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Sample records for native citrus fruits

  1. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

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    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  2. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  3. Dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Qin, Dongmei; Wang, Chengqiu

    2013-06-01

    Field trials were carried out in three provinces of China to study the dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. The results had shown that the degradation rate of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits followed the first-order kinetics equation C = A∙eBt. The half-lives of forchlorfenuron were 15.8-23.0 days, the final residues of forchlorfenuron in pulp were all ≤0.002 mg/kg, and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The risk assessment revealed that no significant potential health risk would be induced by forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. Therefore, it could be safe to apply forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits, and the results of this study could also be regarded as a reference to the setting of maximum residue limit for forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits in China.

  4. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

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    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  5. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...... with fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed...

  6. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of... grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower Tree Run Certificate Application, furnished...

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ashok Kumar; Narayani, M.; A. Subanthini; Jayakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

  8. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... documents for each fruit type and age of trees, within a citrus fruit crop, times the coverage level percent... temperatures. Harvest. The severance of mature citrus fruit from the tree by pulling, picking, shaking, or any... the fruit type; (2) Produced by citrus trees that have not reached the fifth growing season...

  9. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  10. Estimation of Fluoride Concentration of Various Citrus and Non-Citrus Fruits Commonly Consumed and Commercially Available in Mathura City

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    Navin Anand Ingle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since fluoride is available from various sources, the total ingestion of fluoride by a person should be estimated taking into consideration the fluoride consumed from all the sources including fruits. There are very few epidemiological studies carried out associated with fluoride estimation in fruit samplesand especially in the Indian scenario Objective: To estimate and compare the fluoride concentration of different commercially available citrus and non-citrus fruits in Mathura city. Materials & Method: Fifteen different types of fruits commercially available and consumed by people ofMathura City were collected. Out of the 15 fruit samples 5 were citrus fruits and 10 were non-citrus fruits. The fluoride estimation of fruit samples was done at Central Laboratory,Lucknow. Juices of all 15 fruit samples were prepared, from each sample 10 ml of juice was measured and fluoride testing of each sample was carried out by using Orion 4 star -ion electrode analyzer. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical software program SPSS, version 17. Results: The fluoride concentration in citrus fruits ranged from 0.04ppm (Orange to 0.08 ppm (Tomato while in non-citrus fruits it ranged from 0.04ppm (chikoo to 0.18 ppm (Guava. No significant difference was observed between the mean fluoride concentration of citrus and non citrus fruits. Conclusions: Both citrus and non citrus fruits have fluorides. Guava was found to have the maximumamount of fluoridecontent (0.18 ppm among both the citrus and non citrus fruits.

  11. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

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    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA₃ on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA₃, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA₃ , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA₃ treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA₃, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  12. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  14. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bansode.D.S.; Chavan.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon) and Orange (Citrus ourantium) against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit ...

  15. Postharvest decay control of citrus fruit by preharvest pyrimethanil spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Angioni, A; Suming, D; Palma, A; Schirra, M

    2013-01-01

    Preharvest infections or conidia load on fruit surface by Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, Alternaria citri and other filamentous fungi can cause important postharvest losses of citrus fruit. Reduction in pruning frequency occurred in the last decade together with un-picked yield that eventually rots on the trees have increased the risk of postharvest decay especially when environmental conditions at picking time are favourable to pathogens' development. Sanitation procedures in the packinghouses, alternate use of postharvest fungicides with different modes of action, along with fungicide application before harvest could be an effective approach to minimize postharvest decay in citrus fruit. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a preharvest treatment with pyrimethanil (PYR), a broad spectrum fungicide, recently registered in different citrus-producing countries for postharvest treatments of citrus fruit and widely used worldwide as a preharvest treatment to control various diseases in different crops. PYR (750 mg/L) was sprayed by a hand-back sprayer at run-off on 'Fremont' mandarins. The day after the treatment, half of the trees were sprayed with a 10(4) conidial suspension of P. digitatum at run-off. Fruit were harvested following 2 or 4 weeks from treatments. Sound or either wounded 2-mm-deep and 2-mm-wide or superficial wound-scratched fruit were stored at 20 degrees C and 90% RH and inspected for decay after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of storage. In fruit harvested after 2 weeks from field treatment, PYR remarkably reduced decay development during two weeks of storage in sound fruit and in wound-scratched fruit and was fairly effective even after 4 weeks from treatment, but was ineffective in fruit wounded 2 mm deep and 2 mm wide. PYR was also effective in reducing preharvest decay incited by P. digitatum, P. italicum and Botrytis cinerea, but not by other pathogens. Results show that preharvest treatment with PYR could be a feasible approach to reduce

  16. Pollen–pistil interactions and early fruiting in parthenocarpic citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, G.; Gentile, A.; Herrero, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims An intense pollen–pistil interaction precedes fertilization. This interaction is of particular relevance in agronomically important species where seeds or fruits are the edible part. Over time some agronomically species have been selected for the ability to produce fruit without seeds. While this phenomenon is critical for commercial production in some species, very little is known about the events behind the production of seedless fruit. In this work, the relationship between pollen–pistil interaction and the onset of fruiting was investigated in citrus mandarin. Methods Pistils were sequentially examined in hand-pollinated flowers paying attention to pollen-tube behaviour, and to cytochemical changes along the pollen-tube pathway. To evaluate which of these changes were induced by pollination/fertilization and which were developmentally regulated, pollinated and unpollinated pistils were compared. Also the onset of fruiting was timed and changes in the ovary examined. Key Results Conspicuous changes occurred in the pistil along the pollen-tube pathway, which took place in a basipetal way encompassing the timing of pollen-tube growth. However, these changes appear to be developmentally regulated as they happened in the same way and at the same time in unpollinated flowers. Moreover, the onset of fruiting occurred prior to fertilization and the very same changes could be observed in unpollinated flowers. Conclusions Pollen–pistil interaction in citrus showed similarities with unrelated species and families belonging to other taxa. The uncoupling of the reproductive and fruiting processes accounts for the parthenocarpic ability of unpollinated flowers to produce fruit in citrus. However, the maintenance of a functional reproductive process reflects the potential to produce seeded fruits, providing a basis for the understanding of the production of seeded or unseeded fruits and further understanding of the process of parthenocarpy in other

  17. Organic Acid Concentrations and the Relative Enzymatic Changes During the Development of the Citrus Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO An-cai; YANG Xiao-hong; DENG Ying-yi; LI Chun-fan; XIANG Ke-shu; LI Dao-gao

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal changes in enzyme activities and citrate concentration during the development of citrus fruits were investigated. The result showed that the organic acid concentrations reached a peak in the 100 - 130days after anthesis and gradually declined during later stages of fruit maturation in most varieties of citrus,but declined only slightly thereafter in lemon [Citrus lin on (L.) Burm]; there is no relation between the activity of citrate synthetase(CS) and the different acid concentration in different citrus fruits; the increase of the activity of the cytosolic aconitase in the late period of the development of citrus fruits accelerated the degradation of citric acid in citrus fruits; the higher the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PEPC) and the ratio of NAD-dependent isocitrate hydrogenase(PEPC/NAD-IDH- ), the more the concentrations of organic acids in citrus fruit.

  18. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

    2009-07-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  19. Omics studies of citrus, grape and rosaceae fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratake, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Mami

    2016-01-01

    Recent advance of bioinformatics and analytical apparatuses such as next generation DNA sequencer (NGS) and mass spectrometer (MS) has brought a big wave of comprehensive study to biology. Comprehensive study targeting all genes, transcripts (RNAs), proteins, metabolites, hormones, ions or phenotypes is called genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, hormonomics, ionomics or phenomics, respectively. These omics are powerful approaches to identify key genes for important traits, to clarify events of physiological mechanisms and to reveal unknown metabolic pathways in crops. Recently, the use of omics approach has increased dramatically in fruit tree research. Although the most reported omics studies on fruit trees are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and a few is reported on hormonomics and ionomics. In this article, we reviewed recent omics studies of major fruit trees, i.e. citrus, grapevine and rosaceae fruit trees. The effectiveness and prospects of omics in fruit tree research will as well be highlighted.

  20. Involvement of an ethylene response factor in chlorophyll degradation during citrus fruit degreening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophyll degradation naturally occurs during plant senescence. However, in fruit such as citrus, it is a positive characteristic, as degreening is an important colour development contributing to fruit quality. In the present work, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. Newhall fruit was used as a model for ...

  1. 78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Fruit. DATES: Effective Date: January 22, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tim Hoffmann, Director... Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop... corrections revised the Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions that published on Friday, December...

  2. The Physiological Mechanism of Postphloem Sugar Transport in Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-wei; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; Ruan Yong-ling; XIE Ming; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of translocation and partitioning of 14C-phothsynthates, the concentration of sucrose in fruit tissues and the effects of the membrane carrier- and ATPase-specific inhibitors on 14C-sucrose uptake by juice sacs of the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit were examined at the stage of fruit enlargement and fruit full ripe. Kinetic data of 14C-photosynthate translocation indicated that the rate of photosynthate transport into juice sacs decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. Along the photosynthate translocation path, i.e. from vascular bundles to segment epidermis then to juice sacs, a descending sugar gradient was observed. With fruit maturation and sugar accumulation in juice sacs, the 14C photosynthate gradient increased, whereas the static sucrose concentration gradient decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. The higher gradient of specific 14C radioactivity was considered to favor diffusion and sugar transport into juice sacs at the later stage of fruit development. The rate of uptake 14C-sucrose by juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit was markedly reduced by PCMBS, EB, DNP and NO-3 treatment. The above results suggested the participation of a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent sugar active transport process in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit.

  3. Measuring the amount of vitamin C in citrus fruits by atwo step oxidation-

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh; S.J. Hosseinimehr; M. Mahmodi; M.R. Gayekhloo; M. Hoseiani

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose:Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These benefits are often attributed to their high antioxidant components such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Citrus species are extremely rich sources for this vitamin, therefore we decided to determine the amount of vitamin C in some citrus fruits.Materials and methods : 13 species of commonly used citrus fruits were collected...

  4. Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Martinelli

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.

  5. Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My L; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E; Bowman, Kim D; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2012-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.

  6. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  7. Analysis of Major Carotenoid Composition and Its Content of Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jun; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; XU Jian-guo; LIU Chun-rong

    2003-01-01

    a-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein content of fruits in53 citrus cultivars were determined using HPLC. In both peel and pulp of citrus fruit, the major carotenoidswere lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. β-carotene content was relatively low and extremely low was theamount of or-carotene. Among the 53 cultivars tested, lycopene was detected only in pulp of Cara Cara navelorange. Carotenoid content in both peel and pulp of citrus fruit was the highest in Citrus reticulata Blanco andlowest in Citrus grandis Osbeck. Consequently, as far as the health protection value is considered, fruit ofCitrus reticulata Blanco ranks probably higher than other citrus fruits. In fruit of most Citrus retieulatavarities, β-cryptoxanthin was the main carotenoid component in pulp and its amount approximated that of lu-tein in peel. Content of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin in peel was about 2.5 - 15 times that in pulp onthe basis of fresh weight. Thus peel was inferred to be the principal location for the carotenoid stock in citrus fruit.

  8. COMPARATIVE MORPHOMETRIC AND ANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF THREE CITRUS L. SPECIES (RUTACEAE FRUITS

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    Rodica BERCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the morphometric and anatomical features of three species of Citrus L. fruits: Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus× sinensis Osbeck and Citrus maragarita Lour. Morphometrically were determined the length, width, area and volume for 10 fruits of each species. Anatomically, were analyzed the exocarp and mesocarp tissues, including the secretory cavities and endocarp components, respectively the number of carpels (segments and the length of the juice vesicles. The studied species fruits disclose both similarities and differences concerning their morphometric and anatomical features.

  9. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

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    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  10. An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

  11. Quantification of applied dose in irradiated citrus fruits by DNA Comet Assay together with image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Nurcan; Ercin, Demet; Özvatan, Sümer; Erel, Yakup

    2016-02-01

    The experiments were conducted for quantification of applied dose for quarantine control in irradiated citrus fruits. Citrus fruits exposed to doses of 0.1 to 1.5 kGy and analyzed by DNA Comet Assay. Observed comets were evaluated by image analysis. The tail length, tail moment and tail DNA% of comets were used for the interpretation of comets. Irradiated citrus fruits showed the separated tails from the head of the comet by increasing applied doses from 0.1 to 1.5 kGy. The mean tail length and mean tail moment% levels of irradiated citrus fruits at all doses are significantly different (p Comet Assay may be a practical quarantine control method for irradiated citrus fruits since it has been possible to estimate the applied low doses as small as 0.1 kGy when it is combined with image analysis.

  12. Native carotenoids composition of some tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Enrique; Giuffrida, Daniele; Menchaca, Dania; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Meléndez-Martinez, Antonio J; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-10-15

    Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. The interest in carotenoids from a nutritional standpoint has recently greatly increased, because of their important health benefits. Here we report the native carotenoids composition in six tropical fruits from Panama, which is considered a region of great biodiversity. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In Corozo 32 different carotenoids were detected, including a high content of β-carotene and lycopene. Sastra showed the highest content of zeaxanthin among the fruit investigated. In Sapote 22 different carotenoids were detected, including β-carotene and 10 different zeaxanthin-di-esters. Frutita showed a very high content of the apo-carotenoid β-citraurin, and of a number of its esters. In Maracuyà chino 14 carotenoids were detected, including a high amounts of mono-esterified lauric acid with β-cryptoxanthin and with cryptocapsin. Mamey rojo was characterised by ketocarotenoids with κ rings, both hydroxylated and not hydroxylated.

  13. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  14. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  15. Effect of X-irradiation on Citrus Canker Pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri of Satsuma Mandarin Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-A Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc is one of the most important bacterial diseases of citrus. Because citrus canker is not found in many countries including European Union and Australia, Xcc is strictly regulated in order to prevent its spread. In this study, the effects of X-irradiation on Xcc growth either in the suspension or on the surface of citrus fruits were investigated. The suspension containing 1×10⁷ cfu/ml of Xcc was irradiated with different absorbed doses of X-irradiation ranging from 50 to 400 Gy. The results showed that Xcc was fully dead at 400 Gy of X-irradiation. To determine the effect of X-irradiation on quarantine, the Xcc-inoculated citrus fruits were irradiated with different X-ray doses at which Xcc was completely inhibited by an irradiation dose of 250 Gy. The D₁₀ value for Xcc on citrus fruits was found to be 97 Gy, indicating the possibility of direct application on citrus quarantine without any side sterilizer. Beside, presence of Xcc on the surface of asymptomatic citrus fruits obtained from citrus canker-infected orchards was noted. It indicated that the exporting citrus fruits need any treatment so that Xcc on the citrus fruits should be completely eliminated. Based on these results, ionizing radiation can be considered as an alternative method of eradicating Xcc for export of citrus fruits.

  16. 76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... treatment schedules to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual for certain species of citrus... \\2\\ to amend the regulations by adding new treatment schedules for sweet cherries and certain species... Treatment Manual to include the new treatment schedules for certain species of citrus fruit from...

  17. Antioxidant properties of fresh and processed Citrus aurantium fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash J. Divya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible components of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange fruit i.e. whole fruit, separated peel and pulp, and processed preserved products, namely salt pickle, chilli pickle, and sweet preserve were analyzed for antioxidant potential by various in vitro assays. The antioxidants components were extracted in different media and freeze dried. Methanol and aqueous media were comparatively more effective in extracting the antioxidant components. The total phenol content of the extracts ranged from 2.5 to 22.5 mg/g and 5.0 to 45.0 mg/g of pulp and peel fragments, respectively. The fruit components exhibited proton radical, oxyradical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities and were effective in preventing lipid peroxidation. Regression analysis showed positive association between total phenolics and different antioxidant assays. In processed products, there was an initial decrease in antioxidant capacity, which showed an increase on storage. In conclusion, bitter orange exhibited high antioxidant capacity which was retained even in processed and stored products.

  18. Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degu, A.; Hatew, B.; Nunes-Nesi, A.; Shlizerman, L.; Zur, N.; Fernie, A.R.; Blumwald, E.; Sadka, A.

    2011-01-01

    Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation. The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity early in fruit development

  19. Statin-like principles of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonoid glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donna, Leonardo; De Luca, Giuseppina; Mazzotti, Fabio; Napoli, Anna; Salerno, Raffaele; Taverna, Domenico; Sindona, Giovanni

    2009-07-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl neohesperidosides of hesperetin (brutieridin, 1) and naringenin (melitidin, 2) were isolated and detected from the fruits of bergamot (Citrus bergamia). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  20. Bioactive molecules as authenticity markers of Italian Chinotto (Citrus×myrtifolia) fruits and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Michele; Valle, Francesco; Poli, Ferruccio; Raggi, Maria Augusta; Mercolini, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Chinotto (Citrus×myrtifolia) is a uncommon fruit belonging to the Citrus genus, mainly cultivated in small areas of the Italian territory, where the main use concerns the eponymous drink, marketed with the name of "Chinotto". The lack of information about this fruit highlights the usefulness of nutraceutical compound characterization, as well as the need to identify genuineness markers in derived commercial products. An analytical strategy based on SPE-HPLC-F was developed to identify and quantify different bioactive compounds in Chinotto (Citrus×myrtifolia) fruits and commercial beverages. The method was fully validated and successfully applied to the analysis of nutraceutical compounds in Chinotto fruits of Italian origin and in some Chinotto-based beverages, granting reliable and consistent data. The obtained results provided preliminary key information about the bioactive profiling of Citrus×myrtifolia and proved the suitability of the selected compounds as authenticity markers of derived commercial soft drinks.

  1. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Dossat Carole; Ollitrault Patrick; Courtois Brigitte; Argout Xavier; Legaz Francisco; Götz Stefan; Iglesias Domingo J; Brumos Javier; Soler Guillermo; de Andres Fernando; Alós Enriqueta; Agustí Javier; Tadeo Francisco; Cercos Manuel; Colmenero Jose M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, r...

  2. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the request from the USA regarding export of Florida citrus fruit to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA PLH Panel conducted a scientific opinion on risk analysis and supporting documents provided by APHIS/USDA in support of the request to remove the Union's plant health import requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from...... of spread of citrus canker through the fruit pathway. Some data provided in the APHIS-USDA documents support that citrus fruit remain a conceptually possible pathway for transmitting and establishing citrus canker disease. The PLH Panel agrees that transmission of Xcc from infected fruit to a susceptible...

  4. Detection and Counting of On-Tree Citrus Fruit for Crop Yield Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Malik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a technique to estimate citrus fruit yield from the tree images. Manually counting the fruit for yield estimation for marketing and other managerial tasks is time consuming and requires human resources, which do not always come cheap. Different approaches have been used for the said purpose, yet separation of fruit from its background poses challenges, and renders the exercise inaccurate. In this paper, we use k-means segmentation for recognition of fruit, which segments the image accurately thus enabling more accurate yield estimation. We created a dataset containing 83 tree images with 4001 citrus fruits from three different fields. We are able to detect the on-tree fruits with an accuracy of 91.3%. In addition, we find a strong correlation between the manual and the automated fruit count by getting coefficients of determination R2 up to 0.99.

  5. Citrus phenylpropanoids and defence against pathogens. Part I: Metabolic profiling in elicited fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballester, A.R.; Lafuente, M.T.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Bovy, A.G.; González-Candelas, L.

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium spp. are among the major postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit. Induction of natural resistance in fruits constitutes one of the alternatives to chemical fungicides. Here, we investigated the involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the induction of resistance in Navelate oranges by

  6. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references.

  7. Shock absorbing reception surfaces for collecting fruit during the mechanical harvesting of citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Sánchez, María Coral; Blasco, J; Balasch Parisi, Sebastià; Torregrosa Mira, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Damage to fresh citrus caused by impact of fruits onto collecting surfaces has restricted the adoption of mechanical harvesting. Two different experiments were carried out: investigating free-falling citrus and investigating the shock absorbing capacity of various surfaces. In free-falling experiment damage to mandarin, orange and lemon was studied. Three collecting surfaces were studied: a concrete floor, an elevated canvas provided with a frame and wheels, and a concrete floor covered with ...

  8. A TaqMan PCR method for routine diagnosis of the quarantine fungus guignardia citricarpa on citrus fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Brouwershaven, van I.R.; Kox, L.F.F.; Bonants, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    With respect to disease risk for the quarantine fungus Guignardia citricarpa on citrus fruit an accurate diagnosis for routine analysis is required. Also, when inspections have to be performed on imported citrus fruits, a fast detection method is urgently needed. A fast automated DNA extraction meth

  9. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigo, María J.

    2013-09-04

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

  10. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc. This review summarizes the global distribution and taxonomy, numerous secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Citrus fruits to provide a reference for further study. Flavonoids as characteristic bioactive metabolites in Citrus fruits are mainly introduced.

  11. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... that this argument is invalid due to the year-round marketing of citrus harvested domestically. We made... variety. Total citrus production in Uruguay in 2011 was 270,367 metric tons, which is less than 3 percent... metric tons, respectively, which is less than 3.2 percent of U.S. production and 1 percent of total...

  12. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansode.D.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon and Orange (Citrus ourantium against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit juices have always been of great interest to scientist. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and etiological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, the Lemon and Orange fruit juices were subjected to screening against enteric pathogens, E.coli, Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei. Antimicrobial analysis was done by using agar well diffusion method against selected enteric bacteria. The MIC values were determined by using U.V. Spectrophotometer. The fresh crude Lemon fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella para.B and Shigella sonnei followed by E.coli and fresh crude Orange fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and Salmonella para.B. followed by E.coli. The antimicrobial activity of standard antibiotic Ampicillin was studied in comparison with Lemon and Orange fruit juices. The Minimum inhibitory concentration observed at 25% conc. of lemon juice against Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei and 25% concentration of orange juice against Shigella sonnei. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, steroid, saponin, and reducing sugar in citrus fruit juices.

  13. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Spain, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Gowan Comércio Internacional e Serviços Ltda to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of phosmet, Spain proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.4 mg/kg in oranges and grapefruits and 0.6 mg/kg in the other fruits of the citrus group, to 0.5 mg/kg in pome fruits and to lower the existing MRL to 0.04 mg/kg in rape seed. Spain drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.5 mg/kg for the proposed uses on citrus fruits and pome fruits. No modification of the existing MRL is proposed for rape seed. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of phosmet and phosmet oxon in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that according to the internationally agreed methodology for estimation of the consumer exposure, the intended uses of phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed will not result in an exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a public health concern.

  14. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with ‘King’ mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on ‘Carrizo’ citrange (C. sinensis ‘Washington Navel’ x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity. PMID:28208159

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

    2011-02-01

    Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.

  16. Measuring the amount of vitamin C in citrus fruits by atwo step oxidation-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose:Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These benefits are often attributed to their high antioxidant components such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid. Citrus species are extremely rich sources for this vitamin, therefore we decided to determine the amount of vitamin C in some citrus fruits.Materials and methods : 13 species of commonly used citrus fruits were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. The vitamin C contents in fresh juice were determined by a two step oxidation-reduction titration. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by tukey, multiple range test.Results : Mean ascorbic acid contents of commonly used citrus were 85.4±18.3 mg/100 of juice (ranging from 57.9 to 131.6. The highest amount of vitamin C were found in Shahsavari orange 131.6 ± 4.2 and Sanguinello 100.7 ± 2.2 and the lowest amounts were in Tangelo 57.9 ± 2.3 and Unshiu 70.2 ± 2.2 mg/100 of juice. There was no correlation between Ascorbic acid contents and amount of citric acid in juice.Conclusion : Significant differences were found in vitamin C contents of citrus fruits. In order to increase the intake of vitamin C in daily diet, consuming fruits with higher contents of vitamin C is recommended.

  17. A label-free differential quantitative mass spectrometry method for the characterization and identification of protein changes during citrus fruit development

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Dawei; Fass Joseph N; Phinney Brett S; Eigenheer Richard A; Fon Mario; Katz Ehud; Sadka Avi; Blumwald Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown commodity fruit crops. In this study a label-free LC-MS/MS based shot-gun proteomics approach was taken to explore three main stages of citrus fruit development. These approaches were used to identify and evaluate changes occurring in juice sac cells in various metabolic pathways affecting citrus fruit development and quality. Results Protein changes in citrus juice sac cells were identified and quantified using label-fr...

  18. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential.

  19. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of sugar and organic acid metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata) fruit during fruit maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Wang, Chengyang; Dong, Wencheng; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Chen, Ming; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) is an important mandarin citrus in China. However, the low ratio of sugars to organic acids makes it less acceptable for consumers. In this work, three stages (S120, early development stage; S195, commercial harvest stage; S205, delayed harvest stage) of Ponkan fruit were selected for study. Among 28 primary metabolites analyzed in fruit, sugars increased while organic acids in general decreased. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out and 19,504 genes were matched to the Citrus clementina genome, with 85 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated genes identified during fruit maturation. A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was included in the up-regulated group, and this was supported by the transcript ratio distribution. Expression of two asparagine transferases (AST), and a specific ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) members increased during fruit maturation. It is suggested that SPS, AST, ACL and GAD coordinately contribute to sugar accumulation and organic acid degradation during Ponkan fruit maturation. Both the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle were accelerated during later maturation, indicating the flux change from sucrose metabolism to organic acid metabolism was enhanced, with citrate degradation occurring mainly through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl-CoA pathways.

  20. Detection of thiabendazole applied on citrus fruits and bananas using surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Csilla; David, Leontin; Chiş, Vasile; Pînzaru, Simona Cintă

    2014-02-15

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a chemical fungicide and parasiticide largely used in food industry against mold and blight in vegetables and fruits during transportation and long term deposit. We investigated the possibility to detect and monitor the TBZ from the chemically treated bananas and citrus fruits available on Romanian market, using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a compact, portable, mini-Raman spectrometer. To assess the potential of the technique for fast, cheap and sensitive detection, we report the first complete vibrational characterization of the TBZ in a large pH and concentration range in conjunction with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. From the relative intensity of the specific SERS bands as a function of concentration, we estimated a total amount of TZB as 78 mg/kg in citrus fruits, 13 times higher than the maximum allowed by current regulations, whereas in banana fruit the value was in the allowed limit.

  1. Hepatoprotective Effect of Citrus limon Fruit Extract against Carbofuran Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Jaiswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol methylcarbamate, is known to induce oxidative stress and to cause inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The present work was envisaged to evaluate the effect of carbofuran on redox indices and its interactions with hepatic markers in rat. The ameliorating effect of Citrus limon fruit extract on carbofuran induced toxicity was also monitored. The results indicated that carbofuran treatment caused significant alterations in the levels of activities of AST, ALT, and LDH in liver tissues and serum. The levels of enzymatic oxidative stress markers such as SOD and catalase and nonenzymatic redox molecules such as total thiol, GSH, and protein thiol also showed significant perturbations in rat liver due to carbofuran treatment. The administration of Citrus limon fruit extract, however, was able to markedly ameliorate the toxicity of carbofuran by protecting the levels of aforesaid biomarkers to near normal levels. The ameliorative effect of Citrus limon fruit extract may be due to the presence of different antioxidants in it which may neutralize the ROS and RNS generated in the body tissue due to pesticide stress. These results suggested that Citrus limon fruit extract may be utilized as a potential supplement in proper management of pesticide intoxication in association with relevant therapeutics.

