperatures. R{sub L} separation factor for Langmuir and the n value for Freundlich isotherm show that Pb(II) ions are favorably adsorbed by NB and AAB. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G), the enthalpy ({Delta}H) and the entropy change of sorption ({Delta}S) were determined as about -5.06, 10.29 and 0.017 kJ mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively for AAB. It was shown that the sorption processes were an endothermic reactions, controlled by physical mechanisms and spontaneously.

  11. Exercise and Cognitive Functioning in People With Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders: A Controlled Laboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickmans, Kelly; Meeus, Mira; De Kooning, Margot; De Backer, Annabelle; Kooremans, Daniëlle; Hubloue, Ives; Schmitz, Tom; Van Loo, Michel; Nijs, Jo

    2016-02-01

    Controlled laboratory study. In addition to persistent pain, people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) commonly deal with cognitive dysfunctions. In healthy individuals, aerobic exercise has a positive effect on cognitive performance, and preliminary evidence in other chronic pain conditions reveals promising results as well. However, there is evidence that people with chronic WAD may show a worsening of the symptom complex following physical exertion. To examine postexercise cognitive performance in people with chronic WAD. People with chronic WAD (n = 27) and healthy, inactive, sex- and age-matched controls (n = 27) performed a single bout of an incremental submaximal cycling exercise. Before and after the exercise, participants completed 2 performance-based cognitive tests assessing selective and sustained attention, cognitive inhibition, and simple and choice reaction time. At baseline, people with chronic WAD displayed significantly lower scores on sustained attention and simple reaction time (Pselective attention, cognitive inhibition, and choice reaction time (P>.05), compared with healthy controls. Postexercise, both groups showed significantly improved selective attention and choice reaction time (chronic WAD, P = .001; control, Pattention, cognitive inhibition, pain, and fatigue were observed (P>.05). In the short term, postexercise cognitive functioning, pain, and fatigue were not aggravated in people with chronic WAD. However, randomized controlled trials are required to study the longer-term and isolated effects of exercise on cognitive functioning.

  12. Transitions Study of predictors of illness progression in young people with mental ill health: study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, R; Jorm, A F; Hickie, I B; Yung, A R; Pantelis, C; Amminger, G P; Glozier, N; Killackey, E; Phillips, L; Wood, S J; Mackinnon, A; Scott, E; Kenyon, A; Mundy, L; Nichles, A; Scaffidi, A; Spiliotacopoulos, D; Taylor, L; Tong, J P Y; Wiltink, S; Zmicerevska, N; Hermens, Daniel; Guastella, Adam; McGorry, P D

    2015-02-01

    An estimated 75% of mental disorders begin before the age of 24 and approximately 25% of 13-24-year-olds are affected by mental disorders at any one time. To better understand and ideally prevent the onset of post-pubertal mental disorders, a clinical staging model has been proposed that provides a longitudinal perspective of illness development. This heuristic model takes account of the differential effects of both genetic and environmental risk factors, as well as markers relevant to the stage of illness, course or prognosis. The aim of the Transitions Study is to test empirically the assumptions that underpin the clinical staging model. Additionally, it will permit investigation of a range of psychological, social and genetic markers in terms of their capacity to define current clinical stage or predict transition from less severe or enduring to more severe and persistent stages of mental disorder. This paper describes the study methodology, which involves a longitudinal cohort design implemented within four headspace youth mental health services in Australia. Participants are young people aged 12-25 years who have sought help at headspace and consented to complete a comprehensive assessment of clinical state and psychosocial risk factors. A total of 802 young people (66% female) completed baseline assessments. Annual follow-up assessments have commenced. The results of this study may have implications for the way mental disorders are diagnosed and treated, and progress our understanding of the pathophysiologies of complex mental disorders by identifying genetic or psychosocial markers of illness stage or progression. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Perspective and Experiences of Iranian People With Multiple Sclerosis Regarding Leisure: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanbari; Shayanpour

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple Sclerosis, as a progressive disease, influences most of occupational performance areas. Objectives This study was conducted to describe the perspectives and experiences regarding leisure of people with multiple sclerosis in Ahvaz city, Iran. Patients and Methods The study was a descriptive phenomenological study using purposeful sampling. Data saturation was ach...

  14. Macroscopic Study of the Isthmus of the Thyroid Gland in Bangladeshi People: A Postmortem Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrul Amin Mohammad Hasanul Banna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The position and size of isthmus of thyroid gland varies considerably in human with age, sex, physiologic state, race and geographical location and sometimes the isthmus may be absent. So this study was designed to find out the macroscopic differences in isthmus of thyroid gland of different age and sex groups in Bangladeshi people. Objective: To record the macroscopic characteristics of isthmus of thyroid gland with advancing age in both sexes with a view to help establishing normal standard of Bangladeshi people. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 54 autopsied human thyroid glands aged 5 to 65 years. Thyroid glands were collected from unclaimed dead bodies autopsied in the morgue of Sylhet M. A. G. Osmani Medical College, Sylhet. The collected specimens were divided into groups –– A (20 years and below, B (21 to 50 years and C (50 years and above. All specimens were examined morphologically by careful gross dissection method. Results: The isthmus was absent in 5.56% cases. In most of the cases (35.29% it was against the 1st–4th tracheal rings. There was significant difference in length between Group A and Group C (p<0.05 and in breadth between Group A and Group C and between Group B and Group C (p<0.05. No significant difference was found in length, breadth and thickness of isthmus of the thyroid gland between males and females. Conclusion: The presence or absence, positional change and variation in gross dimension of isthmus of thyroid gland were evident in human. The macroscopic difference was found with increasing age but not with sex.

  15. Challenges to discussing palliative care with people experiencing homelessness: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Caroline; Low, Joseph; Hewett, Nigel; Daley, Julian; Davis, Sarah; Brophy, Nimah; Howard, Diana; Vivat, Bella; Kennedy, Peter; Stone, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views and experiences of people who are homeless and those supporting them regarding conversations and approaches to palliative care Setting Data were collected between October 2015 and October 2016 in homeless hostels and day centres and with staff from primary and secondary healthcare providers and social care services from three London boroughs. Participants People experiencing homelessness (n=28), formerly homeless people (n=10), health and social care providers (n=48), hostel staff (n=30) and outreach staff (n=10). Methods In this qualitative descriptive study, participants were recruited to interviews and focus groups across three London boroughs. Views and experiences of end-of-life care were explored with people with personal experience of homelessness, health and social care professionals and hostel and outreach staff. Saturation was reached when no new themes emerged from discussions. Results 28 focus groups and 10 individual interviews were conducted. Participants highlighted that conversations exploring future care preferences and palliative care with people experiencing homelessness are rare. Themes identified as challenges to such conversations included attitudes to death; the recovery focused nature of services for people experiencing homelessness; uncertainty regarding prognosis and place of care; and fear of negative impact. Conclusions This research highlights the need for a different approach to supporting people who are homeless and are experiencing advanced ill health, one that incorporates uncertainty and promotes well-being, dignity and choice. We propose parallel planning and mapping as a way of working with uncertainty. We acknowledge that these approaches will not always be straightforward, nor will they be suitable for everyone, yet moving the focus of conversations about the future away from death and dying, towards the present and the future may facilitate conversations and enable the wishes of people who are

  16. BMI and risk of dementia in two million people over two decades: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qizilbash, Nawab; Gregson, John; Johnson, Michelle E; Pearce, Neil; Douglas, Ian; Wing, Kevin; Evans, Stephen J W; Pocock, Stuart J

    2015-06-01

    Dementia and obesity are increasingly important public health issues. Obesity in middle age has been proposed to lead to dementia in old age. We investigated the association between BMI and risk of dementia. For this retrospective cohort study, we used a cohort of 1,958,191 individuals derived from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) which included people aged 40 years or older in whom BMI was recorded between 1992 and 2007. Follow-up was until the practice's final data collection date, patient death or transfer out of practice, or first record of dementia (whichever occurred first). People with a previous record of dementia were excluded. We used Poisson regression to calculate incidence rates of dementia for each BMI category. Our cohort of 1,958,191 people from UK general practices had a median age at baseline of 55 years (IQR 45-66) and a median follow-up of 9·1 years (IQR 6·3-12·6). Dementia occurred in 45,507 people, at a rate of 2·4 cases per 1000 person-years. Compared with people of a healthy weight, underweight people (BMI risk of dementia. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia continued to fall for every increasing BMI category, with very obese people (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) having a 29% lower (95% CI 22-36) dementia risk than people of a healthy weight. These patterns persisted throughout two decades of follow-up, after adjustment for potential confounders and allowance for the J-shape association of BMI with mortality. Being underweight in middle age and old age carries an increased risk of dementia over two decades. Our results contradict the hypothesis that obesity in middle age could increase the risk of dementia in old age. The reasons for and public health consequences of these findings need further investigation. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Challenges to discussing palliative care with people experiencing homelessness: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Briony F; Shulman, Caroline; Low, Joseph; Hewett, Nigel; Daley, Julian; Davis, Sarah; Brophy, Nimah; Howard, Diana; Vivat, Bella; Kennedy, Peter; Stone, Patrick

    2017-11-28

    To explore the views and experiences of people who are homeless and those supporting them regarding conversations and approaches to palliative care SETTING: Data were collected between October 2015 and October 2016 in homeless hostels and day centres and with staff from primary and secondary healthcare providers and social care services from three London boroughs. People experiencing homelessness (n=28), formerly homeless people (n=10), health and social care providers (n=48), hostel staff (n=30) and outreach staff (n=10 ). METHODS: In this qualitative descriptive study, participants were recruited to interviews and focus groups across three London boroughs. Views and experiences of end-of-life care were explored with people with personal experience of homelessness, health and social care professionals and hostel and outreach staff. Saturation was reached when no new themes emerged from discussions. 28 focus groups and 10 individual interviews were conducted. Participants highlighted that conversations exploring future care preferences and palliative care with people experiencing homelessness are rare. Themes identified as challenges to such conversations included attitudes to death; the recovery focused nature of services for people experiencing homelessness; uncertainty regarding prognosis and place of care; and fear of negative impact. This research highlights the need for a different approach to supporting people who are homeless and are experiencing advanced ill health, one that incorporates uncertainty and promotes well-being, dignity and choice. We propose parallel planning and mapping as a way of working with uncertainty. We acknowledge that these approaches will not always be straightforward, nor will they be suitable for everyone, yet moving the focus of conversations about the future away from death and dying, towards the present and the future may facilitate conversations and enable the wishes of people who are homeless to be known and explored.

  18. Mathematics beliefs and achievement of a national sample of Native American students: results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Recent mathematics assessment findings indicate that Native American students tend to score below students of the ethnic majority. Findings suggest that students' beliefs about mathematics are significantly related to achievement outcomes. This study examined relations between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a national sample of 130 Grade 8 Native American students from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States sample of (M age = 14.2 yr., SD = 0.5). Multiple regression indicated several significant relations of mathematics beliefs with achievement and accounted for 26.7% of the variance in test scores. Students who earned high test scores tended to hold more positive beliefs about their ability to learn mathematics quickly, while students who earned low scores expressed negative beliefs about their ability to learn new mathematics topics.

  19. Understanding Older People's Readiness for Receiving Telehealth: Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houwelingen, Cornelis Tm; Ettema, Roelof Ga; Antonietti, Michelangelo Gef; Kort, Helianthe Sm

    2018-04-06

    The Dutch Ministry of Health has formulated ambitious goals concerning the use of telehealth, leading to subsequent changes compared with the current health care situation, in which 93% of care is delivered face-to-face. Since most care is delivered to older people, the prospect of telehealth raises the question of whether this population is ready for this new way of receiving care. To study this, we created a theoretical framework consisting of 6 factors associated with older people's intention to use technology. The objective of this study was to understand community-dwelling older people's readiness for receiving telehealth by studying their intention to use videoconferencing and capacities for using digital technology in daily life as indicators. A mixed-method triangulation design was used. First, a cross-sectional survey study was performed to investigate older people's intention to use videoconferencing, by testing our theoretical framework with a multilevel path analysis (phase 1). Second, for deeper understanding of older people's actual use of digital technology, qualitative observations of older people executing technological tasks (eg, on a computer, cell phone) were conducted at their homes (phase 2). In phase 1, a total of 256 people aged 65 years or older participated in the survey study (50.0% male; median age, 70 years; Q1-Q3: 67-76). Using a significance level of .05, we found seven significant associations regarding older people's perception of videoconferencing. Older people's (1) intention to use videoconferencing was predicted by their performance expectancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.26, 95% CI 1.13-1.39), effort expectancy (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.07-1.39), and perceived privacy and security (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.17-1.43); (2) their performance expectancy was predicted by their effort expectancy (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.24-1.52); and (3) their effort expectancy was predicted by their self-efficacy (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.42-1.68). In phase 2, a total of 6 men and 9

  20. Academic Performance of Native and Immigrant Students: A Study Focused on the Perception of Family Support and Control, School Satisfaction, and Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Miguel A.; Godás, Agustín; Ferraces, María J.; Lorenzo, Mar

    2016-01-01

    The international assessment studies of key competences, such as the PISA report of the OECD, have revealed that the academic performance of Spanish students is significantly below the OECD average. In addition, it has also been confirmed that the results of immigrant students are consistently lower than those of their native counterparts. Given the context, the first objective of this work is to observe the variables (support, control, school satisfaction, and learning environment) which distinguish between retained and non-retained native and immigrant students. The second objective is to check, by comparing the retained and non-retained native and immigrant students and separating the two levels, in order to find out which of the selected variables clearly differentiate the two groups. A sample of 1359 students was used (79.8% native students and 20.2% immigrant students of Latin American origin), who were enrolled in the 5th and 6th year of Primary Education (aged 10–11 years) and in the 1st and 2nd year of Secondary Education (aged 12–13 years). The measurement scales, which undergo a psychometric analysis in the current work, have been developed in a previous research study (Lorenzo et al., 2009). The construct validity and reliability are reported (obtaining alpha indices between 0.705 and 0.787). Subsequently, and depending on the results of this analysis, inferential analyses are performed, using as independent variables the ethno-cultural origin and being retained or not, whereas, as dependent variables, the indices referring to students' perception of family support and control, as well as the assessment of the school and learning environment. Among other results, the Group × Being retained/Not being retained [F(1, 1315) = 4.67, p < 0.01] interaction should be pointed out, indicating that native non-retained subjects perceive more control than immigrants, as well as the Group × Being retained/Not being retained [F(1, 1200) = 5.49, p < 0

  1. Motivational Determinants of Exergame Participation for Older People in Assisted Living Facilities: Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekes, Wytske; Stanmore, Emma Kate

    2017-07-06

    Exergames (exercise-based videogames) for delivering strength and balance exercise for older people are growing in popularity with the emergence of new Kinect-based technologies; however, little is known about the factors affecting their uptake and usage by older people. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that may influence the motivation of older people to use exergames to improve their physical function and reduce fall risk. Mixed methods were employed in which 14 semistructured interviews were conducted with older people (n=12, aged 59-91 years) from 2 assisted living facilities in the North West of the United Kingdom. The older people participated in a 6-week trial of exergames along with one manager and one physiotherapist; 81 h of observation and Technology Acceptance Model questionnaires were conducted. The findings suggest that the participants were intrinsically motivated to participate in the exergames because of the enjoyment experienced when playing the exergames and perceived improvements in their physical and mental health and social confidence. The social interaction provided in this study was an important extrinsic motivator that increased the intrinsic motivation to adhere to the exergame program. The findings of this study suggest that exergames may be a promising tool for delivering falls prevention exercises and increasing adherence to exercise in older people. Understanding the motivation of older people to use exergames may assist in the process of implementation. ©Wytske Meekes, Emma Kate Stanmore. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 06.07.2017.

  2. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  3. Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Forest on People With Dementia: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Wendy; Jones, Cindy; Dwan, Toni; Petrovich, Tanya

    2018-05-08

    To measure and describe the effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Forest (VRF) on engagement, apathy, and mood states of people with dementia, and explore the experiences of staff, people with dementia and their families. A mixed-methods study conducted between February and May 2016. Ten residents with dementia, 10 family members, and 9 care staff were recruited from 2 residential aged care facilities, operated by one care provider, located in Victoria, Australia. Residents participated in one facilitated VRF session. Residents' mood, apathy, and engagement were measured by the Observed Emotion Rating Scale, Person-Environment Apathy Rating Scale, and Types of Engagement. All participants were interviewed. Overall, the VRF was perceived by residents, family members, and staff to have a positive effect. During the VRF experience, residents experienced more pleasure (p = .008) and a greater level of alertness (p anxiety during the forest experience than the comparative normative sample (p = .016). This initial, small-scale study represents the first to introduce the VRF activity and describe the impact on people with dementia. The VRF was perceived to have a positive effect on people with dementia, although, compared to the normative sample, a greater level of fear/anxiety during the VRF was experienced. This study suggests virtual reality may have the potential to improve quality of life, and the outcomes can be used to inform the development of future Virtual Reality activities for people with dementia.

  4. Case–control study of breast cancer and exposure to synthetic environmental chemicals among Alaska Native women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianne K. Holmes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental chemicals may impair endocrine system function. Alaska Native (AN women may be at higher risk of exposure to these endocrine disrupting chemicals, which may contribute to breast cancer in this population. Objective: To measure the association between exposure to select environmental chemicals and breast cancer among AN women. Design: A case–control study of 170 women (75 cases, 95 controls recruited from the AN Medical Center from 1999 to 2002. Participants provided urine and serum samples. Serum was analyzed for 9 persistent pesticides, 34 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners, and 8 polybrominated diethyl ether (PBDE congeners. Urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites. We calculated geometric means (GM and compared cases and controls using logistic regression. Results: Serum concentrations of most pesticides and 3 indicator PCB congeners (PCB-138/158; PCB-153, PCB-180 were lower in case women than controls. BDE-47 was significantly higher in case women (GM=38.8 ng/g lipid than controls (GM=25.1 ng/g lipid (p=0.04. Persistent pesticides, PCBs, and most phthalate metabolites were not associated with case status in univariate logistic regression. The odds of being a case were higher for those with urinary mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP concentrations that were above the median; this relationship was seen in both univariate (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.16–4.05, p=0.02 and multivariable (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.13–5.25, p=0.02 logistic regression. Women with oestrogen receptor (ER–/progesterone receptor (PR-tumour types tended to have higher concentrations of persistent pesticides than did ER+/PR+ women, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Exposure to the parent compound of the phthalate metabolite MEHP may be associated with breast cancer. However, our study is limited by small sample size and an inability to control for the confounding effects of body mass index

  5. A study of the native cell wall structures of the marine alga Ventricaria ventricosa (Siphonocladales, Chlorophyceae) using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Enid M; Beilby, Mary J; Moon, Anthony R

    2014-04-01

    A substantial proportion of the architecture of the plant cell wall remains unknown with a few cell wall models being proposed. Moreover, even less is known about the green algal cell wall. Techniques that allow direct visualization of the cell wall in as near to its native state are of importance in unravelling the spatial arrangement of cell wall structures and hence in the development of cell wall models. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image the native cell wall of living cells of Ventricaria ventricosa (V. ventricosa) at high resolution under physiological conditions. The cell wall polymers were identified mainly qualitatively via their structural appearance. The cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) were easily recognizable and the imaging results indicate that the V. ventricosa cell wall has a cross-fibrillar structure throughout. We found the native wall to be abundant in matrix polysaccharides existing in different curing states. The soft phase matrix polysaccharides susceptible by the AFM scanning tip existed as a glutinous fibrillar meshwork, possibly incorporating both the pectic- and hemicellulosic-type substances. The hard phase matrix producing clearer images, revealed coiled fibrillar structures associated with CMFs, sometimes being resolved as globular structures by the AFM tip. The coiling fibrillar structures were also seen in the images of isolated cell wall fragments. The mucilaginous component of the wall was discernible from the gelatinous cell wall matrix as it formed microstructural domains over the surface. AFM has been successful in imaging the native cell wall and revealing novel findings such as the 'coiling fibrillar structures' and cell wall components which have previously not been seen, that is, the gelatinous matrix phase.

  6. Role of Importance and Distinctiveness of Semantic Features in People with Aphasia: A Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Baughman, Mary Beth; Wallace, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that people with aphasia have incomplete lexical-semantic representations with decreased low-importance distinctive (LID) feature knowledge. In addition, decreased LID feature knowledge correlates with ability to discriminate among semantically related words. The current study seeks to replicate and extend previous…

  7. Operationalizing quality of life for people with profound multiple disabilities : a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petry, K.; Maes, B.; Vlaskamp, C.

    Background: In a recent study, we constructed an item pool that contains items on the quality of life (QOL) and related aspects of support of people with profound multiple disabilities (PMD). In the present study, a panel of experts assessed the content and the structure of this item pool in order

  8. Selective Attention in Web Forms: An Exploratory Case Study with Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayago, Sergio; Guijarro, Jose-Maria; Blat, Josep

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study aimed to identify which ways of marking required and optional fields help older people fill in web forms correctly. Drawing on a pilot study and selective attention research in ageing, modified versions of widely used forms were created, in which standard asterisks were replaced with one of three…

  9. A study on native defects and magnetic properties in undoped rutile TiO2 using LDA and LDA+UO p+UTi d methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Bin; Wang, Yong Ping

    2016-05-01

    The native defects and magnetic properties in undoped rutile TiO2 are studied using local density approximation (LDA) and LDA adding Hubbard parameters (U) schemes. The band gap is adjusted to experimental value of 3.0 eV by combination of UTi d=4.2 eV and UO p=4.8 eV. This LDA+U methodology overcomes the band-gap problem and renders the approach more predictive. The formation energies of oxygen vacancy (VO), oxygen interstitial (Oi), titanium vacancy (VTi), titanium interstitial (Tii), oxygen anti-sites (OTi), and titanium anti-sites (TiO) are investigated by the LDA and LDA+U methods. In addition, some ground state configurations can be obtained by optimization of total spin. It is found that native defects can induce spin polarization and produce magnetic moment.