  2. Potassium sorbate residue levels and persistence in citrus fruit as detected by a simple colorimetric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest applications of potassium sorbate (PS) to fresh citrus fruit control fungal decay pathogens, such as Penicillium digitatum, cause of green mold. Although PS effectiveness has been examined repeatedly, little is known about PS residues. A colorimetric method that employed extraction of th...

  3. 77 FR 75509 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... crops with the 2013 reinsurance year. The proposed term ``citrus fruit group'' is defined as ``a.... Producers who choose an intended use of fresh will be required to provide management records upon request to... records must be provided upon request from at least one of the previous three crop years; or for...

  4. Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

  5. Novel expression patterns of carotenoid pathway-related gene in citrus leaves and maturing fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are abundant in citrus fruits and vary among cultivars and species. In the present study, HPLC and real-time PCR were used to investigate the expression patterns of 23 carotenoid biosynthesis gene family members and their possible relation with carotenoid accumulation in flavedo, juice s...

  6. Cell Wall Remodeling in Abscission Zone Cells during Ethylene-Promoted Fruit Abscission in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merelo, Paz; Agustí, Javier; Arbona, Vicent; Costa, Mário L.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Coimbra, Silvia; Gómez, María D.; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A.; Domingo, Concha; Talón, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.

    2017-01-01

    Abscission is a cell separation process by which plants can shed organs such as fruits, leaves, or flowers. The process takes place in specific locations termed abscission zones. In fruit crops like citrus, fruit abscission represents a high percentage of annual yield losses. Thus, understanding the molecular regulation of abscission is of capital relevance to control production. To identify genes preferentially expressed within the citrus fruit abscission zone (AZ-C), we performed a comparative transcriptomics assay at the cell type resolution level between the AZ-C and adjacent fruit rind cells (non-abscising tissue) during ethylene-promoted abscission. Our strategy combined laser microdissection with microarray analysis. Cell wall modification-related gene families displayed prominent representation in the AZ-C. Phylogenetic analyses of such gene families revealed a link between phylogenetic proximity and expression pattern during abscission suggesting highly conserved roles for specific members of these families in abscission. Our transcriptomic data was validated with (and strongly supported by) a parallel approach consisting on anatomical, histochemical and biochemical analyses on the AZ-C during fruit abscission. Our work identifies genes potentially involved in organ abscission and provides relevant data for future biotechnology approaches aimed at controlling such crucial process for citrus yield. PMID:28228766

  7. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dossat Carole

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most

  8. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage.

  9. Seasonal Abundance and Suppression of Fruit-Piercing Moth Eudocima phalonia (L. in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chan Teck Leong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal population of the fruit-piercing moths Eudocima spp. was monitored throughout the citrus growing seasons in a citrus orchard and in site adjacent to secondary forest from July 2007 to June 2009. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with activity lowest during the wet months (September-February when fruits are still available and while highest during the dry months (May-June which also coincided with the main fruiting season. The effects of an nC24 horticultural mineral oil (HMO on the citrus fruit damage caused by fruit-piecing moths was also determined. The percent fruit damage was significantly lowest (P≤0.05 in HMO-treated plots (8.4, followed by Dimethoate-treated plots (11.6 and untreated plots (22.5. However, there was no significant difference between HMO and Dimethoate treated plots indicating HMO is effective in reducing percent fruit damage.

  10. Flavonoid profiles of immature and mature fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck (Dangyuja) and overall contribution to the antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Ae; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Semin; Yi, Song; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2015-04-01

    Citrus fruits are a valuable functional food and their peel is used in East Asian folk medicine. In this study, the polar components of the fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared with reported data. Among the 13 characterized compounds, eight flavonoids and one coumarin were identified for the first time in fruit tissues. The total amount of the identified components was the largest for the immature fruit peel, followed by mature fruit peel, mature fruit flesh, and immature fruit flesh. Naringin (2) and neohesperidin (3) were particularly rich in all samples. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids extracted from fruit tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of the fruit peels was significantly higher than that of the fruit flesh. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52-0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = -0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case-control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer.

  12. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... (South American fruit fly) and Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly); two moths, Cryptoblabes..., Ceratitis capitata, Cryptoblabes gnidiella, Elsino australis, Gymnandrosoma aurantianum, and Xanthomonas.... capitata. If the prevalence rises above levels specified in the bilateral workplan, remedial measures...

  13. Abundance and Fluctuation in Spider Diversity in Citrus Fruits from Located in Vicinity of Faisalabad Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maqsood I; Mohsin S B; Li Yi-jing; Tang Li-jie; Saleem K M; Khalil U R; Shahla A; Aoun Bukhari; S S Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Spiders for the present study were collected from different fruit gardens (i.e. citrus) located at various localities (i.e., Tehsil Samundri, Jaranwala, Tandlianwala and Faisalabad) of District Faisalabad, Pakistan. Spiders belonging to six families and 33 species were captured from the two fruit gardens during the one year of this study. The citrus fruits garden was found to be best populated habitat as compared to other fruit garden. These sites were sampled by using pitfall traps; each month for five consecutive days from September 2010 to March 2011. As a result, 1 054 specimens were captured representing six families viz: lycosidae, thomosidae, gnaphosidae, saltisidae, araneidae and clubionidae. Lycosidae was more abundant, while clubionidae was less diverse during the study. Maximum population fluctuation among the spider specimens showed during the months from September and October, while the least abundance of spider specimens was reordered during June, November and December. Maximum taxonomic diversity was recorded from September to November, with the peak in September. It was concluded during these three months, when the citrus and guava gardens were attacked by the most of the pest insects. During the months of July and November diversity was moderate and mutually comparable, while in June and December, it was the least. This study contributed to the identification of spider diversity in the agro-ecosystem which could be used in the biological pest control.

  14. Efficient detection of citrus fruits in the tree canopy under variable illumination conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Sang, Nong

    2013-10-01

    This paper focuses on the detection of citrus fruits in the tree canopy under variable illumination and different degree occlusion. We applied a novel segmentation method to detect the visible parts of fruits by fusing the segmentation results of chromatic aberration map, normalized RGB model, and illumination map. This fusion method can detect the highlights, shadows and diffuse zones of fruit targets. The 3-D surface topography of the visible parts of fruits were recovered by the classical algorithm of shade from shading, the fruit targets were recovered by sphere fitting using these point cloud data, and the valid ones were chosen out by validity check. The results showed that the occlusion zones of targets were effectively recovered under various light conditions integrally using the proposed method.

  15. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI.

  16. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management.

  17. Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional Chinese medicinal food ingredients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Chongwei; Bucheli, Peter; Wei, Dongzhi

    2006-06-01

    Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in flavonoid composition. Huyou peel (C. paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou) was found to be the best naringin (3.25%) and neohesperidin (2.76%) source; C. aurantium, a major ingredient of several citrus-related TCM, is also a suitable source of naringin and neohesperidin, and a good juice source for flavanone glycosides; the peel of Wenzhoumiju (C. unshiu) is one of the richest local species in hesperidin (up to 6.25%); Zaoju (C. subcompressa) has the highest content of nobiletin (0.59%), a polymethoxylated flavone. LC-ES-MS analysis of Zanthoxylum genus for flavonoids revealed for the first time the presence of significant amounts (0.74%) of hesperidin in the root of Liangmianzhen (Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC), a relative of Sichuan pepper, which is a spice widely used in China.

  18. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

  19. External Defect classification of Citrus Fruit Images using Linear Discriminant Analysis Clustering and ANN classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Vijayarekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA is one technique for transforming raw data into a new feature space in which classification can be carried out more robustly. It is useful where the within-class frequencies are unequal. This method maximizes the ratio of between-class variance to the within-class variance in any particular data set and the maximal separability is guaranteed. LDA clustering models are used to classify object into different category. This study makes use of LDA for clustering the features obtained for the citrus fruit images taken in five different domains. Sub-windows of size 40x40 are cropped from the citrus fruit images having defects such as pitting, splitting and stem end rot. Features are extracted in four domains such as statistical features, fourier transform based features, discrete wavelet transform based features and stationary wavelet transform based features. The results of clustering and classification using LDA and ANN classifiers are reported

  20. Citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sudong; Lv, Gaofei; Chen, Weikai; Jiang, Jianxin; Wang, Jingqun

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have investigated the association between citrus fruit and bladder cancer risk; however, the results are inconsistent. To assess these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis of currently available studies. We identified relevant articles by searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We calculated the summary relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using a random effect model. We included eight case-control studies and six cohort studies in the meta-analysis. There was a significant inverse association between citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk in all pooled studies (RR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94) and case-control studies (RR: 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.92), but not in the cohort studies (RR: 0.96; 95% CI, 0.87-1.07). Our results suggest that citrus fruit intake is related to decreased bladder cancer risk. Subsequent well-designed, large prospective studies are needed to obtain better understanding of this relationship.

  1. Amazonian Native Palm Fruits as Sources of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary de Fátima Guedes dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region has many sources of fruits, especially native ones not yet explored, but which have some potential for use, as is the case with certain palms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacities of fruits from native palms from the Brazilian Amazon. The fruits of five palm species (bacaba, buriti, inajá, pupunha, and tucumã were evaluated for levels of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, total carotenoids, and total extractable polyphenols, as well as the total antioxidant capacities. The fruits had high contents of extractable total polyphenols, especially bacaba and tucumã (941.56 and 158.98 mg of galic acid·100g−1, total carotenoids in the case of tucumã and buriti (7.24 and 4.67 mg·100g−1, and anthocyanins in bacaba (80.76 mg·100g−1. As for the antioxidant capacity, bacaba had the highest total antioxidant activity by the Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC (194.67 µM·Trolox·g−1, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (47.46 g·pulp·g−1 DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid (92.17% Oxidation Inhibition (O.I methods. Bacaba phenolic profile revealed the presence of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and other flavonoids. The palm fruits studied can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, some containing higher amounts than that of commonly consumed fruits. Total extractable polyphenols and anthocyanins were directly correlated to antioxidant activity in these fruits.

  2. Comparative analysis of surface wax in mature fruits between Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) from the perspective of crystal morphology, chemical composition and key gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinqiu; Hao, Haohao; Liu, Runsheng; Ma, Qiaoli; Xu, Juan; Chen, Feng; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-06-15

    Surface wax of mature Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) was analysed by crystal morphology, chemical composition, and gene expression levels. The epicuticular and total waxes of both citrus cultivars were mostly composed of aldehydes, alkanes, fatty acids and primary alcohols. The epicuticular wax accounted for 80% of the total wax in the Newhall fruits and was higher than that in the Satsuma fruits. Scanning electron microscopy showed that larger and more wax platelets were deposited on the surface of Newhall fruits than on the Satsuma fruits. Moreover, the expression levels of genes involved in the wax formation were consistent with the biochemical and crystal morphological analyses. These diversities of fruit wax between the two cultivars may contribute to the differences of fruit postharvest storage properties, which can provide important information for the production of synthetic wax for citrus fruits.

  3. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other

  4. Carbon utilization by fruit limits shoot growth in alternate-bearing citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Iglesias, Domingo J; Reig, Carmina; Mesejo, Carlos; Agustí, Manuel; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2015-03-15

    Fruit load in alternate-bearing citrus trees is reported to alter shoot number and growth during spring, summer, and autumn flushes, and the source-sink balance, which affects the storage and mobilization of reserve nutrients. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of shoot growth inhibition resulting from the presence of fruits in 'Moncada' mandarin trees loaded with fruit (ON) or with very light fruit load (OFF), and to identify the role of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds in the competition between fruits and shoots. Growth of reproductive and vegetative organs was measured on a monthly basis. (13)C- and (15)N-labeled compounds were supplied to trace the allocation of reserve nutrients and subsequent translocation from source to sink. At the end of the year, OFF trees produced more abundant flushes (2.4- and 4.9-fold higher in number and biomass, respectively) than ON trees. Fruits from ON trees accumulated higher C amounts at the expense of developing flushes, whereas OFF trees exhibited the opposite pattern. An inverse relationship was identified between the amount of C utilized by fruits and vegetative flush growth. (13)C-labeling revealed an important role for mature leaves of fruit-bearing branches in supporting shoot/fruit growth, and the elevated sink strength of growing fruits on shoots. N availability for vegetative shoots was not affected by the presence or absence of fruits, which accumulated important amounts of (15)N. In conclusion, our results show that shoot growth is resource-limited as a consequence of fruit development, and vegetative-growth inhibition is caused by photoassimilate limitation. The competence for N is not a decisive factor in limiting vegetative growth under the experimental conditions of this study.

  5. Phytotoxic and antioxidant activity of seven native fruits of Brazil

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    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and phytotoxic effects in seven species of fruit native to Brazil: Acrocomia aculeata, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Tamarindus indica, Byrsonima intermedia, Psidium firmum, Myrciaria cauliflora and Ficus obtusifolia. Phytotoxic effects were assessed from crude ethanol extracts and semipurified fractions. In four of the seven fruits, total phenolic content, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was higher in the peel than in the pulp. We found that total phenolic content correlated significantly with antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in some fruits. We also evaluated the allelopathic effects of the crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions. In most of the essays, the ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest level of activity.

  6. Girdling effects on fruit set and quantum yield efficiency of PSII in two Citrus cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, F; Gravina, A; Agustí, M

    2007-04-01

    Girdling effects on fruitlet abscission, leaf chlorophyll, chlorophyll a fluorescence and carbohydrate concentration in various flowering and vegetative shoots were studied during natural fruit drop in two Citrus cultivars. Irrespective of shoot type, girdling delayed fruitlet abscission, but only fruitlets borne on leafy shoots had increased final fruit set. Chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis revealed differences in quantum yield efficiency of photosystem II of light adapted leaves (Phi(PSII)) among shoot types and in response to girdling. In young leaves of vegetative shoots, girdling decreased Phi(PSII), whereas Phi(PSII) increased from Day 30 after girdling in young leaves of leafy flowering shoots; however, Phi(PSII) did not change in mature leaves during fruit set in either control or girdled trees. Girdling altered leaf carbohydrate concentrations and the photosynthetic performance of the various shoot types. Our results indicate that, in Citrus, several carbohydrate-based regulatory mechanisms of photosynthesis coexist during carbohydrate accumulation brought about by girdling. It is concluded that the delay in fruitlet abscission and the increase in Phi(PSII )observed in girdled leafy flowering shoots are the mechanisms underlying the enhancement of fruit set after girdling.

  7. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-04-28

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer.

  8. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit.

  9. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2016-06-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model ( R 2 = 0.99, p control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  10. Naringin and Neohesperidin Levels during Development of Leaves, Flower Buds, and Fruits of Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J; Benavente, O; Del Río, J A

    1992-05-01

    The distribution of the flavanones naringin and neohesperidin has been analyzed during the development of the leaves, flower buds, and fruits of Citrus aurantium. These flavonoids are at maximum concentration in the organs studied during the logarithmic phase of growth, gradually decreasing until the organs reach maximum development. However, this decrease in the naringin and neohesperidin concentration in leaves, flower buds, and fruits is due to a dilution of the flavonoids caused by cell growth, because total content per organ continues to increase. The levels of neohesperidin are always greater than those of naringin, although the ratio between the relative concentrations is different in the three organs studied. Leaves have the highest ratios, varying between 8.83 and 5.18, followed by flowers (3.15-1.85), and fruits (2.23-1.02). These observations suggest different relationships between the respective enzymic activities in their biosynthetic pathway.

  11. A transcriptomic approach highlights induction of secondary metabolism in citrus fruit in response to Penicillium digitatum infection

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    González-Candelas Luis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postharvest losses of citrus fruit due to green mold decay, caused by the fungus Penicillium digitaum, have a considerable economic impact. However, little is known about the molecular processes underlying the response of citrus fruit to P. digitatum. Results Here we describe the construction of a subtracted cDNA library enriched in citrus genes preferentially expressed in response to pathogen infection followed by cDNA macroarray hybridization to investigate gene expression during the early stages of colonization of the fruit's peel by P. digitatum. Sequence annotation of clones from the subtracted cDNA library revealed that induction of secondary and amino acid metabolisms constitutes the major response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. Macroarray hybridization analysis was conducted with RNA from either control, wounded, ethylene treated or P. digitatum infected fruit. Results indicate an extensive overlap in the response triggered by the three treatments, but also demonstrated specific patterns of gene expression in response to each stimulus. Collectively our data indicate a significant presence of isoprenoid, alkaloid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in the transcriptomic response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. About half of the genes that are up-regulated in response to pathogen infection are also induced by ethylene, but many examples of ethylene-independent gene regulation were also found. Two notable examples of this regulation pattern are the genes showing homology to a caffeine synthase and a berberine bridge enzyme, two proteins involved in alkaloid biosynthesis, which are among the most induced genes upon P. digitatum infection but are not responsive to ethylene. Conclusions This study provided the first global picture of the gene expression changes in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, emphasizing differences and commonalities with those triggered by wounding or

  12. Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

    2012-11-01

    A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

  13. Imazalil residue loading on citrus fruit as affected by formulation, solution pH and exposure time in aqueous dip treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum is responsible for major postharvest fruit losses on the South African fresh citrus export market. Some of these losses, as well as fungicide resistance development, can be attributed to sub-optimal imazalil (IMZ) residue loading on citrus fruit, i.e. <2 µ...

  14. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

  15. Water needs in citrus fruit in a dry region of Morocco

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    Abdellah El Hari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An irrigation plan for citrus fruit in the climatic context of the area studied seems possible on the basis of evaporation from a class A pan. In principle, a coefficient value of 0.6 could be retained. Indeed, the use of this coefficient together with a high frequency of irrigation has made it possible not only to satisfy the water requirements of the citrus fruit, but also to obtain a good yield, namely 40 tons per hectare. In addition, it has been possible to achieve a great economy in water in comparison to the considerably larger quantities otherwise needed by many farmers. Hence, a great saving in water compared to quantities commonly bought by other farmers. This was reflected not only in the yield but also in the quality of the fruit, which turned out to be even better, as indicated by its size, since the quantity of water was closer to that needed. A poor yield was obtained when the water deficit was severe.

  16. Biological and physical approaches to improve induced resistance against green mold of stored citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arras, G; Dhallewin, G; Petretto, A; Marceddu, S; Loche, M; Agabbio, M

    2005-01-01

    Health and environmental concerns have point out the need to improve or change several manufacturing steps in the food chain. In this context particular attention should be given to the technologies involved in fruits and vegetables production. Nearly all fresh fruit and vegetables are subjected to different periods of storage and/or shelf-life before of their consumption. This implies the need to protect the commodities from microbial spoilage. Some Citrus species (e.g. lemon and grapefruit) may be stored for several months before consumption and then post-harvest treatments are essential to contain green (Penicillium digitatum) and blue (P. italicum) moulds. Alternative approaches to chemicals usually have a lower efficacy in containing rots but fulfill the consumer's expectation. Among the alternative strategies, the improvement of host natural resistance is promising. In this regard, we report some results concerning the use of biotic (yeast) and abiotic agents as inducers of phytoalexin (i.e. scoparone and/or scopoletin) accumulation in Citrus rind and its importance in the control of fungal decay. In all experiments the inducers were applied on fruits before or 24 h after inoculation with P. digitatum and the rot severity was monitored 7 days later. The accumulation of phytoalexins was monitored according to a standard methodology by HPLC. In all experiments a positive correlation was found between increase of the phytoalexin scoparone in host tissue and reduction of decay.

  17. Residue level, persistence, and storage performance of citrus fruit treated with fludioxonil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Marceddu, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Scherm, Barbara; Migheli, Quirico

    2005-08-24

    The potential of postharvest dip treatments with fludioxonil (FLU) (a synthetic analogue of the bacterial metabolite of pyrrolnitrin), in controlling postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum of citrus fruit was investigated in comparison with the conventional fungicide imazalil (IMZ). The ultrastructural changes of fruit epicuticular wax was investigated as a function of water dip temperature, and the possible role of these changes was related to residue accumulation under FLU treatment. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of fungicide concentration, dip temperature, and fruit storage conditions. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that fruit dipping in water at 30 or 40 degrees C did not cause differences in cuticular wax's ultrastructure in comparison to control fruit, while treatments at 50, 55, or 60 degrees C caused the disappearance of wax platelets, resulting in relatively homogeneous skin surface, due to partial "melting" of epicuticular wax. Residues of FLU in fruit treated at 20 or 50 degrees C were significantly correlated with the doses of fungicide applied. When equal amounts of fungicide were employed, the residue concentrations were notably higher (from 2.6- to 4-fold) in fruit treated at 50 degrees C than in fruit treated at 20 degrees C. The dissipation rate of FLU in "Salustiana" and "Tarocco" oranges was lower in fruit subjected to treatment at 50 degrees C. The minimal FLU concentration for almost complete decay control in artificially wounded fruit during 7-d storage at 20 degrees C was 400 mg/L active ingredient (ai) in fruit treated at 20 degrees C and 100 mg/L ai in fruit treated at 50 degrees C. Results on nonwounded Tarocco oranges subjected to 3 weeks of simulated quarantine conditions at 1 degrees C, plus 6 weeks of standard storage at 8 degrees C and an additional two weeks of simulated marketing period (SMP) at 20 degrees C revealed that almost complete decay control

  18. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YongZhong; LIU Qing; XIONG JingJing; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    'Fengjiewancheng' (FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of 'Fengjie 72-1' navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of sucrose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Resuits showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering)and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant's gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1)was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its parental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  19. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ‘Fengjiewancheng’(FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of‘Fengjie 72-1’navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of su-crose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Re-sults showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering) and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant’s gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1) was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its pa-rental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  20. A label-free differential quantitative mass spectrometry method for the characterization and identification of protein changes during citrus fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Dawei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown commodity fruit crops. In this study a label-free LC-MS/MS based shot-gun proteomics approach was taken to explore three main stages of citrus fruit development. These approaches were used to identify and evaluate changes occurring in juice sac cells in various metabolic pathways affecting citrus fruit development and quality. Results Protein changes in citrus juice sac cells were identified and quantified using label-free shotgun methodologies. Two alternative methods, differential mass-spectrometry (dMS and spectral counting (SC were used to analyze protein changes occurring during earlier and late stages of fruit development. Both methods were compared in order to develop a proteomics workflow that could be used in a non-model plant lacking a sequenced genome. In order to resolve the bioinformatics limitations of EST databases from species that lack a full sequenced genome, we established iCitrus. iCitrus is a comprehensive sequence database created by merging three major sources of sequences (HarvEST:citrus, NCBI/citrus/unigenes, NCBI/citrus/proteins and improving the annotation of existing unigenes. iCitrus provided a useful bioinformatics tool for the high-throughput identification of citrus proteins. We have identified approximately 1500 citrus proteins expressed in fruit juice sac cells and quantified the changes of their expression during fruit development. Our results showed that both dMS and SC provided significant information on protein changes, with dMS providing a higher accuracy. Conclusion Our data supports the notion of the complementary use of dMS and SC for label-free comparative proteomics, broadening the identification spectrum and strengthening the identification of trends in protein expression changes during the particular processes being compared.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

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    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  2. Flavonoids and a Limonoid from the Fruits of Citrus unshiu and Their Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Lee, Dahae; Lee, Seulah; Noh, Hyung Jun; Hyun, Jae Wook; Yi, Pyoung Ho; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-09-28

    The fruits of Citrus unshiu are one of the most popular and most enjoyed fruits in Korea. As we continue to seek for bioactive metabolites from Korean natural resources, our study on the chemical constituents of the fruits of C. unshiu resulted in the isolation of a new flavonoid glycoside, limocitrunshin 1, along with seven other flavonoids 2-8 and a limonoid 9. All structures were identified by spectroscopic methods, namely 1D and 2D NMR, including HSQC, HMBC, and (1)H-(1)H COSY experiments, HRMS, and other chemical methods. Compounds 3, 5, and 9 are reported to be isolated from this fruit for the first time. The isolated compounds were applied to activity tests to verify their inhibitory effects on inflammation and nephrotoxicity. Compounds 6 and 9 showed the most potent inhibitory activity on renal cell damage and nitric oxide production, respectively. Thus, the fruits of C. unshiu could serve as a valuable natural source of bioactive components with health benefits for potential application in functional foods.

  3. Improving the antioxidant functionality of Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) fruit juice by underwater shockwave pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraya, Eisuke; Nakada, Shina; Touyama, Akiko; Itoh, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) has a strong characteristic aroma, and hence, yuzu juice is used in a number of Japanese foods. We herein evaluated the functional compounds of yuzu juice to investigate whether underwater shockwave pretreatment affects its functionality. Employing the shockwave pretreatment at an increased discharge and energy of 3.5kV and 4.9kJ, respectively, resulted in an increase in the flavanone glycoside content and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The ORAC value of yuzu juice cultivated in Rikuzentakata increased approximately 1.7 times upon underwater shockwave pretreatment. The treatment method proposed herein exhibited reliable and good performance for the extraction of functional and antioxidant chemicals in yuzu fruits, and was comparable with traditional squeezing methods. The high applicability and reliability of this technique for improving the antioxidant functionality of yuzu fruit juice was demonstrated, confirming the potential for application to a wide range of food extraction processes.

  4. PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON STONE FRUITS AND CITRUS IN LEBANON

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    Said K. Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Said K., Ibrahim Azar, Christian Naser, Badran Akikki and Ludmilla Ibrahim. 2016. Plant-parasitic nematodes on stone fruits and citrus in Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(1: 9-24. This study aimed to determine the occurrence, distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on stone fruits in Lebanon and to determine the effect of plant extracts on the mortality of several nematode species. A total of 308 soil samples were collected from five different crops. Almost all surveyed areas showed infection with nematodes. The soil infestation rate with nematodes in collected soil samples from all 10 surveyed crops ranged from 66.6 to 100%. Eighteen out of 308 soil samples were free of nematodes (5.8%. All the collected soil samples from nectarine and plum orchards were infested with nematodes (100%, followed by citrus (97.6%, apple (88.7%, pear and quince (85.7%, and cherry (81.4%. The lowest infection (66.6% was detected on almond and apricot. The level of infestation varied from one area to another and ranged between 0.1 and 28 nematodes per 1 g of soil, with the highest number obtained on cherry. Several genera were identified based on morphological characters including: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Longidorus. Tylenchulus and Radopholus spp. were the most common on citrus trees, whereas Pratylechus and Meloidogyne spp. were detected almost in all the samples collected from all the crops. Six chopped aromatic plants were tested in pot experiments to control nematodes population densities. The results revealed that carbofuran (nematicide was the most effective (88.48% in comparison to the plant materials. Allium sativum gave the highest control (76.52% followed by Tageta patula (72.0%, Cucurbita maxima (71.84% and Inula viscosa (63.96%. Origanum syriacum (55.04% and Thymus (53.72% were less effective in comparison to the rest of tested plant materials.

  5. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, María A.; Zubreski, Emilce R.; Garro, Oscar A.; Hours, Roque A.

    2013-01-01

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327

  6. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Martos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine.

  7. Satkara (Citrus macroptera Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats

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    Sudip Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae, an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  8. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, María A; Zubreski, Emilce R; Garro, Oscar A; Hours, Roque A

    2013-01-01

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine.

  9. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit.

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    Waewruedee Waewthongrak

    Full Text Available Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU, chitinase (CHI, peroxidase (POX and lipoxygenase (LOX in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection.

  10. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection.

  11. Transcriptomic profiling of citrus fruit peel tissues reveals fundamental effects of phenylpropanoids and ethylene on induced resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballester Frutos, A.R.; Lafuente, M.T.; Forment, J.; Gadea, J.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Bovy, A.G.; Gonzalez-Candelas, L.

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium spp. are the major postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit in Mediterranean climatic regions. The induction of natural resistance constitutes one of the most promising alternatives to avoid the environmental contamination and health problems caused by chemical fungicides. To understand the

  12. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  13. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidi eXu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes, including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes, 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes, 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes, and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum, which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus postharvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  14. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  15. Comparison of Citrus Fruit Surface Defect Classification using Discrete Wavelet Transform, Stationary Wavelet Transform and Wavelet Packet Transform Based Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayarekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to classify the citrus fruit images based on the external defect using the features extracted in the spectral domain (transform based and to compare the performance of each of the feature set. Automatic classification of agricultural produce by machine vision technology plays a very important role as it improves the quality of grading. Multi resolution analysis using wavelets yields better results for pattern recognition and object classification. This study details about an image processing method applied for classifying three external surface defects of citrus fruit using wavelet transforms based features and an artificial neural network. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT, Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT and Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT features viz. mean and standard deviation of the details and approximations were extracted from citrus fruit images and used for classifying the defects. The DWT and SWT features were extracted from 40x40 sub-windows of the fruit image. The WPT features were extracted from the full fruit image of size 640x480. The classification results pertaining to the three wavelet transforms are reported and discussed.

  16. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml, total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml, and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid content (67.97 mg/100 ml. C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

  17. Regulated deficit irrigation effects on yield, fruit quality and vegetative growth of Navelina citrus trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasque, M.; Granero, B.; Turegano, J. V.; Gonzalez-Altozano, P.

    2010-07-01

    An experiment on regulated deficit irrigation (Redi) was performed during two growing seasons (2007 and 2008) in a drip-irrigated orchard of Navelina/Cleopatra in Senyera (Valencia, Spain). Two RDI treatments, where water application was reduced to 40% and 60% of the irrigation dose (ID), were carried out during the initial fruit enlargement phase (Stage II, 17th July to 2nd September). The rest of the year they were irrigated at 110% ID. These treatments were compared with a control, where irrigation was applied without restriction during the whole year at 110% ID. The ID was obtained from the evapotranspiration data, as well as from the characteristic variables of drip irrigation for the specific experimental orchard. The effects of the treatments on yield, fruit quality, and vegetative growth are discussed in relation to tree water status (midday stem water potential, ?st). Minimal ?st values reached in the treatment with the highest stress intensity were -1.71 and - 1.60 MPa in 2007 and 2008 respectively. These ?st values reached as a consequence of the water reduction in the RDI summer treatments applied in this study did not affect yield or fruit quality, allowing water savings between 16% and 23%. In conclusion, water restriction during summer, and once June drop has finished, favours the better use of water resources by Navelina citrus trees, achieving an increase of water use efficiency (between 14% and 27% in this case), provided that an appropriate irrigation in autumn allows for tree recovery. (Author) 39 refs.

  18. Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of different parts of Citrus aurantifolia (lime fruit) as used locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibinu, Ibukun; Adenipekun, Tayo; Adelowotan, Toyin; Ogunsanya, Tolu; Odugbemi, Tolu

    2006-11-13

    We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as "epa-ijebu" in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of "epa-ijebu" in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink, water, ethanol and fermented water from 3 days soaked milled maize known as "ekan-ogi" or "omidun" in the Yoruba dialect. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by the agar well diffusion. The clinical isolates used included Anaerobic facultative bacteria, namely: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25213, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexnerii, Streptococcus faecalis, Citrobacter spp, Serratia spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Escherichia coli; Fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans; and Anaerobes which includes Bacteroides spp, Porphyromonas spp, and Clostridium spp. Crude extracts of all solvents used varied in zones of inhibition. The anaerobes and the gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to all the extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 32 mg/ml-128 g/ml. The activity against the fungi showed only the oil extract potent for A. niger, while Candida albicans was susceptible to all the extracts with MIC ranging from 256 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. The gram-negatives have MIC ranging from 64 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged between 32 mg/ml to 512 mg/ml depending on isolates and extracting solvent. The oil and palm-wine extract of "epa-ijebu" showed greater activity than the other extracts. The killing rate of the schnapps extract on S. aureus and E. coli was 1 and 3.5 hours respectively.

  19. The citrus fruit flavonoid naringenin suppresses hepatic glucose production from Fao hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, Aparna; Tian, Min; Belury, Martha A

    2009-02-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the major source of fasting hyperglycemia. Here, we investigated the role of the citrus fruit flavonoid naringenin, in the attenuation of hepatic glucose production from hepatoma (Fao) cells. We show that naringenin, but not its glucoside naringin, suppresses hepatic glucose production. Furthermore, unlike insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production, incubation of hepatocytes with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor Ly294002 had no effect on the ability of naringenin to suppress hepatic glucose production. Further, naringenin did not increase phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 or, Thr308, indicating this down-stream target of PI3-kinase is also not a player in naringenin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production. Importantly, like the dimethylbiguanide, metformin, naringenin significantly decreased cellular ATP levels without increasing cell cytotoxicity. Together, these results suggest that the aglycone, naringenin, has a role in the attenuation of hyperglycemia and may exert this effect in a manner similar to the drug, metformin.

  20. An Additional Phytosanitary Cold Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Oroblanco' Citrus Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy

    2017-01-12

    For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco.

  1. Identification and characterization of volatile components of the Japanese sour citrus fruit Citrus nagato-yuzukichi Tanaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Mei; Ikeda, Yukinori; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2008-07-01

    A total of 39 aroma compounds were detected in the essential oil of Citrus nagato-yuzukichi Tanaka (nagato-yuzukichi) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons (12 components, 90.52%). The composition pattern of essential oil in C. nagato-yuzukichi was fairly similar to that of Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Sudachi). Principal component analysis (PCA) of data obtained with an electronic nose indicated a variation of each oil along PC1. The oils of Citrus junos Tanaka (Yuzu) and Citrus sphaerocarpa Tanaka (Kabosu) showed a clear upward displacement as compared with those of C. nagato-yuzukichi and C. sudachi. However, in PC2, the oils of C. nagato-yuzukichi and C. sudachi showed a displacement in a negative direction and a positive one respectively.

  2. Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits, orange cultivates (Citrus sinensis; Washington navel, Sanguinello, Valencia, Acidless, Moro, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Clementine, Unshiu, Grapefruit (C. paradisi, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon and Tangelo were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. Amount of pectin was determined by acidic extraction from dry albedos of fruits. Degree of estrification and galacturonic acid content were determined by USP standard titrimetric procedure.Results: The highest amount of pectin was found in Italian orange (27%, Shahsavari orange (25% and Sanguinello (20 % on the basis of dry weight. The highest degree of estrification (11.5% , 10.9% and 9.6% was found in Lemon, Washington navel and Bitter (sour orange respectively. The highest galacturonic acid contents were found in Washington navel, Lemon and Italian orange (89.3, 85.4 and 77.7 respectively.Conclusion: Six fruits were suitable for utilization in drug industries including: Washington navel, Acidless, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon. Washington navel and Lemon had the most suitable pectin for pharmaceutical purposes

  3. 虫源性柑橘果面伤痕诊断%Diagnosis of Insect-originated Citrus Fruit Scarring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于法辉; 张宏宇

    2012-01-01

    我国超过巴西成为世界上柑橘生产第一大国,而我国柑橘出口量排在全球第六名,仅为全球出口总量的6.5%,影响出口因素之一是果实外观品质低下.由于生物、机械和化学等因素在果实生长期对果实外表造成伤害,使成熟果实留下疤痕.造成柑橘果面伤痕的虫害主要有蓟马、螽蟖、螨类、蚧类、卷叶蛾、潜叶蛾、叶甲类、叶蝉、蜗牛等,根据近几年的研究调查并结合国内外相关文献,综述了主要虫源性柑橘果面伤痕症状,为快速准确诊断害虫种类,制定有效的防治措施提供依据.%China is the first superpower of citrus production in the world, but the export value of citrus ranks the 6th in the world, only account for 6.5% of total global exports. Many factors are affecting exportion; And low appearance quality caused by diseases and pests is one of the main factors. Due to biological (e.g. Insect, disease or mite), mechanical (e.g. Hail, wind rubbing or agricultural operations) and chemical (e.g., pesticides) factors, citrus fruits show surface defects with scarring appearance during fruit growth period. The insect pests causing this type of damage include various kinds of insect pests such as citrus thrip, katydid, mite, scale insects, fruit tree leafroller, citrus leafminer, leaf beetle, leafhopper, snail and so on. Their characteristic damage symptoms was reviewed respectively for rapid and accurate diagnosis of those insect-originated citrus fruit scarring, in order to improve citrus quality.

  4. Molecular characterization of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL gene family from Citrus and the effect of fruit load on their expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron eShalom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified a Citrus gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL transcription factor that contained a sequence complementary to miR156. Genes of the SPL family are known to play a role in flowering regulation and phase transition. In Citrus, the mRNA levels of the gene were significantly altered by fruit load in buds; under heavy fruit load (ON-Crop trees, known to suppress next year flowering, the mRNA levels were down-regulated, while fruit removal (de-fruiting, inducing next-year flowering, resulted in its up-regulation. In the current work, we set on to study the function of the gene. We showed that the Citrus SPL was able promote flowering independently of photoperiod in Arabidopsis, while miR156 repressed its flowering-promoting activity. In order to find out if fruit load affected the expression of additional genes of the SPL family, we identified and classified all SPL members in the Citrus genome, and studied their seasonal expression patterns in buds and leaves, and in response to de-fruiting. Results showed that two additional SPL-like genes and miR172, known to be induced by SPLs in Arabidopsis, were altered by fruit load. The relationships between these factors in relation to the fruit-load effect on Citrus flowering are discussed.

  5. The effect of nutritional spray programs applied to mitigate symptoms of Huanglongbing on fruit drop caused by HLB and citrus canker on ‘Hamlin’ orange trees

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, P. D.; Rouse, R. E.; Teems, S. S.; Sytsma, R. E.; Shobert, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was detected in Florida in 2005 and has reached 100% incidence in certain citrus plantings in southwest Florida. The putative causal agent of HLB in Florida is the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLa).  Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is endemic in Florida.  In 2011 and 2012, fruit drop on young ‘Hamlin’ trees with symptoms of HLB and/or citrus canker was particularly severe, with more than 90% fruit drop recorded. Nutritio...

  6. Nonlinear Fusion of Multispectral Citrus Fruit Image Data with Information Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peilin; Lee, Sang-Heon; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Park, Jae-Sam

    2017-01-01

    The main issue of vison-based automatic harvesting manipulators is the difficulty in the correct fruit identification in the images under natural lighting conditions. Mostly, the solution has been based on a linear combination of color components in the multispectral images. However, the results have not reached a satisfactory level. To overcome this issue, this paper proposes a robust nonlinear fusion method to augment the original color image with the synchronized near infrared image. The two images are fused with Daubechies wavelet transform (DWT) in a multiscale decomposition approach. With DWT, the background noises are reduced and the necessary image features are enhanced by fusing the color contrast of the color components and the homogeneity of the near infrared (NIR) component. The resulting fused color image is classified with a C-means algorithm for reconstruction. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated with the statistical F measure in comparison to some existing methods using linear combinations of color components. The results show that the fusion of information in different spectral components has the advantage of enhancing the image quality, therefore improving the classification accuracy in citrus fruit identification in natural lighting conditions. PMID:28098797

  7. VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 % constituting l-limonene (92.4 %, -terpene (2.6 % and -phellandrene (1.8 %. The volatile oil after heating at 110C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained the above three major components in varied amounts. -Pinene, -phellandrene, l-limonene, - terpinene and l-linalool were detected in all oil samples. -Thujene and trans--caryophyllene were produced when the oil was treated with silica gel for 24 hours. Trans-Verbenol was determined when the oil was heated at 110C for 24 hours and exposed to sunlight for 48 hours. Terpen-4-ol disappeared in all the samples except exposition to the sunlight. Cis--farnesene, present in the fruit peels in trace amount, was not detected in other oil samples after impact of physical factors.

  8. Understanding fruit and vegetable intake of Native American children: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinley, Rachel C; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Native American children experience greater rates of obesity and risk for chronic diseases in comparison to their counterparts in other ethnic groups. Contributing to this risk may be inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate the fruit and vegetable consumption of Native American children between the ages of 2 and 5 by using an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. This study first collected qualitative data from caregivers of Native American children (n = 45) and stakeholders in Native American communities (n = 10) to gain perspectives of fruit and vegetable consumption. Data was then utilized to develop a fruit and vegetable survey which was administered with a fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire. These quantitative assessments were administered to caregivers of Native American children (n = 92) to gain an understanding of predictors of fruit and vegetable intake among this population. This study was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior. Findings from the mixed methods analysis demonstrate that, while the IMB model may be a useful tool to utilize in explaining the complex relationship between factors that impact fruit and vegetable consumption among Native American children, a revised model may be appropriate to use in future intervention development.

  9. Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Dutra Degli Esposti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia após o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.

  10. Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hui-shan; XU Hui-rong; YING Yi-bin; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan; TIAN Hai-qing

    2006-01-01

    Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of citrus fruits was analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, instrument noise, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and yielded optimal calibration models. A total of 170 NIR spectra were acquired; 135 NIR spectra were used to develop the calibration model; the remaining spectra were used to validate the model. The developed PLS model describing the relationship between SSC and NIR reflectance spectra could predict SSC of 35 samples with correlation coefficient of 0.995 and RMSEP of 0.79°Brix.

  11. In vivo sucrose stimulation of colour change in citrus fruit epicarps: Interactions between nutritional and hormonal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Domingo J.; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Legaz, Francisco; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Talon, Manuel

    2001-06-01

    During ripening, citrus fruit-peel undergoes 'colour break', a process characterized by the conversion of chloroplast to chromoplast. The process involves the progressive loss of chlorophylls and the gain of carotenoids, changing peel colour from green to orange. In the present work, the in vivo and in vitro effects of supplemented nutrients (sucrose and nitrogen) and phytohormones (gibberellins [GA] and ethylene) on colour change in fruit epicarp of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu (Mak.) Marc., cv. Okitsu), were studied. The rate of colour break was correlated positively with sucrose content and negatively with nitrogen content. The removal of leaves blocked natural sucrose build-up and nitrogen reduction in the peel. Defoliation also inhibited chlorophyll disappearance and carotenoid accumulation, thereby preventing colour break. In vivo sucrose supplementation promoted sucrose accumulation and advanced colour break. In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, colour change promoted by sucrose was unaffected by ethylene but delayed by GA3. In non-supplemented plants, ethylene accelerated colour break while GA3 had no detectable effects. Ethylene inhibitors effectively counteracted the sucrose effects on colour change. Collectively, these results suggest that the chloroplast to chromoplast conversion in citrus fruit epicarps is stimulated by sucrose accumulation. The sugar regulation appears to operate via ethylene, whereas GA may act as a repressor of the sucrose-ethylene stimulation.

  12. Volatile and Flavonoid Composition of the Peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican Fruit for Quality Assessment of Its Liqueur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Nicolas; Barboni, Toussaint; Curk, Franck; Costa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Summary The volatile and flavonoid compositions of the peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican fruits cultivated in Corsica were studied according to the maturity of the citron fruits measured using growing degree-days. Quantitative variation with the stage of development of the fruit was observed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Thirty volatile compounds were identified in the peel essential oil. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major compounds. The volatile compositions of commercial citron liqueurs were also characterized by high amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons with the same two major components. The main flavonoid components of citron fruits and derived liqueurs were rutin and neohesperidin. This chemical characterization can be used for quality assessment of food products from C. medica var. Corsican. PMID:27904313

  13. New Technologies and Systems for High Quality Citrus Fruit Production, Labor-saving and Orchard Construction in Mountain Areas of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunihisa MORINAGA; Osamu SUMIKAWA; Osamu KAWAMOTO; Hiroyasu YOSHIKAWA; Seiji NAKAO; Masahiko SHIMAZAKI; Shin-no-suke KUSABA; Norihiro HOSHI

    2005-01-01

    Novel technologies have been necessary for improving fruit quality and productivity of citrus,labor-saving and orchard conservation on steep slope lands since aging of growers and decrease in the number of successors is remarkable in mountain areas of southwestern Japan. The purpose of this paper is to introduce new technologies for improving citrus production that have been developed in recent years. A new fruit quality control system using drip irrigation and liquid fertilization technique combined with year-round plastic mulching was developed, and it enables high quality and stable citrus fruit production. Water and/or nutrient solution is automatically supplied through drip tubes that are laid under the mulching sheets to give adequate water stress, so as to improve sugar and acid content of fruit. A new transportation system for steep sloping citrus orchards, which is a combination of the monorail system and contour narrow paths, was suggested. A small walking cultivator was developed to explain the procedure of narrow path excavation. After introducing the narrow path, working hours for fertilizer and chemical herbicide application were reduced. Disaster prevention mapping of citrus orchards on slope lands was developed based on computer-aided seepage estimation and topographic data. The mapping can show zones of both ascending flow and descending flow of underground water during heavy rains in citrus orchards. The mapping is considered to be effective for the management of orchards and prevention of erosion on slope lands.

  14. Effects of Storage Condition on Physiological Rind Disorder of Citrus Fruits%贮藏条件对柑桔果皮生理病害的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇坚; 刘丽丹; 曾凯芳

    2011-01-01

    柑桔果皮生理病害是影响柑桔果实贮藏品质的重要因素,它是由于柑桔果皮代谢失调导致的.本文在概述柑桔果皮生理病害基础上,主要综述了贮藏条件对果皮生理病害发生的影响,并对贮藏条件对果皮生理病害的控制进行了展望.%Physiological rind disorder of citrus fruits in storage period is an important factor, which influence the storage qualitative of citrus fruits, which is caused by disproportion of fruit peel metabolism.This paper reviewed the describing and the effect of storage condition on the physiological rind disorder of citrus fruits, And the control method in storage period was also described.

  15. Citrus fruits--varieties, chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part 2 of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, oraganic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals, and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma have been reviewed. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other products; composition of essential oils; and

  16. Effects of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on blood fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    The enhancement of blood fluidity may lead to improvements in skin problems resulting from unsmooth circulation or blood stagnation. Since a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits may be a useful ingredient in skin-whitening cosmetics, the present study was designed to examine the effect of CH-ext on blood fluidity. CH-ext concentration-dependently inhibited in vitro collagen-induced rabbit platelet aggregation and in vitro polybrene-induced rat erythrocyte aggregation. The CH-ext showed in vitro fibrinolysis activity in fibrin plate assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext using antiplatelet activity, inhibitory activity of erythrocyte aggregation, and fibrinolysis activity revealed that these activities of CH-ext were attributable to naringenin-7-glycoside (prunin). Successive oral administration of CH-ext to rats inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decrease of blood platelets and fibrinogen, and LPS-induced increase of fibrin degradation products (FDP) in LPS-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) model rats. Effects of CH-ext on blood fluidity were analyzed by a micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN). Preventive oral administration of CH-ext to rats showed dose-dependent reduction of the passage time of whole blood flow of the DIC model rats in comparison with that of the vehicle control rats. These results imply that CH-ext may have effects which improve effects on blood fluidity.

  17. Identification and functional analysis of Penicillium digitatum genes putatively involved in virulence towards citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Mario; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The fungus Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mould rot, is the most destructive post-harvest pathogen of citrus fruit in Mediterranean regions. In order to identify P. digitatum genes up-regulated during the infection of oranges that may constitute putative virulence factors, we followed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA macroarray hybridization approach. The origin of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was determined by comparison against the available genome sequences of both organisms. Genes coding for fungal proteases and plant cell wall-degrading enzymes represent the largest categories in the subtracted cDNA library. Northern blot analysis of a selection of P. digitatum genes, including those coding for proteases, cell wall-related enzymes, redox homoeostasis and detoxification processes, confirmed their up-regulation at varying time points during the infection process. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to generate knockout mutants for two genes encoding a pectin lyase (Pnl1) and a naphthalene dioxygenase (Ndo1). Two independent P. digitatum Δndo1 mutants were as virulent as the wild-type. However, the two Δpnl1 mutants analysed were less virulent than the parental strain or an ectopic transformant. Together, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the putative determinants of the virulence mechanisms of P. digitatum.

  18. Amelioration of hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin using citrus fruit oil in broilers (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Senthil; Rao, Suguna; Satyanarayana, M L; Kumar, P G Pradeep; Anitha, N

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of citrus fruit oil (CFO; 2.5 g kg(-1)) on the clinicopathological changes in broilers fed with diets containing 1 ppm of aflatoxin (AF). A total of 160 Ross 308 broiler chicks of 1-day-old were procured from a commercial hatchery, divided randomly on 7th day of age into four groups with two replicates of 20 birds each and fed with basal diet (group A), basal diet + CFO (group B), basal diet + AF (group C) and CFO + basal diet + AF (group D). The gross and histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were investigated and relative organ weights were calculated. Slight to moderate hydropic degeneration, fatty change with the formation of cyst in some cases, periportal necrosis, infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells and bile duct hyperplasia were observed in chicks fed with 1 ppm AF-containing diet. The addition of CFO to AF-containing diet moderately decreased the magnitude and severity of lesions (hydropic degeneration and bile duct hyperplasia) in the liver. The supplementation of CFO to the basal diet did not produce any adverse effects in birds.

  19. Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiwan Buachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC. Short-term (48 h co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL. CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction.

  20. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi.

  1. Salicylic acid treatment reduces the rot of postharvest citrus fruit by inducing the accumulation of H2O2, primary metabolites and lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Chen, Jiajing; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Mingfei; Yun, Ze; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-09-15

    To comprehensively analyze the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the storability of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), fruits were treated with 2mM SA. The disease incidence of control/SA-treated fruit at 50d and 120d after treatment was 23.3%/10% and 67.3%/23.3%, respectively, suggesting that SA treatment can significantly reduce the rot rate of postharvest citrus fruit. Fruit quality assays revealed that the treatment can maintain fruit firmness without affecting the inner quality. Furthermore, the contents of H2O2 and some defense-related metabolites, such as ornithine and threonine, in citrus pericarp, were significantly increased by SA treatment. Moreover, it was lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones, rather than flavanone glycosides, that accumulated in SA-treated fruits and these can directly inhibit pathogen development. These results suggest that the effects of SA on postharvest citrus fruit may be attributed to the accumulation of H2O2 and defense-related metabolites.

  2. Identification and transcript profiles of citrus growth-regulating factor genes involved in the regulation of leaf and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Guo, Ling-Xia; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Liu, Tao; Fan, Yu-Hua; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2016-10-01

    Growth-regulating factor (GRF) is an important protein in GA-mediated response, with key roles in plant growth and development. However, it is not known whether or how the GRF proteins in citrus to regulate organ size. In this study, nine citrus GRF genes (CsGRF1-9) were validated from the 'Anliu' sweet orange (AL, Citrus sinensis cv. Anliu) by PCR amplification. They all contain two conserved motifs (QLQ and WRC) and have 3-4 exons. The transcript levels of genes were detected by qRT-PCR. Transcript analysis showed that (1) CsGRF 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 9 expressed predominantly in young leaf, CsGRF 3 and 4 expressed predominantly in fruit immature juice sacs and CsGRF 8 expressed predominantly in root; (2) all citrus GRF genes had significantly higher expression in young leaves than mature leaf; (3) in juice sacs, the transcript levels of CsGRF1, 4, 5, 6, and 8 increased significantly while the transcript levels of CsGRF2, 3, 7, and 9 had no significant change from 80 DAF to 100 DAF. Besides, GA3 treatment did not affect the transcript levels of CsGRF5 and CsGRF6 but significantly increased the transcript levels of the other seven CsGRF genes in young leaves. These results suggested that all CsGRF genes involve in the leaf development, CsGRF1, 4, 5, 6, and 8 act developmentally whilst CsGRF2, 3, 7, and 9 play fundamental roles in fruit cell enlargement, which may be through GA pathway or GA-independent pathway.

  3. Characterization of three linalool synthase genes from Citrus unshiu Marc. and analysis of linalool-mediated resistance against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Penicilium italicum in citrus leaves and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Rodríguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2014-12-01

    Three cDNA clones from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. CuSTS3-1 and CuSTS3-2 encode linalool synthases and CuSTS4 encodes a nerolidol/linalool synthase. Transcripts of CuSTS3-1, CuSTS3-2 and CuSTS4 were abundant in young fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF), flowers and leaves, respectively. Treatments with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC), the causal agent of citrus canker and Penicillium italicum (PI), the cause of post-harvest fruit decay, and wounding up-regulated CuSTS3-1 in fruit and mainly CuSTS4 in leaves. Linalool, citral, geraniol and citronellol showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against XCC and PI in vitro, while most other mono-and sesquiterpenes, including limonene and gamma-terpinene, did not. Linalool, used at levels similar to those present in resistant Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves, was able to inhibit growth of XCC in vitro. Compared to other five citrus types, linalool accumulated at extraordinarily high levels in Ponkan mandarin leaves and was released at high amounts from their leaves, while it was hardly detectable in the most susceptible species, indicating that linalool biosynthesis and accumulation might be involved in plant defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens and be associated with field resistance to citrus canker.

  4. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  5. Determination of abamectin in citrus fruits using SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Saleh, Abolfazl; Abdollahzadeh, Yaser; Naeeni, Mohammad Hosein; Fattahi, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    A new pretreatment method, SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was proposed for the determination of abamectin in citrus fruit samples for the first time. In this method, fruit samples were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by SPE. Then, the SPE was used as a disperser solvent in the next dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step for further purification and enrichment of abamectin. The effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency of the proposed method were investigated and optimized. Good linearity of abamectin was obtained from 0.005 to 10.0 mg/kg for B1a and from 0.05 to 10.0 mg/kg for B1b with correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.998 for B1a and 0.991 for B1b, respectively. The LODs were 0.001 and 0.008 mg/kg (S/N = 3) for B1a and B1b, respectively. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels were ranged from 87 to 96% with the RSD less than 11% (n = 3). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of abamectin in citrus fruit samples.

  6. Influence of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms under In-vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Bibhu Prasad Panda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Extraction of volatile oil was carried out by Clevenger’s apparatus. Volatile chemical components were measured by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity was carried by Agar well diffusion assay with reference to standard fluconazole and tetracycline. Results: The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), γ-terpene (2.6 %) andβ-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the clinically isolated pathogenic microbial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Conclusions: The potential antimicrobial activity of volatile oil present in fruit peels of C. reticulata can be useful for treatment of skin disorder and/or in aroma. Therapy, it can be incorporated into cosmetic formulations.