  10. Emergency Nursing Experiences in Assisting People With Suicidal Behavior: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; de Souza, Jacqueline; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2017-08-01

    To understand emergency nursing experiences in assisting people with suicidal behavior. Grounded theory study with symbolic interactionism conducted in 2015 to 2016 in Brazil with 19 nurses. Assistance for people with suicidal behavior is critical, challenging, evokes different feelings and requires knowledge, skills and emotional control. Nurses did not feel prepared or supported, and identified recurrent gaps and problems. Nurses occupied a limited role, restricted to attending to physical needs. They predominantly manifested opposition, judgments and incomprehension about patients. This study presents key elements to be addressed in interventions and investigations regarding nursing support, training and supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Study on FTIR spectra of finger nails of normal people and patients of esophagus cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Lü, Yin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Wei; Li, Cheng-Xiang

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the application of human finger nails in the diagnosis of cancer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to study the finger nails from some normal people and some with esophagus cancer and others with an operation for curing esophagus cancer five months ago. The results showed that there are obvious differences between FTIR spectra in them in spectral parameters such as frequency, intensity and band shape etc. The changes in the phosphate symmetric stretching vibration v(s) (PO2-) and asymmetric stretching vibration v(a)s(PO2-) modes are uniform, the v(s) (PO2-) and v(a)s(PO2-) absorption peaks of cancerous ones shift to high wave number compared with those of normal people, while those with operation shift to low wave number compared with those of cancerous ones. The C-O stretching vibration mode of protein located at 1 164 cm(-1) is composed of three absorption peaks located at 1 173.3, 1 158.0 and 1 151.1 cm(-1) respectively, meanwhile, the intensities and the wave numbers of the three peaks of cancerous ones all increase compared with normal people. The wave numbers of amide I and amide II of cancerous ones are both lower than those of normal people, while those with operation are between the cancerous ones and normal people, which suggest that the contents of protein and alpha-helix in finger nails of normal people, cancerous ones and the ones with operation are discriminative. The peak of bending vibration delta(CH2) mode of CH2 groups of protein lipid of cancerous ones shifts to high wave number slightly and the intensity of the peak weakens compared with that of normal people, which indicate that the methylene chain in the finger nails membrane lipids of cancerous ones is more ordered than that of normal people. Nevertheless, the peak of stretching vibration v(s) (CH2) of cancerous ones is lower than that of normal people, while that of the ones with operation is between cancerous ones and normal ones. As a result, the

  12. Joined at the hip? A paleoepidemiological study of developmental dysplasia of the hip and its relation to swaddling practices among indigenous peoples of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Samantha H

    2013-01-01

    Clinical prevalence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is the highest among modern indigenous populations of North America, yet no systematic study of the paleoepidemiology of this group exists. This study discusses the skeletal criteria, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and risk factors for DDH. A range of cases of DDH from an archaeological Native American population are described, and the clinical and prehistoric prevalence of DDH among indigenous populations of North America are calculated and discussed within a biocultural perspective. Pelves of 390 adults from the Late Prehistoric (1490 BP ± 70) Buffalo site, West Virginia were examined for DDH. Morphology of true and false acetabula was classified and other changes of the pelvis, lower limb, and spine were noted along with cranial deformation, providing evidence of infant restriction. Prevalence of DDH among living and archaeological indigenous peoples of North America were calculated and compared. DDH was identified in eighteen adults from Buffalo, resulting in a prevalence of 46.15, within the range reported in modern indigenous groups in North America. However, there is a significant difference between the DDH prevalence in prehistory and today in the target population. Indigenous peoples of North America have the highest reported global prevalence of DDH today and in prehistory. The etiology of DDH suggests that components of both genetic predisposition and swaddling practices have combined to create a high-risk environment for the development of DDH, contributing to its high prevalence within archaeological populations, like Buffalo, and modern Native American/Aboriginal groups within North America. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Social Skills Efficacy and Proactivity among Native American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Reich, Allison N.; Trotter, Michelle J.; Siewart, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses Native American urban adolescents' construal of social skills, and relationships between these skills and proactivity behaviors as identified in the Integrative Contextual Model of Career Development (Lapan, 2004). Recommendations that build upon the social skills strengths of Native American young people are included.…

  14. Native American Visual Vocabulary: Ways of Thinking and Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyc, Gloria; Milligan, Carolyn

    Visual literacy is a culturally-derived strength of Native American students. On a continent with more than 200 languages, Native Americans relied heavily on visual intelligence for trade and communication between tribes. Tribal people interpreted medicine paint, tattoos, and clothing styles to determine the social roles of those with whom they…

  15. Health and wellbeing during transition to adulthood for young people with intellectual disabilities: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Southward, Genevieve; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Philo, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, deploying both emic and etic coding categories. This study provides direct insights into the issues on health and wellbeing that young people with ID and their parents find important during transition. The primary health implication of transition centred on mental health and wellbeing; young people experienced heightened anxiety during transition, and themes identified as contributing to anxiety included: a lack of meaningful activity following school exit; inadequate support during transition; and difficulties associated with 'growing up'. Problem behaviours and obesity were also implicated. The transition from school needs to be better supported in order to ease anxiety for young people during this difficult period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for elderly people - a descriptive study using the EFQM' criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Rute

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Quality is an important issue when designing a PA programme for older people. Some studies support the Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM as an operational framework for evaluating the quality of an organization. Within this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the quality management models of the PA programmes developed by Portuguese Local Administration to enhance quality of life for elderly people, according to the criteria of the EFQM Excellence Model. Methods A methodological triangulation was conducted in 26 PA programmes using questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. We used standard approaches to the statistical analysis of data including frequencies and percentages for the categorical data. Results Results showed that Processes (65,38%, Leadership (61,03%, Customer results (58,46 and People (51,28% had high percentage occurrences of quality practices. In contrast, Partnerships and resources (45,77%, People results (41,03%, Policy and strategy (37,91%, Key performance results (19,23% and Society results (19,23% had lower percentage occurrences. Conclusions Our findings suggest that although there are some good practices in PA programmes, there are still relevant areas that require improvement.

  17. A study of intent of suicide in people with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashish Shukla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is most important underlying diagnosis among the cases of suicide. There is dearth of information regarding suicidal intent among people of depression and its relationship with hopelessness among Indians. Aims & Objective: To describe the intent of suicide in people with depression among the north Indian population. Material & Methods: This was a cross-sectional study at department of psychiatry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow. Subjects between age group of 18-60 years with major depressive disorder as per DSM-IV TR criteria were screened and included in the study. Each subject was assessed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRS, Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS and Suicide Intent Questionnaire (SIQ. Results: Suicidal intent was observed among 68.1% (n=49 of sample (n=72. There was no significant (p>0.05 association of suicidal intent with socio-demographic factors except domicile status. Suicidal intent was common among people with moderate to severe depression and those with hopelessness. The hopelessness was present among 70.8% of subjects. Conclusion: Suicidal intent is common among people with major depression. The authors emphasize the need of exploration of suicidal intent in people with depression.

  18. [A comparative study on soil fauna in native secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation forests in subtropics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaokui; Wang, Silong; Hu, Yalin; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Xiuyong

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the response of soil animal communities to the replacement of native secondary forest by Chinese fir plantation forest and successive rotation of Chinese fir in subtropics. Three adjacent forest stands, i.e., native secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest stand (control) and Chinese fir plantation stands of first (20 yr) and second (20 yr) rotations were selected for the comparison of soil fauna. All animals were extracted from the floor litter and 0-15 cm soil layer of the stands in Summer, 2003 by using Tullgren method, wet funnel method and hand-sorting method. Compared to two Chinese fir plantation forests, the native secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest had a higher abundance and a higher taxonomic diversity of animals in soil and litter, but there were no significant differences in the biomass and productivity of soil fauna between all study stands. The abundance or diversity did not differ significantly between the first rotation and second rotation stands, too. The results supported that vegetation cover might be one of the main forces driving the development of soil animal communities, and the effect of successive rotation of Chinese fir on the development of soil fauna was a slow-running process.

  19. Species identification of smoked and gravad fish products by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, urea isoelectric focusing and native isoelectric focusing : a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, I.; Craig, A.; Etienne, M.

    2000-01-01

    A collaborative study on the use of sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea-isoelectric focusing (urea-IEF) and native isoelectric focusing for the identification of species of smoked salmonids, gravad salmonids and smoked eels was carried out by eight laborator......A collaborative study on the use of sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea-isoelectric focusing (urea-IEF) and native isoelectric focusing for the identification of species of smoked salmonids, gravad salmonids and smoked eels was carried out by eight...... laboratories. With SDS-PAGE, minor changes took place in the profiles of the processed salmonid species making it impossible or Very difficult to identify closely related species. With urea-IEF, there were fewer changes in the profiles due to processing and the system generally had greater species......-discriminating power for the processed salmonids than SDS-PAGE. The profiles of the eel species as obtained on SDS-PAGE or urea-IEF were not affected by smoking. Urea-IEF had greater species- discriminating power than SDS-PAGE for the eel species. Native IEF was useful in providing supplementary identification...

  20. Towards a validation of a cellular biomarker suite in native and transplanted zebra mussels: A 2-year integrative field study of seasonal and pollution-induced variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerlet, Edwige [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Ledy, Karine [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Meyer, Antoinette [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Giamberini, Laure [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)]. E-mail: giamb@univ-metz.fr

    2007-03-30

    Two of the questions raised in the validation process of biomarkers are their relevance in the identification and discrimination of environmental perturbations, and the influence of seasonal factors on these biological endpoints. Determining the advantages and restrictions associated with the use of native or transplanted animals and comparing their responses is also needed. To obtain this information, a 2-year integrative field study was conducted in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant in northeastern France. A station was located in the reservoir receiving the cooling waters of the plant, and two other sites were studied 2 km upstream and 5 km downstream from the reservoir's discharge in the Moselle river. Elevated temperatures, copper contamination and a 1.4-fold-concentration factor of dissolved salts affected water quality of the reservoir. Native and transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were collected monthly and their digestive glands were processed for histochemical determinations of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems and of the lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents. The responses were quantified using automated image analysis and stereology. Apart from neutral lipid contents, there were no systematic seasonal patterns in mussel populations or from 1 year to another. Principal Component Analyses showed a general higher discrimination potential of biological responses in transplanted organisms compared to native ones. They also pointed out the relationships between the cellular and physiological markers and abiotic factors. The present multiple biomarker integrative approach in transplanted D. polymorpha brings promising elements in their validation process as relevant biomonitoring tools.

  1. Towards a validation of a cellular biomarker suite in native and transplanted zebra mussels: A 2-year integrative field study of seasonal and pollution-induced variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerlet, Edwige; Ledy, Karine; Meyer, Antoinette; Giamberini, Laure

    2007-01-01

    Two of the questions raised in the validation process of biomarkers are their relevance in the identification and discrimination of environmental perturbations, and the influence of seasonal factors on these biological endpoints. Determining the advantages and restrictions associated with the use of native or transplanted animals and comparing their responses is also needed. To obtain this information, a 2-year integrative field study was conducted in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant in northeastern France. A station was located in the reservoir receiving the cooling waters of the plant, and two other sites were studied 2 km upstream and 5 km downstream from the reservoir's discharge in the Moselle river. Elevated temperatures, copper contamination and a 1.4-fold-concentration factor of dissolved salts affected water quality of the reservoir. Native and transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were collected monthly and their digestive glands were processed for histochemical determinations of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems and of the lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents. The responses were quantified using automated image analysis and stereology. Apart from neutral lipid contents, there were no systematic seasonal patterns in mussel populations or from 1 year to another. Principal Component Analyses showed a general higher discrimination potential of biological responses in transplanted organisms compared to native ones. They also pointed out the relationships between the cellular and physiological markers and abiotic factors. The present multiple biomarker integrative approach in transplanted D. polymorpha brings promising elements in their validation process as relevant biomonitoring tools

  2. People management in the owner’s perception: a case study of a small packaging company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djair Picchiai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the people management in an industry called Panther Embalagens Ltda., besides the perception of the manager/owner about the topic. The study consisted in a survey with the manager/owner, where was evaluated the strategic aspects defined about people management and his perception. Furthermore, the organizational climate was measured through a survey applied to the company employees.Also, the perceptions and observations from the authors, made during the fieldwork and while in touch with the employees, was considered, as well as the information available in the company about Human Resources. The study identified the necessity to decentralize the decision-making power about people management, what is common in small companies. Also was possible to verify that the employees wish more autonomy and participation, according to the organizational climate survey. 

  3. Staff attitudes towards sexuality in relation to gender of people with intellectual disability: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-12-01

    Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using thematic analysis. Results indicated 3 themes: Women are perceived as sexually innocent, men as more sexually motivated, and motivations for sexual relationships are perceived to differ between men and women with ID. The study indicates unfavourable attitudes towards sexuality in individuals with ID that correlate with traditional, restricted gender stereotypes. The identification of these themes highlights the importance of considering gender when supporting the sexuality of people with ID.

  4. Academic Performance of Native and Immigrant Students: A Study Focused on the Perception of Family Support and Control, School Satisfaction, and Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Miguel A; Godás, Agustín; Ferraces, María J; Lorenzo, Mar

    2016-01-01

    The international assessment studies of key competences, such as the PISA report of the OECD, have revealed that the academic performance of Spanish students is significantly below the OECD average. In addition, it has also been confirmed that the results of immigrant students are consistently lower than those of their native counterparts. Given the context, the first objective of this work is to observe the variables (support, control, school satisfaction, and learning environment) which distinguish between retained and non-retained native and immigrant students. The second objective is to check, by comparing the retained and non-retained native and immigrant students and separating the two levels, in order to find out which of the selected variables clearly differentiate the two groups. A sample of 1359 students was used (79.8% native students and 20.2% immigrant students of Latin American origin), who were enrolled in the 5th and 6th year of Primary Education (aged 10-11 years) and in the 1st and 2nd year of Secondary Education (aged 12-13 years). The measurement scales, which undergo a psychometric analysis in the current work, have been developed in a previous research study (Lorenzo et al., 2009). The construct validity and reliability are reported (obtaining alpha indices between 0.705 and 0.787). Subsequently, and depending on the results of this analysis, inferential analyses are performed, using as independent variables the ethno-cultural origin and being retained or not, whereas, as dependent variables, the indices referring to students' perception of family support and control, as well as the assessment of the school and learning environment. Among other results, the Group × Being retained/Not being retained [ F (1, 1315) = 4.67, p family support. Given the results obtained, our intention is to provide solid evidence that would facilitate the design of family involvement programs, helping to improve students' educational performance.

  5. Digital volume tomography in the diagnosis of periodontal defects: an in vitro study on native pig and human mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Reiner; Candir, Muhsin; Shiratori, Kiyoshi; Flores-de-Jacoby, Lavin

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study of native pig and human mandibles was to investigate the accuracy and quality of the representation of periodontal defects by intraoral radiography (IR), panoramic radiography (PR), computed tomography (CT), and digital volume tomography (DVT) in comparison with histologic specimens. Following the standardized preparation of periodontal defects (14 dehiscences, fenestrations, 2- to 3-walled intrabony defects, respectively; Class I, II, and III furcation involvement) in six pig and seven human mandibles, IR, PR, CT, and DVT were performed. The histologic specimens were produced by cutting blocks with the individual defects out of the mandibles, embedding them in acrylic, and producing sagittal and axial microsections. The intrabony defects were measured using appropriate software on the digitized IR and PR images programs. The histologic sections were measured by reflecting stereomicroscopy. The statistical comparison between the measurements of the radiographic images and those of the histologic specimens was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient. The quality of the radiographic images was determined through the subjective perception and detectability of the intrabony defects by five independent observers. All intrabony defects could be measured in three planes in the CT and DVT scans. Comparison with the histologic specimens yielded a mean deviation of 0.16 +/- 0.10 mm for the CT scans and 0.19 +/- 0.11 mm for the DVT scans. On the IR and PR images, the defects could be detected only in the mesio-distal and craniocaudal planes. In comparison with the histologic specimens, the IR images revealed a mean deviation of 0.33 +/- 0.18 mm and the PR images a mean deviation of 1.07 +/- 0.62 mm. The quality rating of the radiographic images was highest for the DVT scans. Overall, the CT and DVT scans displayed only a slight deviation in the extent of the periodontal defects in comparison with the histologic specimens. Both radiographic

  6. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  7. Physical fitness and levels of physical activity in people with severe mental illness: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruzado, David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Vera-Garcia, Elisa; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín

    2017-01-01

    Physical fitness is a crucial variable in people with severe mental illness as these people could be more independent and improve their job opportunities. The present study compared the physical fitness of physically active and inactive people with severe mental illness. Physical fitness was evaluated in sixty-two people with severe mental illness using 11 physical tests that include strength, flexibility, balance and aerobic condition. Significant differences were found between both groups in muscle strength (handgrip test) and balance (single leg balance test and functional reach) with better performance in the group of physically active people. The results of the present study suggest that physical fitness (strength and balance) is higher in people with severe mental illness who practise regular physical activity that those who are inactive people. Physical active people may have a reduced risk of falls and fractures due to their higher levels of physical fitness.

  8. Recommendations to reduce inequalities for LGBT people facing advanced illness: ACCESSCare national qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Hodson, Matthew; Wee, Bee; Almack, Kathryn; Johnson, Katherine; Daveson, Barbara A; Koffman, Jonathan; McEnhill, Linda; Harding, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans (LGBT) people have higher risk of certain life-limiting illnesses and unmet needs in advanced illness and bereavement. ACCESSCare is the first national study to examine in depth the experiences of LGBT people facing advanced illness. To explore health-care experiences of LGBT people facing advanced illness to elicit views regarding sharing identity (sexual orientation/gender history), accessing services, discrimination/exclusion and best-practice examples. Semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews analysed using thematic analysis. In total, 40 LGBT people from across the United Kingdom facing advanced illness: cancer ( n = 21), non-cancer ( n = 16) and both a cancer and a non-cancer conditions ( n = 3). In total, five main themes emerged: (1) person-centred care needs that may require additional/different consideration for LGBT people (including different social support structures and additional legal concerns), (2) service level or interactional (created in the consultation) barriers/stressors (including heteronormative assumptions and homophobic/transphobic behaviours), (3) invisible barriers/stressors (including the historical context of pathology/criminalisation, fears and experiences of discrimination) and (4) service level or interactional facilitators (including acknowledging and including partners in critical discussions). These all shape (5) individuals' preferences for disclosing identity. Prior experiences of discrimination or violence, in response to disclosure, were carried into future care interactions and heightened with the frailty of advanced illness. Despite recent legislative change, experiences of discrimination and exclusion in health care persist for LGBT people. Ten recommendations, for health-care professionals and services/institutions, are made from the data. These are simple, low cost and offer potential gains in access to, and outcomes of, care for LGBT people.

  9. Recommendations to reduce inequalities for LGBT people facing advanced illness: ACCESSCare national qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Hodson, Matthew; Wee, Bee; Almack, Kathryn; Johnson, Katherine; Daveson, Barbara A; Koffman, Jonathan; McEnhill, Linda; Harding, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans (LGBT) people have higher risk of certain life-limiting illnesses and unmet needs in advanced illness and bereavement. ACCESSCare is the first national study to examine in depth the experiences of LGBT people facing advanced illness. Aim: To explore health-care experiences of LGBT people facing advanced illness to elicit views regarding sharing identity (sexual orientation/gender history), accessing services, discrimination/exclusion and best-practice examples. Design: Semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews analysed using thematic analysis. Setting/participants: In total, 40 LGBT people from across the United Kingdom facing advanced illness: cancer (n = 21), non-cancer (n = 16) and both a cancer and a non-cancer conditions (n = 3). Results: In total, five main themes emerged: (1) person-centred care needs that may require additional/different consideration for LGBT people (including different social support structures and additional legal concerns), (2) service level or interactional (created in the consultation) barriers/stressors (including heteronormative assumptions and homophobic/transphobic behaviours), (3) invisible barriers/stressors (including the historical context of pathology/criminalisation, fears and experiences of discrimination) and (4) service level or interactional facilitators (including acknowledging and including partners in critical discussions). These all shape (5) individuals’ preferences for disclosing identity. Prior experiences of discrimination or violence, in response to disclosure, were carried into future care interactions and heightened with the frailty of advanced illness. Conclusion: Despite recent legislative change, experiences of discrimination and exclusion in health care persist for LGBT people. Ten recommendations, for health-care professionals and services/institutions, are made from the data. These are simple, low cost and offer potential gains in access

  10. Media Stereotyping and Native Response: An Historical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Ward; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This historical overview examines the media treatment of native peoples and includes the following: (1) the roots of modern stereotypes; (2) development and maturation, (3) contemporary responses, (4) music, and (5) other media. (RTS)

  11. Functional changes in people with different hearing status and experiences of using Chinese sign language: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Xia, Shuang; Zhao, Fei; Qi, Ji

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess functional changes in the cerebral cortex in people with different sign language experience and hearing status whilst observing and imitating Chinese Sign Language (CSL) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 50 participants took part in the study, and were divided into four groups according to their hearing status and experience of using sign language: prelingual deafness signer group (PDS), normal hearing non-signer group (HnS), native signer group with normal hearing (HNS), and acquired signer group with normal hearing (HLS). fMRI images were scanned from all subjects when they performed block-designed tasks that involved observing and imitating sign language stimuli. Nine activation areas were found in response to undertaking either observation or imitation CSL tasks and three activated areas were found only when undertaking the imitation task. Of those, the PDS group had significantly greater activation areas in terms of the cluster size of the activated voxels in the bilateral superior parietal lobule, cuneate lobe and lingual gyrus in response to undertaking either the observation or the imitation CSL task than the HnS, HNS and HLS groups. The PDS group also showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus which was also found in the HNS or the HLS groups but not in the HnS group. This indicates that deaf signers have better sign language proficiency, because they engage more actively with the phonetic and semantic elements. In addition, the activations of the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule were only found in the PDS group and HNS group, and not in the other two groups, which indicates that the area for sign language processing appears to be sensitive to the age of language acquisition. After reading this article, readers will be able to: discuss the relationship between sign language and its neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  12. Plants and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Lynch

    2012-01-01

    Salal! Salmonberries! Sword ferns! The Northwest is home to a great number of native plant species that humans have used for centuries. Sadly, many local children are unaware of the history and culture connecting people and plants. Yet, from the beginning of time, plants have provided us food, medicine, and material for clothing, shelter, transportation, decoration,...

  13. Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Chai, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Yanfei; Wang, Yuahua

    2016-09-12

    Since 2009, millions of people have been forced to live under food shortage by the continuous drought in Southwestern China. The market was the primary source of aid grains, and fears that the market will be unable to provide sufficient food make safeguarding food security in the face of climate change crucial. Traditional adaptive strategies of pre-market indigenous people are a potential source of innovation. We studied three questions among the Naxi people: 1) What edible plants did they consume during droughts? 2) How did they produce enough food? 3) How did they consume these plants? This study investigates and documents traditional Naxi food knowledge to safeguard food security during drought and facilitate Chinese policy decisions. Ethnobotanical investigation was conducted through literature review, semi-structured interviews, collaborative fieldwork and group discussions in three Naxi villages. 89 informants (including 35 key informants) were surveyed from 2012 to 2013. Significant Index (SI) was adopted to evaluate each edible plant's food supply significance. Voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. 1) In total, 141 edible plants (38 cultivated and 103 wild) were consumed-primarily landrace crops, supplementary edible plants and famine plants. 2) Naxi people produced sufficient food through widespread food production systems, strong landrace crop resilience, and diversity in wild edible plants. 3) Through a diverse diet and consuming almost all edible parts of the plant, the Naxi used edible plants fully to meet food and nutrition needs during drought. Edible plant diversity is a cornerstone of drought food security. Cultivated crops (especially landrace plants) and wild edible plants were both important. Naxi people protect edible plant diversity through ecological morality and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). National inventories of edible plant diversity and studies of the TEK of other Chinese indigenous peoples should be

  14. The Function of Native American Storytelling as Means of Education in Luci Tapahonso’s Selected Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widad Allawi Saddam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Native American storytelling has become a very vital issue in education. It preserves Native American history for the next generation and teaches them important lessons about the Native American culture. It also conveys moral meanings, knowledge and social values of the Native American people to the universe. More importantly, Native American storytelling teaches people not to be isolated, and the key issues discussed in this paper are borrowed from the selected poems of Native American Luci Tapahonso: ‘The Holy Twins’ and ‘Remember the Things that you told.’   Keywords:  folklore, narrating, Native American, oral tradition, storytelling

  15. Academic Performance of Native and Immigrant Students: a Study Focused on the Perception of Family Support and Control, School Satisfaction and Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The international assessment studies of key competences, such as the PISA report of the OECD, have revealed that the academic performance of Spanish students is significantly below the OECD average; in addition, it has also been confirmed that the results of immigrant students are consistently lower than those of their native counterparts. Given the context, the first objective of this work is to observe the variables (support, control, school satisfaction and learning environment which distinguish between native and immigrant students with high and low academic performance; the second objective is to check, by comparing the native and immigrant students with high and low performance and separating the two levels, to find out which of the selected variables clearly differentiate the two groups. To this end, a sample of 1359 students was used (79.8% native students and 20.2% immigrant students of Latin American origin, who were enrolled in the 5th and 6th year of Primary Education (aged 10-11 years and in the 1st and 2nd year of Secondary Education (aged 12-13 years. The origin and the fact of being a retained student or not were estimated as independent variables, whereas their responses to the variables of perceived family support and control (paternal and maternal separately, their school satisfaction and assessment of the learning environment were taken into account as dependent variables. Considering that the reliability of the scales used is adequate, along with the optimal factorization in a series of coherent constructs, it was revealed that the main differences consisted of individual dimensions (perception of family support and control and, to a lesser extent, of dimensions related to the context (assessment of the school and learning environments. Given the results obtained, our intention is to provide solid evidence that would facilitate the design of family involvement programs, helping to improve students' educational performance.