  7. Biocontrol ability and putative mode of action of yeasts against Geotrichum citri-aurantii in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Luriany Pompeo; Cunha, Tatiane da; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Sour rot is a major postharvest disease of citrus fruit and is caused by the fungal pathogen Geotrichum citri-aurantii. A lack of chemicals certified for the control of this disease has led to the consideration of alternative methods and strategies, such as the use of yeasts as biocontrol agents. The purpose of the present study was to test the ability of yeasts isolated from leaves, flowers, fruit, and soil, and six Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates to control citrus sour rot, to assess the mechanisms of action of the yeast isolates that were demonstrated to be effective for biocontrol, and to identify the most effective yeast isolates for the biocontrol of G. citri-aurantii. In in vivo assays, three yeast isolates (ACBL-23, ACBL-44, and ACBL-77) showed a potential for controlling sour rot in citrus fruits, both preventatively and curatively. Most of the eight yeast isolates that were assessed for a mechanism of action did not produce antifungal compounds in an amount sufficient to inhibit the growth of the pathogen. Additionally, nutrient competition among the yeast strains was not found to be a biocontrol strategy. Instead, killer activity and hydrolytic enzyme production were identified as the major mechanisms involved in the biocontrol activity of the yeasts. Isolates ACBL-23, ACBL-44, and ACBL-77, which controlled sour rot most effectively, were identified as Rhodotorula minuta, Candida azyma, and Aureobasidium pullulans, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the potential of C. azyma as a biological control agent against a postharvest pathogen and its ability to produce a killer toxin.

  8. Identification and physiological evaluation of the components from Citrus fruits as potential drugs for anti-corpulence and anticancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Toshifumi; Fujii, Misato; Akita, Kazuhiro; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Kaori; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Hongo, Daiki

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monitoring the prevention of accumulation of lipid droplets in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and inhibition of the proliferation of human colon cancer HT-29 cells, effective anti-corpulence and anticancer compounds were isolated from the peel of Citrus fruits. These bioactive components were identified as polymethoxyflavones and coumarin derivatives by spectroscopic analyses. 5-Hydroxy-6,7,8,3′,4′-pentamethoxyflavone had the greatest anti-corpulence effects and 3,5,6,7,8,3′,...

  9. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Infante

    Full Text Available Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes. GC-MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·-, and HOCl. The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods.

  10. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Wasim Ahmad Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco for a period of 120 days (85%–90% relative humidity at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C.

  11. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Bourgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  12. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nizam Uddin; Md. Rakib Hasan; Md. Monir Hossain; Arjyabrata Sarker; A.H.M. Nazmul Hasan; A.F.M. Mahmudul Islam; Mohd. Motaher H. Chowdhury; Md. Sohel Rana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit in α-amylase inhibitory activity (in vitro) and hypoglycemic activity in normal and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (in vivo). Methods: Fruits of Citrus macroptera without rind was extracted with pure methanol following cold extraction and tested for presence of phytochemical constituents, α-amylase inhibitory activity, and hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats.Results:showed that fruit extract had moderate α-amylase inhibitory activity [IC50 value=(3.638±0.190) mg/mL] as compared to acarbose. Moreover at 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg doses fruit extract significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) reduced fasting blood glucose level in normal rats as compared to glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). In oral glucose tolerance test, 500 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level (P<0.05) at 2 h but 1000 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level at 2 h and 3 h (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) whereas glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced glucose level at every hour after administration. Overall time effect is also considered extremely significant with F value=23.83 and P value=0.0001 in oral glucose tolerance test.Conclusion:These findings suggest that the plant may be a potential source for the development Presence of saponin, steroid and terpenoid were identified in the extract. The results of new oral hypoglycemic agent.

  13. Topographic and radiographic profile assessment of dental erosion. Part II: effect of citrus fruit juices on human dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A; Yang, Jie; Kuroda, Shuntaro

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to monitor changes in the topography, morphology, and radiographic profiles of human permanent teeth that had been exposed to citrus fruit juices. The effect of long-term exposure was monitored for a prolonged duration of 20 weeks according to set criteria. Topographic and morphologic changes were observed at weekly intervals following challenge by test fluids (orange, lemon, and grapefruit juices) and compared with control fluids (acetic acid and water). The qualitative changes in the specimens' topography and the morphology of citrus fruit juices and control fluids are described as a function of time, in specific details. The digitized radiographic images obtained at four-week intervals were analyzed and the changes were assessed. The results indicated that orange juice specimens demonstrated the mildest changes, while lemon juice specimens displayed the most severe damage to the coronal segments of the teeth. This damage manifested as loss of cusp height, cervical enamel, and coronal radius, as well as reduction of enamel cap height. Of the tested and control fluids, lemon juice displayed the most eros ion, followed by acetic acid, grapefruit juice, orange juice, and water, which had no effect. Continued immersion in the four acidic fluids led to varying degrees of enamel loss progression.

  14. Tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional Nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, J. I. A.; Mortensen, Alicja; Mølgaard, P.

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity and anti-diabetic properties of an aqueous plant extract made by boiling Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruits were evaluated in mice. A single dosage corresponding to 70 x the human-daily-dose was non-toxic when administered to 6-week-old NMRI lean mice or 6- or 11...

  15. Gene expression profiling in Caco-2 human colon cells exposed to TCDD, benzo[a]pyrene, and natural Ah receptor agonists from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Baykus, H.; Talsma, E.F.; Punt, A.; Kok, de T.M.C.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits are reported to possess health-beneficial properties, but also have been shown to contain natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (NAhRAs). Binding to the AhR is widely assumed to activate the main pathway by which dioxins, like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodi

  16. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  17. Honeybees increase fruit set in native plant species important for wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wild cherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  18. [Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Günter; Schick, Fritz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486-1874 ms, T2: 163-281 ms, T2*: 2.3-3.2 ms; pears: T1: 1631-1969 ms, T2: 119-133 ms, T2* : 10.1-10.6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055-2632 ms, T2: 497-998 ms, T2* : 151-182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561-1669 ms, T2: 93-119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011-1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2* : 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2* values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds of four Brazilian native fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. Denardin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from araçá (Psidium cattleianum, butiá (Butia eriospatha, and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora fruits with different flesh colors (i.e., purple, red, and orange, and blackberries (Rubus sp.; cv. Xavante and Cherokee collected in the southern region of Brazil. The content of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and phenolics were determined. The profile of the phenolic compounds was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH assay, total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay, and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR assay. The Xavante blackberry and purple-fleshed pitanga showed the highest total phenolic content [816.50 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100g and 799.80 mg GAE/100g, respectively]. The araçá and red-fleshed pitanga showed the highest carotenoid content (6.27 ug β-carotene/g and 5.86 ug β-carotene/g, respectively. The fruits contained several phenolic compounds such as quercetin derivatives, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and cyanidin derivatives, which may contribute differentially to the antioxidant capacity. The highest scavenging activity in the DPPH assay was found for purple-fleshed pitanga (IC50 36.78 mg/L, blackberries [IC50 44.70 (Xavante and IC50 78.25 mg/L (Cherokee], and araçá (IC50 48.05 mg/L, which also showed the highest FRAP, followed by orange- and red-fleshed pitanga. Our results revealed that some fruits grown in southern Brazil such as purple-fleshed pitanga, blackberries, and araçá are rich sources of phenolic compounds and have great antioxidant activity.

  20. Composição mineral de frutos cítricos na colheita Mineral nutrient removal by the harvest of citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondino C. Bataglia

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados à época de colheita, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico, frutos cítricos de nove cultivares comerciais pertencentes a diferentes espécies: Citrus sinensis - "baianinha", "hamlin", "pêra", "natal" e "valência"; Citrus reticulata -"cravo"; Citrus paradisi - "marsh-seedless"; Citrus aurantifolia - "taiti"; híbrido Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticnlata -"murcote". Os frutos foram fracionados em casca, polpa mais suco, e sementes. No material seco e moído, procederam-se às determinações dos treze elementos essenciais às plantas e mais sódio, alumínio e cobalto. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídas por tonelada de fruto fresco foram calculadas com base nas proporções e teores de umidade das partes dos frutos. Os nove cultivares estudados extraíram as seguintes quantidades médias de elementos em gramas por tonelada de fruto fresco: N-1.906; P-173; K-1.513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2,2; Cl-24,7; Cu-1,2; Fé-6,6; Mn-2,8; Mo-0,008; Zn-0,9; Co-0,003; Na-43,5; Al-7,6. Os dados obtidos são semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura de outros países para os citros em geral. Há, no entanto, quase sempre, uma inversão na relação nitrogênio-potássio. Os cultivares com maior capacidade de extração de macro e micronutrientes foram as laranjas natal e valência, e o de menor capacidade, o limoeiro taiti. As sementes em geral contiveram os maiores teores de nutrientes, porém a sua ocorrência nos frutos é em pequena proporção, atingindo o máximo de 3% na tangerina-cravo.Fruit samples of nine cultivars of citrus were collected at the Limeira Experiment Station, State of São Paulo. The fruits belong to several species: Citrus sinensis -"Baianinha", "Hamlin", "Pêra", "Natal", and "Valencia" sweet oranges; Citrus reticulata - "Cravo"-tangerine; Citrus paradisi -"Marsh-seedless" grapefruit; Citrus aurantifolia - Tahiti lime; hybrid Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata -"Murcott" tangor. The

  1. Fine QTL mapping of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) fruit characters using high-throughput SNP markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedlessness, flavor, and color are top priorities for mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) cultivar improvement. Given long juvenility, large tree size, and high breeding cost, marker-assisted selection (MAS) may be an expeditious and economical approach to these challenges. The objectives of this s...

  2. Secretory Cavity Development and Its Relationship with the Accumulation of Essential Oil in Fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She-Jian Liang; Hong Wu; Xuan Lun; Dong-Wen Lu

    2006-01-01

    The developmental types of secretory cavities in Citrus remain controversial. The relationship between secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil in fruits of Citrus species is also unknown. In order to develop better insights into these problems, histological, histochemical, and cytochemical methods were used to investigate secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil at different developmental stages of fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle.The results indicate that the secretory cavity of the variety seemed to originate from an epidermal cell and a subepidermal cell. These two cells underwent successive divisions, resulting in the formation of two parts: (i) a conical cap; and (ii) a globular gland. The formation of the lumen was schizolysigenous. Regular changes in the size of vacuoles and the accumulation of essential oil were revealed during the process of secretory cavity development. In addition, when fruits were a light yellow or golden color, the structure of secretory cavities was well developed and the content of essential oil in a single fruit reached a maximum. It would be most appropriate to collect the fruit as a medicinal material at this time.

  3. Factors affecting the synergy of thiabendazole, sodium bicarbonate, and heat to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo

    2008-11-26

    The efficacy of thiabendazole (TBZ) to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum of citrus fruit can be enhanced by co-application with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) and/or heat treatment. The impact of these treatments was investigated in citrus fruit, as a function of TBZ and SBC concentration and temperature, and were related to the amount of TBZ residues in fruit (total residues), in fruit surface, in the cuticular wax, and in the inner fruit. The residue levels of TBZ were determined in 'Valencia' oranges following a 1 min dip in an aqueous mixture of SBC at 0.5, 1, or 2 wt %/vol and TBZ at 600 or 400 mg/L (active ingredient, a.i.) at 20 or 40 degrees C and after 0 and 20 days at 17 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. The influence of SBC and heat on the TBZ residue concentration on the fruit surface, in cuticular wax, and on the inner cuticle tissue was determined in 'Salustiana' oranges after a 1 or 3 min dip in TBZ alone at 600 mg/L and 20 or 50 degrees C or for 1 min in TBZ at 600 mg/L and SBC at 2% and 20 degrees C. The efficacy of heat treatments with water, SBC, and TBZ, applied separately or in combination, was investigated on artificially inoculated 'Nova' mandarins and 'Valencia' oranges for the control of postharvest green mold caused by a TBZ-sensitive (TBZ-s) or TBZ-resistant (TBZ-r) isolate of P. digitatum. The residue levels of TBZ in fruit, evaluated as total residues, were not affected by the co-application of SBC in most samples. While TBZ residues in the fruit surface were not significantly affected by the dip temperature or by co-application of SBC, the rates of diffusion and penetration of TBZ into cuticular wax markedly increased in the presence of SBC or when TBZ was applied in combination with heat. TBZ residues in the inner tissue of fruits treated at 20 degrees C were not dependent upon the dip time or by the presence of SBC and were similar to those found in fruit treated with TBZ at 50 degrees C for 1 min, whereas

  4. Fertile fruit trees obtained by somatic hybridization: navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Troyer citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgawara, T; Kobayashi, S; Ishii, S; Yoshinaga, K; Oiyama, I

    1991-02-01

    Nucellar cell suspension protoplasts of navel orange (Citrus sinsensis Osb.) were chemically fused with mesophyll protoplasts of Troyer citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata) and cultured in hormone-free Murashige and Tucker medium containing 0.6 M sucrose. Two types of plant were regenerated through embryogenesis. One type showed intermediate mono-and difoliate leaves and the other types was identical to Troyer citrange. The regenerated plants with intermediate morphology were demonstrated by chromosome counts and rDNA analysis to be amphidiploid somatic hybrids. Five clones of these somatic hybrids were grafted in the field. After 4 years, they set flowers having a morphology intermediate between those of the two parents. The pollen grains showed high stainability and sufficient germinability, and were larger than those of Troyer citrange. The fruits of the somatic hybrids were large and spherical with thick rinds. Most of them contained seeds with normal germinability. These results indicate that somatic hybridization is a useful tool for Citrus breeding.

  5. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0.

  6. Effect of harvesting with a trunk shaker and an abscission chemical on fruit detachment and defoliation of citrus grown under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, R.; Torregrosa, A.; Moltó, E.; Chueca, P.

    2015-07-01

    Spain ranks as the world’s leading exporter of citrus for fresh consumption. Manual harvest accounts for 50% of the total production costs. Mechanical harvest would increase labor productivity and benefits of growers. Efficiency of these machines depends on the varieties and operating conditions. Use of abscission chemicals has been promoted to increase the detachment rate of fruit without affecting its quality. This work is aimed at studying whether the mechanical harvest and/or the application of an abscission agent affect the quality and quantity of harvested fruit and tree defoliation under the conditions of citrus cultivation in Spain. Trials were made in a completely randomized experimental design. From 2008 to 2011, different orchards of mandarin and orange trees were sprayed with different doses of ethephon as abscission agent and harvested with a trunk shaker. Harvest related variables (detachment percentage, defoliation and fruit without calyx) were measured. The percentage of fruit detached by the trunk shaker ranged between 70 and 85% and it did not depend on the orchard. The shaker produced minimal damage to the bark when gripped incorrectly. Increased doses of ethephon increased fruit detachment except in ‘Clemenules’ orchard, but also increased the fruit without calyx in 1-9%. Moreover, ethephon promoted significant defoliation. Neither gummosis nor death of branches was observed. This work demonstrates that mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers may be a feasible solution for citrus cultivated in Spain for fresh market. Use of ethephon could only be recommended for citrus destined to industry and only for certain varieties. (Author)

  7. Effects of naringin, a lfavanone glycoside in grapefruits and citrus fruits, on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection in the adult brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Un Ju Jung; Sang Ryong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated the ability of naringin, a well-known flavanone glycoside of grapefruits and citrus fruits, to prevent neurodegeneration in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson’s disease. Intraperitoneal injection of naringin protected the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection by increasing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreasing the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in dopaminergic neurons and microglia, respectively. These results suggest that naringin can impart to the adult dopaminergic neurons the ability to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor against Parkinson’s disease with anti-inlfammatory effects. Based on these results, we would like to describe an important perspective on its possibility as a therapeutic agent for Parkinson’s disease.

  8. Consumption of canned citrus fruit meals increases human plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration, whereas lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao H; Gertz, Erik R; Cai, Yimeng; Burri, Betty J

    2016-07-01

    Several studies suggest that β-cryptoxanthin has a greater plasma response from its common food sources than other carotenoids such as β-carotene and lycopene. The hypothesis of this study is that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations will be greater than changes in plasma β-carotene or lycopene concentrations even if these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix, such as citrus fruit. We tested this hypothesis by measuring changes in plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene after feeding measured amounts of canned tangerines and pink grapefruit to healthy nonsmoking adult humans. Volunteers served as their own controls and received both citrus fruit treatments randomly. In the first study, 8 subjects ate single meals of 234-304g of tangerines or 60-540g of pink grapefruit. The second study compared changes in plasma carotenoid concentration caused by feeding 234g of tangerines or 540g of pink grapefruit to 11 subjects. Blood was collected 5 times within 24hours after each citrus meal. Carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased within 5hours and then stabilized, remaining high throughout the 24hours measured. Plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene did not change. These results show that β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased after a citrus fruit meal, but lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change after a similar citrus fruit meal. These results support our hypothesis that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin are greater than changes in plasma lycopene or β-carotene, even when these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix.

  9. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2012-05-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation.

  10. Adsorption Kinetics for the Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Adsorbents Derived from the Peels of Selected Citrus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chakrapani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared from the peels of Citrus documana, Citrus medica and Citrus aurantifolia fruits. Adsorption of fluoride onto these activated carbons was investigated. Effect of contact time in the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution at neutral pH was studied. Five kinetic models; the pseudo first- and second-order equations, intraparticle diffusion, pore diffusion and the Elovich equation, were selected to follow adsorption process. Adsorption of fluoride onto adsorbents could be described by pseudo second-order equation. Kinetic parameters; rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and correlation coefficients, for each kinetic equation were calculated and discussed. The good fitting of kinetic data to pore diffusion and Elovich equations indicate that pore diffusion plays a vital role in controlling the rate of the reaction.

  11. Integration of Metabolomics and Subcellular Organelle Expression Microarray to Increase Understanding the Organic Acid Changes in Post-harvest Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua Sun; Zhaocheng Ma; Yunjiang Cheng; Xiuxin Deng; Andan Zhu; Shuzhen Liu; Ling Sheng; Qiaoli Ma; Li Zhang; Elsayed Mohamed Elsayed Nishawy; Yunliu Zeng; Juan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Citric acid plays an important role in fresh fruit flavor and its adaptability to post-harvest storage conditions. In order to explore organic acid regulatory mechanisms in post-harvest citrus fruit, systematic biological analyses were conducted on stored Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis) fruits. High-performance capillary electrophoresis, subcellular organelle expression microarray, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and conventional physiological and biochemical analyses were undertaken. The results showed that the concentration of organic acids in HBP underwent a regular fluctuation. GC-MS-based metabolic profiling indicated that succinic acid, g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamine contents increased, but 2-oxoglutaric acid content declined, which further confirmed that the GABA shunt may have some regulatory roles in organic acid catabolism processes. In addition, the concentration of organic acids was significantly correlated with senescence-related physiological processes, such as hydrogen peroxide content as well as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, which showed that organic acids could be regarded as important parameters for measuring citrus fruit post-harvest senescence processes.

  12. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Sensory and textural characterization of citrus and pineapple fruits candied with healthy components

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Alice; Sobreira, Carla; S. Abraão, Ana; M. Lemos, André; M Nunes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Production of low-calorie candied fruits was investigated by substituting sucrose with fructose, maltitol, sorbitol and actilight. Quality of candied fruits was evaluated with respect to yields obtained for the fruit candied process, chemical composition, microbial growth, rheological characteristics, color, and sensory attributes. The sensory attributes investigated were influenced by the osmotic agent used. Each of the different OD agents significantly influenced the taste and/or texture...

  14. Effect of pulse irrigation scheduling with hybrid station controller on fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulate blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2008-2011. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 minute interval three times (I1; Automatic irrigation daily with 90 minute interval two times (I2; Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times (I3; and Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 180 minute two times (I4 with six replications in Randomized Block Design. The automatic hybrid station controller E-6 (Rain Bird, USA was used for micro-irrigation schedule setting the time for each treatment based on the water need of the plant and average open pan evaporation. The various scheduling treatment timings were programmed in A, B and C programs of the hybrid station controller. The sustainable production of Nagpur mandarin is possible with drip irrigation using automatic scheduling daily or on alternate days.  The water use in October varied from 65.0-72.4 liters/day/plant and during May-June it was 133.0 - 147.7 liters/day/plant. Drip irrigation was scheduled to maintain automatically the soil moisture status above 25% (wet basis during fruit growing period. The leaf nutrient status was high with automatic alternate day drip irrigation schedule. The canopy temperature was positively influenced with automatic drip irrigation schedules.  The Nagpur mandarin fruit yield was highest (30.91 tones/ha with irrigation on alternate day 120 minutes three times, followed by irrigation scheduled with 90 minutes interval two times daily (30.11 tones/ha. Fruit weight (154.7 g, TSS (10.22 0Brix and juice percent (40.77% was found with automatic

  15. Rapid simultaneous determination of o-phenylphenol, diphenyl, thiabendazole, imazalil and its major metabolite in citrus fruits by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Naoki; Akiyama, Yumi; Teranishi, Kiyoshi

    2004-01-02

    A simple and rapid simultaneous analytical method of four post-harvest fungicides, o-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenyl (DP), thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ) and its major metabolite R14821 (IMZ-M) in citrus fruits was developed. These compounds were extracted under basic conditions with diethyl ether. The organic layer was washed with water and evaporated at moderate pressure adding methanol. These compounds were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). The recoveries of the five compounds added to citrus fruits at 1 microg/g ranged from 67 to 100%, with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) ranging from 2 to 8%. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.01 microg/g and 0.05 microg/g (DP).

  16. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit (Citrus sinensis) as influenced by storage period and edible covers

    OpenAIRE

    Shamloo, M. M.; M SHARIFANI; Daraei Garmakhany, A.; Seifi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %),...

  17. Yield and fruit quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco as influenced by evaporation based drip irrigation schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 7-9 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco based on evaporation replenishment (ER irrigation scheduling during 2009-12. The plant growing period was divided into 6 stages, 2 months each, starting from January to December and the effect on water use, tree growth, fruit yield and quality was studied. The irrigation water quantity given per day per plant under different treatments in various months varied from 21.3-158.5 liters per plant, 17.5-153.4 liters per plant and 20.9-164.5 liters per plant in different months during 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12. The highest quantity of water was applied under the irrigation scheduled at 80 % evaporation replenishment (ER treatment and it varied from 46.8-164.5 liters per plant in 2009-12. The average mandarin plant height was 4.57-4.83 m, stock girth was 51.5-56.3 cm and canopy volume 62.4-71.2 m3. The only canopy volume was found significant among the various scheduling treatments. The fruit yield and quality was significantly affected under various evaporation replenishment (ER based drip irrigation scheduling treatments. The highest fruit yield (17.25 and 21.48 tones per ha higher TSS, juice percentage and lower acidity was observed under irrigation at 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during the study period. The highest TSS to acidity ratio (12.7 and 12.4 was found in the irrigation schedule with 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during 2010-12.

  18. Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) and the phenology of its native host plant, Yellow Chapote (Rutaceae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northeastern Mexico, the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), breeds on its native host, yellow chapote, Casimiroa greggii (Wats.), which typically produces fruit in the spring. Peak populations of the fly occur in late spring or early summer when adults emerge from the generation of lar...

  19. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle Donmez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the world’s important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species.

  20. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.

  1. Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25-30 °C, 60-70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters like PLW, marketable fruits retained, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, juice content and also organoleptic values. The results revealed that edible oil emulsion coating particularly coconut oil had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) effect on reduction of the physiological loss in weight (9.67%) and maximum marketable fruits retained (70%), total soluble solids (8.43%), ascorbic acid (49.93 mg/100 ml juice), acidity (1.52%) and juice content (42.34%) of fruits. Similarly, application of this oil emulsion coating acceptable for sensory quality parameters such as appearance, flavour, taste, external colour and no incidence of moulds & their growth up to 18 days of storage.

  2. Guava SSR analysis: Diversity assessment and similarity to accessions associated with reducing citrus greening in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guava (Psidium guajava) is an evergreen tree in the Myrtaceae, native to tropical America. It is grown throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world, and is used as a fresh fruit and processed into juice, jelly and paste. Recent introduction of citrus greening (huanglongbing) into Florida...

  3. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-07-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed.

  4. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies.

  5. Integrated systems biology analysis of transcriptomes reveals candidate genes for acidity control in developing fruits of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingquan eHuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless, Bingtang (low acid, and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid. Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA, which corresponds to Stage I (cell division, had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion. Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis. Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AH10, degradation (such as APD2 and transcription (such as AIL6 and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control.

  6. Antiallergic activity of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on chemical substance-induced dermatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-10-01

    Oral administration of a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits collected in July exhibited a potent dose-dependent inhibition of IgE (immunoglobulin E)-mediated triphasic cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)], 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] and 8 days [very late phase response (vLPR)] after dinitrofluorobenzene challenge in mice. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside component of CH-ext, showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition against IPR, LPR and vLPR. Neohesperidin, another major glycoside component of CH-ext, showed an inhibition against vLPR. The effect of CH-ext on type IV allergic reaction was examined by determining inhibitory activity against ear swelling in mice by using the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) model. Oral administration (p.o.) of CH-ext and subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of prednisolone inhibited ear swelling during the induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CH-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) against PC-CD in mice were more potent than those of CH-ext alone and prednisolone alone, without enhancing the adverse effects. Other combinations of prednisolone (s.c.) and flavanone glycoside (p.o.) components of CH-ext, i.e. naringin and neohesperidin, exerted similar synergistic effects.

  7. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Shin, Mi-Rae; Shin, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Reum; Lee, Joo Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Noh, Jeong Sook; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control). PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p < 0.05). These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. PMID:27529064

  8. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyo-Nam Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD- fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control. PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p<0.05. These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase.

  9. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts as γ-globin gene expression inducers: phytochemical and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Breveglieri, Giulia; Salvatori, Francesca; Mancini, Irene; Rossi, Damiano; Potenza, Rocco; Chiavilli, Francesco; Sacchetti, Gianni; Gambari, Roberto; Borgatti, Monica

    2009-05-27

    Epicarps of Citrus bergamia fruits from organic farming were extracted with the objective of obtaining derived products differently rich in coumarins and psoralens. The extracts were chemically characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detecting and quantifying the main constituents. Both bergamot extracts and chemical standards corresponding to the main constituents detected were then assayed for their capacity to increase erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and expression of γ-globin genes in human erythroid precursor cells. Three experimental cell systems were employed: (a) the human leukemic K562 cell line, (b) K562 cell clones stably transfected with a pCCL construct carrying green-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) under the γ-globin gene promoter, and (c) the two-phase liquid culture of human erythroid progenitors isolated from healthy donors. The results suggest that citropten and bergapten are powerful inducers of differentiation and γ-globin gene expression in human erythroid cells. These data could have practical relevance, because pharmacologically mediated regulation of human γ-globin gene expression, with the consequent induction of fetal hemoglobin, is considered to be a potential therapeutic approach in hematological disorders, including β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.

  10. The ability of the antagonist yeast Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1 to suppress green mould infection in citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Lahlali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies it was shown that Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1, isolated from healthy Moroccan citrus Valencia-Late oranges, was effective against Penicillium italicum. Here the effectiveness of strain Z1 was assessed against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mould, under different temperature (5-25°C and relative humidity (RH (45-100% regimes for its reliable and largescale application in packinghouse. All main effects and interactions were significant (P80%. Its applications as a formulated product significantly reduced the incidence of infected fruit (55% and the percentage of infected wounds (47% compared to the only pathogen control treatment. However, disease control with formulated product was significantly less than that obtained with thiabendazole (30% or strain Z1 culturable cells (35%. These results highlight that strain Z1 is an effective biological control agent for control of green mould under varying environmental conditions, and control may be optimized by combining its use with other environmentally-safe post-harvest treatments or improved formulation.

  11. Influence of deficit irrigation timing on the fruit quality of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Mac.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Josefa M; Botía, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Juan G

    2015-05-15

    The irrigation necessities for grapefruit production are very high. Due to the scarcity of water resources, growers use deficit irrigation (DI) - which could affect the fruit quality. Different DI strategies were studied: Control (irrigated at 100% ETc) and T1, T2 and T3 (50% ETc at phases I, II and III of fruit growth, respectively). Strategy T1 only delayed external maturation depending on the duration of the water stress. High water stress in T2 delayed fruit maturation, increased acidity and reduced the sugar concentration. Under T2, trees suffering moderate water stress showed increased flavonoid and phenolic contents but decreased lycopene levels. External maturation was delayed in T3 when severe stress occurred during the first part of phase III. Strategy T3 advanced internal ripening when moderate water stress occurred during the first 40 days of phase III, increasing sugar accumulation, promoted by the high acidity of the fruits. Moderate water stress also increased β-carotene, flavonoids and phenolics levels.

  12. Simple and sensitive determination of o-phenylphenol in citrus fruits using gas chromatography with atomic emission or mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Nina; Andersson, Jan T

    2006-08-09

    In this work, a simple and sensitive method for the analysis of the pesticide o-phenylphenol (OPP) on citrus fruits was developed. OPP is extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonication and derivatized with ferrocenecarboxylic acid chloride. Using ferrocene as a label, residues of OPP are determined by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection in the iron selective mode or with mass spectrometric detection. Sample cleanup is simple and rapid and merely involves a removal of excess reagent on an alumina minicolumn. The method detection limit is 2 ng of OPP/g of fruit, and recoveries from lemon samples fortified at levels of 35 and 140 ng/g are 101 and 106%, respectively. The citrus fruits analyzed (oranges, grapefruits, lemons) contained between 60 ng/g and 0.37 microg/g OPP (RSD = 8-13%), and the results were in good agreement with results obtained when OPP was analyzed using an established HPLC-FLD method. Several alcohols could also be identified in the fruit peel.

  13. Microarray Expression Profiling of Postharvest Ponkan Mandarin(Citrus reticulata)Fruit under Cold Storage Reveals Regulatory Gene Candidates and Implications on Soluble Suqars Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andan Zhu; Wenyun Li; Junli Ye; Xiaohua Sun; Yuduan Ding; Yunjiang Cheng; Xiuxin Deng

    2011-01-01

    Low temperature storage is widely applied to maintain citrus postharvest fruit quality.In this study,the transcriptional and metabolic changes in the pulp tissue of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv."Ponkan"were studied for three successive months under cold storage by Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip and gaschromatography,respectively.As many as 2 161 differentially expressed transcripts were identifiedbased on the bayesian hierarchical model.The statistical analysis of gene ontology revealed thatdefenselstress-related genes were induced quickly,while autophagy-related genes were overrepresentedin the late sampling stages,suggesting that the functional shift may coincide with the subsequent stepsof chilling development.We further classified the potential regulatory components and concluded thatethylene may play the crucial role in chilling development in this non-climacteric fruit.To cope withcomplex events,53 upregulated transcription factors represented regulatory candidates.Within these,the AP2-EREBP,C2H2 and AS2 gene family were overrepresented.Cold storage also causes alterationsin various metabolic pathways; a keen interest is paid in deciphering expression changes of solublesugar genes as increased evidence that soluble sugars act as both osmolytes and metabolite signalmolecules.Our results will likely facilitate further studies in this field with promising genetic candidatesduring chilling.

  14. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  15. Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercós Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus clementina mutants 39B3 and 39E7, showing delayed colour break, to isolate genes potentially related to the regulation of peel ripening and its physiological or biochemical effects. Results Pigment analyses revealed different profiles of carotenoid and chlorophyll modification in 39B3 and 39E7 mutants. Flavedo from 39B3 fruits showed an overall delay in carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll degradation, while the flavedo of 39E7 was devoid of the apocarotenoid β-citraurin among other carotenoid alterations. A Citrus microarray containing about 20,000 cDNA fragments was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed during colour change in the flavedo of 39B3 and 39E7 mutants respect to the parental variety. The results highlighted 73 and 90 genes that were respectively up- and down-regulated in both mutants. CcGCC1 gene, coding for a GCC type transcriptional factor, was found to be down-regulated. CcGCC1 expression was strongly induced at the onset of colour change in the flavedo of parental clementine fruit. Moreover, treatment of fruits with gibberellins, a retardant of external ripening, delayed both colour break and CcGCC1 overexpression. Conclusions In this work, the citrus fruit ripening mutants 39B3 and 39E7 have been characterized at the phenotypic, biochemical and transcriptomic level. A defective synthesis of the apocarotenoid β-citraurin has been proposed to cause the yellowish colour of fully ripe 39E7 flavedo. The analyses of the mutant transcriptomes revealed that colour change during peel ripening was strongly

  16. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboza, Xolani Irvin; Bertling, Isa; Odindo, Alfred Oduor

    2014-11-15

    Chilling injury (CI) is associated with the degradation of membrane integrity which can be aligned to phenolic oxidation activated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), enzymes responsible for tissue browning. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a further enzyme prominent in the phenolic metabolism that is involved in acclimation against chilling stress. It was hypothesized that treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) may enhance chilling tolerance in lemon fruit by increasing the synthesis of total phenolics and PAL by activating the key enzyme regulating the shikimic acid pathway whilst inhibiting the activity of POD and PPO. Lemon fruit were treated with 10μM MJ, 2mM SA or 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA, waxed, stored at -0.5, 2 or 4.5°C for up to 28 days plus 7 days at 23°C. Membrane integrity was studied by investigating membrane permeability and the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in lemon flavedo following cold storage. The 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA treatment was most effective in enhancing chilling tolerance of lemon fruit, significantly reducing chilling-induced membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation of lemon flavedo tissue. This treatment also increased total phenolics and PAL activity in such tissue while inhibiting POD activity, the latter possibly contributing to the delay of CI manifestation. PPO activity was found to be a poor biochemical marker of CI. Treatment with 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA resulted in an alteration of the phenolic metabolism, enhancing chilling tolerance, possibly through increased production of total phenolics and the activation of PAL and inhibition of POD.

  17. Proline derivatives in fruits of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit): presence of N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico

    2011-01-12

    The content of proline and various compounds deriving from its metabolism (4-hydroxy-L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline, N,N-dimethylproline, and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine) was determined in fruits and seeds of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit), growing in the Calabria region (South Italy). A HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry method, which allowed rapid determination of L-proline, 4-hydroxy-L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline, N,N-dimethylproline, and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine in juice and extracts of bergamot fruit with minimum sample preparation and short analysis time (about 10 min), is presented. Proline and 4-hydroxy-L-proline levels in the samples were also determined by HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection and the results compared to those obtained with HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. For the first time, the presence of N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine in the fruits of a plant of the Citrus genus is reported.

  18. Inhibitory effects of citrus fruits on the mutagenicity of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid treated with nitrite in the presence of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimoto, M; Yamato, H; Kinouchi, T; Ohnishi, Y

    1998-07-31

    It has been shown that the mutagenicity of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCCA), a mutagen precursor in soy sauce treated with nitrite, was strongly increased when it was treated with nitrite in the presence of alcohols. We found that the mutagenicity of MTCCA treated with 50 mM nitrite at pH 3, 37 degrees C for 60 min in the presence of 7.5% ethanol was reduced by the addition of citrus fruits sudachi (Citrus sudachi), lemon (C. limon) and yuzu (C. junos), to the reaction mixture. The mutagenicity-reducing activity per weight of flavedos (outer colored portions of peel) of the citrus fruits was considerably higher than that of the juices. The juices of the other citrus fruits commercially available in Japan also had mutagenicity-reducing activity against the nitrite-treated MTCCA. Among the many components of citrus fruits, dietary fibers lignin and pectin showed strong antimutagenic activity in the reaction mixture, suggesting that the mixed fractions of these components including lignin, pectin, D-limonene, naringin, hesperidin, ascorbic acid and citric acid reduce the mutagenicity of MTCCA in the reaction mixture containing nitrite and ethanol.

  19. Anti-degranulating activity in rat basophil leukemia RBL-2H3 cells of flavanone glycosides and their aglycones in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Takano, Seiya; Masuda, Megumi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-07-01

    The anti-degranulating activity of flavonoids present in Citrus fruits was comprehensively evaluated. Among these, hesperetin and naringenin, respectively aglycones of hesperidin and narirutin, showed significant activity. The targets of hesperetin and naringenin were found: hesperetin inhibited phosphorylation of Syk and Akt, while naringenin suppressed the expression of Lyn and inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt. These results suggest that hesperetin and naringenin inhibit degranulation by suppression of pathway signals and reduce the symptoms of allergy by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, which leads to the suppression of cytokines. In addition, hesperetin showed inhibitory activity against the degranulation induced by calcium ionophores, indicating that hesperetin exerts its inhibitory activity by stabilizing the membrane structure.

  20. Assessment of toxic effects of the methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. Fruit via biochemical and hematological evaluation in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Nizam Uddin

    Full Text Available Citrus macroptera Montr. (C. macroptera is locally known as Satkara. The fruit of this plant is used as appetite stimulant and in the treatment of fever. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of the fruit extract using some biochemical and hematological parameters in rat model. The effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit administered at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight were investigated on hematological and biochemical parameters in Sprague-Dawley female rats. Moreover, histopathological study was performed to observe the presence of pathological lesions in primary body organs. The extract presented no significant effect on body weight, percent water content, relative organ weight and hematological parameters in rat. Significant decrease from control group was observed in the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein; thus leading to significant decrease of cardiac risk ratio, castelli's risk index-2, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma at all doses. 500 mg/kg dose significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase (P<0.05, 1000 mg/kg dose significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05 and 250 mg/kg dose significantly decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin (P<0.05 from the control group. There were no significant alterations observed with other serum biochemical parameters. Histopathological study confirmed the absence of inflammatory and necrotic features in the primary body organs. Study results indicate that methanolic fruit extract is unlikely to have significant toxicity. Moreover, these findings justified the cardio-protective, moderate hepato-protective and glucose controlling activities of the fruit extract.

  1. LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination and Quantitation of Penicillin G and Its Metabolites in Citrus Fruits Affected by Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeek, Fadi; Rosana, Michael R; Hamilton, Zaid K; Crosswhite, Mark R; Burrows, Casey W; Singh, Sonal; Gerard, Ghislain; Hammack, Walter; Cook, Jo-Marie

    2015-07-08

    In this study, we developed and validated a method for the extraction, identification, and quantitation of penicillin G and its metabolites (penilloic acid and penillic acid) in a variety of citrus fruits by employing sequential liquid/liquid and solid-phase extraction techniques in conjunction with UHPLC-MS/MS. Two product ion transitions per analyte were required for identification, which contributes to a high degree of selectivity. Corrected recoveries of penicillin G using an isotopically labeled internal standard were 90-100% at fortification levels of 0.1, 0.25, 1, and 10 ng/g. Absolute recoveries for penillic acid and penilloic acid were 50-75% depending on the matrix used. The limit of detection (LOD) of penicillin G and its metabolites was found to be 0.1 ng/g when 2 g of citrus was extracted. This method is useful in determining residue levels of penicillin G and its metabolites in citrus trees infected with huanglongbing bacteria after antibiotic treatment.

  2. Residue levels and efficacy of fludioxonil and thiabendazole in controlling postharvest green mold decay in citrus fruit when applied in combination with sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Schirra, Mario

    2013-01-16

    The curative and protective activity of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) at 1% alone or in combination with fludioxonil (FLU), thiabendazole (TBZ), or FLU and TBZ together, between 50 and 600 mg/L, was evaluated on fruit of different citrus species and cultivars. Fruits were either artificially inoculated with a resistant (TBZ-r) or sensitive (TBZ-s) strain of Penicillium digitatum or not inoculated and incubated at 20 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for 7 days (incubated fruit) or stored at 1.5 °C for 21 days plus 7 days of simulated marketing conditions at 20 °C and 60% RH. The effectiveness of these treatments was related with treatment-induced changes of epicuticular wax morphology, the mode of distribution of SBC, TBZ, and FLU on the fruit surface, and FLU and TBZ fruit residue levels. SBC alone showed a weak activity against both strains of P. digitatum. Both TBZ and FLU were very effective at all rates used, and their activity markedly increased when combined together or with SBC, even at concentrations of 50-150 mg/L. Fruit treated with SBC either alone or in combination with TBZ and/or FLU increased weight loss, although no treatment damage was detected. Residue levels of TBZ generally increased when TBZ was combined with FLU and/or SBC, whereas those of FLU slightly increased only in treatment where FLU was combined with TBZ and SBC. Initial residues of TBZ and FLU when applied at 600 mg/L were around 2 and 1 mg/kg, respectively, several times below the lowest MRLs set by most important citrus-producing countries. In treatments with SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU, SEM observation of the fruit surface showed a smoothing of cuticular wax platelets' surface, whereas ESEM micrographs showed irregular spots of salt deposits of roundish to irregular shape. The apparently uneven distribution of SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU or SBC plus TBZ and FLU on fruit might in part reduce the potential beneficial effects of SBC or of fungicide-SBC mixtures.

  3. LED Blue Light-induced changes in phenolics and ethylene in citrus fruit: Implication in elicited resistance against Penicillium digitatum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Lafuente, María T

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to investigate whether LED Blue Light (LBL) induces changes in phenolics and ethylene production of sweet oranges, and whether they participate in LBL-elicited resistance against the most important postharvest pathogen (Penicillium digitatum) of citrus fruit. The expression of relevant genes of the phenylpropanoid and ethylene biosynthetic pathways during elicitation of resistance was also determined. Different LBL (wavelength 450nm) quantum fluxes were used within the 60-630μmolm(-2)s(-1) range. The HPLC analysis showed that the most relevant increase in phenylpropanoids occurred in scoparone, which markedly increased 3days after exposing fruits to a very high quantum flux (630μmolm(-2)s(-1)) for 18h. However, phenylpropanoids, including scoparone, were not critical factors in LBL-induced resistance. The genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis were differentially regulated by LBL. Ethylene is not involved in elicited resistance, although high LBL levels increased ethylene production in only 1h.

  4. Citrus PH5-like H+-ATPase genes: identification and transcript analysis to investigate their possible relationship with citrate accumulation in fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Yun eShi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PH5 is a petunia gene that encodes a plasma membrane H+-ATPase and determines the vacuolar pH. The citrate content of fruit cell vacuoles influences citrus organoleptic qualities. Although citrus could have PH5-like homologs that are involved in citrate accumulation, the details are still unknown. In this study, extensive data-mining with the PH5 sequence and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least eight PH5-like genes (CsPH1-8 in the citrus genome. CsPHs have a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa, and they have high similarity to PhPH5, AtAHA10 or AtAHA2 (from 64.6% to 80.9%. They contain 13-21 exons and 12-20 introns and were evenly distributed into four subgroups of the P3A-subfamily (CsPH1, CsPH2, and CsPH3 in Group I, CsPH4 and CsPH5 in Group II, CsPH6 in Group IV, and CsPH7 and CsPH8 in Group III together with PhPH5. A transcript analysis showed that CsPH1, 3, and 4 were predominantly expressed in mature leaves, whereas CsPH2 and 7 were predominantly expressed in roots, CsPH5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in flowers, and CsPH8 was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs. Moreover, the CsPH transcript profiles differed between orange and pummelo, as well as between high-acid and low-acid cultivars. The low-acid orange ‘Honganliu’ exhibits low transcript levels of CsPH3, CsPH4, CsPH5, and CsPH8, whereas the acid-free pummelo has only a low transcript level of CsPH8. In addition, ABA injection increased the citrate content significantly, which was accompanied by the obvious induction of CsPH2, 6, 7, and 8 transcript levels. Taken together, we suggest that CsPH8 seems likely to regulate citrate accumulation in the citrus fruit vacuole.

  5. Overexpression of a Gene Encoding a Catabolite Repression Element in Alternaria citri Causes Severe Symptoms of Black Rot in Citrus Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, H; Ohtani, K; Yamamoto, H; Akimitsu, K

    2007-05-01

    ABSTRACT A gene (AcCreA) encoding a catabolite repression element (CreA) with (two zinc fingers of the Cys(2)His(2) type was isolated from the postharvest fungal pathogen Alternaria citri. The AcCreA overexpression mutant AcOEC2 of A. citri showed normal growth on pectin medium and on segments of peel or the juice sac area from citrus fruit. Production of endopolygalacturonase, an essential virulence factor of this pathogen, was similar in AcOEC2 and the wild type in pectin-containing media. However, addition of glucose to the medium showed that carbon catabolite repression of endopolygalacturonase gene (Acpg1) expression, as well as endopolygalacturonase production, was lost in AcOEC2. The wild-type strain of A. citri causes rot mainly in the central axis of citrus fruit without development of rotting in the juice sac area; however, AcOEC2 caused severe black rot symptoms in both the central axis and juice sac areas. These results indicate that AcCreA-mediated catabolite repression controls the virulence or infection of this pathogen, and that the wild-type A. citri does not cause symptoms in the juice sac area due to carbon catabolite repression by sugars in the juice of the juice sac area.

  6. Direct and Indirect Influence of Non-Native Neighbours on Pollination and Fruit Production of a Native Plant.

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    Ana Montero-Castaño

    Full Text Available Entomophilous non-native plants can directly affect the pollination and reproductive success of native plant species and also indirectly, by altering the composition and abundance of floral resources in the invaded community. Separating direct from indirect effects is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying the impacts of non-native species on recipient communities.Our aims are: (a to explore both the direct effect of the non-native Hedysarum coronarium and its indirect effect, mediated by the alteration of floral diversity, on the pollinator visitation rate and fructification of the native Leopoldia comosa and (b to distinguish whether the effects of the non-native species were due to its floral display or to its vegetative interactions.We conducted field observations within a flower removal experimental setup (i.e. non-native species present, absent and with its inflorescences removed at the neighbourhood scale.Our study illustrates the complexity of mechanisms involved in the impacts of non-native species on native species. Overall, Hedysarum increased pollinator visitation rates to Leopoldia target plants as a result of direct and indirect effects acting in the same direction. Due to its floral display, Hedysarum exerted a direct magnet effect attracting visits to native target plants, especially those made by the honeybee. Indirectly, Hedysarum also increased the visitation rate of native target plants. Due to the competition for resources mediated by its vegetative parts, it decreased floral diversity in the neighbourhoods, which was negatively related to the visitation rate to native target plants. Hedysarum overall also increased the fructification of Leopoldia target plants, even though such an increase was the result of other indirect effects compensating for the observed negative indirect effect mediated by the decrease of floral diversity.

  7. [Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the state of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustolin, Teresinha A; Lopes, João R S; Querino, Ranyse B; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Zanol, Kety; Azevedo Filho, Wilson S; Mendes, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agroecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management.

  8. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food.

  9. Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak grafted on twelve different rootstocks Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka enxertada em doze porta-enxertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB, located in the Bebedouro county, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.; the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck; the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.; the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L

  10. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J Z; Zhu, Li; Crous, P W; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isolates representing various cercosporoid genera were isolated from these disease symptoms, which were supplemented with eight Citrus cercosporoid isolates collected from other countries. Based on a morphological and phylogenetic study using sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA's ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions (ITS), and partial actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes, these strains were placed in the following genera: Cercospora, Pallidocercospora, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Verrucisporota and Zasmidium. All isolates tended to be sterile, except the Zasmidium isolates associated with citrus greasy spot-like symptoms, which subsequently were compared with phylogenetically similar isolates occurring on Citrus and other hosts elsewhere. From these results four Zasmidium species were recognized on Citrus, namely Z. indonesianum on Citrus in Indonesia, Z. fructicola and Z. fructigenum on Citrus in China and Z. citri-griseum, which appears to have a wide host range including Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus and Musa, as well as a global distribution.

  11. 75 FR 34419 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... canker is a plant disease that affects plant and plant parts, including fresh fruit of citrus and citrus... Information Collection; Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit from... nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker and to request...

  12. CITRUS AS A COMPONENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Duarte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are native to southeastern Asia, but are present in the Mediterranean basin for centuries. This group of species has reached great importance in some of the Mediterranean countries and, in the case of orange, mandarin and lemon trees, they found here soil and climatic conditions which allows them to achieve a high level of fruit quality, even better than in the regions where they came from. Citrus fruits are present in the diet of the peoples living on the Mediterranean basin, at least since the time of the Roman Empire. In the 20th century they became the main crop in various agricultural areas of the Mediterranean, playing an important role in the landscape, in the diet of the overall population, and also in international trade. They are present in the gardens of palaces and monasteries, but also in the courtyards and orchards of the poorest families. Their fruits are not only a refreshing dessert, but also a condiment, or even a major component of many dishes. Citrus fruits have well-documented nutritional and health benefits. They can actually help prevent and cure some diseases and, above all, they are essential in a balanced and tasty diet.

  13. A combined spectroscopic and TDDFT study of natural dyes extracted from fruit peels of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Hidayat, Novianto Nur; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the novel spectroscopic investigations and enhanced the electron transfers of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata fruit peels as the photosensitizers for the dye-sensitized solar cells. The calculated TD-DFT-UB3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p)-IEFPCM(UAKS), experiment spectra of ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the main flavonoid (hesperidin and gallocatechin) structures of the dye extracts. The optimized flavonoid structures are calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31 + G(d,p) level. The rutinosyl group of the hesperidin pigment (Citrus reticulata) will be further investigated compared to the gallocatechin (Musa acuminata) pigment. The acidity of the dye extract is treated by adding 2% acetic acid. The energy levels of the HOMO-LUMO dyes are measured by a combined Tauc plot and cyclic voltammetry contrasted with the DFT data. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy will be performed to model the dye electron transfer. As for the rutinosyl group presence and the acidic treatment, the acidified Citrus reticulata cell under continuous light exposure of 100 mW·cm- 2 yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 3.23 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.48 V, and a fill factor of 0.45 corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.71% because the shifting down HOMO-LUMO edges and the broadening dye's absorbance evaluated by a combined spectroscopic and TD-DFT method. The result also leads to the longest diffusion length of 32.2 μm, the fastest electron transit of 0.22 ms, and the longest electron lifetime of 4.29 ms.

  14. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... infected plants, which render the fruit unmarketable, and cause infected fruit to drop from the trees... of the fruit, and can kill trees. Once infected, there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening. In... disease that is caused by a complex of Xanthomonas spp. bacteria and that affects plants and plant...

  15. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  16. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck = Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Maria Gamito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais maisfreqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto. The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors onflowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collectnectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  17. Screening of new reagents for preventing fruit-drop on late-maturing Citrus%晚熟柑橘越冬保果新药剂筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁高鹏; 淳长品; 彭良志; 彭震宇; 习建龙; 张梦娇; 朱春钊; 付行政; 江才伦

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]Fruit drop is severe in late-maturing citrus varieties during winter and early spring seasons.Therefore,how to address the fruit drop problem is very important for the late-maturing citrus industry.2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is the best effective reagent preventing citrus preharvest drop,but the toxicity of 2,4-D residues has been a concern and also controversial for a long time,and 2,4-D has been limited or forbidden to be used on citrus fruits in many countries or regions.There are no substitutes for controlling citrus preharvest drop.Thus,it is necessary to investigate the efficacy of some new reagents,which have a no or low toxicity to humans and animals,on preventing fruit-drop of the late-maturing citrus.[Methods] This experiment was executed at the Citrus Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences during the 2014-2015 seasons.Seven year old ‘Tarocco' blood orange (Citrus sinensis ‘Tarocco') and ‘Kiyomi' tangor (Citrus sinensis × Citrus unshiu Marc.) growing under the same conditions were used as experimental materials,and fifty trees were divided into five test groups.Using 2,4-D as a positive control (TCK),the resistance of three preliminary screened chemicals [2-methyl-4-chloro-sodium (T1),2-methyl-4-chloro-dimethgl amine salt (T2) and 2-methyl-4-chloro-phenoxy acetic acid (T3)] against citrus preharvest drop were investigated.Prochloraz and TritonX-100 were used as a blank control (CK).At four different times,sprays of reagents were applied to ‘Tarocco' blood orange and ‘Kiyomi' tangor every 20-30 days on sunny days from Nov.2014 to Jan.2015.The fruit drops of each tree were investigated every two weeks,and the dropped fruit were removed from the orchard.The fruit drops were divided into two types including physiological fruit drop and pathological fruit drop,and only the data of the physiological fruit drops were analyzed in this study.To evaluate mature fruit quality,the soluble solid content (TSS

  18. Partial Cold Treatment of Citrus Fruit for Export Risk Mitigation for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as Part of a Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S D; Kirkman, W; Albertyn, S; Love, C N; Coetzee, J A; Hattingh, V

    2016-08-01

    Some of South Africa's citrus export markets require mandatory postharvest cold treatment of citrus fruit as a phytosanitary risk mitigation treatment for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). An alternative to this may be partial cold treatment as one of the final steps in a systems approach to mitigate phytosanitary risk. Consequently, the efficacy of such partial cold treatments was evaluated. It was first determined that a 2°C cold treatment was significantly more effective against fourth and fifth instars (the most cold-tolerant instars) than treatments at 3°C and 4°C for a duration of 18 d. Secondly, it was determined that 2°C for 18 d and 1°C for 16 d were similarly effective, but both treatments were significantly more effective than 1°C for 14 d. Mean mortality of fourth and fifth instars treated with 2°C for 18 d in seven replicates from four trials was 99.94%. Finally, it was determined that the inability of the majority of surviving larvae to develop to adulthood would further increase the efficacy of a 2°C for 18 d treatment to 99.96%. Inclusion of reproductive nonviability of survivors increased mortality to 99.99%.

  19. Rare earth element transfer from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the effects on internal fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality.

  20. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    OpenAIRE

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  1. Purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) fruit and their effects on glucose consumption in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Yan, Youyou; Chen, Qingjun; Luo, Fenglei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-12-01

    Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) is rich in naringin and neohesperidin, which are natural flavanone glycosides with a range of biological activities. Among the different fruit parts, i.e. flavedo, albedo, segment membrane (SM), and juice sacs (JS), albedo showed the highest contents of both compounds, with 27.00 and 19.09mg/g DW for naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. Efficient simultaneous purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou albedo was established by the combination of macroporous D101 resin chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified naringin and neohesperidin were identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and their effects on glucose consumption were investigated in HepG2 cells. Cells treated with naringin and neohesperidin showed increased consumption of glucose, and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Therefore, naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou may act as potential hypoglycaemic agents through regulation of glucose metabolism.