  16. Housing for ageing LGBTQ people in Sweden: a descriptive study of needs, preferences, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottorp, A; Johansson, K; Aase, P; Rosenberg, L

    2016-09-01

    With an increasing number of ageing people who identify themselves as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ), there is a risk that traditional housing for older people fails to meet the needs of these people. The aim of this study was to describe LGBTQ people's needs, preferences, and concerns according to ageing and housing. Based on a survey (n = 487), and six focus-group discussions (n = 30), with LGBTQ persons, quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to analyse the findings. When comparing the ranking of preferences (in terms of activity options, environmental features, and staff competence) in a senior housing setting between the LGBTQ people (n = 200) and heterosexual matched controls (n = 198), only minor differences were detected. The findings from the focus groups included: (1) a dilemma between segregation and openness, (2) the importance of safety associated with ageing together with persons with similar experiences, and (3) networks of persons at different ages connected through close friendship supported participation in activities in LGBTQ-profiled senior housing. The findings provide knowledge to improve awareness of sexual orientation when it comes to needs and preferences in relation to ageing and housing in a Swedish context.

  17. Learning and knowing technology as lived experience in people with Alzheimer's disease: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lena; Nygård, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Most research on learning in the field of dementia has studied teaching approaches, while little is known about learning as experienced and enacted by the people with dementia. The aim was to explore the lived experience of learning and maintaining knowledge related to technology among people with mild to moderate stage dementia. Seven persons with dementia were interviewed in-depth, and data were analyzed with a phenomenological approach. The participants positioned themselves on a continuum from 'Updating and expanding is not for me' to 'Updating and expanding is really for me'. They used different ways of learning in their everyday life - relying on one's habituated repertoire of actions, on other people or on technology itself, or belonging to a learning context. We have much to gain from better understanding of how people with dementia strive to learn and maintain their skills and knowledge related to technology. This is particularly important as they seem to use other approaches than those employed in current teaching methods. The necessity of learning stands out particularly when it comes to the interaction with the current multitude and ever-changing designs of technologies, including assistive technologies developed specifically to support people with dementia.

  18. Video gaming and gaming addiction in transgender people: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Jones, Bethany Alice; Richards, Christina; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    Background There is anecdotal clinical evidence that transgender people use the online world - such as forums and online video gaming - for the purpose of experiencing their gender identity in a safe, non-threatening, non-alienating, non-stigmatizing, and non-critical environment. Aims To describe gaming behavior, degree of problematic gaming behavior and associated factors with problematic gaming in a comparatively large group of transgender people accessing transgender health services. Methods Every individual referred to a national transgender health service in the United Kingdom during a 12-month period was invited to complete a series of questionnaires to measure gaming behavior, interpersonal functioning, severity of autistic features, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results A total of 245 people agreed to participate in the study with 154 (62.9%) describing themselves as current gamers. Gaming behavior in the transgender population attending transgender health services was prevalent, but less than 1% of them presented with clinical scores for Internet Gaming Disorder, with no differences according to gender. Problematic gaming behavior was associated with general interpersonal problems, depression, and young age. Discussion and conclusions Transgender people who engage in problematic gaming behavior are younger, and present with high interpersonal problems, and depression, which can affect a successful transition. In view of the high levels of gaming activity in this population games that are designed to address these psychological problems may be well received by transgender people.

  19. [Preventive home visits : Cross-sectional study to support an independent lifestyle for elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulc, Eva; Pallauf, Martin; Them, Christa; Wildbahner, Tanja

    2016-08-01

    In the interest of preventing or postponing dependency on care and assistance for as long as possible, preventive home visits to people aged over 70 years living at home were conducted by registered nurses. Assessment of the functional health of people over 70 years of age and counseling or information carried out based on the identified problem areas and resources. A multidimensional nursing assessment through self-evaluation was applied for 345 people aged over 70 years. The sample of people investigated showed a high level of competence in self-care; however, a large number of functional health impairments could be identified that are reflected in the high requirement for counseling and information. It became evident that recruiting of study participants was difficult and that care by family members was an important resource for people aged over 70 years. From this it was recommended that in the future sustainable advertising efforts should be conducted and special attention needs to be given to counseling and information for family members in preventive home visits.

  20. Structural study of the AOT reverse micellar system. Influence of attractive interactions induced by the solubilisation of native and modified proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassin, Guillaume

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the influence of intra-micellar attractions on the thermodynamic behaviour of reverse micellar systems, as well as of the effects induced by the solubilisation of natives or modified proteins. The author proposes a model to explain the decrease of attractions between droplets when the volume fraction occupied by reverse micelles increases. This model which highlights the importance of depletion forces between reverse micelles, allows the building up of a theoretical relationship between the bonding parameter and the volume fraction of reverse micelles. In order to understand the appearance of an attractive term related to the solubilisation of native cytochrome-c in these systems, this protein has been chemically modified. The author highlights the role of the charge born by a micellar probe on the thermodynamic behaviour of micro-emulsions. Then, the author applies the model of dimerizing adhesive spheres to reverse micellar systems containing native cytochrome-c. He shows that theoretical predictions of this model are in agreement with obtained experimental results [fr

  1. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik; Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-03-04

    To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. Cross sectional study. Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. Wine buyers made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer.

  2. Loneliness and related factors among people with schizophrenia in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, A; Tadaka, E; Okochi, A

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: Loneliness among people diagnosed with schizophrenia is a serious problem. Recent studies have focused on the loneliness; however, no study has examined the relationships between loneliness and both individual and environmental factors comprehensively. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The main results indicated that the community-dwelling people diagnosed with schizophrenia in Japan as well as in other countries experienced higher levels of loneliness. Both individual and environmental factors were related to loneliness. Increasing the self-efficacy for community life and self-esteem of individual factors, and not being socially isolated and increasing community integration of environmental factors would improve their loneliness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Health practitioners, in particular, public health nurses in mental health care, should work to develop a partnership with people diagnosed with schizophrenia, their family members, friends and other community-dwelling people in order to decrease and prevent loneliness. For individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, interventions by cooperating with community resources and using the technique of nurses to assist them with continuous community activity could be useful. For environmental interventions, population approach such as developing daily programmes which family members can participate in, and cooperating with educational institutions and community events could have a positive effects. Introduction Loneliness among people diagnosed with schizophrenia living in communities can decrease quality of life and may contribute to suicide. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the levels of loneliness among Japanese people diagnosed with schizophrenia and to identify individual and environmental factors related to their loneliness. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 264 people diagnosed with schizophrenia who use local activity support

  3. Demographic characteristics and employment among people with severe mental illness in a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Miller, Jane K; Cook, Judith A; Grey, Dennis D; Razzano, Lisa A; Blyler, Crystal R; Leff, H Stephen; Gold, Paul B; Goldberg, Richard W; Mueser, Kim T; Cook, William L; Hoppe, Sue K; Stewart, Michelle; Blankertz, Laura; Dudek, Kenn; Taylor, Amanda L; Carey, Martha Ann

    2006-04-01

    People with psychiatric disabilities experience disproportionately high rates of unemployment. As research evidence is mounting regarding effective vocational programs, interest is growing in identifying subgroup variations. Data from a multisite research and demonstration program were analyzed to identify demographic characteristics associated with employment outcomes, after adjusting for the effects of program, services, and study site. Longitudinal analyses found that people with more recent work history, younger age, and higher education were more likely to achieve competitive employment and to work more hours per month, while race and gender effects varied by employment outcome. Results provide strong evidence of demographic subgroup variation and need.

  4. Social ruptures and the everyday life of homeless people: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorati, Regina Célia; Carretta, Regina Yoneko Dakuzaku; Kebbe, Leonardo Martins; Cardoso, Beatriz Lobato; Xavier, Joab Jefferson da Silva

    2017-07-20

    To discover the generators of disruptions in social support networks and identify the everyday life and projects of life of homeless people. Ethnographic study conducted between 2012 and 2013 in Ribeirão Preto -SP, Brazil. The participants were fifteen homeless people. Data were collected through video-recorded interviews addressing histories of life and a field diary. Data analysis was based on Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action. Results revealed that the participants' families have faced inequalities for many generations and that everyday life is marked by violence and death, poverty and exclusion, disrupted social networks, loneliness, alcohol and drug consumption, and other socially determined diseases. The situation of living on the streets stems from several factors present in the organization of the Brazilian society and social determinants condition the life and health of homeless people.

  5. A soundscape study: What kinds of sounds can elderly people affected by dementia recollect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahata, K; Fukushima, T; Ishibashi, N; Takahashi, Y; Moriyama, M

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the kinds of sounds recollected by elderly people with dementia were investigated as a first step towards improving their sound environment. Onomatopoeias were presented to elderly people as keys to recollecting sounds, and they told what they imagined from each onomatopoeia. The results are summarized as follows. (1) Generally speaking, sounds from nature, such as the songs of birds and the sound of rain were recollected easily from onomatopoeias, regardless of gender. (2) Sounds of kitchen work were recollected by women only. (3) Sounds from old routines were recollected clearly. (4) Sounds that elicited feelings of nostalgia were also recollected intensely from onomatopoeias. These results show that elderly people suffering from dementia are able to recollect the sounds that had once occupied very important parts of their lives. However, these sounds in themselves are not unusual sounds in their daily lives. This suggests the importance of soundscape design in daily life.

  6. Young people's views of mental health education in secondary schools: a Scottish study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, R; Woolfson, L; Mooney, L; Bryce, D

    2009-11-01

    This exploratory study used mixed methods to investigate young people's preferences in the delivery of mental health education and to investigate possible age and gender differences. Information was gathered about the delivery of mental health education in three secondary schools. Nine pupil focus groups were carried out to identify key themes which were then further developed and administered through questionnaires to a larger sample of 773 pupils. Gender and age differences were found in young people's preferences about who should deliver mental health education, and what, when, where and how this should be delivered. Mental health education should reflect the needs of young people. Age and gender preferences should be considered when designing these programmes.

  7. Coping experience of health concerns and physical disability for older Chinese people: A qualitative, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, He; Turale, Sue

    2017-12-01

    In this qualitative, descriptive study, we explored the perspectives of older, community-dwelling Chinese people regarding their experiences of coping with a physical disability and their health concerns. Twenty participants were interviewed in-depth, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Five themes with 13 subthemes emerged that described older people's experiences of coping with health concerns and disability: (i) ignoring health concerns; (ii) managing self; (iii) seeking medical help; (iv) living with physical disability; and (v) relying on limited resources. Most participants did not have sufficient access to health services due to physical disability and financial deficits, so they tended to ignore their health conditions or tackle them independently before seeking medical help. At the same time, they were impacted on by social and cultural factors. Policies are required that offer more resources to community-dwelling people with disabilities in China. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Developing Social Media-Based Suicide Prevention Messages in Partnership With Young People: Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Bailey, Eleanor; Hetrick, Sarah; Paix, Steve; O'Donnell, Matt; Cox, Georgina; Ftanou, Maria; Skehan, Jaelea

    2017-10-04

    Social media is increasingly being used by young people for health-related issues, including communicating about suicide. Due to the concerns about causing distress or inducing suicidal thoughts or behaviors, to date young people neither have been engaged in the development of social media-based suicide prevention interventions nor have interventions focused on educating young people about safe ways to communicate about suicide online. Given the potential that social media holds to deliver messages to vast numbers of people across space and time and the fact that young people often prefer to seek help from their friends and peers, safely educating and engaging young people to develop suicide prevention messages that can be delivered via social media is an obvious next step. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide education to a small number of secondary school students about safe ways to communicate about suicide via social media; (2) engage the same young people in the development of a suite of social media-based suicide prevention multimedia messages; (3) assess the impact of this on participants; and (4) assess the acceptability and safety of the messages developed. This study involved two phases. In phase 1, 20 participants recruited from two schools took part in an 8- to 10-week program during which they were provided with psychoeducation about mental health and suicide, including how to talk safely about suicide online, and they were then supported to design and develop their own media messages. These participants completed an evaluation questionnaire at the conclusion of the program. In phase 2, a larger group of participants (n=69), recruited via an opt-in process, viewed the media messages and completed a short questionnaire about each one. Participants in phase 1 enjoyed the program and reported that they learned new skills, such as how to talk safely about suicide online, and felt more able to provide emotional support to others (16/20, 80%). No

  9. Studying Attitude to own Disability in Blind and Visually Impaired Young People Using the Technique "Cinquain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbakova A.M.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the attitude of people with visual impairments to the limited capabilities of their health. We prove the necessity of search of new diagnostic tools for the detection of subjective perception of limitations associated with the disease in young visually impaired people. We describe the "Cinquain" technique and its use as a psycho-diagnostic tools. We provide the results of the study on the basis of which it is concluded that "Cinquain" may be used as a projective psychodiagnostic method to work with people who have vision problems. This technique is appropriate to be used to identify major psychological problems associated with the perception of own disability. This article will be useful for managers and specialists of organizations and agencies involved in the rehabilitation of the visually impaired, as well as all those who are interested in current problems and psychological rehabilitation of persons with disabilities.

  10. Aboriginal Determination: Native Title Claims and Barriers to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Akhtar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government has proposed a referendum in 2012 to decide the constitutional status of its indigenous people. There is at present no mechanism to define the indigenous people as a domestic or foreign entity of the Commonwealth. This is an important issue because other settler governments have developed a framework to implement their relationship with the native people. As a result, it is difficult prove title to land that has been abrogated by the deeds of the settlers. In Mabo v Queensland (2,the Commonwealth government was found to have breached its fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment led to the Native Title Act 1993 that established the process of asserting native rights that were held to coexist with pastoral ownership. The promulgation of the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 reversed this process and augmented the powers of non-native landlords by providing the device to extinguish native rights. In Western Australia v Ward, a mining lease was held to have precedence over native title that was adjudged to be part of a bundle of rights. In implementing the Native Title Act the issue turns on the determination of the ties to land/ sea that the government allows to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment in Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia indicates that title can be excluded on procedural grounds and that there was an incompatibility between the claims of the Aboriginal peoples and the settlers’ claims. The road map towards a more effective regime of proving title can be achieved if the Aboriginal peoples are granted recognition as a nation in the Constitution and a treaty is signed with them.

  11. Food Choice by People with Intellectual Disabilities at Day Centres: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Luke; Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Blackburn, Chrissie; Glover, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities experience a range of health inequalities. It is important to investigate possible contributory factors that may lead to these inequalities. This qualitative study identified some difficulties for healthy eating in day centres. (1) Service users and their family carers were aware of healthy food choices but…

  12. A Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Psychoeducational Group for Chinese People with Chronic Illnesses: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel F. K.; Ip, Priscilla S. Y.; Lee, Kim Man

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study attempted to examine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) psychoeducational group for Chinese people with chronic illness in Hong Kong. It adopted a single group design, and 52 participants joined the group. A questionnaire with three outcome measures, measuring general mental health, quality of life…

  13. Changes in Domain Specific Self-Perception amongst Young People with Intellectual Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the changes that occur in multidimensional self-concept of adolescents with a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, across gender and category of intellectual disability (borderline, mild, moderate) groups. A sample of 54 young people completed the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Using a three-wave longitudinal study…

  14. Dietary assessment in elderly people: experiences gained from studies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives: In selecting a dietary assessment method, several aspects such as the aim of the study and the characteristics of the target population should be taken into account. In elderly people, diminished functionality and cognitive decline may hamper dietary assessment and require

  15. The Recognition of Web Pages' Hyperlinks by People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Tania; Bessa, Maximino; Goncalves, Martinho; Cabral, Luciana; Godinho, Francisco; Peres, Emanuel; Reis, Manuel C.; Magalhaes, Luis; Chalmers, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: One of the most mentioned problems of web accessibility, as recognized in several different studies, is related to the difficulty regarding the perception of what is or is not clickable in a web page. In particular, a key problem is the recognition of hyperlinks by a specific group of people, namely those with intellectual…

  16. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  17. Asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli and mood in a cohort of older people: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Purandare, N.; Hardicre, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) predicts subsequent depression in older people. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 2.5 years of follow-up including 96 nondepressed older subjects in primary care. Presence of SCE was measured at baseline by

  18. An international crowdsourcing study into people's statements on fully automated driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazilinskyy, P.; Kyriakidis, M.; de Winter, J.C.F.; Ahram, Tareq; Karwowski, Waldemar; Schmorrow, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Fully automated driving can potentially provide enormous benefits to society. However, it has been unclear whether people will appreciate such far-reaching technology. This study investigated anonymous textual comments regarding fully automated driving, based on data extracted from three online

  19. The meaning of assisted feeding for people living with spinal cord injury: a phenomenological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, B.; Harder, I.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to explore the meaning of assisted feeding through the experiences of people with high cervical spinal cord injury. Background. Eating difficulties are known to affect a person's self-image and transform social lives. Little is known about the experience of ...

  20. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axelsson, J.; Ingre, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Olsson, A.; Lekander, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether sleep deprived people are perceived as less healthy, less attractive, and more tired than after a normal night's sleep. Design Experimental study. Setting Sleep laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants 23 healthy, sleep deprived adults (age 18-31) who were

  1. Extraversion and communication attitude in people who stutter: A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, L.; Lieftink, A.; Bouwen, J.; Wijnen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between the personality trait extraversion and the communication attitude in people who stutter (PWS). Method: Thirty PWS completed Erickson's Communication Attitude Scale (S-24) (. Andrews & Cutler, 1974) as well as a Dutch adaptation

  2. A Mindfulness-Based Group for Young People with Learning Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Victoria; Williamson, Rachel; Cooke, Bronwen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mindfulness is becoming increasingly reported as an effective way to support well-being and reduce mental health difficulties. Materials and Methods: This study reports on the development and pilot of a mindfulness-based group for young people with learning disabilities and their carers. Results: Group participants reported that the…

  3. The search for pain relief in people with chronic fatigue syndrome: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rebecca; Paul, Lorna; Wood, Les

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use and perceived benefit of complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) and physiotherapy treatments tried by people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to ease painful symptoms. This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional design. People with CFS who experienced pain were recruited to this study. Participants were asked during a semistructured interview about the treatments they had tried to relieve their pain. Each interview was conducted in the home of the participant. Fifty participants were recruited, of which, 10 participants were severely disabled by CFS. Eighteen participants were trying different forms of CAM treatment for pain relief at the time of assessment. Three participants were currently receiving physiotherapy. Throughout the duration of their illness 45 participants reported trying 19 different CAM treatments in the search for pain relief. Acupuncture was reported to provide the most pain relief (n=16). Twenty-seven participants reported a total of 16 different interventions prescribed by their physiotherapist. The results of this study suggest some physiotherapy and CAM treatments may help people manage painful CFS symptoms. Future research should be directed to evaluating the effectiveness of interventions such as acupuncture or gentle soft tissue therapies to reduce pain in people with CFS.

  4. The Close Relationships of People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Faye; Bowden, Keith; McKenzie, Karen; Quayle, Ethel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Positive interpersonal relationships have been found to enhance an individual's quality of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities (PWID) often have restricted social networks, and little is known about their views on close social relationships. The study aimed to explore how this group perceives and experiences close…

  5. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  6. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  7. Studying web usability with people with Learning Disabilities: what the literature tells us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Edward Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well-recognised that the Internet may be an appropriate vehicle to provide information for people with Learning Disabilities. A small but growing body of research has studied the usability of the Internet for this purpose. This review examines the literature relating to this issue. Objectives: The objective of the paper is to examine current research and thinking around the issue of web design for people with Learning Disabilities, including an exploration both of methods used and key findings. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was undertaken encompassing material from the fields of education, computer science and health. Literature was elicited from various appropriate bibliographic databases. In examining the literature, an analytical proforma was used to elicit information, evaluate and compare studies. Results: A large number of methods by which usability has been studied with this cohort were elicited, including using a mainstream website; comparing an especially adapted website against an equivalent ‘’mainstream’ version and comparing various ‘accessible’ website designs. Similarly, studies included those comparing the performance of people with Learning Disabilities with a ‘mainstream’ cohort and on their own. Findings overall suggest that ‘accessible sites’ are easier to use for people with Learning Disabilities. Difficulties encountered include in reading, finding content from a large quantity of text and scrolling. Work examining the efficacy of images or icons has had contradictory findings, from having little or no benefit in terms of access to information, to significantly aiding the understanding of text. Conclusions: Contradictory or inconclusive findings suggest both a need for further research and for greater participation by people with Learning Disabilities themselves in studying the usability of web sites and other IT applications.

  8. Use of social network to support visually impaired people: A Facebook case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Miranda Caran

    Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies can be seen as an important factor for social inclusion in its different aspects - economic, social, relational and informational, among others. Inclusion potentiality is even more relevant for groups of people who face limiting life conditions which determine social barriers. This study investigated the social support offered to people with disabilities based on the social network analysis method. The research objective was to make the online support dynamics for low vision people, friends and relatives evident, having as case study the Facebook Low Vision group. The social network modelling and quantitative analysis were performed from user data collection, posts, comments and likes. Contents were classified according to the type of support (Emotional or Instrumental and according to its intention (Offered or Requested, represented in graphs as indicators for analysis. Results pointed towards a larger use rate of Instrumental and Offered support although a more intense and comprehensive exchange of Emotional and Requested support was found. Data collection limitations indicate the need for more empirical studies on the social use of socio-technical networks for different types of social support. This theme points to a research agenda about the role of information and communication technologies as a possible condition for inclusion, life quality and well-being of people with disabilities.

  9. Native SAD is maturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S

    2015-07-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow 'highly accurate data' to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a 'first-choice' method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development.

  10. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways in our natural sacred homelands and environments. Tribal cultures are the expression of deep understandings of geosciences shared through oral histories, language and ceremonies. Today, Native people as all people are living in a definite time of change. The developing awareness of "change" brings forth an immense opportunity to expand and elevate Native geosciences knowledge, specifically in the areas of earth, wind, fire and water. At the center of "change" is the need to balance the needs of the people with the needs of the environment. Native tradition and our inherent understanding of what is "sacred above is sacred below" is the foundation for an emerging multi-faceted approach to increasing the representation of Natives in geosciences. The approach is also a pathway to assist in Tribal language revitalization, connection of oral histories and ceremonies as well as building an intergenerational teaching/learning community. Humboldt State University, Sinte Gleska University and South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in partnership with Northern California (Hoopa, Yurok, & Karuk) and Great Plains (Lakota) Tribes have nurtured Native geosciences learning communities connected to Tribal Sacred Sites and natural resources. These sites include the Black Hills (Mato Paha, Mato Tiplia, Hinhan Kaga Paha, Mako Sica etc.), Klamath River (Ishkêesh), and Hoopa Valley (Natinixwe). Native geosciences learning is centered on the themes of earth, wind, fire and water and Native application of remote sensing technologies. Tribal Elders and Native geoscientists work collaboratively providing Native families in-field experiential intergenerational learning opportunities which invite participants to immerse themselves spiritually, intellectually, physically and emotionally in the experiences. Through this immersion and experience Native students and families strengthen the circle of our future Tribal

  11. Opportunities and challenges of sexual health services among young people: a study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Krishna

    2009-02-01

    It has been well documented that young people are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual activity. Appropriate understanding of safe sex, sexual practices, and related behaviors must recognize the importance of socioeconomic and cultural factors in prevention efforts related to HIV and other sexual transmitted infections (STIs). To examine and summarize the opportunities and challenges of sexual health services among young people in Nepal. Review of literature--assessing knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of sex, sexual health, and related sexual risk behaviors, among young people (15-24), in line with the current sociocultural and health service practices. Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Science, Cochrane database, and Google were searched. Similarly, documents published at the WHO, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Development Program, and at national/local level--Ministry of Health, National Center for AIDS, and STD Control were also assessed to access the relevant reports and articles. Published and gray articles were also reviewed. This study contends growing expansion of communication and transportation networks, urbanization, and urban in-migration is creating a different sociocultural environment, which is conducive to more social interactions between young girls and boys in Nepal. Rising age at marriage opens a window of opportunity for premarital and unsafe sexual activity among young people and this creates risks of unwanted pregnancy, STIs/HIV and AIDS. Socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors have been identified as encouraging factors for risk-taking behaviors among young people. Understanding safer sex and responsible sexual/reproductive behavior is important. Effective and appropriate interventions on sexual and reproductive health education directed at young people and the whole family, including fathers, could have significant effect on reducing risk and related risk

  12. The Native Language in Teaching Kindergarten Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of the native language as a medium of instruction is believed to be the fastest and most natural route towards developing a strong foundation in mathematics literacy (Mimaropa, In D.O.No. 74, s.2009). This study examined the effect of using the native language in the teaching of kindergarten mathematics. A total of 34 five to six year old…

  13. Preventive home care of frail older people: a review of recent case management studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm; Kristensson, Jimmie

    2004-09-01

    Preventive actions targeting community-dwelling frail older people will be increasingly important with the growing number of very old and thereby also frail older people. This study aimed to explore and summarize the empirical literature on recent studies of case/care management interventions for community-dwelling frail older people and especially with regard to the content of the interventions and the nurse's role and outcome of it. Very few of the interventions took either a preventive or a rehabilitative approach using psycho-educative interventions focusing, for instance, on self-care activities, risk prevention, health complaints management or how to preserve or strengthen social activities, community involvement and functional ability. Moreover, it was striking that very few included a family-oriented approach also including support and education for informal caregivers. Thus it seems that the content of case/care management needs to be expanded and more influenced by a salutogenic health care perspective. Targeting frail older people seemed to benefit from a standardized two-stage strategy for inclusion and for planning the interventions. A comprehensive geriatric assessment seemed useful as a base. Nurses, preferably trained in gerontological practice, have a key role in case/care management for frail older people. This approach calls for developing the content of case/care management so that it involves a more salutogenic, rehabilitative and family-oriented approach. To this end it may be useful for nurses to strengthen their psychosocial skills or develop close collaboration with social workers. The outcome measures examined in this study represented one of three perspectives: the consumer's perspective, the perspective of health care consumption or the recipient's health and functional ability. Perhaps effects would be expected in all three areas and thus these should be included in evaluative studies in addition to measures for family and/or informal

  14. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.