  2. Plant growth, Leaf Nutrient status, fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco as influenced by potassium (K fertigation with four potash fertilizer sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of different potassium (K fertilizers applied through fertigation system during three different seasons on yield and quality behaviors of 14-16 years Nagpur mandarin an experiment was conducted at National Research Centre for Citrus, Nagpur during 2009-2012. The Nagpur mandarin plants requires potassium which, when applied in different amounts during the flower bud initiation to before fruit maturity can affect the yield and quality of fruit as well. The treatments in experiment consisted of; T1 - fertigation with potassium chloride [KCL], T2- fertigation with potassium nitrate [KNO3], T3- fertigation with potassium sulphate [K2SO4] and T4- fertigation with mono potassium phosphate [KH2PO4] @ 150 g K2O/plant. The recommended fertigation dose was 500:150:150 (N:P:K and given through these treatments along with various fertilizers combination of urea of phosphate, urea, and P2O5 acid. Nitrogen elemnet was given from October to January month and N, P and K all were given from February to June month. Each fertigation treatment was given at 15 days interval and fruit yield and quality were measured at harvest. Results showed the highest response of the fruit yield (31.13 t/ha with treatment mono potassium phosphate followed by in fertigation with potassium nitrate (29.4 t/ha. The total soluble solids was highest (10.49 0Brix in K fertigation with mono potassium phosphate followed by fertigation with potassium sulphate (10.48 0Brix. Highest juice content (38.76 % and low acidity (0.77 % was found in K fertigation with mono potassium phosphate. The highest TSS to acidity ratio (sweetness indicator was observed in Mono potassium Phosphate (13.6 followed by Potassium sulphate (13.1.

  3. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment.

  4. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as

  5. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Johnson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF, availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design: Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods: Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results: Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] > 25 was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d. Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion: Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents.

  6. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer S.; Nobmann, Elizabeth D.; Asay, Elvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF), availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] >25) was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day) was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d). Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents. PMID:22456043

  7. Characterization of aroma active compounds in fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bi Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Fan, Gang; Yao, Xiao Lin; Pan, Si Yi

    2008-06-12

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, beta-myrcene, octanal, linalool, alpha-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  8. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J.Z.; Zhu, Li; Crous, P.W.; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isol

  9. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet

  10. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  11. 78 FR 58992 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Canker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... States. Citrus canker is a plant disease that affects plant and plant parts, including fresh fruit of... Collection; Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit From Quarantined Areas... nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker. DATES: We...

  12. Nota sôbre a dosagem iodométrica da vitamina C nos frutos cítricos Iodometric determination of vitamin C in citrus fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto G. Villela

    1943-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid was determined in pure aquous solutions and in citrus fruit juices by iodometric, dichlorophenolindophenol and iodate methods. More constant values were obtained with iodate and Tillmans methods. Iodate is preferable owing to the stability of solution and the simplicity of the method. In the analysis of citrus juices the iodate method proposed by Ballentine is very accurate and suitable for routine work (Table I and II. Recovery experiments recorded in Table III show that the results are reproducible. The averages obtained for some fruits are shown in Table IV. Lemon: 45,4 to 67,3; orange: 28,0 to 60,8; lima: 25,2 to 38,2 and mandarine: 32,0 to 59,3. Values expressed in mg per 100 cc. of juice.

  13. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO FRUTO DA VARIEDADE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco: UMA TANGERINA DO TIPO 'PONCÃ' DE MATURAÇÃO PRECOCE FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco: AN EARLY RIPENING 'PONKAN' LIKE MANDARIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSE MARY PIO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A tangerina-'Poncã' é bastante apreciada pelo consumidor brasileiro. No Estado de São Paulo, a maturação de seus frutos ocorre nos meses de abril a agosto. Com o mercado ávido por frutas de mesa e agravado pelo problema da ocorrência da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC, que afeta principalmente as variedades de laranjas-doces, tem havido um aumento considerável no plantio dessa variedade. Dessa forma, um excesso de produção, num mesmo período, faz com que os preços caiam, desestimulando assim os produtores. O Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM vem buscando outras alternativas no sentido de obter, durante o ano todo, esse tipo de tangerina. Assim sendo, foram realizados estudos de caracterização de frutos, em diversas épocas do ano, com o acompanhamento dos níveis de maturação, envolvendo acessos do Banco de Germoplasma do CCSM. Dentre as variedades estudadas, quanto à precocidade e qualidade dos frutos, destacou-se a Span Americana. A tangerina-'Poncã' tem seu período de maturação para as condições edafoclimáticas do CCSM, nos meses de maio e junho. Já a variedade Span Americana, que apresenta frutos similares à 'Poncã' tradicional, tem maturação bastante precoce, podendo ser iniciada a sua colheita no mês de março.The 'Ponkan' mandarin is highly appreciated by the Brazilian consumer. In the State of São Paulo, Brazil, its fruits mature from April through August. With the market very much in demand for table fruits and due to the problem of occurrence of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC that affects mainly the sweet orange varieties there has been a considerable increase in planting of this variety. By this way, an over of production in a same period makes the prices drop, desistimulating the growers. The Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM is searching other alternatives in order to obtain mandarin fruits all the year. Therefore, fruit characteristics studies in different seasons of the year

  14. Rare earth element transfer from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall and the effects on internal fruit quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Cheng

    Full Text Available The effects of soil rare earth element (REE on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe oxide (Feox significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60. From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P < 0.01, total soluble solids (r = 0.48, P < 0.01 and vitamin C (r = 0.56, P < 0.01. Generally, under routine methods of water and fertilization management, the cultivation of navel oranges in rare earth ore areas of south China with soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality.

  15. Inhibiting ethylene perception with 1-methylcyclopropene triggers molecular responses aimed to cope with cell toxicity and increased respiration in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establés-Ortiz, Beatriz; Romero, Paco; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Lafuente, María T

    2016-06-01

    The ethylene perception inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been critical in understanding the hormone's mode of action. However, 1-MCP may trigger other processes that could vary the interpretation of results related until now to ethylene, which we aim to understand by using transcriptomic analysis. Transcriptomic changes in ethylene and 1-MCP-treated 'Navelate' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) oranges were studied in parallel with changes in ethylene production, respiration and peel damage. The effects of compounds modifying the levels of the ethylene co-product cyanide and nitric oxide (NO) on fruit physiology were also studied. Results suggested that: 1) The ethylene treatment caused sub-lethal stress since it induced stress-related responses and reduced peel damage; 2) 1-MCP induced ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent responsive networks; 3) 1-MCP triggered ethylene overproduction, stress-related responses and metabolic shifts aimed to cope with cell toxicity, which mostly affected to the inner part of the peel (albedo); 4) 1-MCP increased respiration and drove metabolism reconfiguration for favoring energy conservation but up-regulated genes related to lipid and protein degradation and triggered the over-expression of genes associated with the plasma membrane cellular component; 5) Xenobiotics and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) might act as signals for defense responses in the ethylene-treated fruit, while their uncontrolled generation would induce processes mimicking cell death and damage in 1-MCP-treated fruit; 6) ROS, the ethylene co-product cyanide and NO may converge in the toxic effects of 1-MCP.

  16. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel cDNA Encoding Late Embryogenesis-Abundant Protein 5 Like (LEA-5) Gene from Cara Cara Navel Orange Fruit(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Neng-guo; YE Jun-li; XU Juan; DENG Xiu-xin

    2006-01-01

    LEA5 gene was postulated related with both stress and hormone responses. In an attempt to find genes exclusively expressed during fruit ripening of Cara Cara navel orange, a novel cDNA clone encoding late embryogenesis-abundant protein 5 like gene (CitLEA5-1) was obtained. It was 582 bp in length, containing 97 deduced amino acids. Compared with the stress-induced LEA5 from leaves of Citrus sinensis, CitLEA5-1 had a shorter 3' untranslated region (UTR). Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that CitLEA5-1 was transcriptional regulated during fruit ripening of Cara Cara navel orange.

  17. Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ferreira de Souza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco, no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial.This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to November, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest

  18. 76 FR 78228 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Greening and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... regulations to implement the PPA. Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening is a bacterial disease... the fruit, and can kill trees. Once infected, there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening...

  19. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu’s method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme conc...

  20. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

  1. Major phytochemical composition of 3 native Korean citrus varieties and bioactive activity on V79-4 cells induced by oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung Mi; Hwang, In Kyeong; Park, Ji Hyun; Moon, BoKyung

    2009-08-01

    Three citrus varieties grown in Korea, namely, Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck), were evaluated for their dietary fiber, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids as well as individual flavonoids composition. The biochemical characteristics of citrus varieties were examined by the antioxidant capacity (731 to 1221 micromol of Trolox equivalent/g), total phenolic (334 to 411 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/100 g), total flavonoid contents (214 to 281 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), and total carotenoid contents (63 to 84 mg/100 g). Six flavonoids, including naringin, naringenin, hesperidin, hesperetin, neohesperidin, and luteolin, were tentatively identified. Naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in 3 citrus varieties. Among the citrus varieties studied, Yuza showed higher antioxidant activity, total phenolics, total carotenoids, and lower superoxide radical scavenging assay (SRSA) IC(50) values than other varieties. Furthermore, Korean citrus showed higher protective effect on gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) as compared to vitamin C and luteolin.

  2. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p fruit juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p fruit juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice.

  3. Palms versus trees: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant species in the Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing species might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant species. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each species, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between species. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among species in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to trees with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from species with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was

  4. Effects of Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange Fruit Extracts and p-Synephrine on Metabolic Fluxes in the Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite supressants. An important fruit component is p-synephrine, which is structurally similar to the adrenergic agents. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of the C. aurantium extract on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways, including oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. The C. aurantium extract and p-synephrine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. These changes were partly sensitive to a- and b-adrenergic antagonists. p-Synephrine (200 mM produced an increase in glucose output that was only 15% smaller than the increment caused by the extract containing 196 mM p-synephrine. At low concentrations the C. aurantium extract tended to increase gluconeogenesis, but at high concentrations it was inhibitory, opposite to what happened with p-synephrine. The action of the C. aurantium extract on liver metabolism is similar to the well known actions of adrenergic agents and can be partly attributed to its content in p-synephrine. Many of these actions are catabolic and compatible with the weight-loss effects usually attributed to C. aurantium.

  5. Simple and rapid determination of thiabendazole, imazalil, and o-phenylphenol in citrus fruit using flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Goto, Tomomi; Oka, Hisao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Yutaka; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-02-12

    A simple and rapid analytical method for thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMA), and o-phenylphenol (OPP) in citrus fruit has been developed by using flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. The method involves the combined use of stable isotopically labeled internal standards (thiabendazole-(13)C(6), imazalil-d(5), and p-phenylphenol-d(9)) and a multiple reaction monitoring technique. The average recoveries for the fungicides at the tolerance levels (TBZ and OPP, 10 mg/kg; IMA, 5 mg/kg) ranged from 77 to 101%, with the coefficients of variation (CVs) ranging from 0.7 to 4.2% (n = 5). At half the tolerance levels (TBZ and OPP, 5 mg/kg; IMA, 2.5 mg/kg), the average recoveries ranged from 62 to 112%, with the CVs ranging from 0.7 to 8.4% (n = 5). The CVs of the average recoveries, obtained from lemon samples fortified with three fungicides at the tolerance levels, obtained on three different days over two weeks, ranged within 2%. The analysis time, including sample preparation and determination, is only 15 min.

  6. Effects of essential oils from herbal plants and citrus fruits on DNA polymerase inhibitory, cancer cell growth inhibitory, antiallergic, and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2012-11-14

    In this study, the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) from herbal plants and citrus fruits were investigated in terms of mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitory activity, cancer cell (human colon carcinoma, HCT116) growth inhibitory activity, antiallergic activity, as anti-β-hexosaminidase release activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187, and antioxidant activity by a lipophilic-oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. These EOs showed patterns of inhibition of pol α, a DNA replicative pol, similar to their cancer cell growth inhibitory activity, and their inhibitory activity on pol λ, a DNA repair/recombination pol, by the EOs showed correlation with anti-β-hexosaminidase release activity. Among these EOs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) was the strongest inhibitor of pols α and λ and showed significant effects on both cancer cell growth and mast cell degranulation. On the basis of these results, chamomile EO can be recommended as a potentially useful, bioactive candidate for therapeutic applications.

  7. Nondestructive quality assessment of shogun mandarin fruits (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun using compton scattering of gamma-ray technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punnary, K.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Compton scattering of gamma radiation was applied for nondestructive testing of the shogun mandarin fruits with good quality defined as no dry sack or dry fibrous structures inside. In principle, the scattering deviated angles to the left and right of a gamma ray that penetrates through a homogeneous fibrous structure meat of any orange fruit should be equal. The source Cs-137, with an initial gamma ray activity of 9.25 mCi, placed in a 7 cm thick lead shielding, was radiated through a 10 mm diameter collimator onto any single fruit to be tested. A NaI(Tl-detector, oriented perpendicular to both left and right of theincoming beam, was placed 5 cm from the fruit. Results showed that the net count rate of the scattering beam between the left and right counting for good-quality shogun mandarin with proper tissue for consumption was less than 85 counts per minute (average 83 cpm, whereas shogun mandarin with dry sack, which were unfit for consumption, had twice that rate or more (average 175 cpm.

  8. Effects of Bagging on Fruit Qualities of Citrus reticulata cv. Unshiu%套袋对温州蜜柑果实品质的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义; 王雪芳

    2011-01-01

    22 years old Citrs reticulata Blanco cv. Unshiu plants were used as experimental material. The fruit bagging tests were carried out with different color of bags (with red, yellow, blue, white film bags; Bagged on July 1, bags removed on Sept 25), different removal dates of bag (on Sept 5, Sept 20 and October 5 with bag non-removal as the check; Bagging on July 1; All bags made from yellow craft papers) and different bagging dates (on July 2, Aug 4 and Sept 9; Bag removed on Sept 27; All bags made from yellow craft papers) to study the effects of bagging on fruit qualities. The results showed all the fruit bagging treatments could improve fruit surface, enhance coloration, reduce very significantly Vc content and titratable acid content, increase very significantly solid-acid ratio, increase significantly or very significantly soluble solid contents in most of the treatments, and didn't show an inconsistent effects on fruit qualities among the treatments. By comprehensive analysis on fruit qualities, the blue and red bags were the best and the white ones were the worst. The best bag removing date was Sept 20 and the best bagging dates were July 2 and Aug 4, bagging too late was bad.%以22年生温州蜜柑(Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Unshiu)植株为试材,分别进行了果袋颜色(分别是红、黄、蓝、白色,套袋时期7月1日,摘袋时期9月25日)、摘袋时期(套袋时期7月1日,摘袋时期分别为9月5日、9月20日、10月5日,以不摘袋为对照,黄色牛皮纸袋)和套袋时期(套袋时期分别为7月2日、8月4日、9月9日;摘袋时期在9月27日,黄色牛皮纸袋)试验,研究套袋对温州蜜柑果实品质的影响.结果表明,在3个试验中,套袋处理均能提高果面的光洁度,增进着色,极显著地降低了果实中可滴定酸和维生素C的含量,极显著地提高了固酸比和糖酸比,大多数能极显著地提高可溶性固形物的含量,但对可溶性糖含量影响不太一致.综合来

  9. Fitness benefits of the fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata on a non-native rose host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Kim; Smit, Christian; Schilthuizen, Menno; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2016-01-01

    Many species have been introduced worldwide into areas outside their natural range. Often these non-native species are introduced without their natural enemies, which sometimes leads to uncontrolled population growth. It is rarely reported that an introduced species provides a new resource for a nat

  10. Chemical cross-linking and native mass spectrometry: A fruitful combination for structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinz, Andrea; Arlt, Christian; Chorev, Dror; Sharon, Michal

    2015-08-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is becoming increasingly popular in the field of structural biology for analyzing protein three-dimensional-structures and for mapping protein-protein interactions. In this review, the specific contributions of chemical crosslinking and native MS are outlined to reveal the structural features of proteins and protein assemblies. Both strategies are illustrated based on the examples of the tetrameric tumor suppressor protein p53 and multisubunit vinculin-Arp2/3 hybrid complexes. We describe the distinct advantages and limitations of each technique and highlight synergistic effects when both techniques are combined. Integrating both methods is especially useful for characterizing large protein assemblies and for capturing transient interactions. We also point out the future directions we foresee for a combination of in vivo crosslinking and native MS for structural investigation of intact protein assemblies.

  11. A Proteomic Analysis of the Chromoplasts Isolated from Sweet Orange Fruits [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] Revealed Clues to Their Ripening Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunliu Zeng; Zhiyong Pan; Yuduan Ding; Andan Zhu; Hongbo Cao; Qiang Xu; Xiuxin Deng

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid biosynthesisis believed to occur in chromoplasts,which are non-photosynthetic plastids often present in flowers and fruits.We report a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts,which were purified from sweet orange by a novel protocol using Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation.Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against marker proteins for different cell compartments suggested the chromoplast extraction were of high purity.Systematic analysis of the chromoplast proteome identified 493 proteins,of which 418 are putative plastid proteins based on in silico sequence homology and functional analyses.Based on the predicted functions of these identified plastid proteins,a large proportion (~60%) of the chromoplast proteome of sweet orange is constituted by proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism,amino acid/protein synthesis,and secondary metabolism.Of note,HDS (hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase),PAP (plastid-lipid-associated protein),and psHSPs (plastid small heat shock proteins) involved in the synthesis or storage of carotenoid and stress response are among the most abundant proteins identified.A comparison of chromoplast proteomes between sweet orange and tomato suggested a high level of conservation in a broad range of metabolic pathways.However,the citrus chromoplast was characterized by more extensive carotenoid synthesis,extensive amino acid synthesis without nitrogen assimilation,and evidence for lipid metabolism concerning jasmonic acid synthesis.In conclusion,this study provides an insight into the major metabolic pathways as well as some unique characteristics of the sweet orange chromoplasts at the whole proteome level.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  13. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-02-23

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  14. Residue trend of imidacloprid in fruits of Citrus grandis%吡虫啉在化橘红果中的残留动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海莉; 程惠珍; 李少南; 陈君; 陈荣敏; 覃蓉敏; 徐常青; 于晶; 徐荣; 李向明

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究低毒内吸性杀虫剂吡虫啉在化橘红果实中的残留动态.方法:在化橘红采果前期,树干基部注射吡虫啉可溶性溶液,施药后定期采集化橘红果实,采用高效液相色谱法测定果实中吡虫啉的残留量.结果:以每厘米树干胸径注入0.8mL吡虫啉药剂后,化橘红果实中的农药残留量始终保持在很低的水平;以每厘米树干胸径注入1.5 mL吡虫啉药剂后,前7 d果实中的农药残留量一直在很低的水平,7 d后迅速上升,14 d时达到高峰,之后逐渐下降,30 d降至0.835 mg·kg-1,低于国内和国际上吡虫啉在柑橘类成果中最大残留限量(MRLs≤1 mg·kg-1).以施用1.5 mL·cm-1吡虫啉药剂对化橘红蛀茎害虫的防治效果最佳.结论:在化橘红果实采收期前30 d,以每厘米树干胸径注入1.5 mL吡虫啉药液,能有效地防治化橘红蛀茎害虫,且果实中的农药残留量始终在安全范围内.%Objective : To study on residue trend of imidacloprid in fruits of Citrus grandis. Methods : It was examined by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) after trunk injection. Results : The residue of imidacloprid remained a low period in fruits of C. grandis after injection with 0. 8 mL · cm-1 diluted of imidacloprid. When the trunk was injected with 1. 5 mL · cm -1 diluted of imidacloprid, the residue level of imidacloprid in fruits increased on the 7th day immediately. And the peak level was detected on the 14th day after the treatment. The level of imidacloprid in fruits was 0. 835 mg · kg-1 in the 30th day, which was lower than MRLs ( 1 mg · kg-1). Conclusions:When imidacloprid through trunk injection was applied to control bore pests of C. grandis,which was diluted with 1. 5 mL · cm -1 ,the safe interval period was more than 30 d.

  15. Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Cesar Modesto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S��o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit

  16. Food quality and safety in export fresh fruit horticultural products: Implying in the labor process of agribusiness related to sweat citrus fruit in Entre Rios province Calidad y seguridad alimentaria en productos frutihortícolas frescos de exportación: Implicaciones en los procesos laborales de la agroindustria de cítricos dulces de Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Tadeo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s the world market increases the demand of fresh fruit horticultural products in order to satisfy customers who require standardised products and "just in time" delivery. Meanwhile a great number of food quality and safety regulations are developed which are also concerned in workers wellfare, prohibition of children work and inverorment protection. This article shows the results of a study about citrus fruit and agribusiness related to citrus fruit in Entre Rios province, the main sweet citrus fruit producer in Argentina . Such study deals with food quality and health features of export sweet citrus fruit which are sent to other counter-seasonal markets. We use qualitative information gathered in the years 2005 and 2006 by means of direct survey to packaging export companies, citrus producers, entreproneurs, harvest workers and packaging workers. We add statistic information in this study, as well.A comienzos de 1990 el mercado mundial incrementa la demanda de productos frutihortícolas en estado fresco, destinada a satisfacer a consumidores que requieren productos estandarizados y envíos "just in time". Simultáneamente, aparecen numerosas normas de calidad y seguridad alimentaria, públicas y privadas, tendientes a la obtención de productos sanos e inocuos, a la vez que se interesan por la protección de los trabajadores, prohibición del trabajo infantil y cuidado del medio ambiente. Este artículo presenta resultados de un estudio de caso referido a la agroindustria de cítricos de la provincia de Entre Ríos, principal productora de cítricos dulces del país. Se indaga en los criterios de calidad y sanidad alimentaria en cítricos dulces de exportación a mercados de contraestación y su repercusión en los procesos de trabajo. Utilizamos información cualitativa obtenida en los años 2005 y 2006 (encuestas directas a empresas empacadoras exportadoras, entrevistas en profundidad a productores citrícolas, empresarios

  17. Interrelations between citrus rust mite, Hirsutella thompsonii and greasy spot on citrus in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussel, van E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Counts of citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.)) on leaves and fruit of citrus rose to a peak in the two dry seasons, the build up taking 4-5 weeks. It then decreased partly through infection by the entomogenous fungus Hirsutellathompsonii Fisher and partly through a decline in feed qual

  18. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  19. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  20. Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZIANA HOXHA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102 a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl-4-(4-sulfonato-phenylazo-H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate as the principal uncoloured components. The intention of this study was evaluation of a new simple method to determine the presence and the quantity of synthetic colour added in commercial imported fruit juice. By a spectrophotometer UV-VIS was measured absorbance in maximal wavelength, 426 nm, of five commercial orange juices samples, using as reference control sample an orange fresh juice sample. The concentration of tartrazine in some samples were found from 50-170mg/L, while the maximal permitted level of E102 concentration is 100 mg/L (Referred to EU standards, 2011. This study is an advanced step for a quick determination of tatrazine level; otherwise need to profound this argument in the future.

  1. Investigation of surface defect of Citrus fruits caused by Botrytis-Molded petals%柑橘花瓣灰霉病诱导的果面疤痕研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽; 王兴红; 黄峰; 侯欣; 肖紫兰; 蒲占旭; 黄振东; 李红叶

    2012-01-01

    【目的】为了解柑橘花瓣灰霉病是否与成熟果实表面疤痕有关、所形成疤痕的特征以及灰霉病菌的种类,【方法】通过终花期挂牌跟踪调查、人工接菌试验和喷药防治,综合分析花瓣灰霉病与果面疤痕的关系及疤痕特征。【结果】结果表明,柑橘花瓣可受灰霉病菌感染而腐烂,腐烂花瓣不易脱落,黏贴在幼果上,滋生的病菌可引起幼果表皮形成凹陷斑点或斑块。受害组织随后木栓化,呈痘疮状或脊状凸起。随着果实的膨大,凸起部位逐渐变平坦,甚至稍下陷。疤痕表面粗糙,大小形状各异,有浅裂纹,质地似软木塞。菌丝块接种发现病菌可以引起幼果表面产生黑褐色凹陷的斑点或斑块,花期喷施速克灵可以部分降低疤痕果的比例。形态学和分子鉴定证明花瓣上的灰霉菌主要为灰葡萄孢菌(Botrytis cinerea Pers.Ex.Fr.)。【结论】花瓣灰霉腐烂与果实表面疤痕有关。%【Objective】The study is to observe the characteristics of Botrytis-induced scars and to elucidate the relation between Botrytis-mold of citrus petals and defect or scars of fruit rind.【Method】Tracking survey,petal inoculation and fungicide spraying at the late flowering stage were involved in the experiment.【Result】The results showed that citrus petals were heavily infected by Botrytis sp.at the late stage of flowering.The infected petal was gray-molded,ready to stick on the fruitlets,resulting in the extending of mycelium of Botrytis sp.from floral debris onto the fruitlet surface,causing spots with slight depressed initially,then conical or ridge-like outgrowths on the rind.The associated corky scars remained as blemishes on the fruit surface as the fruit enlarged and matured,the protruding parts became gradually flat,or even slightly depressed,roughness,cork-like(corky scars).Inoculation experiment indicated that Botrytis sp.was pathogenic to citrus fruitlets,causing black

  2. Identification and transcript analysis of two glutamate decarboxylase genes, CsGAD1 and CsGAD2, reveal the strong relationship between CsGAD1 and citrate utilization in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Long-Fei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2014-09-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) has been suggested to be a key, regulatory point in the biosynthesis of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and in the utilization of citric acid through GABA shunt pathway. In this study we discovered two GAD genes, named as CsGAD1 and CsGAD2, in citrus genome database and then successfully cloned. Both CsGAD1 and CsGAD2 have a putative pyridoxal 5-phosphate binding domain in the middle region and a putative calmodulin-binding domain at the carboxyl terminus. Gene structure analysis showed that much difference exists in the size of exons and introns or in cis-regulatory elements in promoter region between the two GAD genes. Gene expression indicated that CsGAD1 transcript was predominantly expressed in flower and CsGAD2 transcript was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs; in the ripening fruit, CsGAD1 transcript level was at least 2-time higher than CsGAD2 transcript level. Moreover, CsGAD1 transcript level was increased significantly along with the increase of GAD activity and accompanied by a significant decrease of titratable acid (TA), suggesting that it is CsGAD1 rather than CsGAD2 plays a role in the citric acid utilization during fruit ripening. In addition, injection of abscisic acid and foliar spray of K2SO4 significantly increased the TA content of Satsuma mandarin, and significantly decreased GAD activity as well as CsGAD1 transcript, further suggesting the important role of CsGAD1 in the citrate utilization of citrus fruit.

  3. Simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic determination of seven flavonoids in citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples: hesperetin and naringenin as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Barfi, Azadeh; Saeidi, Iman

    2013-10-11

    In the present study, for the first time, a simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (SM-USA-MSPD) method with a different application for liquid matrices was developed to extract different flavonoids (hesperidin, diosmin, eriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, hesperetin and naringenin) from citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples prior to their determination using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different effective parameters were studied and under the optimum conditions (including sample volume: 150μL; solid phase: silica-based C18, 200mg; eluting solvent: methanol, 500μL; pH: 4; and sonication: 6min; at room temperature), limits of detection and limits of quantification were ranged from 23.3 to 46.8ngmL(-1) and 74.8 to 141.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.074-198.5μgmL(-1), r(2)>0.991), accuracy (recovery=84.6-101.5%), and precision (repeatability: intra-day precisionjuices- and the obtained results confirmed that these compounds could be used as good biomarkers of citrus fruit juice intake.