  15. A cytogenetic study of Korean native goat bred in the nuclear power plant using the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang-Mo; Ji, Young-Hoon; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Se-Ra; Kim, Jong-Choon; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Cytogenetic and hematological analysis was performed on the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) obtained from Korean native goats bred in two nuclear power plants (Wolsong and Uljin) and a control area. The frequencies of gamma-ray-induced micronuclei (MN) in the cytokinesis-blocked (CB) lymphocytes at several doses were measured in three Korean native goats. The measurements performed after irradiation showed dose-related increases in the MN frequency in each of the donors. The results were analyzed using a linear-quadratic model with a line of best fit of y=0.1019D+0.0045D 2 +0.0093 (y=number of MN/GB cells and D=irradiation dose in Gy). The MN rates in the goats from the Wolsong and Uljin nuclear power plant, and the control area were 9.60±2.88, 6.83±1.47 and 9.88±4.32 per 1,000 CB lymphocytes, respectively. The apparent difference is not statistically significant. The MN frequencies of PBLs from goats bred in three areas means that the values are within the background variation in this experiment. The MN frequencies and hematological values were similar regardless of whether the goats were bred in the nuclear power plant or the control area. (author)

  16. Telerehabilitation to improve outcomes for people with stroke: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saywell Nicola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In New Zealand, around 45,000 people live with stroke and many studies have reported that benefits gained during initial rehabilitation are not sustained. Evidence indicates that participation in physical interventions can prevent the functional decline that frequently occurs after discharge from acute care facilities. However, on-going stroke services provision following discharge from acute care is often related to non-medical factors such as availability of resources and geographical location. Currently most people receive no treatment beyond three months post stroke. The study aims to determine if the Augmented Community Telerehabilitation Intervention (ACTIV results in better physical function for people with stroke than usual care, as measured by the Stroke Impact Scale, physical subcomponent. Methods/design This study will use a multi-site, two-arm, assessor blinded, parallel randomised controlled trial design. People will be eligible if they have had their first ever stroke, are over 20 and have some physical impairment in either arm or leg, or both. Following discharge from formal physiotherapy services (inpatient, outpatient or community, participants will be randomised into ACTIV or usual care. ACTIV uses readily available technology, telephone and mobile phones, combined with face-to-face visits from a physiotherapist over a six-month period, to help people with stroke resume activities they enjoyed before the stroke. The impact of stroke on physical function and quality of life will be assessed, measures of cost will be collected and a discrete choice survey will be used to measure preferences for rehabilitation options. These outcomes will be collected at baseline, six months and 12 months. In-depth interviews will be used to explore the experiences of people participating in the intervention arm of the study. Discussion The lack of on-going rehabilitation for people with stroke diminishes the chance of their

  17. Virtual worlds for people with autism spectrum disorder: a case study in Second Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendal, Karen; Balandin, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the use of virtual worlds by people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a particular focus on the virtual world Second Life™. Case study methodology was selected to explore the experiences of Wolf, a participant with ASD, in Second Life. Wolf participated in three in-depth interviews. The interviews were analyzed using a content analysis to identify themes and sub-themes. Analysis identified four main themes: social factors and communication, empowerment, virtual world versus physical world, and social cues and body language. Anecdotally Wolf's experiences suggest that people with ASD enjoy using a virtual world and may feel more comfortable communicating in the virtual world context than the physical world. Virtual worlds offer a venue for people with ASD to be a part of a virtual society, lowers communication barriers experienced in the physical world, and gives the participant a unique opportunity to create and maintain friendships. Virtual worlds offer an arena for people with ASD to meet their peers on equal terms, not being dependent on social cues, which in the physical world can be a barrier for communication for this group. Further research in this area is required.

  18. Environmental racism: the US nuclear industry and native Americans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Ulla

    1997-01-01

    The author argues that the United States nuclear industry has acted in a discriminatory fashion towards Native American peoples and the land they hold as reservations. Both uranium mining and nuclear weapons testing is commonplace and plans now exist to locate a low-level radioactive waste dump in the Mojave desert in California, a sacred site for many native people. Opposition to such plans is growing among the Native Americans, sharpened by their existing commitment to conservation of the environment, but on their own, they are not a lobby powerful enough to oppose the might of the nuclear industry. (UK)

  19. Environmental racism: the US nuclear industry and native Americans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, Ulla [Organization of the Fourth World - First Peoples (Finland)

    1997-03-01

    The author argues that the United States nuclear industry has acted in a discriminatory fashion towards Native American peoples and the land they hold as reservations. Both uranium mining and nuclear weapons testing is commonplace and plans now exist to locate a low-level radioactive waste dump in the Mojave desert in California, a sacred site for many native people. Opposition to such plans is growing among the Native Americans, sharpened by their existing commitment to conservation of the environment, but on their own, they are not a lobby powerful enough to oppose the might of the nuclear industry. (UK).

  20. Professionals' perception of intimate partner violence in young people: a qualitative study in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquibar, Amaia; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2017-07-20

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem with devastating effects on young women's health. These negative effects increase when the exposure to IPV lasts for a long time and exposure at an early age increases the risk of adult IPV. Despite efforts made in the last few decades, data show little progress has been made towards its reduction. Thus, the aim of the study reported here is to explore professionals' perceptions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) among young people, focusing on the characteristics of the phenomenon and their perceptions about existing programmes and campaigns aimed at addressing it. Twelve professionals from education, health and municipal social services were interviewed. All but one of the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to the methodology of inductive thematic analysis, with the support of Atlas.ti software. The transcripts were read several times and coded line by line. Afterwards, codes were grouped into themes. The developed themes were refined into two phases with the participation of all the authors. From the analysis, the following three themes were identified: "A false sense of gender equity", "IPV among young people: subtle, daily and normalized", and "Mass media campaigns do not fit young people's needs". According to the participants, psychological abuse in the form of controlling behaviour by their partners is the most common type of IPV young women are exposed to, although exposure to other types of IPV was also acknowledged. This violence was described as something subtle, daily and normalized and, consequently, not something that is easy to recognize for the girls that are exposed to it, nor for adults working with young people. The study participants showed good knowledge of the characteristics IPV has among young people. This knowledge was reflected in locally implemented IPV prevention projects, which they considered successful in addressing young

  1. The process of recovery for people diagnosed with personality disorder: a case study of The Haven

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the process of recovery for people diagnosed with personality disorder. This is related to the application of the new meaning of recovery from mental illness as explored by members of The Haven which, as the service setting for the study, addresses the problems of a client group that suffers significant social exclusion, known to impact on demand for health and other public services. It aims to examine efforts which attempt to reverse this social exclusion as an aspect ...

  2. Sobriety and alcohol use among rural Alaska Native elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective: The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN since the study in Barrow took place in 1979. Design: We report findings regarding self-reported alcohol use included in an elder needs assessment conducted with 134 Alaska Native elders from 5 rural villages off the road system in Alaska. Data were collected in partnership between academic researchers and community members in accordance with the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research. Results: Findings showed very high rates of sobriety and low rates of alcohol use, contradicting stereotypes of widespread alcohol abuse among AN. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed. Conclusions: This research represents one step forward in mending academic–community relationships in rural Alaska to further research on alcohol use and related health disparities.

  3. Young people's attitudes towards illicit drugs: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Karina; Østergaard, Jeanette; Reese, Sidsel; Lasgaard, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drugs are more inclined to experiment with them. The first aim of our study was to identify the sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics of young people (16-24 years) with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. The second aim was to identify the characteristics of young people with positive attitudes towards illicit drugs among those who had never tried drugs, those who had tried cannabis but no other illicit drugs, and those who regularly used cannabis and/or had tried other illicit drugs. The analysis was based on a population-based survey from 2013 ( N = 3812). Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the association between sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics and positive attitudes towards illicit drugs. Young men had twice the odds of having positive attitudes towards illicit drug use compared with young women (AOR = 2.1). Also, young age, being single, being employed, smoking tobacco, practising unprotected sex, and experimental cannabis use were associated with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. Finally, use of cannabis at least 10 times during the previous year and/or use of other illicit drugs had the strongest association with positive attitudes to illicit drug use (AOR = 6.0). Young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drug use are characterized by a broad range of risky behaviours. These findings may help to identify young people at risk of initiating illicit drug use and thereby support the development and implementation of prevention programmes.

  4. Predictors for Employment Status in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslin, Mia; Fink, Katharina; Hammar, Ulf; von Koch, Lena; Johansson, Sverker

    2018-01-31

    To identify predictors for employment status after 10 years in a cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), with the aim to increase knowledge concerning factors present at an early stage that are important for working life and work-life balance. A 10-year longitudinal observational cohort study. University hospital. A consecutive sample of people with MS (N=154) of working age were included at baseline, of which a total of 116 people participated in the 10-year follow-up; 27 people declined participation and 11 were deceased. Not applicable. Baseline data on personal factors and functioning were used as independent variables. Employment status 10 years after baseline, categorized as full-time work, part-time work, and no work, was used as the dependent variable. A generalized ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive value of the independent variables. Predictors for full- or part-time work after 10 years were young age (P=.002), low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02), fatigue (P=.03), full-time work (P=.001), and high frequency of social/lifestyle activities (P=.001) at baseline. Low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02) at baseline also predicted full-time work after 10 years. This study underlines the complexity of working life for people with MS, and indicates that it may be valuable to give more attention to the balance between working and private life, both in clinical practice and future research, to achieve a sustainable working life over time. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How older people with incurable cancer experience daily living: A qualitative study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Sigrid Helene Kjørven; Danbolt, Lars J; Kvigne, Kari; Demarinis, Valerie

    2015-08-01

    An increasing number of older people are living with incurable cancer as a chronic disease, requiring palliative care from specialized healthcare for shorter or longer periods of time. The aim of our study was to describe how they experience daily living while receiving palliative care in specialized healthcare contexts. We conducted a qualitative research study with a phenomenological approach called "systematic text condensation." A total of 21 participants, 12 men and 9 women, aged 70-88, took part in semistructured interviews. They were recruited from two somatic hospitals in southeastern Norway. The participants experienced a strong link to life in terms of four subthemes: to acknowledge the need for close relationships; to maintain activities of normal daily life; to provide space for existential meaning-making and to name and handle decline and loss. In addition, they reported that specialized healthcare contexts strengthened the link to life by prioritizing and providing person-centered palliative care. Older people with incurable cancer are still strongly connected to life in their daily living. The knowledge that the potential for resilience remains despite aging and serious decline in health is considered a source of comfort for older people living with this disease. Insights into the processes of existential meaning-making and resilience are seen as useful in order to increase our understanding of how older people adapt to adversity, and how their responses may help to protect them from some of the difficulties inherent to aging. Healthcare professionals can make use of this information in treatment planning and for identification of psychosocial and sociocultural resources to support older people and to strengthen patients' life resources.

  6. Broadening the Participation of Native Americans in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Watts, Nievita

    Climate change is not a thing of the future. Indigenous people are being affected by climate changes now. Native American Earth scientists could help Native communities deal with both climate change and environmental pollution issues, but are noticeably lacking in Earth Science degree programs. The Earth Sciences produce the lowest percentage of minority scientists when compared with other science and engineering fields. Twenty semi-structured interviews were gathered from American Indian/ Alaska Native Earth Scientists and program directors who work directly with Native students to broaden participation in the field. Data was analyzed using qualitative methods and constant comparison analysis. Barriers Native students faced in this field are discussed, as well as supports which go the furthest in assisting achievement of higher education goals. Program directors give insight into building pathways and programs to encourage Native student participation and success in Earth Science degree programs. Factors which impede obtaining a college degree include financial barriers, pressures from familial obligations, and health issues. Factors which impede the decision to study Earth Science include unfamiliarity with geoscience as a field of study and career choice, the uninviting nature of Earth Science as a profession, and curriculum that is irrelevant to the practical needs of Native communities or courses which are inaccessible geographically. Factors which impede progress that are embedded in Earth Science programs include educational preparation, academic information and counseling and the prevalence of a Western scientific perspective to the exclusion of all other perspectives. Intradepartmental relationships also pose barriers to the success of some students, particularly those who are non-traditional students (53%) or women (80%). Factors which support degree completion include financial assistance, mentors and mentoring, and research experiences. Earth scientists

  7. A mixed-methods study into ballet for people living with Parkinson's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara; McGill, Ashley

    2013-06-01

    Background : Parkinson's is a neurological disease that is physically debilitating and can be socially isolating. Dance is growing in popularity for people with Parkinson's and claims have been made for its benefits. The paper details a mixed-methods study that examined a 12-week dance project for people with Parkinson's, led by English National Ballet. Methods : The effects on balance, stability and posture were measured through the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and a plumb-line analysis. The value of participation and movement quality were interpreted through ethnographic methods, grounded theory and Effort analysis. Results : Triangulation of results indicates that people were highly motivated, with 100% adherence, and valued the classes as an important part of their lives. Additionally, results indicated an improvement in balance and stability, although not in posture. Conclusions : Dancing may offer benefit to people with Parkinson's through its intellectual, artistic, social and physical aspects. The paper suggests that a range of research methods is fundamental to capture the importance of multifaceted activity, such as dance, to those with Parkinson's.

  8. What people close to death say about euthanasia and assisted suicide: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, A; Ziebland, S; McPherson, A; Herxheimer, A

    2006-12-01

    To explore the experiences of people with a "terminal illness", focusing on the patients' perspective of euthanasia and assisted suicide. A qualitative study using narrative interviews was conducted throughout the UK. The views of the 18 people who discussed euthanasia and assisted suicide were explored. These were drawn from a maximum variation sample, who said that they had a "terminal" illness, malignant or non-malignant. That UK law should be changed to allow assisted suicide or voluntary euthanasia was felt strongly by most people. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that this should be a right. Some had multiple reasons, including pain and anticipated pain, fear of indignity, loss of control and cognitive impairment. Those who did not want to be a burden also had other reasons for wanting euthanasia. Suicide was contemplated by a few, who would have preferred a change in the law to allow them to end their lives with medical help and in the company of family or friends. The few who opposed a change in UK law, or who felt ambivalent, focused on involuntary euthanasia, cited religious reasons or worried that new legislation might be open to abuse. Qualitative research conducted on people who know they are nearing death is an important addition to the international debate on euthanasia and assisted suicide. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that the law should be changed to allow assisted death.

  9. What people close to death say about euthanasia and assisted suicide: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, A; Ziebland, S; McPherson, A; Herxheimer, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of people with a “terminal illness”, focusing on the patients' perspective of euthanasia and assisted suicide. Method A qualitative study using narrative interviews was conducted throughout the UK. The views of the 18 people who discussed euthanasia and assisted suicide were explored. These were drawn from a maximum variation sample, who said that they had a “terminal” illness, malignant or non‐malignant. Results That UK law should be changed to allow assisted suicide or voluntary euthanasia was felt strongly by most people. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that this should be a right. Some had multiple reasons, including pain and anticipated pain, fear of indignity, loss of control and cognitive impairment. Those who did not want to be a burden also had other reasons for wanting euthanasia. Suicide was contemplated by a few, who would have preferred a change in the law to allow them to end their lives with medical help and in the company of family or friends. The few who opposed a change in UK law, or who felt ambivalent, focused on involuntary euthanasia, cited religious reasons or worried that new legislation might be open to abuse. Conclusion Qualitative research conducted on people who know they are nearing death is an important addition to the international debate on euthanasia and assisted suicide. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that the law should be changed to allow assisted death. PMID:17145910

  10. Social adaptation following intestinal stoma formation in people living at home: a longitudinal phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Gabrielle; McArthur, Maggie

    2017-11-01

    Intestinal stoma formation profoundly changes the relationship between a person and their social world. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of living with a new stoma; this paper explores the theme "disrupted social world," highlighting how stoma-forming surgery impacts on individuals' abilities to participate and interact socially over time. A longitudinal phenomenological approach. Twelve participants with a new stoma were recruited using purposeful sampling. Data were collected at three, nine and 15 months following surgery through in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using a bespoke iterative framework. Three categories were identified: participation in the social environment; interpersonal relationships: changes and challenges; and setting and achieving goals. Stoma-forming surgery changes the ways people relate to their social environment and connect with others, creating self-consciousness and impeding social confidence and autonomy. Understanding the social implications of stoma-forming surgery can help clinicians to provide responsive and appropriate support to facilitate social rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Assisting people with a stoma to develop competent stoma self-care skills will promote social adaptation and self-acceptance. Clinicians should promote access to others with a stoma, an important source of support for many people adjusting to a new stoma. Graded exposure to social participation can engender feelings of control and confidence for people with a stoma. Clinicians can help individuals with a stoma to set realistic goals for their recovery, while encouraging a range of positive coping strategies.

  11. The Study and Comparison of Irrational Beliefs in Addicted and Normal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aminpoor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irrational beliefs have some destructive and serious effects on individuals’ behavior at home, work environment, and in social environment also implicate emotional deep effects (depression, grief, self teasing, self reproaching, and contrition. The main aim of present study was the comparison of irrational beliefs in addicted and normal people. Method: the research method was causal comparative research and taking into account the subject importance and its role in individuals tendency toward addiction a sample of 120 persons (60 addicted people and 60 normal ones was selected based on available samplingand similar in order of age and the Joens irrational beliefs questionnaire was administered among selected sample. In order to analyze data, independent samples t test, and ANOVA were run. Results: There was significant difference between the mean score of irrational beliefs with consideration of group (addicted and normal group, also, in addicted people there was significant difference between the mean score of irrational beliefs with consideration of education level, and economical status. Conclusion: The mean score of irrational beliefs in addicted people is more than normal ones. Taking into consideration that individuals can change their behaviors and feelings through changing their beliefs, so one must replace irrational beliefs with rational ones based on educational qualifications.

  12. A mixed-methods study into ballet for people living with Parkinson's1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara; McGill, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's is a neurological disease that is physically debilitating and can be socially isolating. Dance is growing in popularity for people with Parkinson's and claims have been made for its benefits. The paper details a mixed-methods study that examined a 12-week dance project for people with Parkinson's, led by English National Ballet. Methods: The effects on balance, stability and posture were measured through the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and a plumb-line analysis. The value of participation and movement quality were interpreted through ethnographic methods, grounded theory and Effort analysis. Results: Triangulation of results indicates that people were highly motivated, with 100% adherence, and valued the classes as an important part of their lives. Additionally, results indicated an improvement in balance and stability, although not in posture. Conclusions: Dancing may offer benefit to people with Parkinson's through its intellectual, artistic, social and physical aspects. The paper suggests that a range of research methods is fundamental to capture the importance of multifaceted activity, such as dance, to those with Parkinson's. PMID:23805165

  13. Thai people living with tuberculosis and how they adhere to treatment: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choowong, Jiraporn; Tillgren, Per; Söderbäck, Maja

    2017-12-01

    To develop a conceptual framework of adherence to treatment among Thai people living with tuberculosis, a grounded theory approach was used. A purposive sample of 20 Thai people living with tuberculosis, aged from 23 to 85 years, was interviewed. From the participants' perspective, a core category of social belonging was highlighted, with three categories of conditions connected: personal barriers, personal resilience, and social facilitation. Personal barriers encompassed fear of stigma, concealing the illness, and lack of knowledge and motivation to complete the treatment regime. Personal resilience encompassed positive thinking and self-awareness. Social facilitation encompassed the ease of access to health services, continuity in the health service's ability to choose a directly-observed therapy observer, and social support. This study contributes a deeper understanding of the perspective of Thai people living with tuberculosis with regards to adherence to tuberculosis treatment. It might improve how local healthcare workers provide tuberculosis care, and inspire them to tailor care to people living with tuberculosis in a local community to increase personal resilience and reduce stigma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  15. Falls in very old people: the population-based Umeå 85+ Study in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    von Heideken Wågert, Petra; Gustafson, Yngve; Kallin, Kristina; Jensen, Jane; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor

    2009-01-01

    Artikkelen omhandler en studie hvor hensikten var å beskrive forekomst av fall og fallrelaterte skader, og å identifisere predisponerende faktorer for fall hos eldre 85 år og eldre. The aim of this study was to describe incidences of falls and fall-related injuries, and to identify predisposing factors for falls in very old people in a prospective population-based follow-up study for falls. The study is part of the Umeå 85+ Study which includes half of the population aged 85, and the total...