  4. Wing loading and extra loading capacity of adults of the Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera (Tetradacus) minax ( Diptera: Tephritidae)%柑橘大实蝇成虫的翅载和额外负载能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀琴; 李正跃; 李传仁; Gilles BOITEAU; 桂连友

    2012-01-01

    Effective management of the Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera ( Tetradacus) minax (Enderlein) ( Diptera: Tephritidae) , is hindered by a lack of knowledge about its movements. By measuring the wing loading and extra loading capacity of adults of the Chinese citrus fruit fly, we determined the effect of weight of extra loading electronic tags on the ratio of upward to downward flights of flies, in order to provide technical parameters for making the feasibility of electronic tag for tracking natural movement of B. minax using harmonic radar technology. The wing loading of the Chinese citrus fruit fly was found not to decrease with increasing size over a wide range of individual sizes and independent of sex. The results indicate that an average wing loading of adults of Chinese citrus fruit fly is about 11 mg after normal food uptake alternated with food deprivation (only water is supplied). It is estimated from our results in a large screened cage that 7. 3 mg ( representing about 23% of adult' s weight) extra loading for the technique has no or minimal impact on the number of upward flights of adults of Chinese citrus fruit fly. The results further suggest that when we determine the feasibility of tags for the tracking of natural movement of B. minax using harmonic radar technology, the weight of electronic tags should be no more than 7. 3 mg.%对柑橘大实蝇Bactrocera(Tetradacus)minax (Enderlein)的有效管理受阻于对其成虫运动行为的较少的认识.通过测定其成虫翅载能力和忍受额外负载重量的能力,从而确定其成虫所携带不同的额外负载的电子标签重量对其正常起飞的影响程度,为制作合适的昆虫谐波雷达的电子标签提供技术参数.其雌雄成虫的翅载能力并没有随着成虫个体重量增加而降低,也没有因为性别不同而存在差异.成虫经过正常取食和饥饿(只喂清水)变化处理,其成虫平均净载重量约为11 mg.来自网室成虫忍受额外负载

  5. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  6. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2{sup *} of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues; T1-, T2- und T2{sup *}-Relaxationswerte von Aepfeln, Birnen, Zitrusfruechten und Kartoffeln im Vergleich zu menschlichen Geweben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2{sup *} relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2{sup *}: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2{sup *}: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2{sup *}: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2{sup *}: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2{sup *} values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  7. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  8. Mexican Fruit Fly Populations in the Semi-Arid Highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoye-Eligio, V; Mora-Olivo, A; Gaona-García, G; Reyes-Zepeda, F; Rocandio-Rodríguez, M

    2017-01-04

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most important pests of citrus in Mexico. We report the results of an analysis of A. ludens populations that inhabit the semi-arid highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in northeastern Mexico. This study aimed to provide information on population fluctuation of A. ludens and how it relates to climate variables, as well as insights into habitat and native parasitoids. Population peaked in the period July-November when ripe fruits of the wild host, Casimiroa pubescens Ramírez, were available. No adults were captured the rest of the year, suggesting that high populations depend on the availability of wild host fruit. No significant relationships between population fluctuation and climatic variables were observed, except for minimum temperature. Fruit samples of citron (Citrus medica L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and C. pubescens were collected to determine degree of infestation. Infestation levels (pupae/g) ranged between 0.0006 for citron, 0.0047 for pomegranate, and 0.0240 for C. pubescens. A native parasitoid of Tephritidae, Doryctobracon crawfordii (Viereck) (Braconidae), was identified. Parasitism percentage was calculated at 12.5% on C. pubescens fruits. No parasitoids were observed on citron or pomegranate fruit samples. These results contribute to knowledge on behavior of A. ludens native to temperate environments where no commercial hosts are available. Further research on host expansion of this pest in light of scenarios of global climate change is suggested.

  9. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivaion of Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFRILIA TRI WIDYAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Widyawati AT, Nurbani. 2017. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivaion of Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima in East Kalimantan. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 127-131. The demand for high-value commodities such as oranges continues to increase every year. One of the qualities of orange that can not be met by domestic manufacturers is the color of a citrus peel. Most consumers like citrus orange, like mandarin oranges and other citrus imports. Efforts to reduce the national citrus imports is to improve the productivity and quality of citrus orange in Indonesia. Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima is one of the featured horticultural commodities in East Kalimantan, which has the advantage of being low lying tangerine with orange rind. It Is indispensable citrus cultivation technique is good and right, so that the citrus plant can develop optimally so that later can produce citrus fruit both in quality and quantity.

  10. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  11. 柑橘果实的光合特性、产物运输及分配在糖分积累中的作用%Fruit Photosynthesis and Assimilate Translocation and Partitioning: Their Characteristics and Role in Sugar Accumulation in Developing Citrus unshiu Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊伟; 张上隆; 张良诚; 赵智中; 徐建国

    2002-01-01

    测定了温州蜜柑(Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase)果实发育进程中干鲜重、果皮光合速率和叶绿素含量的变化,并用14CO2示踪技术研究了果皮和叶同化生成的光合产物在果实内的运输分配特性.结果表明:果皮光合速率与叶绿素含量有关,随着叶绿素含量的下降,果实光合速率也快速下降.在果实完熟之前,即使是当果皮积累的干重超过汁囊时,叶同化产物仍主要分配到汁囊中;而在完熟阶段,果皮光合速率接近零,果皮成了叶同化产物的主要库.果皮的同化产物,主要保留在果皮中,输入到汁囊的比率随果实发育而下降,但高峰时也有12%输入汁囊.与对照相比,果实遮光处理后降低了果皮与汁囊的干重和含糖量.上述结果表明果皮光合产物主要用于果皮自身的发育并能减少对叶光合产物的依赖,同时也能部分增加汁囊糖的积累.%Dynamics of dry_ or fresh_weight of fruit, peel photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content, and the characteristics of translocation and distribution of radiolabelled assimilates from leaf or fruit were examined in developing satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit from primary stage of fruit enlargement up to fruit full ripe. Change in fruit photosynthetic rate was some what related to the change in the chlorophyll content of peel. Fruit photosynthetic rate markedly declined as chlorophyll degradation occurred in the peel. Before full ripe stage of the fruit, photosynthates produced by a 14C_fed leaf were mainly distributed to juice sacs even during periods when dry matter accumulation in peel was more rapid than that in juice sacs. At the full ripe stage, peel photosynthetic rate approached zero and peel became the major sink of leaf photosynthates. Most of the peel assimilates, however, remained in situ for up to 48 h after feeding 14CO2 to the fruit, only a small portion being transported to other parts of fruit. The

  12. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  13. Effects of foliar application with compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid on yield and fruit quality of washington navel orange (Citrus sinenesis Osbeck) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Alaa El-din K; Belal, Elsayed B; El-Abd, Abd El-Naiem A

    2012-07-01

    Sixteen-year-old navel orange trees at a private orchard located in Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, were used in this study. Compost tea (CT) and filtrate biogas slurry liquid (FLB) were applied at two different concentrations (50% and 100%); control trees were sprayed with water Trees treated with CT at 100% were the highest in yield, fruit weight, and vitamin C, whereas the highest percentage of fruit set, fruit number and soluble solid content (SSC), lowest fruit drop, and highest reducing and total sugars were in trees treated with 100% FLB. Concentrations at 50% for both foliar application (CT and FLB) improved yield and fruit characteristics than control treatment. Generally, using a foliar application of compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid at (100%) treatments as food nutrients could be recommended to improve the yield and fruit quality of navel orange fruits under the current study conditions.

  14. Observations on Morphological Abnormalities of the Vessel Elements of Veins and Fruit of Citrus under Boron Deficiency%缺硼导致柑橘叶脉和果实导管分子形态畸形的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 彭抒昂; 刘永忠; 周高峰; 杨成泉

    2012-01-01

    缺硼可导致柑橘叶片变厚而脆、发生木栓化、“猴头果”等现象,其原因是植物组织内部起运输作用的维管组织受到损坏.导管是维管组织重要组成部分,本实验以‘纽荷尔’脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck‘ Newhall')和HB柚[Citrus maxima(Burm.)Merr.‘HB You’]叶片、HB柚果实中果皮为材料,利用离析方法将导管分离,观察缺硼导管分子形态的变化.结果表明:(1)缺硼使纽荷尔脐橙叶脉中的孔纹导管数量增多;(2)缺硼使HB柚叶片和果实中果皮的孔纹导管大量增生,梯纹导管和网纹导管数量减少;(3)正常导管圆润饱满,而缺硼导管变形干瘪,且有侧壁穿孔现象;(4)缺硼导管变得短而窄,细胞壁变薄,无尾率增加,使维管组织功能丧失.(5)缺硼维管束受损,运输效率降低,是发生叶脉木栓化和“猴头果”现象的源头.%Boron deficiency resulted in thick and brittle leaves, suberification, and "contract fruit" in citrus, due to damaged vascular tissue, which usually functions for transportation. Vessels are an important component of vascular tissue. Morphological abnormalities of the vessel elements were observed using the leaves of ' Newhall' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) Navel orange and HB Pummelo [ Citrus maxima ( Burm. ) Merr. ] by separating the vessels by means of segregation. Results indicated that; (1) The number of pitted vessels in 'Newhall' Navel oranges with boron deficiency increased; (2) A larger number of pitted vessels in the nervure and mesocarp of HB Pummelo with boron deficiency were proliferated, while scalari-form vessels and reticulate vessels decreased; (3) Normal vessels were round and full, while vessels under boron deficiency were transubstantiated shriveled; (4) Compared with the control vessels, vessels under treatment became short and narrow, cell walls turned thin and the percentage of no-tail under boron deficiency condition was increased, which finally led the vascular tissue to

  15. Changes in anthocyanin production during domestication of citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarin (C. reticulata), citron (C. medica) and pummelo (C. maxima) are imortant fruit species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varities of citrus: sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon lme and grapefruit. Citron and it...

  16. SLOW-RELEASING PRESERVATION EFFECT OF β-CD-OPP CLATHRATE COMPOUNDS ON CITRUS FRUITS%β-环糊精邻苯基苯酚包合物对瓯柑缓释保鲜研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏更寿; 郭圣荣

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on the preservation of fresh citrus fruits using the slow-releasing cyclodextrin- inclusion complexes of o-phenylphenol. The preservative effects were evaluated through three aspects of mould-proof, slow-releasing preservation and residue amount. The results revealed that the slow-releasing preservatives of 5%o β-CD- OPP showed the best storage quality, which could significantly reduce the degradation of total soluble solids and the titratable acid of citrus fruits. After treated with 5%o of β-CD-OPP showed the lowest rotting rate of citrus fruits was only 3.04% after 25 days, significantly lower than 90% or more of the control; the decay incidence and weight loss were only 4.26% and 3.48% and those of the control were 21.38% and 100.00% , respectively. Determined from the reserved fruits of 90 days, the OPP residues were just 4.20mg/kg, belowed the safety standards at home and abroad (10mg/kg). It could be indicated that the β-CD-OPP is a safe preservative, not only alleviate the fruit decomposed rate, but also minimize the loss of water and nutrients effectively and have lower opp residues.%利用不同浓度β-环糊精固载邻苯基苯酚(β-CD—OPP)对瓯柑进行保鲜,通过防霉、缓释保鲜及在果浆中的残留量3个方面对该保鲜剂效果进行评价。结果显示:5%的β-CD-OPP溶液作为缓释保鲜剂最为有效,该浓度可有效降低瓯柑可溶性固形物的降解和可滴定酸的减少。经5%的β-CD-OPP溶液处理25d后瓯柑病果率仅为3.04%,极显著低于空白对照的90%以上;贮藏90d后的果实失重率和腐烂率仅为4.26%和3.48%,而对照为21.38%和100.00%;贮藏90d后果浆中OPP的残留量仅为4.20mg/kg,低于国内外安全标准(10mg/kg)。表明该保鲜剂既可有效地降低腐烂率、减少水分和营养的损失,且药物残留量低,食用安全放心。

  17. Annual changes of iron,manganese,zinc and copper concentrations in both types of citrus fruit%两结实类型柑橘果实铁锰锌铜含量的年周期变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖家欣; 彭抒昂

    2008-01-01

    Annual changes in concentrations of iron(Fe),manganese(Mn),zinc(Zn)and copper(Cu)were measured in whole fruits from parthenocarpic Kamei satsuma mandarin(Citrus unshiu)and self-pollinated Egan 1 tangerine(C.reticulata)trees. The results were showed as follows:(1)Zn and Cu concentrations in the ovary of Kamei were relatively high before flowering and at full bloom,and decreased after flowering,whereas those of Egan 1 decreased obviously and were relatively low at full bloom,thereafter significant increases were observed. There were no significant differences in changes of Fe and Mn concentrations in the ovaries(fruitlets)between the two cultivars,which presented similarly decreasing trends after flowering. (2)Fe,Mn,Zn and Cu concentrations were relatively high in whole fruits of both cultivars during young fruit development,and decreased remarkably during early fruit enlargement(drought spell),whereas increased dramatically at the middle stage of fruit enlargement,thereafter decreased gradually. Dynamics of micronutrients concentrations in developing fruit and their possible relation with fruits development is discussed herein.%对单性结实的龟井温州蜜柑和自花授粉结实的鄂柑1号柑橘果实的铁、锰、锌和铜含量的年周期变化进行了测定.结果表明:(1)龟井子房的锌和铜含量在花前至花期居较高,花后趋下降,而鄂柑1号对应值在花期出现明显下降并居较低,花后却有一明显上升;两品种子房(幼果)的铁和锰含量变化却无明显差异,花后呈类似的下降趋势.(2)幼果阶段的果实铁、锰、锌和铜含量均居较高,在果实膨大初期(干旱期)均出现一明显下降,而在果实膨大中期却出现显著上升,之后又趋下降.本文还对果实发育中的微量元素含量动态及其与果实发育之间的关系进行了讨论.

  18. AN EXPLORATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF CITRUS INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MUHEZA DISTRICT, TANGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Makorere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses on understanding factors affecting development of citrus industry in Tanzania particularly in Muheza District, in Tanga region. Citrus fruit is one of the most important crops in Muheza District of Tanga region in Tanzania particularly in improving rural farmers’ income. The study employed institutional framework methodology. The study disclosed that the government of Tanzania has been implementing various agricultural development programmes in improving citrus fruit production as well as to enhance farmers’ income. However, yet the results reveal that the citrus farming practices in the surveyed area are not well developed. And these are because citruses are still grown under rain fed regime without any form of irrigation, citrus seedlings are produced by individual farmers locally in their backyard nurseries. There is no professional company responsible for seedling production. Also, citrus farmers’ skills in citrus husbandry practices are limited. Lastly, all citrus varieties used contain many seeds in the citrus fruits whereas the market demands seedless citrus fruits. It is therefore, recommended that the policy maker should focus on development of citrus industry in Tanzania using proper institutional framework support, which could increase growth and development of citrus production through the provision of subsides for inputs to reduce cost of production and enlightenment campaigns to improve farmer’s knowledge and technical skills on how to reach lucrative markets.

  19. Diversity in the carotenoid profiles and the expression of genes related to carotenoid accumulation among citrus genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are not only important to the plants themselves but also are beneficial to human health. Since citrus fruit is a good source of carotenoids for the human diet, it is important to study carotenoid profiles and the accumulation mechanism in citrus fruit. Thus, in the present paper, we describe the diversity in the carotenoid profiles of fruit among citrus genotypes. In regard to carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, lycopene, and β-citraurin, the relationship between t...

  20. Physiological Mechanism on the Difference of Sugar Accumulation in Four Citrus Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-zhong; ZHANG Shang-long; LIU Shuan-tao; CHEN Jun-wei; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of sucrose,glucose,fructose,titratable acid,ABA and the activity of acid invertase(AI)were measured injuice sacs of Bendizao mandarin(Citrus succosa Hort),Ponkan(Citrus reticulata Blanco),Miyagawa wase(Citrus unshiu Marc)and Meyer lemon(Citrus,meyeri Y).The acid hydrolysis of sucrose in vitro was also studied.The results showed that the sugar content,the ratio of different sugars,titratable acidity,ABA content and the activity of AI were obviously different in four citrus varieties.The sugar content inj uice sacs of citrus fruit was related to that of ABA at the late stage of fruit development.The result suggested that ABA played an important role in sugar accumulation in juice sacs of citrus fruit.Bendizao mandarin and Miyagawa wase mainly accumulated sucrose inj uice sacs of citrus fruit.Meyer lemon accumulated hexose,and Ponkan citrus was the sucrose-hexose accumulating type variety.In Meyer lemon with high acid degree,the composition of sugar inj uice sacs was determined by acid-hydrolysis of sucrose.In Bendizao mandarin,Ponkan citrus and Miyagawa wase with low acid degree,the composition of sugars at the late stage of fruit development was obviously affected by the AI activity.

  1. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  2. HPLC-UV-MS Profiles of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Three Citrus Species Consumed in Northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Brito

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peels and edible pulp from three species of citrus including Citrus aurantifolia (varieties pica and sutil and Citrus x lemon var. Genova widely cultivated and consumed in Northern Chile (I and II region were analyzed for phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity for the first time. A high performance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS method was developed for the rapid identification of phenolics in extracts from peels and juices of all species. Several flavonoids including one kaempferol-O-hexoside (peak 16 and one hesperidin derivative (peak 22 three quercetin derivatives (peaks 4, 19 and 36, five isorhamnetin derivatives (peaks 5, 23, 24, 26 and 29 four luteolin derivatives (peaks 14, 25, 27 and 40, seven apigenin derivatives (peaks 2, 3, 12, 20, 34, 35 and 39, seven diosmetin derivatives (peaks 7–9, 17, 21, 31 and 37, three chrysoeriol derivatives (peaks 10, 18 and 30, and four eryodictiol derivatives (peaks 6, 13, 15 and 38 were identified in negative and positive mode using full scan mass measurements and MSn fragmentations. Ascorbic acid content was higher in the pulps of the varieties Genova and Sutil (60.13 ± 1.28 and 56.53 ± 1.06 mg ascorbic acid per g dry weight, respectively while total phenolic content was higher in Pica peels followed by Sutil peels (34.59 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.02 mg/g GAE dry weight, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also higher for Pica peels (10.34 ± 1.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 120.63 ± 2.45 µM trolox equivalents/g dry weight in the FRAP assay. The antioxidant features together with the high polyphenolic contents can support at least in part, the usage of the peel extracts as nutraceutical supplements, especially to be used as anti-ageing products.

  3. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis).; Tratamento quarentenario para Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno Miguel Mendes Soares de

    2005-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  4. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  5. Selection of Antagonistic Bacteria against Citrus Green Mold and Its Inhibition Activity on Shatang Mandarin Fruit%柑桔绿霉病拮抗细菌的筛选、鉴定及其抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝卫宁; 李辉; 胡美英; 耿鹏; 杨柳

    2011-01-01

    A bacterial strain HC-03, isolated from rhizosphere soil of citrus fanns, exhibited extensive antagonistic effect on 12 fruit pathogens. The strain was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on 16S rDNA sequence homology, specific PCR detection, physiological and biochemical characteristics and morphological observation. Effect of different treatments of strain HC-03 against disease caused by Penicillium digitatum on inoculated shatang mandarin was also investigated. Results showed that citrus green mold incidence of shatang mandarin treated by cell culture, cell-free filtrate and cell suspension of strain HC-03 were all less than 20%, and lesion diameter were all below 10 mm.%从采集的柑桔园根际土壤中筛选得到1株对柑桔绿霉菌Penicillium digitatum具有较强拮抗活性的菌株HC-03.该菌株对柑桔绿霉菌、柑桔青霉菌Penicillium italicum、柑桔酸腐菌Geotrichum candidum等12种水果病原菌均有不同程度的拮抗作用,表现出广谱抗菌活性.菌落形态观察、生理生化特性分析及16S rDNA 序列测定和特异性PCR检测结果表明,该菌株为解淀粉芽孢杆菌Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.对沙糖桔的活体接种试验表明,菌株HC-03的发酵液、菌悬液及发酵滤液处理柑桔绿霉病的发生率均低于20%,病斑直径均在10mm以下.

  6. Efficient Isolation of RNA from Fruit Peel and Pulp of Ripening Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)%一种适合于成熟脐橙果皮和果肉的RNA提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永忠; 刘庆; 陶能国; 邓秀新

    2006-01-01

    An efficient RNA isolation method was established in the present paper. RNA extracted from peel and pulp collected at different ripening time was successfully used for reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) without DNase treatment, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP), and RNA blotting. The A260/A230ratios were higher than 2. 0, and the A260/A280 ratios ranged from 1.65 to 1.92. In addition, the protocol is safe, convenient and proved to be widely applicable, since it was successfully employed for RNA extraction from citrus leaves, immature fruit, Poncirus seedling and citrus callus as well.%研究了一种适合脐橙果实成熟过程中有效的RNA提取方法.结果表明利用该方法从不同成熟时期果实的果皮和果肉中提取的RNA可以有效用于RT-PC,cDNA-AFLP和RNA杂交.其A260/A230的比值超过2.0,A260/A280的比值在1.65-1.92的范围之间.另外该方法也证明可以广泛用于柑橘叶片,未成熟的幼果,枳壳幼苗和柑橘愈伤组织的RNA提取,是一种安全、方便和适用性较广的RNA提取方法.

  7. Visible Light Image-Based Method for Sugar Content Classification of Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Chunyan; Hirafuji, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected image parameters were connected by addition algorithm. The sugar content of citrus fruit can be predicted by the dummy variable method. The results showed that the small but orange citrus fruits often have a high sugar content. The study shows that it is possible to predict the sugar content of citrus fruit and to perform a classification of the sugar content using light in the visible spectrum and without the need for an additional light source.

  8. Detection of non-typhoid Salmonella infection by citrus and citrus extracts in Lao PDR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka Midorikawa; Satoshi Nakamura; Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh; Manivanh Vongsouvaht; Kaoru Midorikawa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To know the current state of non-typhoid Salmonella infection in Laos. To examine the usefulness of new screening methods for Salmonella using citrus. Methods: Non-typhoidSalmonella infection of person in Lao PDR was studied in this research (2004-2009). The site was Vientiane capital city in 2004. Research from rural villages locating suburb of Vientiane during 2005-2008 was carried out. Rural villages in Attapu province where ethnic minorities were living was searched for this study in 2009. During this research, to detect Salmonella strain, a new method using citrus and citrus extract named MY phenomenon that observing black ring (MIDO ring) on DHL agar was tried. The slice lemon and lime were used for this trial in 2004. After 2005, disk of ascorbic acid and citric acid were used for the device instead of citrus fruits itself. Results: During this research, 65 of 272 human samples (23.9%) were infected with non-typhoid Salmonella. Conclusions: During this study, the method using citrus and citrus extracts was accepted for the detection of Salmonella. This study shows that with citrus and citrus extract, detection of Salmonella is possible using only DHL media. Results suggest that infectious rate of non-typhoid Salmonella was high.

  9. Citrus leprosis research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is one of the oldest citrus diseases, but is also one of the most important emerging citrus diseases in South and Central America, and it is apparently spreading northward towards the U.S. Research in our labs and by others has shown that citrus leprosis disease is caused by a compl...

  10. 胡柚中3种主要黄酮类物质的含量测定%Determination of Three Major Flavonoids in Citrus paradisi cv.Changshan Huyou Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴倩; 朴香兰; 杨静

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立常山胡柚3种主要黄酮类物质含量的测定方法,并比较常山胡柚中皮、肉、籽中该3种黄酮类物质含量的差异。方法:采用反相高效液相色谱法分离检测胡柚中柚皮苷、橙皮苷、新橙皮苷的含量;流动相为乙腈-水(23:77,V/V),柱温25℃,流速1.0mL/min,检测波长283nm。结果:柚皮苷在3.22~1030μg/mL、橙皮苷在0.59~380μg/mL、新橙皮苷在0.077~990μg/mL范围内,黄酮类物质的质量浓度与峰面积呈良好的线性关系;柚皮苷、橙皮苷、新橙皮苷的平均回收率分别为98.43%(RSD=4.07%)、98.70%(RSD=4.30%)、99.90%(RSD=3.47%);并以柚皮苷、橙皮苷和新橙皮苷为标准比较胡柚副产物皮、籽与胡柚肉含量的差异,初步得出皮〉肉〉籽。结论:该方法简便、准确、可靠、重复性好,可用于常山胡柚的质量控制。%Objective: To establish a method for determining naringin,hesperidin,and neohesperindin in Citrus paradisi cv.Changshan Huyou fruit and compare their contents in different parts such as peel,pulp and seeds.Methods: The contents of naringin,hesperidin and neohesperindin were determined by a reversed-phase HPLC method.Methanol extracts of samples and the standard substances were separated on a YMC C18 column(4.6 mm × 250 mm,5μm) using a mobile phase made up of acetonitrile and water(23:77,V/V) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and detected by a UV detector at a wavelength of 283 nm.The column temperature was set at 25 ℃.Results: The calibration curves were linear in the range of 3.22-1030μg/mL for naringin,0.59-380μg/mL for hesperidin,and 0.077-990μg/m for neohesperindin,respectively.The average recoveries of naringin,hesperidin and neohesperindin were 98.43%(RSD = 4.07%),98.70%(RSD = 4.30%) and 99.90%(RSD = 3.47%),respectively.The contents of naringin,hesperidin,neohesperindin were the highest in the peel and the lowest in the seeds of Citrus paradisi

  11. Interception of Phytophthora syringae on Citrus fruits imported from California, USA%进境美国加州脐橙中丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae截获

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗加凤; 刘跃庭; 廖芳; 胡晓红; 刘鹏; 黄国明

    2012-01-01

    Several brown rot fruits have been found from Californian fresh orange sample. Three isolates similar to Phytophthora syringae were obtained from these rot fruits. The colonies grew slowly on PDA and V8 juice agar (V8A). They were stellate, tiled and thin on V8A, but on PDA, the margin was chrysanthemum petaloid; mycelia dense, milk-white-colored. Sporangia and catenulate hyphal swellings formed in sterilizing water and soil extract water in 48h. The isolates were homothallic. Oospores were produced abundantly on PDA and V8A mixed with fresh Citrus fruit tissue or leaf of rhododendron. The isolates were wounded-inoculated on fresh Citrus fruits. Typical brown rot symptoms are apparent on inoculated fruits in 7d. DNA of hyphae was amplified with ITS1/ITS4 primers. In comparision with P. Syringae from NCBIGenBank databases, the sequences had 99% identity. All the results of tests showed that the isolates were Phytophthorasyringae.%从产自美国加利福尼亚州的新鲜脐橙样品中发现多个腐烂病果,通过分离培养得到3个疑似丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae菌株,对3个菌株进行形态学研究、致病性测定和分子序列比对分析.结果表明病菌在V8A培养基上菌落稀疏、平铺,呈星状,菌丝紧贴培养基生长或埋于基质内生长;在PDA培养基上菌落呈菊花花瓣状,菌丝致密,乳白色;游动孢子囊和菌丝膨大体在无菌水和土壤浸出液中黑暗条件下48h后产生;菌株为同宗配合,卵孢子在带有新鲜脐橙果实组织或杜鹃叶片的V8A培养基中大量产生;创伤接种脐橙果实,7d后接种脐橙出现典型的褐腐症状;通用引物ITS 1/ITS4扩增测序,Blastn分析表明序列与GenBank中P.syringae序列相似性为99%.依据上述研究结果,将分离获得的3株菌鉴定为丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae,系国内首次截获的一种植物检疫性真菌病害.