  16. Oil & Community Welfare: A Case Study on People Oil Mining in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Trisnu Brata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually in the oil mining area was exploited by oil company that under licensed from the state. Nevertheless on an oil mining field in East Java Province in Indonesia there is people oil mining that exploited and distributed by the people. They are working on the people oil mining area. Working is a phenomenon inherent to adults in satisfying their needs. People work for a multitude of motivation. Working may lead a particular worker to occupy certain social status within the society. This paper aims to examine the phenomenon of people working in the oil distribution link from people oil mining  to consumer. More specifically, this study aims to describe the impacts of working in the oil mining on the miners’ social and economic life. The method used in this research is ethnography. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interviews, note taking, and recording. The location of research is in a petroleum artisanal mining area in East Java Province. The results showed that the impact of working in the oil distribution link from people oil mining to consumer is the generation of income used to meet the basic needs, to purchase personal means of transportation, to purchase some piece of land, and to pay for the children’s education.Biasanya ladang minyak dieksploitasi perusahaan yang memperolehy ijin dari negara. Akan tetapi ada ladang minyak di Jawa Timur yang dieksploitasi oleh masyarakat. Mereka bekerja pada ladang seperti  itu. Pekerja memiliki motivasi bermacam-macam dalam pekerjaanya. Bekerja membantu seseorang memperoleh status tertentu dalam masyarakat. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menelaah fenomena pekerja ladang minyak. Pertanyaan yang ingin dijawab dalam penelitian ini adalah: (1 mengapa orang bekerja di ladang minyak?; (2 bagaimana kesejahteraan mereka?; dan (3 bagaimana pengaruh bekerja di ladang minyak pada kehidupan sosial dan ekonomi para pekerja?. Penelitian menggunakan metode etnografi. Penelitian dilakukan di Jawa

  17. Knowledge and attitudes towards disability in Moldova: A qualitative study of young people's views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kenneth A; Hardie, Samantha; Paul, Abigail; Paul, Gary; Savage, Iain; Shields, Paul; Symes, Rebecca; Wilson, Joanna; Winstanley, Catherine; Harden, Jeni

    2017-10-01

    People with disabilities in the Republic of Moldova continue to experience considerable discrimination and social exclusion. The Moldovan government recently affirmed their commitment to promote community integration. However, there remains limited evidence to facilitate understanding of these issues, and barriers to the integrative process. This study explored the knowledge and attitudes towards disability of young people within Moldova. A qualitative approach was adopted and 3 semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with schoolchildren (n = 12), aged 13-15 years. These interviews focussed on different aspects of disability, and community integration. Pictorial and written vignettes were used to stimulate discussion. The interviews were conducted and recorded in Romanian, and were subsequently translated into English to facilitate thematic data analysis. Identified themes included: (1) Knowledge and understanding of disability. The young people's knowledge was limited and framed by the medical model of disability; (2) Attitudes towards community integration. A bias against long-term care institutions, but differing views regarding integration; (3) Perceptions of barriers to community integration: (i) Cultural barriers. Negative, even hostile attitudes towards disability; (ii) Policy barriers. Poor support services; and (iii) Physical barriers. Ongoing issues regarding accessibility. People with disabilities in Moldova experience negative cultural attitudes linked to an outdated conception of disability itself. There are inadequate community support services and infrastructure which act as barriers to inclusion. At present, there can be limited interaction and participation of people with disabilities within local communities, and so few opportunities to refute persistent stereotypes and stigma surrounding disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Older people's perspectives on an elderly-friendly hospital environment: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karki S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sushmita Karki,1 Dharma Nand Bhatta,1,2 Umesh Raj Aryal3 1Department of Public Health, Nobel College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Faculty of Medicine, Epidemiology Unit, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand; 3Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Many older people are vulnerable with multiple health problems and need of extensive care and support for quality of life. The main objective of this study was to explore the older people's perspectives on an "elderly-friendly" hospital. Methods: Hospital was stratified by four domains including government, semi-government, community, and private. We interviewed 33 hospitalized older patients and four hospital managers between June and December 2014 in Kathmandu, Nepal, using purposive sampling technique. We executed a qualitative content analysis step with extensive review of the interviews. Final name of the theme was given after the agreement between the research team and experts to improve trustworthiness. Elderly-friendly services, expectation from government and hospital, and health policy related to senior citizen were developed as main themes. Results: Most of the participants were satisfied with the behavior of health personnel. However, none of the health personnel were trained with geriatric health care. Elderly-friendly hospital guidelines and policy were not developed by any hospitals. Older people health card, advocacy for older people's health and benefit, and hospital environment were the common expectations of older patients. Government policy and budget constraint were the main obstacles to promote elderly-friendly health care services. Conclusion: Elderly-related health policies, physical environments of hospital, elderly-friendly health manpower, advocacy, and other facilities and benefits should be improved and developed. There are urgent needs to develop elderly-friendly hospital policies and guidelines that

  19. Falls in very old people: the population-based Umeå 85+ study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heideken Wågert, Petra; Gustafson, Yngve; Kallin, Kristina; Jensen, Jane; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe incidences of falls and fall-related injuries, and to identify predisposing factors for falls in very old people in a prospective population-based follow-up study for falls. The study is part of the Umeå 85+ Study which includes half of the population aged 85, and the total population aged 90 and > or =95 (-103), in Umeå, Sweden. Of the 253 people interviewed, 220 (87%) were followed up for falls for 6 months, of whom 109 lived in ordinary and 111 in institutional housing. A comprehensive geriatric baseline assessment was made through interviews and testing during home visits. Forty percent of the participants did fall a total 304 times, corresponding to 2.17 falls per Person Year (PY). It occurred 0.83 injuries per PY, including 0.14 fractures per PY. In a Cox regression analysis, the independent explanatory risk factors for time to first fall were dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), thyroid disorders, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and occurrence of falls in the preceding year. It could be predicted that every seventh participant and every third of the people who did fall would suffer a fracture within 1 year. ADL, thyroid disorders and treatment with SSRIs should be considered in fall prevention programmes.

  20. [Identification and sampling of people with migration background for epidemiological studies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, K; Makarova, N; Spallek, J; Zeeb, H; Razum, O

    2013-06-01

    In 2009, 19.6% of the population of Germany either had migrated themselves or were the offspring of people with migration experience. Migrants differ from the autochthonous German population in terms of health status, health awareness and health behaviour. To further investigate the health situation of migrants in Germany, epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can employ existing databases which provide detailed information on migration status. Otherwise, onomastic or toponomastic procedures can be applied to identify people with migration background. If migrants have to be recruited into an epidemiological study, this can be done register-based (e. g., data from registration offices or telephone lists), based on residential location (random-route or random-walk procedure), via snowball sampling (e. g., through key persons) or via settings (e. g., school entry examination). An oversampling of people with migration background is not sufficient to avoid systematic bias in the sample due to non-participation. Additional measures have to be taken to increase access and raise participation rates. Personal contacting, multilingual instruments, multilingual interviewers and extensive public relations increase access and willingness to participate. Empirical evidence on 'successful' recruitment strategies for studies with migrants is still lacking in epidemiology and health sciences in Germany. The choice of the recruitment strategy as well as the measures to raise accessibility and willingness to participate depend on the available resources, the research question and the specific migrant target group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. What older people want: evidence from a study of remote Scottish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gerry; Farmer, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The growing proportions of older people in rural areas have implications for the provision of health and social care services. Older people are more likely to have complex health needs compared with other age groups, requiring a full range of primary, community and acute hospital services. The provision of services to older people in rural areas is challenged by diseconomies of scale, travel costs and difficulties in attracting staff. Policy-makers are requested to include the 'voice' of older people to help provide services that match needs and context. In spite of this, what older people want from health and social care services is a neglected area of investigation. The reported study was conducted in 2005/2006 as part of a European Union Northern Periphery Programme (EU NPP) project called Our Life as Elderly. Its aims were to explore the views of those aged 55 years and over and living in remote communities about current and future health and social care service provision for older people. Evidence was to be collected that could inform policy-makers about changing or improving service delivery. This article summarises emergent themes and considers their implications. The study selected two small remote mainland Scottish Highland communities for in-depth case study. Semi-structured interviews (n = 23), 10 'informal conversations' and 4 focus groups were held with community members aged 55 years and over, in order to provide different types of qualitative data and 'layers' of data to allow reflection. Data analysis was assisted by computerised data management software and performed using the 'framework analysis' approach. Participants did not consider themselves 'old' and expressed the need for independence in older age to be supported by services. Several aspects of services that were undergoing change or restructuring were identified, including arrangements for home care services, meals provision and technological support. Participants valued elements of the

  2. Culture, parenting, and child behavioral problems: a comparative study of cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Kuo, Yi-Jin; Wang, Lee; Yang, Chien-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the interplay of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic factors on children's behavioral problems, especially within culturally mixed families in Chinese society. This study compares the presence of behavioral problems between children from families with an immigrant mother and those from native-born families in a randomly selected sample of 957 children aged 6 to 12 years from three counties in central Taiwan. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist completed by parents and the Teacher's Report Form. Parenting styles were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument completed by children. Children of immigrant mothers had higher scores for all behavioral syndromes based on the parent's report. However, in the teacher's report a difference was only observed for withdrawn/depressed syndrome. Children of immigrant mothers were more likely, and children with high paternal care were less likely, to have internalizing and total problems in the parent's report. For the teacher's report, only high education in fathers was associated with decreased internalizing and total problems in children. These findings suggest that children growing up in a cross-cultural environment with an immigrant mother, as opposed to a native-born Taiwanese family environment, are more likely to have higher internalizing problems and total behavioral problem scores, due to a number of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic factors. Children's behaviors appear to be more influenced by fathers' than mothers' parenting styles, regardless of family type. The study findings imply that unequal health and social conditions exist between cross-cultural and native-born families. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Has untargeted sexual health promotion for young people reached its limit? A quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Lawrie; Henderson, Marion; Nixon, Catherine; Wight, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Theoretically, there may be benefit in augmenting school-based sexual health education with sexual health services, but the outcomes are poorly understood. Healthy Respect 2 (HR2) combined sex education with youth-friendly sexual health services, media campaigns and branding, and encouraged joint working between health services, local government and the voluntary sector.\\ud \\ud This study examined whether HR2: (1) improved young people's sexual health knowledge, attitudes, behaviou...

  4. Marital status and generalized trust in other people: A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The association between marital status and generalized trust in other people was investigated. The public health survey in Skane 2008 is a cross-sectional study including 28,198 persons (55% participation rate) aged 18-80 in southern Sweden. Logistic regression models investigated associations between marital status and trust, adjusting for age, country of birth, education, emotional support, instrumental support and economic stress. 33.9% of the men and 35.7% of the women had low trust. The ...

  5. End-stage renal disease and survival in people with diabetes: a national database linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, S.; Fletcher, E.H.; Brady, I.; Looker, H.C.; Levin, D.; Joss, N.; Traynor, J.P.; Metcalfe, W.; Conway, B.; Livingstone, S.; Leese, G.; Philip, S.; Wild, S.; Halbesma, N.; Sattar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing prevalence of diabetes worldwide is projected to lead to an increase in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT).Aim: To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of ESRD and requirement for RRT among people with diabetes in a nationwide study and to report associated survival.Methods: Data were extracted and linked from three national databases: Scottish Renal Registry, Scottish Care Initiative-Diabetes Collaboration...

  6. A pilot study evaluating a support programme for parents of young people with suicidal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowley Sinead

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self harm (DSH is a major public health concern and has increased among young people in Ireland. While DSH is undoubtedly the result of interacting factors, studies have identified an association between DSH and family dysfunction as well as the protective role of positive family relationships. Following a focus group meeting held to identify the needs of parents and carers of young people with DSH, a support programme (SPACE was developed. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPACE programme in decreasing parental psychological distress, reducing parental report of young peoples' difficulties, increasing parental satisfaction and increasing parents' ratings of their own defined challenges and goals. Methods Participants were recruited from a Mental Health Service within a paediatric hospital, Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Teams and family support services. All services were located within the greater Dublin area in Ireland. Forty-six parents of children who had engaged in or expressed thoughts of self harm attended the programme and participated in the evaluation study. The programme ran once a week over an 8-week period and included topics such as information on self harm in young people, parenting adolescents, communication and parental self-care. Seventy percent (N = 32 of the original sample at Time 1 completed measures at Time 2 (directly following the programme and 37% (N = 17 of the original sample at Time 1 completed them at Time 3 (6 months following the programme. A repeated measures design was used to identify changes in parental wellbeing after attendance at the programme as well as changes in parental reports of their children's difficulties. Results Participants had lower levels of psychological distress, increased parental satisfaction, lower ratings of their own defined challenges and higher ratings of their goals directly after the programme. These

  7. A pilot study evaluating a support programme for parents of young people with suicidal behaviour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm (DSH) is a major public health concern and has increased among young people in Ireland. While DSH is undoubtedly the result of interacting factors, studies have identified an association between DSH and family dysfunction as well as the protective role of positive family relationships. Following a focus group meeting held to identify the needs of parents and carers of young people with DSH, a support programme (SPACE) was developed. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPACE programme in decreasing parental psychological distress, reducing parental report of young peoples\\' difficulties, increasing parental satisfaction and increasing parents\\' ratings of their own defined challenges and goals. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a Mental Health Service within a paediatric hospital, Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Teams and family support services. All services were located within the greater Dublin area in Ireland. Forty-six parents of children who had engaged in or expressed thoughts of self harm attended the programme and participated in the evaluation study. The programme ran once a week over an 8-week period and included topics such as information on self harm in young people, parenting adolescents, communication and parental self-care. Seventy percent (N = 32) of the original sample at Time 1 completed measures at Time 2 (directly following the programme) and 37% (N = 17) of the original sample at Time 1 completed them at Time 3 (6 months following the programme).A repeated measures design was used to identify changes in parental wellbeing after attendance at the programme as well as changes in parental reports of their children\\'s difficulties. RESULTS: Participants had lower levels of psychological distress, increased parental satisfaction, lower ratings of their own defined challenges and higher ratings of their goals directly after the programme. These

  8. Optimizing a Retention Strategy with Young People for BRIGHTLIGHT, a Longitudinal Cohort Study Examining the Value of Specialist Cancer Care for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Aslam, Natasha; Lea, Sarah; Whelan, Jeremy S; Fern, Lorna A

    2017-09-01

    To maximize retention of participants in a longitudinal cohort study, we sought to understand young peoples' views about barriers and facilitators to continuing study participation. Ten young people with a previous cancer diagnosis aged 15-24 participated in a 1 day workshop. The workshop used participatory methodology consisting of three exercises as follows: role play/scene setting; force field analysis of research participation in small groups; and focus group discussion. A final prioritization exercise was administered individually after the workshop. Twenty-four barriers to maintaining participation were summarized in five themes as follows: life commitments; concerns specific to the study; emotional barriers; practical barriers; and other reasons. The top 3 specific barriers were as follows: not a priority/other things are more important; too time consuming; and forgetting/memory. The top 3 facilitators for participation were as follows: wishing to help other young people; giving back to the cancer community; and honoring an initial commitment to participation. The top 3 suggested solutions to encourage continued participation were as follows: reminder text message or email before each survey to check preferred method of delivery; breaking up the online survey into modules to make completion less overwhelming; and consolidation of study information in one location. Involving young people in designing a retention strategy for young people with cancer has informed the BRIGHTLIGHT retention strategy. Patient and public involvement is imperative for successful research but measuring impact is challenging. The success of implementing the changes to optimize retention was shown in the increase in retention in Wave 3 from 30% to final participation of 58%.

  9. Perceived and anticipated discrimination in people with mental illness--an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lars; Stjernswärd, Sigrid; Svensson, Bengt

    2014-02-01

    Studies on perceived discrimination of people with mental illness are largely lacking. The purpose of the study was to investigate perceived discrimination in a sample of users in contact with mental health services in Sweden. Interviews were conducted with 156 users, asking for perceived and anticipated discrimination during the last 2 years. Background characteristics were also collected. Perceived discrimination was common. Highest frequencies were reported regarding family (54%), avoidance by people who knew about the mental illness (53%) and in making or keeping friends (50%). A majority of those anticipating discrimination regarding job or education seeking, or starting a close relationship did not report having been discriminated in these areas. Previous hospitalizations were associated with discrimination, and age with anticipated discrimination. Public stigma and self-stigma have been reported to have a number of negative consequences for people with mental illness. Discrimination is part of this complex situation and this study showed that this largely affects a number of individual life areas posing an obstacle for social integration. Anticipated discrimination or self-stigma was also prevalent and it is pointed out that this to a great extent is an obstacle on its own without being promoted by actual experiences of discrimination.

  10. Mental status and suicide probability of young people: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Ozakar Akca

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: The most important determinant of suicide ideation, tendency and initiative is the presence of mental disorders. Since the number of those who lost their lives due to suicide in the world rose rapidly among the young population, the World Health Organization emphasizes the importance of assessing young people in the high-risk age group to prevent suicidal behavior. This study aimed to determine psychological symptom levels and suicide probability in young people. Method: The cross-sectional research consisted of 15-24 year-old individuals (N=348, who have sought a psychiatric clinic between February and June, 2015. The Research Data was collected by applying Data Collection Form, Suicide Probability Scale (SPS and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI. SPSS 22.0 statistical package program was used for data analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the mean SPS scores according to education, psychiatric treatment, self-harm, smoking and drinking status of the participants in the study. Apart from this, there was also a statistically significant correlation between anxiety, depression, negative self and hostility according to the SPS and BSI subscales (p<0.001, r=0.739; p<0.001, r=0.729; p<0.001, r=0.747; p<0.001, r=0.715; respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study show that suicide risk is significantly higher in young people with depression, anxiety, negative self-perception and hostility symptoms. In this regard, we suggest the relevance of assessing the suicide risk of young people seeking a psychiatric clinic, with thorough attention to those who have high potential for suicide.

  11. Factors affecting smoking cessation efforts of people with severe mental illness: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Jennifer; Pettey, Donna; Aubry, Tim; Stol, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    People with severe mental illness are much more likely to smoke than are members of the general population. Smoking cessation interventions that combine counseling and medication have been shown to be moderately effective, but quit rates remain low and little is known about the experiences of people with severe mental illness in smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate factors that help or hinder the smoking cessation efforts of people with severe mental illness. We recruited 16 people with severe mental illness who had participated in a clinical trial of two different smoking cessation interventions, one involving nicotine replacement therapy only and the other nicotine replacement therapy combined with motivational interviewing and a peer support group. We conducted open-ended, semi-structured interviews with participants, who ranged in age from 20 to 56 years old, were equally distributed by gender (eight men and eight women), and were predominantly Caucasian (n = 13, 81%). Primary mental illness diagnoses included schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n = 6, 38%), depression (n = 5, 31%), bipolar disorder (n = 4, 25%), and anxiety disorder (n = 1, 6%). At entry into the clinical trial, participants smoked an average of 22.6 cigarettes per day (SD = 13.0). RESULTS indicated that people with mental illness have a diverse range of experiences in the same smoking cessation intervention. Smoking cessation experiences were influenced by factors related to the intervention itself (such as presence of smoking cessation aids, group supports, and emphasis on individual choice and needs), as well as individual factors (such as mental health, physical health, and substance use), and social-environmental factors (such as difficult life events and social relationships). An improved understanding of the smoking cessation experiences of people with severe mental illness can inform the delivery of

  12. Limited interface between physiotherapy primary care and people with severe mental illness: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samantha; Waters, Flavie; Briffa, Kathy; Fary, Robyn E

    2017-07-01

    How do mental health professionals perceive the role of physiotherapists in the care of people with severe and persistent mental illness, and what factors do they perceive as influencing access to physiotherapy services? How do people with severe and persistent mental illness understand the potential role of physiotherapy in their healthcare, and what factors do they perceive as influencing access to physiotherapy services? Qualitative study. Twenty-four mental health professionals and 35 people with severe and persistent mental illness. Interview schedules were developed to explore participants' understanding of physiotherapy, as well as barriers and enablers to service access. Focus groups and interviews were conducted for each group of participants. Transcripts were analysed using an inductive approach to derive key themes. Both the mental health professionals and the people with severe and persistent mental illness expressed a limited understanding of the role and relevance of physiotherapy for physical health in mental healthcare. Common barriers to service access were cost, transport and lack of motivation. Likewise, enablers of reduced cost, provision of transport and education about physiotherapy to improve their understanding were identified. The health system structure and perceived lack of mental health knowledge by physiotherapists influenced referrals from mental health professionals. Consequently, education in mental health for physiotherapists and integration of the service within mental health were identified as potential enablers to physiotherapy access. Limited understanding about physiotherapy and its relevance to physical health in mental healthcare among mental health professionals and people with severe and persistent mental illness was found to be a key factor influencing service access. Limited physiotherapy presence and advocacy within mental health were also highlighted. There is a need for greater understanding about physiotherapy among

  13. Facilitating access to sports for people in poverty? A study on local social sports policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Vandermeerschen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SAMENVATTING Mensen in armoede toegang bieden tot sport? Een studie naar lokaal sociaal sportbeleid Onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat armoede een impact heeft op de kansen voor sportdeelname. Mensen in armoede participeren minder in sport in vergelijking met mensen die gemakkelijk(er rondkomen. Op Vlaams beleidsniveau werden initiatieven genomen om lokale besturen aan te moedigen tot het promoten en faciliteren van sportdeelname voor mensen in armoede. Het is echter nog onduidelijk in welke mate dit ingang vond op lokaal niveau. In deze studie wordt onderzocht in welke mate lokale sportdiensten momenteel initiatieven nemen om sportdeelname bij mensen in armoede te faciliteren, met welke moeilijkheden sportdiensten worden geconfronteerd om dit doel te bereiken, en in welke mate lokaal sociaal sportbeleid tot stand komt door middel van samenwerkingsverbanden tussen de sportsector enerzijds, en de sociale sector anderzijds. De data zijn afkomstig van het Vlaamse Sportdiensten Panel (2014. De resultaten geven onder meer aan dat de publieke sportsector en de sociale sector nog in grote mate twee “gescheiden” werelden zijn. Het blijkt een uitdaging om de afstand tussen beiden te overbruggen. Aanbevelingen voor verder onderzoek en voor de ontwikkeling van een sociaal sportbeleid worden aangereikt. ABSTRACTFacilitating access to sports for people in poverty? A study on local social sports policy Research has shown that living in poverty affects the opportunities for engaging in practicing sports. People in poverty participate less in sports than people who have no (or fewer difficulties making ends meet. At the Flemish policy level, initiatives have been undertaken to ensure that more local sports authorities promote and facilitate participation in sports for people in poverty. However, it remains unclear how these concerns are being translated at the local level. In this study, we investigate the extent to which local sports authorities are currently

  14. Development and Evaluation of English Listening Study Materials for Business People Who Use Mobile Devices: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masanori; Kitamura, Satoshi; Shimada, Noriko; Utashiro, Takafumi; Shigeta, Katsusuke; Yamaguchi, Etsuji; Harrison, Richard; Yamauchi, Yuhei; Nakahara, Jun

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to verify the effectiveness of English language materials using mobile devices for business people in terms of the effect on motivation, overall learning performance, and practical performance in real business situations. We compared the use of materials developed from business English for a sales department in a company…

  15. The Force of Argument and the Argument of Force: A Study of the Rhetoric of Achamba and Abaago in Shadrach Ambanasom's Son of the Native Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Usongo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using Afrocentric and Western rhetorical typologies, this essay explores the discourse of Achamba and Abaago, two leading characters in Shadrach Ambanasom's Son of the Native Soil. On the one hand, Achamba is discussed as a rhetorician whose ethos, logos, and pathos enable him to admirably anchor his message of unity and development for Dudum among his compatriots. On the other, Abaago is perceived as a man lacking in dialectical argumentation. Because of this shortcoming, he embraces violence in an attempt to realize his vision of making Akan the administrative centre of Dudum. While the one is showcased as an exemplar of effective rhetoric, the other symbolizes lack of rhetorical savoir-faire. Through these two protagonists, Ambanasom gives a synoptic view of rhetorical practices of not only Dudum (Ngie people, but also of contemporary Cameroon. At the same time, Ambanasom seems to problematize, in the rhetoric of his characters, issues of minority rights, governance, democracy, and dictatorship in Cameroon or even, on a grander scale, Africa.

  16. Association of health literacy with health information-seeking preference in older people: A correlational, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hyun; Utz, Sonja

    2018-02-28

    Low health literacy has been recognized as a potential barrier to obtaining knowledge and maintaining self-care in older people. However, little is known about information-seeking preference in relation to health literacy among older people. The aim of the present study was to understand the influence of health literacy on the information-seeking preference of older people. A total of 129 community-residing Korean older people completed a survey in 2016. The findings revealed that health literacy was a significant predictor of information-seeking preference in older people after controlling for demographic and illness variables. Our study highlights the important need to incorporate strategies to increase the desire for information seeking in older people, in addition to adopting communication strategies that address low health literacy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Medical Student Attitudes Towards People with Mental Illness in China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Audrey; He, Hongbo; Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert

    2018-03-05

    Stigma towards people with mental illness is a worldwide concern. A five-nation survey of medical student attitudes towards people with mental illness recently reported far lower levels of social acceptance among Chinese medical students compared to those from the US, Brazil, Ghana, and Nigeria. This qualitative study presented recent Chinese medical school graduates with probes based on questions used in the aforementioned cross-national study to elicit their views of factors underlying the negative attitudes towards social acceptance of people with mental illness. One-hour interviews were conducted with twenty psychiatry residents in June, 2016. Of 241 coded responses concerning negative attitudes, 51.5% were coded as reflecting fear of violent behavior, 22.8% as loss of face (i.e. shame from interpersonal associations), 17.0% lowered social status, 4.98% nonconforming social behavior, and 3.73% the heritability of mental illness. Low levels of social acceptance of individuals with mental illness among medical students in China are largely related to fears of violence of and loss of face. Understanding the attitudes of medical students may inform efforts to reduce stigma through educational initiatives targeted at both medical students and the general public.

  18. [People with venous ulcers: a study of the psychosocial aspects of the Roy Adaptation Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Isabelle Katherinne Fernandes; da Nóbrega, Walkíria Gomes; Costa, Isabel Karolyne Fernandes; Torres, Gilson de Vasconcelos; Lira, Ana Luiza Brandão de Carvalho; Tourinho, Francis Solange Vieira; Enders, Bertha Cruz

    2011-09-01

    A transversal descriptive quantitative study, conducted with 50 people with Venous Ulcer (VU) at an University Hospital, that aimed to ascertain the level of psychosocial adaptation of the Roy Model of people with VU. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee. The data were collected with a structured form. After organizing the data, composed of changes in the lives of people with VU, we classified it according to Roy's psychosocial aspects. We found that in the self-concept mode, 36% felt dissatisfied with physical appearance, and 18% had negative feelings; in the role-function mode: change in the working role (52.0%), housework (34.0%), marital (6.0%), leisure, pain, social, educational and transportation restrictions (82.0%); interdependence mode: support in treatment (82.0%), discrimination (58.0%). The identification of the psychosocial aspects directs nursing actions to consider the whole of the person receiving care in its relations with the environment, thus promoting a better level of adaptation.

  19. Elderly people's perceptions of using Wii sports bowling - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glännfjord, Fredrik; Hemmingsson, Helena; Larsson Ranada, Åsa

    2017-09-01

    The Nintendo Wii is a gaming console with motion-sensitive controls that is making inroads into health care and rehabilitation. However, there is still limited knowledge on how elderly people perceive the use of such a product. The aim of this study was to examine how the use of the Wii Sports Bowling in an activity group was perceived by elderly people. The data consisted of observations and interviews with participants who used Wii Sports Bowling and was analysed with content analysis. The findings are described in three themes; 'The use of the Wii Sports game', 'Engagement in the game' and 'Social interaction around the activity'. Wii Sports Bowling was described as easier to play compared to real-life bowling and was enjoyable and a social activity. The opportunity to meet the group each week was important for the participants. Playing the game resulted in signs of immersion and a flow-like state. The Wii was perceived to be easy to use, to provide a way to socialize with peers and to give opportunities to participate in activities in a new way. More studies regarding elderly people's experiences and apprehensions regarding new technology such as gaming consoles and virtual reality are needed.

  20. Analysis of Consumers' Preferences and Price Sensitivity to Native Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.

  1. Feasibility of a community intervention for the prevention of suicide and alcohol abuse with Yup'ik Alaska Native youth: the Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2014-09-01

    The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies evaluated the feasibility of a community intervention to prevent suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth in two remote communities. The intervention originated in an Indigenous model of protection, and its development used a community based participatory research process. Feasibility assessment aimed to assess the extent to which (1) the intervention could be implemented in rural Alaska Native communities, and (2) the intervention was capable of producing measurable effects. Scales maximally sensitive to change were derived from earlier measurement work, and the study contrasted implementation process and outcomes across the two communities. In one community, medium dose response effects (d = .30-.50), with dose defined as number of intervention activities attended, were observed in the growth of intermediate protective factors and ultimate variables. In the other community, medium dose effects were observed for one intermediate protective factor variable, and small dose effects were observed in ultimate variables. Differences across communities in resources supporting intervention explain these contrasting outcomes. Results suggest implementation in these rural Alaska settings is feasible when sufficient resources are available to sustain high levels of local commitment. In such cases, measureable effects are sufficient to warrant a prevention trial.

  2. Native Teen Voices: adolescent pregnancy prevention recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L

    2008-01-01

    American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.

  3. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Some Properties of Native and Oxidized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to produce native starches from cassava, yam and rice, and to modify a portion of the native starches by oxidation and compare their properties. The modification process was carried out by treating the native starches with food grade sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The proximate, swelling index and ...

  5. A mesocosm study using four native Hawaiian plants to assess nitrogen accumulation under varying surface water nitrogen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, C U; Bruland, G L; Hood, A; Duin, K

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of nitrogen (N) by native Hawaiian riparian plants from surface water was measured under a controlled experimental mesocosm setting. Four species, Cladium jamaicense, Cyperus javanicus, Cyperus laevigatus, and Cyperus polystachyos were tested for their ability to survive in coconut fiber coir log media with exposure to differing N concentrations. It was hypothesized that the selected species would have significantly different tissue total nitrogen (TN) concentrations, aboveground biomass, and TN accumulation rates because of habitat preference and physiological growth differences. A general linear model (GLM) analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined that species differences accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in tissue TN concentration, aboveground biomass growth, and accumulation rates, when compared with the other main effects (i.e. N concentration, time) and their interactions. A post hoc test of means demonstrated that C. jamaicense had significantly higher tissue TN concentration, aboveground biomass growth, and accumulation rates than the other species under all N concentrations. It was also hypothesized that tissue TN concentrations and biomass growth would increase in plants exposed to elevated N concentrations, however data did not support this hypothesis. Nitrogen accumulation rates by species were controlled by differences in plant biomass growth.

  6. Carers' experiences of dysphagia in people treated for head and neck cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nund, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2014-08-01

    The implication of dysphagia for people treated nonsurgically for head and neck cancer (HNC) and its detrimental effects on functioning and quality of life has been well documented. To date, however, there has been a paucity of research on the effects of dysphagia following HNC on carers, independent of the consequences of a gastrostomy. The objective of this qualitative study was to report on the experiences of carers of people with dysphagia (non-gastrostomy dependent) following nonsurgical treatment for HNC and to identify the support needs of this group. A purposive, maximum-variation sampling technique was adopted to recruit 12 carers of people treated curatively for HNC since 2007. Each participated in an in-depth interview, detailing their experience of caring for someone with dysphagia and the associated impact on their life. Thematic analysis was adopted to search the transcripts for key phases and themes that emerged from the discussions. Analysis of the transcripts revealed four themes: (1) dysphagia disrupts daily life, (2) carers make adjustments to adapt to their partner's dysphagia, (3) the disconnect between carers' expectations and the reality of dysphagia, and (4) experiences of dysphagia-related services and informal supports. Carers generally felt ill-prepared for their role in dysphagia management. The qualitative methodology successfully described the impact of dysphagia on the everyday lives of carers, particularly in regard to meal preparation, social events, and family lifestyle. Clinicians should provide adequate and timely training and support to carers and view carers as copartners in dysphagia management.

  7. Crime and victimisation in people with intellectual disability: a case linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogden, Billy C; Thomas, Stuart D M; Daffern, Michael; Ogloff, James R P

    2016-05-28

    Studies have suggested that people with intellectual disability are disproportionately involved in crime both as perpetrators and victims. A case linkage design used three Australian contact-level databases, from disability services, public mental health services and police records. Rates of contact, and official records of victimisation and criminal charges were compared to those in a community sample without intellectual disability. Although people with intellectual disability were significantly less likely to have an official record of victimisation and offending overall, their rates of violent and sexual victimisation and offending were significantly higher. The presence of comorbid mental illness considerably increased the likelihood of victimisation and offending; several sex differences were also noted. People with intellectual disability are at increased risk for both violent and sexual victimisation and offending. The presence of comorbid mental illness aggravates the risk of offending and victimisation. Future research should focus on a more nuanced exploration of the risks associated with intellectual disability and specific mental disorders and related indices of complexity.

  8. Cohort study of institutionalized elderly people: fall risk factors from the nursing diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Marques Costa dos Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of falls in elderly residents of long-stay institutions of the Federal District, to identify the aspects involved in the falls, in terms of risk factors, from the application of scales and the Taxonomy II of NANDA-I, and to define the level of accuracy with its sensitivity and specificity for application in the clinical nursing practice. Method: this was a cohort study with the evaluation of 271 elderly people. Cognition, functionality, mobility and other intrinsic factors were evaluated. After six months, the elderly people who fell were identified, with significance analysis then performed to define the risk factors. Results: the results showed an incidence of 41%. Of the 271 patients included, 69 suffered 111 episodes of falls during the monitoring period. Risk factors were the presence of stroke with its sequelae (OR: 1.82, 95% CI 1.01 - 3.28, p=.045, presenting more than five chronic diseases (OR: 2.82, 95% CI 1.43 - 5.56, p=.0028, foot problem (OR: 2.45, 95% CI 1.35 - 4.44, p=.0033 and motion (OR: 2.04, 95% CI 1.15 - 3.61, p=.0145. Conclusion: the taxonomy has high validity regarding the detection of elderly people at risk of falling and should be applied consistently in the clinical nursing practice.

  9. Cross sectional study of young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadyen, L; Hastings, G; MacKintosh, A M

    2001-03-03

    To examine young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing and to determine the association, if any, between this and their smoking behaviour. Cross sectional, quantitative survey, part interview and part self completion, administered in respondents' homes. North east England. Stratified random sample of 629 young people aged 15 and 16 years who had "opted in" to research through a postal consent procedure. There was a high level of awareness of and involvement in tobacco marketing among the 15-16 year olds sampled in the study: around 95% were aware of advertising and all were aware of some method of point of sale marketing. Awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing were both significantly associated with being a smoker: for example, 30% (55/185) of smokers had received free gifts through coupons in cigarette packs, compared with 11% (21/199) of non-smokers (Pawareness of coupon schemes, brand stretching, and tobacco marketing in general were all independently associated with current smoking status. Teenagers are aware of, and are participating in, many forms of tobacco marketing, and both awareness and participation are associated with current smoking status. This suggests that the current voluntary regulations designed to protect young people from smoking are not working, and that statutory regulations are required.

  10. ICT Training As a Tool for Supporting Professional Activity of People Over 50: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Macik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Persons over 50 are experiencing certain forms of social exclusion more often than younger people. A lack of the acceptance of information and communication technologies (ICT and/or a lack of ic t access, commonly known as the digital divide, is probably the most important form of social exclusion experienced by the above-mentioned group in Poland. Skills related to ic t are perceived as one of the most important factors of maintaining professional activity by older people. Current situation, when in the perception of employers such skills are often lacking or not sufficient or up to date, leads to the proposal of some training activities aimed at developing and increasing such skills, which are not only strictly related to professional life but are also making everyday life easier. This paper presents a case study of ICT training activities undertaken in a testing project, whose main goal was to develop and pilot test an innovative methodology for extending professional activity of people aged 50+. Positive effects of the proposed learning method confirmed and validated the selected approach.

  11. Fructose malabsorption in people with and without gout: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Caitlin; Fanning, Niamh; Drake, Jill; Frampton, Christopher; Gearry, Richard B; Stamp, Lisa K

    2017-10-01

    Higher fructose intake has been associated with hyperuricaemia and gout. Some individuals malabsorb fructose in the small intestine. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of fructose malabsorption and the effects of gout and fructose malabsorption on serum urate in people with and without gout. A total of 100 people with gout (cases) were age and gender matched with one control without gout. After a low fructose diet, fructose malabsorption was measured using a hydrogen and methane breath test with a 35g fructose load. In a subgroup of 35 cases and 35 controls, serum urate response to the fructose load over 240 minutes was measured. There was no significant difference in the rate of fructose malabsorption between cases and controls (48% vs. 52%; p = 0.67). Cases had a significantly lower mean (SEM) serum urate cumulative incremental concentration from baseline-240 minutes (iAUC 0-240 ) compared to controls 0.97 (0.56) vs. 4.78 (0.55); p gout. Allopurinol inhibits the increase in serum urate induced by a fructose load suggesting that people with gout receiving allopurinol may not need to restrict dietary intake of fructose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gesture and naming therapy for people with severe aphasia: a group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jane; Best, Wendy; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Pring, Tim; Bulcock, Gemma; Creek, Gemma; Eales, Nancy; Mummery, Alice Lockhart; Matthews, Niina; Caute, Anna

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the authors (a) investigated whether a group of people with severe aphasia could learn a vocabulary of pantomime gestures through therapy and (b) compared their learning of gestures with their learning of words. The authors also examined whether gesture therapy cued word production and whether naming therapy cued gestures. Fourteen people with severe aphasia received 15 hr of gesture and naming treatments. Evaluations comprised repeated measures of gesture and word production, comparing treated and untreated items. Baseline measures were stable but improved significantly following therapy. Across the group, improvements in naming were greater than improvements in gesture. This trend was evident in most individuals' results, although 3 participants made better progress in gesture. Gains were item specific, and there was no evidence of cross-modality cueing. Items that received gesture therapy did not improve in naming, and items that received naming therapy did not improve in gesture. Results show that people with severe aphasia can respond to gesture and naming therapies. Given the unequal gains, naming may be a more productive therapy target than gesture for many (although not all) individuals with severe aphasia. The communicative benefits of therapy were not examined but are addressed in a follow-up article.

  13. People-, Process- and Goal-Focused Leadership Behaviour: An Empirical Study in a Global Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Ha-Vikstrom

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the focus of leadership behaviours that perceived and experienced by leaders in a multinational company. By using triangulation method including questionnaires, in-depth interviews and observations, we analyse the data collected from twenty managers across organisational levels. The results reveal the patterns of managerial behaviour in three key focus areas for success: people, process and goal. Directors and general managers are more people-focused than line managers, who in turn tend to be more process-focused. The research findings bridge the gap in the field and initiate a new normative leadership behaviour model (people-, process and goal-focused, which can be used to directly support leaders in enhancing their leadership skills as well as for recruitment or promotion purposes. The model can be utilized as an aid to organisations when developing training programs to support leaders in different types of organisations (for-profit or non-profit to focus their development efforts on organizational success.

  14. End-of-life decisions for people with intellectual disabilities, an interview study with patient representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Annemieke M A; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; Proot, Ireen M; Metsemakers, Job; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2013-09-01

    Not much is known about the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities. To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of patient representatives. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory procedures. We interviewed 16 patient representatives after the deaths of 10 people with intellectual disabilities in the Netherlands. The core category 'Deciding for someone else' describes the context in which patient representatives took end-of-life decisions. The patient representatives felt highly responsible for the outcomes. They had not involved the patients in the end-of-life decision-making process, nor any professionals other than the doctor. The categories of 'Motives' and 'Support' were connected to the core category of 'Deciding for someone else'. 'Motives' refers to the patient representatives' ideas about quality of life, prevention from suffering, patients who cannot understand the burden of interventions and emotional reasons reported by patient representatives. 'Support' refers to the support that patient representatives wanted the doctors to give to them in the decision-making process. From the perspective of the patient representatives, the process of end-of-life decision-making can be improved by ensuring clear roles and an explicit description of the tasks and responsibilities of all participants. Regular discussion between everyone involved including people with intellectual disabilities themselves can improve knowledge about each other's motives for end-of-decisions and can clarify expectations towards each other.

  15. Frequent use of emergency departments by older people: a comparative cohort study of characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Maryann; Berry, Debra; Considine, Julie

    2018-04-12

    To characterise older people who frequently use emergency departments (EDs) and compare patient outcomes with older non-frequent ED attenders. Retrospective comparative cohort study. Logistic regression modelling of patient characteristics and health service usage, comparing older frequent ED attenders (≥4 ED attendances in 12 months) to non-frequent ED attenders. Three Australian public hospital EDs, with a total of 143 327 emergency attendances in the 12 months. People aged ≥65 years attending the ED in financial year 2013/2014. The primary outcome was frequent ED use; secondary outcomes were ED length of stay, discharge destination from ED, hospital length of stay, re-presentation within 48 h, hospital readmission within 30 days and in-hospital mortality. Five percent of older people were frequent attenders (n = 1046/21 073), accounting for 16.9% (n = 5469/32 282) of all attendances by older people. Frequent ED attenders were more likely to be male, aged 75-84 years, arrive by ambulance and have a diagnosis relating to chronic illness. Frequent attenders stayed 0.4 h longer in ED (P < 0.001), were more likely to be admitted to hospital (69.2% vs 67.2%; P = 0.004), and had a 1 day longer hospital stay (P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality for older frequent ED attenders was double that of non-frequent attenders (7.0% vs 3.2%, P < 0.001) over 12 months. Older frequent ED attenders had more chronic disease and care needs requiring hospital admission than non-frequent attenders. A new approach to care planning and coordination is recommended, to optimise the patient journey and improve outcomes.

  16. The SUSTAIN Project: A European Study on Improving Integrated Care for Older People Living at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Annerieke; Billings, Jenny; Leichsenring, Kai; Ruppe, Georg; Tram, Nhu; Barbaglia, María Gabriela; Ambugo, Eliva A.; Zonneveld, Nick; Paat-Ahi, Gerli; Hoffmann, Henrik; Khan, Usman; Stein, Viktoria; Wistow, Gerald; Lette, Manon; Jansen, Aaltje P.D.; Nijpels, Giel; Baan, Caroline A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Integrated care programmes are increasingly being put in place to provide care to older people who live at home. Knowledge of how to further develop integrated care and how to transfer successful initiatives to other contexts is still limited. Therefore, a cross-European research project, called Sustainable Tailored Integrated Care for Older People in Europe (SUSTAIN), has been initiated with a twofold objective: 1. to collaborate with local stakeholders to support and monitor improvements to established integrated care initiatives for older people with multiple health and social care needs. Improvements focus on person-centredness, prevention orientation, safety and efficiency; 2. to make these improvements applicable and adaptable to other health and social care systems, and regions in Europe. This paper presents the overall structure and approach of the SUSTAIN project. Methods: SUSTAIN uses a multiple embedded case study design. In three phases, SUSTAIN partners: (i) conduct interviews and workshops with stakeholders from fourteen established integrated care initiatives to understand where they would prefer improvements to existing ways of working; (ii) collaborate with local stakeholders to support the design and implementation of improvement plans, evaluate implementation progress and outcomes per initiative, and carry out overarching analyses to compare the different initiatives, and; (iii) translate knowledge and experience to an online roadmap. Discussion: SUSTAIN aims to generate evidence on how to improve integrated care, and apply and transfer the knowledge gained to other health and social care systems, and regions. Lessons learned will be brought together in practical tools to inform and support policy-makers and decision-makers, as well as other stakeholders involved in integrated care, to manage and improve care for older people living at home. PMID:29632456

  17. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2007-03-14

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of ailments and the fidelity level (FL) of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 ailments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb) (42%). The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8%) followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%). The administration routes are oral (51.4%), external (38.6%), nasal (7.9%), and ear (2.1%). The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80) had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific ailment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum) than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of ailments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana).

  18. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giday Mirutse

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF for category of aliments and the fidelity level (FL of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 aliments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb (42%. The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8% followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%. The administration routes are oral (51.4%, external (38.6%, nasal (7.9%, and ear (2.1%. The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80 had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific aliment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of aliments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana.

  19. Study of prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in overweight and obese people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In recent years, there has been a marked change in life-style of South Asian countries caused by economic growth, affluence, urbanization and dietary westernization. Few studies on the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes in the Indian population have been reported. However, there has been scarce literature on the study of prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and Hypertension in overweight and obese people in India with criteria suggested by World Health Organization (WHO for Asians. Information on such public health issues would provide evidence based data to develop guidelines and policies on this subject. Aim: The aim of this article is to determine the prevalence of hypertension and type 2 DM in overweight and obese people. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study consisted of people selected from the out-patient department and indoors of a large defense hospital in a semi urban area of Assam. Materials and Methods: Patients with overweight and obesity, reporting for consultation and medical examination were taken into the study. The data collected was analyzed using the criteria for overweight, obesity, diabetes and hypertension defined by WHO, Joint National Committee VII and International Diabetes Federation, American Diabetes Association. A descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the study. Results: A total of 300 people were the subject population of this study. Among the subject population, there were 97 overweight and 203 obese. The 56 subjects were found to be diabetic. The prevalence of type 2 DM in overweight subjects was 15.5% and in obese was 20.2% and overall was 18.7%. Prevalence of hypertension in the overweight population was 8.2% and in obese was 22.2% and overall found to be 17.7%. Conclusions: The prevalence of type 2 DM, hypertension in the obese group of the study population were found to be 20.2%, 22.2% and in the overweight population were 15.5% and 8.2%, respectively

  20. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare ePatterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  1. The Native Comic Book Project: native youth making comics and healthy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Michelle; Manuelito, Brenda; Nass, Carrie; Chock, Tami; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-04-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives have traditionally used stories and drawings to positively influence the well-being of their communities. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a curriculum that trains Native youth leaders to plan, write, and design original comic books to enhance healthy decision making. Project staff developed the Native Comic Book Project by adapting Dr. Michael Bitz's Comic Book Project to incorporate Native comic book art, Native storytelling, and decision-making skills. After conducting five train-the-trainer sessions for Native youth, staff were invited by youth participants to implement the full curriculum as a pilot test at one tribal community site in the Pacific Northwest. Implementation was accompanied by surveys and weekly participant observations and was followed by an interactive meeting to assess youth engagement, determine project acceptability, and solicit suggestions for curriculum changes. Six youths aged 12 to 15 (average age = 14) participated in the Native Comic Book Project. Youth participants stated that they liked the project and gained knowledge of the harmful effects of commercial tobacco use but wanted better integration of comic book creation, decision making, and Native storytelling themes. Previous health-related comic book projects did not recruit youth as active producers of content. This curriculum shows promise as a culturally appropriate intervention to help Native youth adopt healthy decision-making skills and healthy behaviors by creating their own comic books.

  2. Foreign experience in social and educational inclusion of people with limited health abilities evidenced from the study of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkina O.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifteen years, following global trends of humanization of social life, the formation of barrier-free environment for people with disabilities began and attention to the problem of education for people with disabilities increased dramatically. The article provides a brief overview of the history of education for disabled people in the context of developing a social model of disability. The main attention is focused on the reviewing of international experience covering higher education of disabled people. The results of foreign studies of learning problems of students with disabilities highlighted that despite the fact that in many developed countries a number of reforms was implemented in order to increase access to higher education for disabled people there are still some barriers and difficulties for this category of students. The paper emphasizes the key role of education in the social inclusion of disabled people.

  3. A study on people's awareness about the restarting and decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Manabu; Sakai, Yukimi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we conducted two questionnaire surveys targeting a total of 918 respondents living in the cities of Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe, in order to elucidate people's awareness of three things: 1) restart of nuclear power plants; 2) extension of the operation period of aging plants; and 3) decommissioning. The results are as follows: 1) People who think that electrical power companies voluntarily take higher safety measures trust the power companies and do not oppose the restart of the nuclear power plants, as compared to people who think that power companies only meet the requirements set by the nuclear regulatory agency. 2) When people were given information about aging measures and conforming to new regulatory standards, their anxiety toward the operation of aging plants was reduced. 3) People thought that decommissioning work was important for society. However, a small number of people thought it was a job worthwhile doing. (author)

  4. A study to explore the use of orbital remote sensing to determine native arid plant distribution. [Arizona Regional Ecological Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcginnies, W. G. (Principal Investigator); Lepley, L. K.; Haase, E. F.; Conn, J. S.; Musick, H. B.; Foster, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It is possible to determine, from ERTS imagery, native arid plant distribution. Using techniques of multispectral masking and extensive fieldwork, three native vegetation communities were defined and mapped in the Avra Valley study area. A map was made of the Yuma area with the aid of ground truth correlations between areas of desert pavement visible on ERTS images and unique vegetation types. With the exception of the Yuma soil-vegetation correlation phenomena, only very gross differentiations of desert vegetation communities can be made from ERTS data. Vegetation communities with obvious vegetation density differences such as saguaro-paloverde, creosote bush, and riparian vegetation can be separated on the Avra Valley imagery while more similar communities such as creosote bush and saltbush could not be differentiated. It is suggested that large differences in vegetation density are needed before the signatures of two different vegetation types can be differentiated on ERTS imagery. This is due to the relatively insignificant contribution of vegetation to the total radiometric signature of a given desert scene. Where more detailed information concerning the vegetation of arid regions is required, large scale imagery is appropriate.

  5. Analysis of cognitive disorders in older people with diabetes – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kozieł

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Diabetes is a growing public health problem. Epidemiological studies indicate that the disease shortens life and significantly deteriorates its quality. The impact of diabetes on physical health of patients is well documented, but its impact on cognitive abilities has not been studied in detail so far. The deficit of reports regarding this problem among Polish researchers was an inspiration to start new studies. Aim of the research: To evaluate mild cognitive disorders in elderly patients with diabetes. Material and methods: The study was conducted in 2015. The study group included 7 elderly people with type 2 diabetes for more than 10 years. The control group consisted of 7 individuals of the same age without diabetes. The research tool was a self-made questionnaire to examine the cognitive abilities. An analysis of cognitive functions such as short-term memory, performing analysis and synthesis processes, understanding and creating metaphorical examples, narration and performing metalinguistic operations was performed. Results : Differences in cognitive functioning in the field of the studied variables were observed between examined groups. Elderly people with diabetes achieved significantly lower scores in all examined cognitive functions than healthy respondents. Conclusions : Elderly patients with type 2 diabetes are particularly susceptible to mild cognitive impairment. It is necessary to take this group of patients under diagnosis and early secondary prevention in order to prevent the negative impact of the disease.

  6. Higher dropout rate in non-native patients than in native patients in rehabilitation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Maurits; Scheppers, Emmanuel F.; van de Weg, Frans B.; Bartels, Edien A.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dekker, Joost; Dekker, Jaap

    Dropout from a rehabilitation programme often occurs in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain of non-native origin. However, the exact dropout rate is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in dropout rate between native and non-native patients with chronic

  7. Young People's Experiences of Viewing the Fitspiration Social Media Trend: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Stephanie; Morton, Katherine; Tappy, Zara; Francis, Daniella; Dennison, Laura

    2018-06-18

    Social media use has become ubiquitous in the lives of many people, especially young adults. A popular recent trend emerging on social media is that of posting and following 'Fitspirational' content - material that purports to motivate and showcase healthy lifestyle habits, particularly relating to exercise and diet. There is very limited existing literature on how engaging with this type of content influences people's psychological and physical heath. Initial studies have focused on concerns over potential negative effects on psychological wellbeing including body image, self-esteem and eating disorders. We aimed to address a gap in the literature for exploratory research on this topic from the perspective of users. We used a qualitative approach to explore how people experience viewing Fitspiration on social media including why and how they engage with this material and how they perceive that it affects their thoughts, emotions, behaviour and health. We recruited 20 young adults (14 females, 6 males, aged 18-25) who self-declared themselves to be Fitspiration followers to participate in either focus groups or individual interviews. We asked detailed, open-ended questions about their motivations for following Fitspiration, experiences of viewing this content and its perceived impact. We used inductive thematic analysis to derive themes that represented common and salient features of the data set. Four main themes were developed: 1) A tool with the potential to support healthy living, 2) Unrealistic, untrustworthy content, 3) Negative effects on emotional wellbeing, and 4) Vulnerability and protective factors. Following Fitspirational posts on social media can provide young people with knowledge and motivation that may support healthy lifestyle behaviours. However, a range of harms also appeared to arise from Fitspiration viewing ranging from minor annoyances and frustrations to more meaningful negative effects on psychological & physical health. These negative

  8. Engaging Digital Natives through Social Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sarkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital natives account for a substantial portion of the total enrollment in higher education. This calls for significant educational reforms because traditional education systems do not cater to the needs and interests of digital natives. The most effective way that both students and instructors can benefit from this paradigm shift is to integrate technology that is appropriate to the cognitive learning patterns of the digital natives into the curriculum. This paper builds upon previous research in technology/personality theory and specifically attempts to provide examples of technology that will address the instructional needs of digital natives. Further this paper provides empirical evidence of the impact of technology integration on the learning outcomes of digital natives. In this study, the authors explored the impact of targeted technology on academic performance in three businesses courses. Three functional technologies were used by the authors to build engaging course content, efficiently manage course content, and to interact with digital native students. This study found that these technologies can assist digital natives in the learning process and lead to better academic performance.

  9. Experiences and perspectives of older people regarding advance care planning: A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Li-Shan; Huang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Wen-Yu; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2017-05-01

    Studies have indicated that family members or health professionals may not know or predict their older relatives' or patients' health preferences. Although advance care planning is encouraged for older people to prepare end-of-life care, it is still challenging. To understand the experiences and perspectives of older people regarding advance care planning. A systematic review of qualitative studies and meta-synthesis was conducted. CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched. A total of 50 articles were critically appraised and a thematic synthesis was undertaken. Four themes were identified: life versus death, internal versus external, benefits versus burdens, and controlling versus being controlled. The view of life and death influenced older people's willingness to discuss their future. The characteristics, experiences, health status, family relationship, and available resources also affected their plans of advance care planning. Older people needed to balance the benefits and burdens of advance care planning, and then judge their own ability to make decisions about end-of-life care. Older people's perspectives and experiences of advance care planning were varied and often conflicted; cultural differences amplified variances among older people. Truthful information, available resources, and family support are needed to enable older people to maintain dignity at the end of life. The views of life and death for older people from different cultures should be compared to assist health professionals to understand older people's attitudes toward advance care planning, and thus to develop appropriate strategies to promote advance care planning in different cultures.

  10. Perceived needs of carers of people with psychosis: An Australian longitudinal population-based study of caregivers of people with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Abner Weng Cheong; Joubert, Lynette; Harvey, Carol

    2018-05-01

    Studies have documented the perceived needs of carers of people with psychosis but most recruitment has utilised convenience sampling resulting in limited understanding of carers' needs. This longitudinal study was conducted within the second Australian prevalence study of psychosis, aiming to obtain generalisable findings regarding perceived needs of carers of people with psychosis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 98 carers of people with psychosis recruited in the Australian prevalence study of psychosis. Seventy-eight of the carers were reinterviewed 1 year later to measure changes in their perceived needs. Correlational and paired T tests were conducted to identify relationships between perceived needs and carer's health and well-being, and changes in levels of perceived needs over time. Qualitative responses were structurally coded by segmentation according to the Carers' and Users' Expectations of Services-Carer version. Thematic analysis of common words and phrases was undertaken to identify key themes concerning carers' perceived needs. There was minimal improvement in carers' perceived needs over time and their needs were closely related to their perception of their own social connectedness, psychological health and quality of life. Five themes were identified: Greater involvement of carers in the treatment plan, provision of relevant information to carers, multiple biopsychosocial support for carers, well-being and independence interventions for people with psychosis, and choice to care and alternate caring arrangements. Although policy recognises the need to support carers, findings show that focused interventions are required to address carers' perceived needs more holistically in current mental health services. To support carers' recovery, services need to include carers in treatment planning, and consider ways to address their needs and improve their own health and well-being. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Does Habitat Restoration Increase Coexistence of Native Stream Fishes with Introduced Brown Trout: A Case Study on the Middle Provo River, Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Belk; Eric J. Billman; Craig Ellsworth; Brock R. McMillan

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of altered or degraded habitats is often a key component in the conservation plan of native aquatic species, but introduced species may influence the response of the native community to restoration. Recent habitat restoration of the middle section of the Provo River in central Utah, USA, provided an opportunity to evaluate the effect of habitat restoration on the native fish community in a system with an introduced, dominant predator—brown trout (Salmo trutta). To determine the ch...

  12. Indigenous peoples' experiences and perceptions of hospitalisation for acute care: A metasynthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuzi, Vainess; Fulbrook, Paul; Jessup, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Indigenous people's experiences and perceptions of hospitalisation and acute care. Systematic procedures were used for the literature search covering the period from 2000 to 2016. Final search was conducted in early September 2016. Quality of the selected studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program. Data extraction was conducted using the data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute. A thematic approach to synthesis was taken. Statements were assembled to produce aggregated data of the findings, which were then categorised based on similarity of meaning, and the categories were used to produce comprehensive synthesised findings. The literature search was conducted in the following databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Google scholar, Medline, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, and PsycINFO. Manual searches of the International Journal of Indigenous Health, Menzies website and references of reviewed papers were also conducted. Inclusion criteria were qualitative articles, published in English from across the world, in peer-reviewed journals, that investigated acute health care experiences of Indigenous people. A metasynthesis of qualitative research studies was conducted following Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. A total of 21 primary studies met the inclusion criteria. Three themes emerged from the metasynthesis: Strangers in a strange land; Encountering dysfunctional interactions; and Suffering stereotyping and assumptions. These themes emphasised the importance of meaningful relationships for Indigenous people and highlighted their cultural marginalisation in hospital settings. The findings indicate that healthcare experiences of Indigenous patients and their relatives in acute settings can fall well short of their expectations and needs. It behoves healthcare professionals to firstly be aware of such discrepancies, and secondly to implement strategies

  13. Symptoms of anxiety or depression and risk of fracture in older people: the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Dennison, Elaine M; Edwards, Mark; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective association between symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of fracture in older people. Results showed that men, but not women, with probable anxiety at baseline had an increased risk of fracture. The use of psychotropic drugs has been linked with an increased risk of fracture in older people, but there are indications that the conditions for which these drugs were prescribed may themselves influence fracture risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of fracture in older people. The study design is a prospective cohort study. One thousand eighty-seven men and 1,050 women aged 59-73 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data on incident fracture during an average follow-up period of 5.6 years were collected through interview and a postal questionnaire. Compared to men with no or few symptoms of anxiety (score ≤7 on the HADS anxiety subscale), men with probable anxiety (score ≥11) had an increased risk of fracture: After adjustment for age and potential confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval) was 4.03 (1.55, 10.5). There were no associations between levels of anxiety and fracture risk in women. Few men or women had probable depression at baseline (score ≥11 on the HADS depression subscale). Amongst men with possible depression (score 8-10), there was an increased risk of fracture that was of borderline significance: multivariate-adjusted OR 3.57 (0.99, 12.9). There was no association between possible depression and fracture risk in women. High levels of anxiety in older men may increase their risk of fracture. Future research needs to replicate this finding in other populations and investigate the underlying mechanisms.

  14. Pathways to Higher Education for Native Hawaiian Individual Development Account Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Rothwell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As the cost of higher education rises, a growing body of theory and research suggests that asset holding in the form of savings and net worth positively influence education expectations and outcomes. Native Hawaiians, like other Indigenous peoples, have disproportionately low college enrollment and graduation rates tied to a history of colonization. Using data from an Individual Development Account (IDA program for Native Hawaiians, I examine the trajectories through the program and find: (a welfare receipt and unemployment reduces the chances of IDA enrollment; (b net worth increases the probability of IDA graduation; and (c IDA graduates were more likely to gain a college degree over time compared to non-graduates. The study provides empirical evidence to the debate on asset-based interventions for Indigenous peoples.

  15. Effects of errorless skill learning in people with mild-to-moderate or severe dementia: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Hensken, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study examines whether learning without errors is advantageous compared to trial-and-error learning in people with dementia using a procedural task and a randomized case-control design. A sample of 60 people was recruited, consisting of 20 patients with severe dementia, 20 patients with

  16. Effects of errorless skill learning in people with mild-to-moderate or severe dementia: A randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Hensken, L.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study examines whether learning without errors is advantageous compared to trial-and-error learning in people with dementia using a procedural task and a randomized case-control design. A sample of 60 people was recruited, consisting of 20 patients with severe dementia, 20 patients with

  17. A Brief Analysis of Abraham Maslow's Original Writing of "Self-Actualizing People: A Study of Psychological Health"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Nedra H.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes Abraham Maslow's original writing of "Self-Actualizing People: A Study of Psychological Health." The review of literature in this article reveals that Maslow's hierarchy of needs have had profound effects in the area of psychology. In addition, the authors present information regarding self-actualized people, theorists of…

  18. Can people affected by leprosy at risk of developing plantar ulcers be identified? A field study from central Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, W; Van De Vijver, S; Benbow, C; Amenu, A; Saunderson, P

    In the ALERT leprosy control programme, 75 people affected by leprosy, in three different geographical areas, were investigated. Each person was documented as having anaesthesia to the 10 g monofilament. The study sought to determine why some people developed ulcers whilst others did not. According

  19. Predation by crustaceans on native and non-native Baltic clams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ejdung, G.; Flach, E.; Byrén, L.; Hummel, H.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of crustacean predators on native/non-native Macoma balthica bivalves in aquarium experiments. North Sea M. balthica (NS Macoma) were recently observed in the southern Baltic Sea. They differ genetically and in terms of morphology, behaviour and evolutionary history from Baltic

  20. When the Native Is Also a Non-Native: "Retrodicting" the Complexity of Language Teacher Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The impact of native (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) identities on second or foreign language teachers' cognition and practices in the classroom has mainly been investigated in ESL/EFL contexts. Using complexity theory as a framework, this case study attempts to fill the gap in the literature by presenting a foreign language teacher in the…

  1. Defining "Native Speaker" in Multilingual Settings: English as a Native Language in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen Edwards, Jette G.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines how and why speakers of English from multilingual contexts in Asia are identifying as native speakers of English. Eighteen participants from different contexts in Asia, including Singapore, Malaysia, India, Taiwan, and The Philippines, who self-identified as native speakers of English participated in hour-long interviews…

  2. Frailty and incident depression in community-dwelling older people: results from the ELSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Solmi, Marco; Maggi, Stefania; Noale, Marianna; Sergi, Giuseppe; Manzato, Enzo; Prina, A Matthew; Fornaro, Michele; Carvalho, André F; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-12-01

    Frailty and pre-frailty are two common conditions in the older people, but whether these conditions could predict depression is still limited to a few longitudinal studies. In this paper, we aimed to investigate whether frailty and pre-frailty are associated with an increased risk of depression in a prospective cohort of community-dwelling older people. Four thousand seventy-seven community-dwelling men and women over 60 years without depression at baseline were included from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Frailty status was defined according to modified Fried's criteria (weakness, weight loss, slow gait speed, low physical activity and exhaustion) and categorized as frailty (≥3 criteria), pre-frailty (1-2 criteria) or robustness (0 criterion). Depression was diagnosed as ≥4 out of 8 points of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, after 2 years of follow-up. Over a 2-year follow-up, 360 individuals developed depression. In a logistic regression analysis, adjusted for 18 potential baseline confounders, pre-frailty (odds ratio (OR) = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-1.46; p = 0.64) and frailty (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.90-1.64; p = 0.21) did not predict the onset of depression at follow-up. Among the criteria included in the frailty definition, only slow gait speed (OR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.00-3.32; p = 0.05) appeared to predict a higher risk of depression. Among older community dwellers, frailty and pre-frailty did not predict the onset of depression during 2 years of follow-up, when accounting for potential confounders, whilst slow gait speed considered alone may predict depression in the older people. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The use of virtual reality in the study of people's responses to violent incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Rovira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews experimental methods for the study of the responses of people to violence in digital media, and in particular considers the issues of internal validity on the one hand and ecological validity or generalisability of results to events in the real world. Experimental methods typically involve a significant level of abstraction from reality, with participants required to carry out tasks that are far removed from violence in real life, and hence their ecological validity is questionable. On the other hand studies based on field data, while having ecological validity, cannot control multiple confounding variables that may have an impact on observed results, so that their internal validity is questionable. It is argued that immersive virtual reality may provide a unification of these two approaches. Since people tend to respond realistically to situations and events that occur in virtual reality, and since virtual reality simulations can be completely controlled for experimental purposes, studies of responses to violence within virtual reality are likely to have both ecological and internal validity. This depends on a property that we call ‘plausibility’ – including the fidelity of the depicted situation with prior knowledge and expectations. We illustrate this with data from a previously published experiment, a virtual reprise of Stanley Milgram’s 1960s obedience experiment, and also with pilot data from a new study being developed that looks at bystander responses to violent incidents.

  4. The Use of Virtual Reality in the Study of People's Responses to Violent Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Aitor; Swapp, David; Spanlang, Bernhard; Slater, Mel

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews experimental methods for the study of the responses of people to violence in digital media, and in particular considers the issues of internal validity and ecological validity or generalisability of results to events in the real world. Experimental methods typically involve a significant level of abstraction from reality, with participants required to carry out tasks that are far removed from violence in real life, and hence their ecological validity is questionable. On the other hand studies based on field data, while having ecological validity, cannot control multiple confounding variables that may have an impact on observed results, so that their internal validity is questionable. It is argued that immersive virtual reality may provide a unification of these two approaches. Since people tend to respond realistically to situations and events that occur in virtual reality, and since virtual reality simulations can be completely controlled for experimental purposes, studies of responses to violence within virtual reality are likely to have both ecological and internal validity. This depends on a property that we call ‘plausibility’ – including the fidelity of the depicted situation with prior knowledge and expectations. We illustrate this with data from a previously published experiment, a virtual reprise of Stanley Milgram's 1960s obedience experiment, and also with pilot data from a new study being developed that looks at bystander responses to violent incidents. PMID:20076762

  5. Healthy urban environments for children and young people: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Batista-Ferrer, Harriet

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review collates, and presents as a narrative synthesis, evidence from interventions which included changes to the urban environment and reported at least one health behaviour or outcome for children and young people. Following a comprehensive search of six databases, 33 primary studies relating to 27 urban environment interventions were included. The majority of interventions related to active travel. Others included park and playground renovations, road traffic safety, and multi-component community-based initiatives. Public health evidence for effectiveness of such interventions is often weak because study designs tend to be opportunistic, non-randomised, use subjective outcome measures, and do not incorporate follow-up of study participants. However, there is some evidence of potential health benefits to children and young people from urban environment interventions relating to road safety and active travel, with evidence of promise for a multi-component obesity prevention initiative. Future research requires more robust study designs incorporating objective outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The Use of Virtual Reality in the Study of People's Responses to Violent Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Aitor; Swapp, David; Spanlang, Bernhard; Slater, Mel

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews experimental methods for the study of the responses of people to violence in digital media, and in particular considers the issues of internal validity and ecological validity or generalisability of results to events in the real world. Experimental methods typically involve a significant level of abstraction from reality, with participants required to carry out tasks that are far removed from violence in real life, and hence their ecological validity is questionable. On the other hand studies based on field data, while having ecological validity, cannot control multiple confounding variables that may have an impact on observed results, so that their internal validity is questionable. It is argued that immersive virtual reality may provide a unification of these two approaches. Since people tend to respond realistically to situations and events that occur in virtual reality, and since virtual reality simulations can be completely controlled for experimental purposes, studies of responses to violence within virtual reality are likely to have both ecological and internal validity. This depends on a property that we call 'plausibility' - including the fidelity of the depicted situation with prior knowledge and expectations. We illustrate this with data from a previously published experiment, a virtual reprise of Stanley Milgram's 1960s obedience experiment, and also with pilot data from a new study being developed that looks at bystander responses to violent incidents.

  7. Attitudes of Local People Toward Wildlife Conservation: A Case Study From the Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaffar Rais Mir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available People’s attitudes toward wildlife conservation can significantly affect the success of conservation initiatives. Understanding the factors influencing these attitudes is essential for designing strategies to alleviate human–wildlife conflict. Although this topic has been studied extensively across diverse regions, there has been no such study in the Kashmir Division of Jammu and Kashmir state, India. We surveyed 3 administrative units around Dachigam National Park through semistructured interviews (n = 384 to investigate the socioeconomic status of local people, the extent of economic damage caused by wild animals, and people’s attitudes toward wildlife conservation. Results, analyzed using a generalized linear model approach, indicated that about 75% of the respondents suffered crop damage, while 23% suffered livestock predation by wild animals. The majority of respondents expressed favorable attitudes toward wildlife, with only about 16% expressing a negative perception. Gender, crop damage, livestock predation, and total livestock holdings were the strongest variables influencing the attitudes of local people in the study area. The study identified the need to use appropriate mitigation measures to minimize economic damage by wildlife in order to reduce negative local attitudes toward wildlife conservation.

  8. Engaging older people in an internet platform for cardiovascular risk self-management: a qualitative study among Dutch HATICE participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middelaar, Tessa; Beishuizen, Cathrien R. L.; Guillemont, Juliette; Barbera, Mariagnese; Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Andrieu, Sandrine; Brayne, Carol; Jongstra, Susan; van Wanrooij, Lennard L.; Hoevenaar-Blom, Marieke P.; Ngandu, Tiia; Mangialasche, Francesca; Coley, Nicola; Meiller, Yannick; van de Groep, Bram

    2018-01-01

    To study older peoples' experiences with an interactive internet platform for cardiovascular self-management, to assess which factors influence initial and sustained engagement. To assess their views on future use within primary care. Qualitative semistructured interview study, with thematic

  9. Engaging older people in an internet platform for cardiovascular risk self-management: a qualitative study among Dutch HATICE participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, T. van; Beishuizen, C.R.; Guillemont, J.; Barbera, M.; Richard, E.; Charante, E.P.M. van

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study older peoples' experiences with an interactive internet platform for cardiovascular self-management, to assess which factors influence initial and sustained engagement. To assess their views on future use within primary care. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured interview study,

  10. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  11. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  12. People's perspectives and expectations on preparedness against earthquakes: Tehran case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Katayoun; Izadkhah, Yasamin Ostovar; Montazeri, Ali; Hosseinip, Mahmood

    2010-06-01

    Public education is one of the most important elements of earthquake preparedness. The present study identifies methods and appropriate strategies for public awareness and education on preparedness for earthquakes based on people's opinions in the city of Tehran. This was a cross-sectional study and a door-to-door survey of residents from 22 municipal districts in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. It involved a total of 1 211 individuals aged 15 and above. People were asked about different methods of public information and education, as well as the type of information needed for earthquake preparedness. "Enforcing the building contractors' compliance with the construction codes and regulations" was ranked as the first priority by 33.4% of the respondents. Over 70% of the participants (71.7%) regarded TV as the most appropriate means of media communication to prepare people for an earthquake. This was followed by "radio" which was selected by 51.6% of respondents. Slightly over 95% of the respondents believed that there would soon be an earthquake in the country, and 80% reported that they obtained this information from "the general public". Seventy percent of the study population felt that news of an earthquake should be communicated through the media. However, over fifty (58%) of the participants believed that governmental officials and agencies are best qualified to disseminate information about the risk of an imminent earthquake. Just over half (50.8%) of the respondents argued that the authorities do not usually provide enough information to people about earthquakes and the probability of their occurrence. Besides seismologists, respondents thought astronauts (32%), fortunetellers (32.3%), religious figures (34%), meteorologists (23%), and paleontologists (2%) can correctly predict the occurrence of an earthquake. Furthermore, 88.6% listed aid centers, mosques, newspapers and TV as the most important sources of information during the aftermath of an earthquake

  13. "This does my head in". Ethnographic study of self-management by people with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinder Susan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management is rarely studied 'in the wild'. We sought to produce a richer understanding of how people live with diabetes and why self-management is challenging for some. Method Ethnographic study supplemented with background documents on social context. We studied a socio-economically and ethnically diverse UK population. We sampled 30 people with diabetes (15 type 1, 15 type 2 by snowballing from patient groups, community contacts and NHS clinics. Participants (aged 5-88, from a range of ethnic and socio-economic groups were shadowed at home and in the community for 2-4 periods of several hours (total 88 visits, 230 hours; interviewed (sometimes with a family member or carer about their self-management efforts and support needs; and taken out for a meal. Detailed field notes were made and annotated. Data analysis was informed by structuration theory, which assumes that individuals' actions and choices depend on their dispositions and capabilities, which in turn are shaped and constrained (though not entirely determined by wider social structures. Results Self-management comprised both practical and cognitive tasks (e.g. self-monitoring, menu planning, medication adjustment and socio-emotional ones (e.g. coping with illness, managing relatives' input, negotiating access to services or resources. Self-management was hard work, and was enabled or constrained by economic, material and socio-cultural conditions within the family, workplace and community. Some people managed their diabetes skilfully and flexibly, drawing on personal capabilities, family and social networks and the healthcare system. For others, capacity to self-manage (including overcoming economic and socio-cultural constraints was limited by co-morbidity, cognitive ability, psychological factors (e.g. under-confidence, denial and social capital. The consequences of self-management efforts strongly influenced people's capacity and motivation to continue them

  14. Oral hygiene habits, dental home, and toothbrushing among immigrant and native low socioeconomic class populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, E; Kooby, E; Shapira, J; Ram, D

    2013-01-01

    About 45,000 people immigrated to Israel from Ethiopia over the last 30 years. The purpose of this study was to compare oral hygiene habits in preschool children from low socioeconomic neighborhoods offspring of immigrants from Ethiopia to offspring of native Israelis. Parents of children attending 21 nursery schools were asked to respond anonymously to 7 questions about their children's visits to a dentist and toothbrushing habits. Parents of 719 children (382 Ethiopian and 337 native Israeli) responded. Of children aged 49-82 months, 15% offspring of Ethiopian and 25% of native Israelis were reported to have visited a dentist; and 45% and 65%, respectively, to brush their teeth at least once daily. More than 90% of children of both populations were reported to have toothbrushes. Of children aged 18-48 months, 28% of Ethiopian and 65% of native Israelis were reported to brush their teeth at least once daily. After more than 20 years residence in a new country, the dental home of an immigrant population was significantly different from that of the native population, of the same low socioeconomic neighborhoods. Discrepancies in parental responses highlight the importance of addressing information bias.

  15. A study on the determination of the morphological, yield and quality characteristics of some sainfoin species (onobrychis spp.) native to east anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okcu, M.; Sengul, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective of the present study is to identify the species belonging to the genus Onobrychis (Fabaceae) growing native in and around Erzurum, and to determine their overall prevalence and morphological and quality characteristics. Species samples were collected from different locations in flowering periods of 2007, 2008 and 2009. At the end of the study, totally 10 genotypes were found representing 8 species and 2 sub-species. It was found that leaf length and leaflet frequency were the largest in O. atropatana var. grandiflora, the number of leaflets was the highest in O. viciifolia, the length and width of leaflets were maximum in O. radiata, the number of main branches and the number of fascicles in main branches were in O. hajastana, crude ash rate was highest in O. stenostachya, plant fresh and dry weight, ADF and NDF rate were highest in O. cornuta, where as crude protein rate was slightly higher in O. stenostachya subsp. sosnowskyi than other taxa. (author)

  16. BMI and waist circumference cut-offs for corresponding levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant versus a native Swedish population - the MEDIM population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Louise; Stenkula, Karin; Cushman, Samuel W; Brismar, Kerstin

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to identify corresponding body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference cut-offs for equivalent levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant population compared with native Swedes. Citizens of Malmö, Sweden aged 30 to 75 years, who were born in Iraq or Sweden, were in 2010-2012 invited to participate in a health examination including anthropometrics, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting samples and interviews concerning sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviours. In total, 1176 individuals born in Iraq and 688 born in Sweden, without previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes, participated in the study. In normal weight participants (BMI Middle Eastern populations.

  17. A cross-sectional study on person-centred communication in the care of older people: the COMHOME study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafskjold, Linda; Sundler, Annelie J; Holmström, Inger K; Sundling, Vibeke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Eide, Hilde

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents an international cross-sectional study on person-centred communication with older people receiving healthcare (COMHOME). Person-centred care relies on effective communication, but few studies have explored this with a specific focus on older people. The main aim of the COMHOME study is to generate knowledge on person-centred communication with older people (>65 years) in home healthcare services, radiographic and optometric practice. This study will explore the communication between care providers and older persons in home care services. Home healthcare visits will be audiorecorded (n=500) in Norway, the Netherlands and Sweden. Analyses will be performed with the Verona Coding Definitions for Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES), the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) and qualitative methods. The content of the communication, communicative challenging situations as well as empathy, power distance, decision-making, preservation of dignity and respect will be explored. In Norway, an additional 100 encounters, 50 in optometric practice (video recorded) and 50 in radiographic practice (audiorecorded), will be analysed. Furthermore, healthcare providers' self-reported communication skills, empathy, mindfulness and emotional intelligence in relation to observed person-centred communication skills will be assessed using well-established standardised instruments. Depending on national legislation, approval of either the central ethical committees (eg, nation or university), the national data protection officials or the local ethical committees (eg, units of home healthcare) was obtained. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. The research findings will add knowledge to improve services provided to this vulnerable group of patients. Additionally, the findings will underpin a training programme for healthcare students and care providers focusing on communication with older people

  18. Exclusion of disabled people from microcredit in Africa and Asia: A literature study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); H.J. Finkenflügel (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPeople with disabilities are barred from microcredit schemes. A literature search on the participation of people with disabilities in microcredit schemes resulted in 16 documents. The statements, recommendations and generalisations in these documents are not supported with strong

  19. Native plant naming by high-school students of different socioeconomic status: implications for botany education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M. A.; Díaz, Sandra; De Longhi, Ana L.

    2018-01-01

    People's diminished awareness of plants, affected by anthropogenic environmental deterioration, has challenged science education to overcome the obstacles impeding a better understanding of their meaning and value. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the socioeconomic status of high-school students, as indicated by their attendance at private or state schools, on their knowledge of native plants. In total, 321 students aged 15-18 were asked to write down 10 plants native to Córdoba, Argentina, in a freelist questionnaire. Students listed a mean of 6.8 species of a total of 165 different categories of plant names. The majority of the species named were exotic to Córdoba (63%) or Argentina (50.6%, of which 33.8% were adventitious), indicating an 'adventitious-to-native' effect by which all spontaneously reproducing plants were presumed to be native species. However, the 20 most frequently named plants were mainly native, with 'Algarrobo' (Prosopis spp.) and 'Espinillo' (Vachellia caven) being the most mentioned. Students' socioeconomic status had a significant effect on the number of species named, with the students of state schools (where the less well-off sectors of the society attend) mentioning more species and, among these, more native ones than the students from private schools. Furthermore, we defined size, colour and scent as being conspicuous traits of plant flowers that are relevant for human perception, and found that the most frequently named adventitious species, unlike the native ones, were those exhibiting big brightly-coloured flowers which ranged from being inodorous to having medium intensity scents.

  20. Cognition and mortality in older people: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael H; Sachdev, Perminder S; Kochan, Nicole A; Xu, Jing; Draper, Brian; Brodaty, Henry

    2015-11-01

    Both cognitive ability and cognitive decline have been shown to predict mortality in older people. As dementia, a major form of cognitive decline, has an established association with shorter survival, it is unclear the extent to which cognitive ability and cognitive decline predict mortality in the absence of dementia. To determine whether cognitive ability and decline in cognitive ability predict mortality in older individuals without dementia. The Sydney Memory and Ageing Study is an observational population-based cohort study. Participants completed detailed neuropsychological assessments and medical examinations to assess for risk factors such as depression, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking and physical activity. Participants were regularly assessed at 2-year intervals over 8 years. A community sample in Sydney, Australia. One thousand and thirty-seven elderly people without dementia. Overall, 236 (22.8%) participants died within 8 years. Both cognitive ability at baseline and decline in cognitive ability over 2 years predicted mortality. Decline in cognitive ability, but not baseline cognitive ability, was a significant predictor of mortality when depression and other medical risk factors were controlled for. These relationships also held when excluding incident cases of dementia. The findings indicate that decline in cognition is a robust predictor of mortality in older people without dementia at a population level. This relationship is not accounted for by co-morbid depression or other established biomedical risk factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Sunburn in young people: population-based study in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Cesar, Juraci Almeida

    2008-02-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for sunburn in young people. Population-based cross-sectional study using a multiple-stage sampling carried out with people living in the urban area of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, between October and December 2005. Data was collected from interviews with 1.604 subjects using a standardized pre-coded questionnaire about their family and another questionnaire applied to those aged between ten and 29 years for assessing the occurrence of sunburn episodes. Sunburn was defined as skin burning after sun exposure. Chi-square test with Yates' correction was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with design effect control and robust adjustment of variance was applied in the multivariate analysis. Of those aged between 10 and 29 years, 1,412 reported sun exposure in the last summer. Losses and refusals were 5.5%. A total of 48.7% of the interviewees reported sunburn in the last year. The following variables were associated with sunburn in the multivariate analysis: white skin (PR=1.41; 95% CI: 1.12;1.79); higher skin sensitivity to sun exposure (PR=1.84; 95% CI: 1.64;2.06); age between 15 and 19 years (PR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.12;1.50); belonging to the higher quartile of income (PR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.01;1.42); and irregular use of sunscreens (PR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.08;1.42). The prevalence of sunburn in the population studied was high mainly among white young people with higher skin sensitivity, higher income and who used sunscreens irregularly. Sun exposure during safe times and with adequate protection should be promoted.

  2. Collaborative, individualised lifestyle interventions are acceptable to people with first episode psychosis; a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedley, Rebecca; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny; Bradshaw, Tim; Gellatly, Judith; Ward, Kate; Woodham, Adrine; Wearden, Alison

    2018-04-25

    The adverse impact of unhealthy lifestyle choices and the prescription of antipsychotic medications contribute to weight gain, poor cardiovascular health and reduced life expectancy for people with psychosis. The present study aimed to explore the acceptability and perceived outcomes of a lifestyle intervention designed to prevent or reduce weight gain in people with first-episode psychosis. This was a qualitative study using a data-driven approach. People recovering from first-episode psychosis recruited from UK early intervention services and taking part in the active arm of a randomised controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention (the InterACT trial), were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework Analysis. Participants valued the collaborative and individualised approach taken by the intervention deliverers, and formed high quality relationships with them. Aspects of the intervention that were positively appraised included goal setting, social opportunities, and progress monitoring. Benefits of the intervention, including increased levels of exercise; improved diet and physical health; increased psychological wellbeing (e.g. confidence, self-esteem); and improved social relationships, were identified by participants, independent of actual weight loss. Future interventions should ensure that workers have the skills to form high quality relationships with users, and to individualise the intervention according to users' needs and preferences. Future trials that test healthy living interventions should consider supplementing physical outcome measures with wider psychosocial outcome assessments, in particular social relationship quality, psychological wellbeing, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN22581937 . Date of registration: 27 October 2010 (retrospectively registered).

  3. Multiplicity: An Explorative Interview Study on Personal Experiences of People with Multiple Selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergő Ribáry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Personality psychology research relies on the notion that humans have a single self that is the result of the individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that can be reliably described (i.e., through traits. People who identify themselves as “multiple” have a system of multiple or alternative, selves, that share the same physical body. This is the first study to explore the phenomenon of multiplicity by assessing the experiences of people who identify themselves as “multiple.”Methods: First, an Internet forum search was performed using the terms “multiplicity” and “multiple system.” Based on that search, people who identified themselves as multiple were contacted. Interviews were conducted by a consultant psychiatrist, which produced six case vignettes.Results: Multiplicity is discussed on Twitter, Tumblr, Google+ and several other personal websites, blogs, and forums maintained by multiples. According to the study's estimates, there are 200–300 individuals who participate in these forums and believe they are multiple. Based on the six interviews, it appears that multiples have several selves who are relatively independent of each other and constitute the personality's system. Each “resident person” or self, has their own unique behavioral pattern, which is triggered by different situations. However, multiples are a heterogeneous group in terms of their system organization, memory functions, and control over switching between selves.Conclusions: Multiplicity can be placed along a continuum between identity disturbance and dissociative identity disorder (DID, although most systems function relatively well in everyday life. Further research is needed to explore this phenomenon, especially in terms of the extent to which multiplicity can be regarded as a healthy way of coping.

  4. Potential benefits of nintendo wii fit among people with multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plow, Matthew; Finlayson, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    We examined the potential of Nintendo Wii Fit (Nintendo Co, Ltd, Kyoto, Japan) to increase physical activity (PA) behavior and health among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study consisted of a repeated-measures design with a baseline control period and involved 30 people with MS who had the ability to walk 25 feet with or without a cane (26 individuals were included in the analyses). Nintendo Wii was set up in the homes of participants, who were prescribed a Wii Fit exercise program lasting 14 weeks, 3 days a week. The Physical Activity and Disability Survey, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and 36-item Short Form Health Status Survey were administered three times before participants gained access to Wii Fit (control period, at 2-week intervals), and three times after they received Wii Fit (posttest 1: immediately after; posttest 2: 7 weeks after; posttest 3: 14 weeks after). Mobility, balance, strength, and weight were assessed at the first pretest, immediately prior to obtaining access to Wii Fit, and 7 weeks after obtaining access to Wii Fit. Results from the questionnaires indicated that PA significantly improved at week 7, but at week 14, PA levels declined relative to week 7 and the difference was no longer significant compared with the control period. Physical assessments indicated that balance and strength significantly improved at week 7. One adverse event was reported (repetitive knee injury). Physical assessments indicated that people with MS may be able to improve their fitness levels by using Wii Fit. Future studies should incorporate behavior change strategies to promote long-term use of Wii Fit, and explore whether individuals with more severe symptoms of MS can safely use Wii Fit.

  5. Multiplicity: An Explorative Interview Study on Personal Experiences of People with Multiple Selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribáry, Gergő; Lajtai, László; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Maraz, Aniko

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Personality psychology research relies on the notion that humans have a single self that is the result of the individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that can be reliably described (i.e., through traits). People who identify themselves as "multiple" have a system of multiple or alternative, selves, that share the same physical body. This is the first study to explore the phenomenon of multiplicity by assessing the experiences of people who identify themselves as "multiple." Methods: First, an Internet forum search was performed using the terms "multiplicity" and "multiple system." Based on that search, people who identified themselves as multiple were contacted. Interviews were conducted by a consultant psychiatrist, which produced six case vignettes. Results: Multiplicity is discussed on Twitter, Tumblr, Google+ and several other personal websites, blogs, and forums maintained by multiples. According to the study's estimates, there are 200-300 individuals who participate in these forums and believe they are multiple. Based on the six interviews, it appears that multiples have several selves who are relatively independent of each other and constitute the personality's system. Each "resident person" or self, has their own unique behavioral pattern, which is triggered by different situations. However, multiples are a heterogeneous group in terms of their system organization, memory functions, and control over switching between selves. Conclusions: Multiplicity can be placed along a continuum between identity disturbance and dissociative identity disorder (DID), although most systems function relatively well in everyday life. Further research is needed to explore this phenomenon, especially in terms of the extent to which multiplicity can be regarded as a healthy way of coping.

  6. Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian; Robson, Bridget; Connolly, Michele; Al-Yaman, Fadwa; Bjertness, Espen; King, Alexandra; Tynan, Michael; Madden, Richard; Bang, Abhay; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Pesantes, Maria Amalia; Amigo, Hugo; Andronov, Sergei; Armien, Blas; Obando, Daniel Ayala; Axelsson, Per; Bhatti, Zaid Shakoor; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Marius B; Briceno-Leon, Roberto; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Bustos, Patricia; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Chu, Jiayou; Deji; Gouda, Jitendra; Harikumar, Rachakulla; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Kamaka, Martina; King, Malcolm; Kodavanti, Mallikharjuna Rao; Lara, Macarena; Laxmaiah, Avula; Lema, Claudia; Taborda, Ana María León; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Lobanov, Andrey; Melhus, Marita; Meshram, Indrapal; Miranda, J Jaime; Mu, Thet Thet; Nagalla, Balkrishna; Nimmathota, Arlappa; Popov, Andrey Ivanovich; Poveda, Ana María Peñuela; Ram, Faujdar; Reich, Hannah; Santos, Ricardo V; Sein, Aye Aye; Shekhar, Chander; Sherpa, Lhamo Y; Skold, Peter; Tano, Sofia; Tanywe, Asahngwa; Ugwu, Chidi; Ugwu, Fabian; Vapattanawong, Patama; Wan, Xia; Welch, James R; Yang, Gonghuan; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yap, Leslie

    2016-07-09

    International studies of the health of Indigenous and tribal peoples provide important public health insights. Reliable data are required for the development of policy and health services. Previous studies document poorer outcomes for Indigenous peoples compared with benchmark populations, but have been restricted in their coverage of countries or the range of health indicators. Our objective is to describe the health and social status of Indigenous and tribal peoples relative to benchmark populations from a sample of countries. Collaborators with expertise in Indigenous health data systems were identified for each country. Data were obtained for population, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, low and high birthweight, maternal mortality, nutritional status, educational attainment, and economic status. Data sources consisted of governmental data, data from non-governmental organisations such as UNICEF, and other research. Absolute and relative differences were calculated. Our data (23 countries, 28 populations) provide evidence of poorer health and social outcomes for Indigenous peoples than for non-Indigenous populations. However, this is not uniformly the case, and the size of the rate difference varies. We document poorer outcomes for Indigenous populations for: life expectancy at birth for 16 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1 year in 15 populations; infant mortality rate for 18 of 19 populations with a rate difference greater than one per 1000 livebirths in 16 populations; maternal mortality in ten populations; low birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in three populations; high birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in one population; child malnutrition for ten of 16 populations with a difference greater than 10% in five populations; child obesity for eight of 12 populations with a difference greater than 5% in four populations; adult obesity for seven of 13 populations with a difference greater than 10% in

  7. Uncertainty, the Overbearing Lived Experience of the Elderly People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaf, Robab; Sadat Ilali, Ehteram; Peyrovi, Hamid; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Spahbodi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    The chronic kidney disease is a major health concern. The number of the elderly people with chronic renal failure has increased across the world. Dialysis is an appropriate therapy for the elderly, but it involves certain challenges. The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis. This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis. Given the study inclusion criteria, data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with nine elderly undergoing hemodialysis, and then analyzed according to Van Manen 6-stage methodological approach. One of the most important findings emerging in the main study was "uncertainty", which can be important and noteworthy, given other aspects of the elderly life (loneliness, despair, comorbidity of diseases, disability, and mental and psychosocial problems). Uncertainty about the future is the most psychological concerns of people undergoing hemodialysis. The results obtained are indicative of the importance of paying attention to a major aspect in the life of the elderly undergoing hemodialysis, uncertainty. A positive outlook can be created in the elderly through education and increased knowledge about the disease, treatment and complications.

  8. Uncertainty, the Overbearing Lived Experience of the Elderly People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Sahaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chronic kidney disease is a major health concern. The number of the elderly people with chronic renal failure has increased across the world. Dialysis is an appropriate therapy for the elderly, but it involves certain challenges. The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis. Methods: This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis. Given the study inclusion criteria, data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with nine elderly undergoing hemodialysis, and then analyzed according to Van Manen 6-stage methodological approach. Results: One of the most important findings emerging in the main study was “uncertainty”, which can be important and noteworthy, given other aspects of the elderly life (loneliness, despair, comorbidity of diseases, disability, and mental and psychosocial problems. Uncertainty about the future is the most psychological concerns of people undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion: The results obtained are indicative of the importance of paying attention to a major aspect in the life of the elderly undergoing hemodialysis, uncertainty. A positive outlook can be created in the elderly through education and increased knowledge about the disease, treatment and complications.

  9. Uncertainty, the Overbearing Lived Experience of the Elderly People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaf, Robab; Sadat Ilali, Ehteram; Peyrovi, Hamid; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Spahbodi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The chronic kidney disease is a major health concern. The number of the elderly people with chronic renal failure has increased across the world. Dialysis is an appropriate therapy for the elderly, but it involves certain challenges. The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis. Methods: This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis. Given the study inclusion criteria, data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with nine elderly undergoing hemodialysis, and then analyzed according to Van Manen 6-stage methodological approach. Results: One of the most important findings emerging in the main study was “uncertainty”, which can be important and noteworthy, given other aspects of the elderly life (loneliness, despair, comorbidity of diseases, disability, and mental and psychosocial problems). Uncertainty about the future is the most psychological concerns of people undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion: The results obtained are indicative of the importance of paying attention to a major aspect in the life of the elderly undergoing hemodialysis, uncertainty. A positive outlook can be created in the elderly through education and increased knowledge about the disease, treatment and complications. PMID:28097174

  10. Leadership Talent: A Study of the Potential of People in the Australian Rail Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janene Piip

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance of leadership talent in the rail industry in Australia. Like many other countries around the world, rail is troubled by its ability to attract new talent as older leaders with specialized knowledge retire. This study sought to identify whether the sector is making the most of the talent already existing within, knowing the barriers faced in attracting new industry entrants, and questions what can be done to strengthen current approaches to developing leaders. In exploring the meaning of leadership talent, from a skills based perspective with three levels of leaders, blended methods using semi-structured interviews and a survey were utilized. The study is important because it focuses on the people aspects of the industry, a little researched area of rail that has major implications for how employees are engaged and retained. The findings identified a certain mindset, culture and approach about leadership talent in organizations that overlooked the heterogeneity of rail organization populations, precluding certain groups of people from becoming leaders. The project identified that leadership and other soft skills required in the rail industry are both under researched, and often undervalued, for the impact that they can have on performance and productivity of companies. There are key messages from this study for both organizations as well as inspiring rail industry leaders.

  11. A five-year study of residents of a special hostel for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefroy, R B; Hobbs, M S; Hyndman, J

    1992-03-01

    In order to consider whether admission to a special hostel was a desirable policy in view of the likelihood of subsequent transfer to a nursing home, this study compared the time spent by residents in a special hostel with the period in a nursing home after they were transferred out of the hostel. We also estimated the number of nursing home places necessary for residents who were transferred and studied the reasons for transfer. The setting was a special hostel in Perth, Western Australia, for 36 people with moderate or severe dementia. The periods spent in the hostel or a nursing home were calculated for all residents admitted between 1985 and 1990. Forty-two of the 84 residents admitted during the study period were transferred to nursing homes. About two thirds of the total time in the two institutions was spent in the hostel. The two principal reasons necessitating transfer to a nursing home were advancing dementia and the addition of a physical impairment. Because a major proportion of the care of selected people with dementia (who can no longer remain at home) can be undertaken in a special hostel, this facility should be included with standard hostel and nursing home in arrangements for institutional care. Between 20 and 25 nursing home places are necessary for residents transferred from a hostel of this size.

  12. Qualitative study investigating the commissioning process for older people's services provided by third sector organisations: SOPRANO study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Gina; Chadborn, Neil; Craig, Chris; Gladman, John

    2016-05-18

    The commissioning of third sector services for older people may influence the quality, availability and coordination of services for older people. The SOPRANO study aims to understand the relationships between and processes of commissioning bodies and third sector organisations providing health and social care services for older people. This qualitative study will be based in the East Midlands region of England. An initial scoping survey of commissioners will give an overview of services to maintain the health and well-being of older people in the community that are commissioned. Following this, semistructured interviews will be conducted with 4 sample groups: health and social care commissioners, service provider managers, service provider case workers and older service users. A sample size of 10-15 participants in each of the 4 groups is expected to be sufficient to reach data saturation, resulting in a final expected sample size of 40-60 participants. Informed consent will be gained from all participants, and those unable to provide informed consent will be excluded. The interview data will be analysed by 2 researchers using framework content analysis. Approval for the study has been gained from the University of Nottingham School of Medicine ethical review board, and the relevant approvals have been gained from the National Health Service (NHS) research and development departments for interviewing NHS staff. Early engagement with a wide range of stakeholders will ensure that the research findings are extensively disseminated to relevant stakeholders (including commissioners and third sector providers) in an accessible format using the extensive communication networks available to the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care CLAHRCs (applied health research organisations covering all of England). The study will also be disseminated through academic routes such as conference presentations and

  13. Effect of native oxide layers on copper thin-film tensile properties: A reactive molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarlinski, Michael D., E-mail: michael.skarlinski@rochester.edu [Materials Science Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Quesnel, David J. [Materials Science Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Metal-oxide layers are likely to be present on metallic nano-structures due to either environmental exposure during use, or high temperature processing techniques such as a