  12. Converting citrus wastes into value-added products: Economic and environmently friendly approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-02-01

    Citrus fruits, including oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, tangerines, and mandarins, are among the most widely cultivated fruits around the globe. Its production is increasing every year due to rising consumer demand. Citrus-processing industries generate huge amounts of wastes every year, and citrus peel waste alone accounts for almost 50% of the wet fruit mass. Citrus waste is of immense economic value as it contains an abundance of various flavonoids, carotenoids, dietary fiber, sugars, polyphenols, essential oils, and ascorbic acid, as well as considerable amounts of some trace elements. Citrus waste also contains high levels of sugars suitable for fermentation for bioethanol production. However, compounds such as D-limonene must be removed for efficient bioethanol production. The aim of the present article was to review the latest advances in various popular methods of extraction for obtaining value-added products from citrus waste/byproducts and their potential utility as a source of various functional compounds.

  13. Solid-State (13)C NMR Delineates the Architectural Design of Biopolymers in Native and Genetically Altered Tomato Fruit Cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Matas, Antonio J; Isaacson, Tal; Kehlet, Cindie; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-01-11

    Plant cuticles on outer fruit and leaf surfaces are natural macromolecular composites of waxes and polyesters that ensure mechanical integrity and mitigate environmental challenges. They also provide renewable raw materials for cosmetics, packaging, and coatings. To delineate the structural framework and flexibility underlying the versatile functions of cutin biopolymers associated with polysaccharide-rich cell-wall matrices, solid-state NMR spectra and spin relaxation times were measured in a tomato fruit model system, including different developmental stages and surface phenotypes. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of the cutin ensures compatibility with the underlying polysaccharide cell walls; the hydroxy fatty acid structures of outer epidermal cutin also support deposition of hydrophobic waxes and aromatic moieties while promoting the formation of cell-wall cross-links that rigidify and strengthen the cuticle composite during fruit development. Fruit cutin-deficient tomato mutants with compromised microbial resistance exhibit less efficient local and collective biopolymer motions, stiffening their cuticular surfaces and increasing their susceptibility to fracture.

  14. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchetti Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF airway pathology is a fatal, autosomal, recessive genetic disease characterized by extensive lung inflammation. After induction by TNF-α, elevated concentrations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-6, IL-1β and chemokines (i.e. IL-8 are released from airway epithelial cells. In order to reduce the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients, new therapies have been developed and in this respect, medicinal plant extracts have been studied. In this article we have investigated the possible use of bergamot extracts (Citrus bergamia Risso and their identified components to alter the expression of IL-8 associated with the cystic fibrosis airway pathology. Methods The extracts were chemically characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography. Both bergamot extracts and main detected chemical constituents were assayed for their biological activity measuring (a cytokines and chemokines in culture supernatants released from cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells treated with TNF-α by Bio-Plex cytokine assay; (b accumulation of IL-8 mRNA by real-time PCR. Results The extracts obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso epicarps contain components displaying an inhibitory activity on IL-8. Particularly, the most active molecules were bergapten and citropten. These effects have been confirmed by analyzing mRNA levels and protein release in the CF cellular models IB3-1 and CuFi-1 induced with TNF-α or exposed to heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions These obtained results clearly indicate that bergapten and citropten are strong inhibitors of IL-8 expression and could be proposed for further studies to verify possible anti-inflammatory properties to reduce lung inflammation in CF patients.

  15. 温州蜜柑设施延迟栽培条件下的果实品质变化%Fruit Quality Change of Delayed Harvested Citrus under Protected Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方波; 彭抒昂; 盛文磊; 徐邦国; 胡均清

    2009-01-01

    The development of fruit and changes of quality in the plastic house and open-field were studied using okitsu satsuma mandarin as material. The results showed that the fruit coloring was delayed in protected cultivation; the quality of the fruits with moderate drought treatment was better; total soluble solid content (TSS) of the treatment was 1.3% higher than that of CK,the decreasing speed of titratable acid (TA) under this treatment was faster,titratable acid content was 0.07% lower than CK,the glucose and fructose content of the fruit under moderate drought treatment increased while that of other treatment decreased at later stage. The spraying of GA_3+Ca (CH_3COO)_2 could control the puffiness effectively. The percentage of puffiness was less than 5%,and it was 10% lower than CK. The harvest time could delay 1~2 months under protected cultivation according to the experiment.%以兴津温州蜜柑(Citrus unshiu Blanco cv.Okitsu wase)为材料,对设施内外果实的发育和品质的变化进行了研究.结果表明,相对于露地栽培,设施栽培可使果实的着色延迟;不同灌溉措施中,适度干旱处理的果实品质最好,其可溶性固形物比对照高出了1.3个百分点,可滴定酸下降速度也较其他处理快,比对照低了0.07个百分点,而且葡萄糖和果糖在后期有升高的趋势,而其他处理呈降低趋势.喷施处理中,以醋酸钙+赤霉素处理防治浮皮的效果最为明显,浮皮率可控制在5%以下,比对照低10个百分点.根据试验,柑橘设施栽培的果实一般可以延迟1-2个月采收.

  16. Fresh-keeping and Antibacterial Technology of Citrus Fruits Based on Ethanol Extracts from Chinese Herbs%基于中药乙醇提取物的柑橘采后保鲜与抑菌技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳芳; 刘畅; 何俊瑜; 王思梦; 张兰兰

    2012-01-01

    The plant resources with inhibitory effect on postharvest pathogenic fungi from citrus fruits were screened so as to provide the theoretical basis for the development of botanical fungicide. The experiments investigated inhibitory effects in vitro with 30 kinds of ethanol extracts from Chinese herbs against P. italicum, P. digit alum and Alternaria, citri by using mycelial growth rate method, and control effects in vivo and storage effects of Valencia orange with Coptis chinensis ethanol extracts. The results showed that 30 kinds of Chinese herbs ethanol extracts have different effects on mycelial growth of three citrus pathogens, and Coptis chinensis ethanol extracts exhibited the best antifungal effect which reached up to 100%. However, no difference was found between Prochloraz treatment and Coptis chinensis treatment (P> 0.05). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Coptis chinensis ethanol extracts is 0. 025 g/mLu Control test showed that the control effect of Coptis chinensis ethanol extracts against the mixtures of three kinds of spores achieved 90. 87% after 10 d of treatment, and there was no significant difference ( P > 0. 05 ) between Coptis chinensis treatment and Prochloraz treatment. Preservation test indicated that Coptis chinensis ethanol extracts could obviously decrease the incidence of rotting rate and molding of Valencia orange fruits, increase the good fruit rate, and retard the losses of titratable acidity and vitamin C in fruits. Compared with Prochloraz treatment, there was no difference (P >0. 05). These results indicated that in vitro experiments, control effect and preservation test exhibited a good antifungal effect with Coptis chinensis ethanol extracts. Therefore, Coptis chinensis ethanol extracts may have a possibility to replace chemical fungicides and a new pesticide can be developed.%以意大利青霉、指状青霉、柑橘链格孢为供试菌种,采用生长速率法对30种中药的乙醇提取物进行离体抑菌试验,

  17. Citrus fruits diseases and insect pest recognition based on multifractal analysis of Fourier transform spectra%椪柑果实病虫害的傅里叶频谱重分形图像识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温芝元; 曹乐平

    2013-01-01

    Plant pests and diseases image recognition is one of the key technologies of digital agricultural information collection and processing. Usually, based on pest infestation-like plant, it is carried out according to the size, shape, color, texture, etc., or a combination of several parameters. Machine recognition of diseases and insect pests needs to use digitalized characteristics without overlapping. Multi-fractal analysis of Fourier transform spectra was adopted to investigate the possibility of extraction of damage pattern characteristics for Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Ponkan. First, images of the boundary of a damaged pattern are extracted with an improved watershed algorithm and region merging. Secondly, a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) was applied to the damaged fruit image. With reference to the boundary of a damaged pattern, a fruit image magnitude spectrum was extracted. Thirdly, a fruit image magnitude spectrum was multi-fractiously analyzed and the multi-fractal spectrum of DFT magnitude spectrum was quadratic fitted. Height, width, and centroid coordinate of a fitting parabolic section were chosen feature values to identify the diseases and insect damage of fruits, with these three feature values as inputs of a BP neural network identifying diseases and insect damage of Ponkan, and the accuracy was up to 92.67%. Finally, the amplitude spectrum of the Fourier transform was adopted for multifractal analysis and multi-fractal spectrum of a quadratic fit;fit parabola segment height, width, and centroid coordinates were regarded as pests’ Eigen values, and then used as input variables to establish a BP citrus pest identification neural network model for pest identification. Among 5 classes of pests, in 30 groups of test samples, such as Pezothrips Kellyanus, Oxycetonia Jucunda, Oraesia Emarginata, Polyphagotarsonemus Latus, Colletotrichum Gloeoporioides Penz, the highest recognition rate was for Oraesia Emarginata, that is 96.67%, Polyphagotarsonemus

  18. Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision.

  19. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoubroeck, van H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of

  20. An Extract of Chinpi, the Dried Peel of the Citrus Fruit Unshiu, Enhances Axonal Remyelination via Promoting the Proliferation of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Tokunaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging-induced decrease in axonal myelination/remyelination is due to impaired recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs. Our previous studies have shown that a monoclonal antibody to DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp box polypeptide 54 (Ddx54, a member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases, (1 specifically labels oligodendrocyte lineages, (2 binds to mRNA and protein isoforms of myelin basic proteins (MBP, and (3 regulates migration of OPCs from ventricular zone to corpus callosum in mice. It has also been demonstrated that specific loss of a 21.5 kDa MBP isoform (MBP21.5 reflects demyelination status, and oral administration of an extract of Chinpi, citrus unshiu peel, reversed the aging-induced demyelination. Here, we report that Chinpi treatment induced a specific increase in the MBP21.5, led to the reappearance of Ddx54-expressing cells in ventricular-subventricular zone and corpus callosum of aged mice, and promoted remyelination. Treatment of in vitro OPC cultures with Chinpi constituents, hesperidin plus narirutin, led to an increase in 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation in Ddx54-expressing OPCs, but not in NG2- or Olig2-expressing cell populations. The present study suggests that Ddx54 plays crucial role in remyelination. Furthermore, Chinpi and Chinpi-containing herbal medicines may be a therapeutic option for the aging-induced demyelination diseases.

  1. 柑橘果实成熟特异基因CsPMEI/InvI的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of fruit ripening-specific gene CsPMEI/InvI from citrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国立; 安华明; 秦巧平; 李孟娇; 刘真真; 陈佳莹; 周倩; 张岚岚

    2013-01-01

    Fruit-ripening-specific expression genes play important roles on the regulation of fruit ripening and quality formation.A full-length cDNA of fruit ripening-specific gene,designated as CsPEMI/InvI (GenBank accession No.KC198084),was isolated from Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis ‘Newhall’) by RT-PCR and RACE.The full-length of CsPMEI/InvI was 945 bp,containing an open reading frame of 618 bp and encoding 205 amino acids.The molecular formula of encoded protein was C977H1568N296O282S10 with a calculated molecular of 22.29 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.84.The encoded protein belonged to InvI/PMEI family including highly-conserved Cys residue in the protein sequence,one cAMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site,three protein kinase C phosphorylation sites,two casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites and three N-myristoylation sites.In its secondary structure,α-helix was the main structural conformation.%果实成熟特异基因对于调控果实成熟及其品质形成具有重要的作用.在前期获得柑橘Citrus果实成熟特异基因片段的基础上,以纽荷尔脐橙Citrus sinensis ‘Newhall’成熟果实为试材,应用RT-PCR和RACE技术,分离获得果实成熟特异基因的cDNA全长序列,命名为Cs PMEI/InvI,GenBank登录号:KC 198084;生物信息学分析表明:该基因全长945 bp,包含618 bp完整的开放阅读框,编码205个氨基酸,其编码的蛋白质分子式为C977H1568N296O282S10,相对分子量为22.29 kDa,理论等电点为9.84,属于InvI/PMEI(转化酶抑制子/果胶甲酯酶抑制子)家族成员,含有该家族严格保守的Cys残基,存在1个cAMP和cGMP-蛋白激酶磷酸化位点、3个蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点、2个酪蛋白激酶Ⅱ磷酸化位点和3个N-酰基化位点,其二级结构主要以α-螺旋为主.Cs PMEI/InvI基因的分离为进一步研究柑橘果实的成熟机制提供了基础.

  2. Flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil Population fluctuation of fruit flies in citrus orchards in the West of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Chiaradia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae causam danos econômicos em muitas frutíferas. Para conhecer a flutuação populacional destas moscas em pomares de citros da região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e estudar as interferências de fatores climáticos sobre estes insetos, cinco frascos "caça-mosca", tendo vinagre de vinho tinto a 25% como atrativo, foram semanalmente instalados em dois pomares de laranjeiras da variedade Valência, em Águas de Chapecó e Chapecó, no período de outubro de 1999 a setembro de 2001. As moscas capturadas nas armadilhas foram triadas no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Epagri de Chapecó. Análises de correlação e regressão polinomial foram realizadas entre o número mensal de moscas do gênero Anastrepha e os dados mensais de precipitação pluviométrica, insolação, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e temperatura ambiente. Temperatura máxima e mínima mostraram interferir na população destas moscas mais do que os outros fatores climáticos. O número mensal acumulado de moscas capturadas foi submetido à análise de regressão não linear, que revelou picos de captura destes insetos de março a junho. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 predominou sobre outras espécies de moscas-das-frutas.Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae cause economic damages in many fruit orchards. To know the population fluctuation of these flies in Citrus orchards in the west of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and to study the environmental factor interferences on these insects, five traps with 25% vinegar were weekly installed in two orange Valência variety orchards, in Águas de Chapecó and Chapecó, from October of 1999 to September of 2001. The samples of flies trap captured were counted at Epagri Fitossanity Laboratory in Chapecó. A correlation and regression polynomial analyses between flies monthly captured of genus Anastrepha and monthly datas of rain precipitation, isolation, air humidity, wind speed

  3. Genome-Wide Identification of the Transcription Factors Involved in Citrus Fruit Ripening from the Transcriptomes of a Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juxun; Fu, Lili; Yi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process. Transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in plant development and ripening by temporarily and spatially regulating the transcription of their target genes. In this study, a total of 159 TFs were identified from a spontaneous late-ripening mutant 'Fengwan' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange (MT) and its wild-type counterpart ('Fengjie 72-1', WT) along the ripening period via the Transcription Factor Prediction of PlantTFDB 3.0. Fifty-two differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT; 92 and 120 differentially expressed TFs were identified in WT and MT, respectively. The Venn diagram analysis showed that 16 differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT and during the ripening of WT and MT. These TFs were primarily assigned to the families of C2H2, Dof, bHLH, ERF, MYB, NAC and LBD. Particularly, the number of TFs of the ERF family was the greatest between MT and WT. According to the results of the WGCNA analysis, a weighted correlation network analysis tool, several important TFs correlated to abscisic acid (ABA), citric acid, fructose, glucose and sucrose were identified, such as RD26, NTT, GATA7 and MYB21/62/77. Hierarchical cluster analysis and the expression analysis conducted at five fruit ripening stages further validated the pivotal TFs that potentially function during orange fruit development and ripening.

  4. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart, Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD. Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  5. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  6. Quantitative distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus plants with citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Levy, Laurene; Hartung, John S

    2009-02-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is strongly associated with any of three nonculturable gram-negative bacteria belonging to 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial cultivars of citrus. The diseases can be lethal to citrus and have recently become widespread in both São Paulo, Brazil, and Florida, United States, the locations of the largest citrus industries in the world. Asiatic HLB, the form of the disease found in Florida, is associated with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and is the subject of this report. The nonculturable nature of the pathogen has hampered research and little is known about the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in infected trees. In this study, we have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to systematically quantify the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes in tissues of six species of citrus either identified in the field during survey efforts in Florida or propagated in a greenhouse in Beltsville, MD. The populations of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inferred from the distribution of 16S rDNA sequences specific for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in leaf midribs, leaf blades, and bark samples varied by a factor of 1,000 among samples prepared from the six citrus species tested and by a factor of 100 between two sweet orange trees tested. In naturally infected trees, above-ground portions of the tree averaged 10(10) 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes per gram of tissue. Similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were observed in some but not all root samples from the same plants. In samples taken from greenhouse-inoculated trees, levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes varied systematically from 10(4) genomes/g at the graft inoculation site to 10(10) genomes/g in some leaf petioles. Root samples from these trees also contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' at 10(7) genomes/g. In symptomatic fruit tissues, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were also readily detected and quantified. The highest

  7. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-15

    The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).

  8. Antioxidative activity of flavonoids in fruit and leaf of Citrus Bergamot in vitro%金佛手果叶黄酮的体外抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继; 陆国权

    2012-01-01

    Citrus Bergamot's fruit and leaf were used as materials for determination of flavonoids' clearance of super-oxide anton free radiral, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical in order lo investigate the antioxidant capacity in vitro. The results showed that the scavenging capacity of DPI'H radical of fruit and leaf flavonoids' IC50 were 8. 25 and 9. 03 mg·L-1 respectively, which were lower than Vc and rutin. Their superoxide anion free radical scavenge capacity IC50 were 17. 74 and 20. 77 mg·L-1 respectively, which were higher than rutin, but lower than Vc. Their hydroxyl radical scavenge capacity IC50 were 17.06 and 15. 86 mg·L-1 respectively, which were higher than Vc, and as much as rutin. The results of variance analysis showed that there is a significant difference in scavenging rate of superoxide anion free radical and hydroxyl radical among different concentrations of fruit aud leaf flavonoids. With the increasing concentration of fruit and leaf flavonoids in the reaction solution, the scavenging rate of superoxide anion free radical showed an increasing trend. But when the concentration reached a certain one, the increasing trend of scavenging rate became slower. The best dose for scavenging hydroxyl radical of fruit and leaf flavonoids was 18 mg·L-1.%为了测定金佛手果叶黄酮的体外抗氧化能力,以金佛手果、叶为试材,测定果叶黄酮对O2-,·OH和DPPH的清除率.结果表明,果、叶黄酮对DPPH的清除能力IC50分别为8.25,9.03mg·L-1,稍弱于Vc和芦丁;对O2-清除能力IC50分别为17.74,20.77mg·L1,但强于芦丁,弱于Vc;对·OH清除能力IC50分别为17.06,15.86mg·L-1,清除能力强于Vc,与芦丁相差无几.方差分析显示,不同浓度果叶黄酮对O2-,·OH清除率差异极显著,且随着在反应液中浓度的增加,果叶黄酮对O2-清除率呈上升趋势,但达一定浓度时,清除率趋于平缓.果叶黄酮对·OH体系最佳作用剂量为18mg·L-1.

  9. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Michele eNavarra; Carmen eMannucci; Marisa eDelbò; Gioacchino eCalapai

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  10. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Raga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly

  11. Rapid estimation of nutritional elements on citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Luis eGálvez Sola; Francisco eGarcía Sánchez; Juan Gabriel ePérez Pérez; Vicente eGimeno; Josefa eNavarro; Raul eMoral; Juan José eMartínez Nicolás; Manuel eNieves

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient nutrient application is one of the most important factors in producing quality citrus fruits. One of the main guides in planning citrus fertilizer programs is by directly monitoring the plant nutrient content. However, this requires analysis of a large number of leaf samples using expensive and time-consuming chemical techniques. Over the last 5 years, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to quantitatively estimate certain nutritional elements in citrus leaves by using the ...

  12. Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Guerrieri

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD, is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to D. suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for D. suzukii, biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of D. suzukii to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus Asobara Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of Asobara, of which two associated with D. suzukii, namely A. japonica and A leveri, and five new to science, namely Asobara brevicauda, A. elongata, A mesocauda, A unicolorata, A. triangulata. Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by D. suzukii.

  13. Vitamin C and total phenols quantification in calli of native passion fruit induced by combinations of Picloram and Kinetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida Artioli-Coelho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the center of origin of passion fruit and has an important natural variability of the genus Passiflora. Several wild species of this genus are resistant to some pests and diseases and many are considered as medicinal. The aim of this research was to induce callus from in vitro Passiflora gibertii leaf explants for quantification of vitamin C and total phenols. Once the appropriate auxin/cytokine balance promotes callus formation and may optimize the production of secondary compounds and vitamins, calli were induced using a half-strength MS medium with a combination of the auxin Picloran (PIC and the cytokine Kinetin (KIN. The vitamin C and total phenols were quantified by colorimetric methods from calli after different culture periods. The calli induction was strongly dependent of the combination PIC/KIN. It was observed high vitamin C content (94.8mg 100g-1 during the calli induction period in MS+4.14µM PIC+ 0.207µM KIN. Higher PIC/KIN concentrations promoted an increase in the vitamin C content after three subcultures. The higher PIC (8.28µM/KIN (0.828µM concentration was the higher was the total phenols production (66mg tannic acid 100g-1 of fresh callus during the calli induction period.

  14. Combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus and ammonium molybdate for control of green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum on citrus fruits%马克斯克鲁维酵母对柑橘采后绿霉病的抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿鹏; 陈少华; 胡美英; 瞿菲; 张彦博; 安国栋

    2011-01-01

    通过活体(in vivo)和离体(in vitro)试验,研究拮抗酵母菌株Kluyverom yces marxianus与不同浓度钼酸铵混合使用对柑橘采后绿霉病(Penicillium digitatum)的防治效果,以及钼酸铵对K.marxianus菌株生长和繁殖的影响.结果表明:不同浓度的钼酸铵对K.marxianus的生长和繁殖没有不利影响;钼酸铵对酵母菌在柑橘果实伤口处的生长和繁殖有刺激作用;当K.marxianus与浓度为1 mmol/L钼酸铵混合使用时对控制柑橘果实绿霉病的效果最好,3和6d的发病率分别为28.33%和60.00%,显著低于对照处理的93.33%和100%的发病率,表明K.marxianus与钼酸铵混合使用在控制柑橘绿霉病方面具有潜在的应用价值.%With the methods of in vivo and in vitro, the potential enhancement of Kluyveromyces marxianus by ammonium molybdate (NH4Mo) to control green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum on citrus fruit was investigated. Meanwhile, the effect of NH4Mo on growth and proliferation of K. Marxianus was tested. The results showed that NH4 Mo at different concentration did not inhibit the growth and proliferation of K. Marxianus in culture medium or wounds of citrus fruits. The combination of K. Marxianus and NH4 Mo had suppressive effect on green mold caused by P. Digitatum. Treatment of citrus fruits with K. Marxianus plus NH4Mo (1 mmol/L) resulted in a consistent biocontrol activity, the disease incidence after 3 and 6 days were 28. 33% and 60. 00%,respectively. While the control treatment resulted in a disease incidence as high as 93. 33% and 100%,suggesting that the combination of K, marxianus with NH4Mo may have great potential against green mold of citrus fruits.

  15. Differences in Fruit and Vegetable Intake by Race/Ethnicity and by Hispanic Origin and Nativity Among Women in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, Dorothy; Cullen, Karen Weber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Gray, Heewon Lee; Sikorskii, Alla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by race/ethnicity, by origin and nativity among Hispanics, and by language preference (as an indicator of acculturation) among foreign-born Hispanics. Methods We recruited 723 women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and orally administered a questionnaire containing demographic items, validated measures of food security status and social desirability trait, and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System fruit and vegetable module. Differences in intakes of 100% fruit juice, fruit, cooked or canned beans, and dark green, orange-colored, and other vegetables were assessed by using analysis of covariance with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Analyses were controlled for age, pregnancy status, breastfeeding status, food security status, educational attainment, and social desirability trait. Results The frequency of vegetable intake differed by race/ethnicity (cooked or canned beans were consumed more often among Hispanic than non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white or other participants, orange-colored vegetables were consumed more often among Hispanics than non-Hispanic black participants, and other vegetables were consumed more often among non-Hispanic white or other than among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic participants), origin (other vegetables were consumed more often among Columbian and other Hispanics than Dominican participants) and nativity (orange-colored vegetables were consumed more often among foreign-born than US-born Hispanics). Fruit and vegetable intake did not differ by language preference among foreign-born Hispanics. Conclusion Differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among WIC participants by race/ethnicity and by Hispanic origin and nativity may have implications for WIC nutrition policies and nutrition education efforts. PMID:27560723

  16. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq(TM) (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  17. Antifungal Constituents from Fruits of Ficus hirta Extracts Against Citrus Postharvest Pathogens%五指毛桃果抑制柑橘采后病原菌活性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏磊; 陈楚英; 李琼厚; 坤吉瑞; 赖伟; 李涵韬; 万春鹏

    2016-01-01

    Numerous medicinal plants were selected for their antifungal activities against citrus postharvest pathogens including Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The extracts from fruits of Ficus hirta showed promising antifungal activity. However, the antifungal constituents were not clear. In order to elucidate the antifungal constituents existing in fruits of Ficus hirta, the ethanol extracts of fruits of Ficus hirta were isolated to identify the active constituents. The bioassay method tested by cylinder­plate was used to guarantee the isolation of antifungal constituents. Macro resin column, Sephadex LH­20 column and ODS column were used to isolate three compounds. Their structures were determined as pinocembrin­7­O­β­D­glucoside (compound 1), naringenin­7­O­β­D­glucoside(compound 2) and eriodictyol­7­O­β­D­glucoside (compound 3) by NMR and MS spectroscopy. Compound 1, namely pinocembrin­7­O­β­D­glucoside, showed good antifungal activity, which was the major antifungal constituent existing in fruits of Ficus hirta.%前期通过筛选对柑橘采后病原菌——意大利青霉和指状青霉菌有抑菌作用的中草药,发现五指毛桃果乙醇提取物具有很好的抑菌活性。为进一步研究其抑菌活性成分,对五指毛桃果中的抑菌活性成分进行分离、纯化及结构鉴定。釆用生物活性追踪的方式,以牛津杯法测定提取物抑菌活性来指导下一步分离纯化。依次采用大孔树脂柱、Sephadex LH­20凝胶柱和 ODS 柱层析分离得到3个单体化合物,通过核磁共振谱(NMR)和质谱(MS)波谱数据分析,对3个化合物进行结构解析,经鉴定他们分别为乔松素­7­O­β­D­葡萄糖苷(1)、柚皮素­7­O­β­D­葡萄糖苷(2)和圣草酚­7­O­β­D­葡萄糖苷(3)。化合物1具有很好的抑菌活性,为五指毛桃果主要的抑菌活性成分。

  18. Umbu-cajá como repositório natural de parasitoide nativo de moscas-das-frutas Umbu-cajá as natural repository of native fruit fly parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo da Silva Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diversidade de espécies de mosca-das-frutas e de parasitóides nativos em frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Os frutos foram coletados em nove municípios do Estado da Bahia. Estimaram-se: a infestação dos frutos pelas moscas; o índice de parasitismo das moscas; e a frequência de ocorrência das espécies de parasitóides. Pela primeira vez, a infestação de Anastrepha obliqua em frutos de umbu-cajá e a presença do parasitóide Asobara anastrephae em larvas de Anastrepha obliqua foram registradas. O parasitoide nativo Doryctobracon areolatus foi o mais frequente. A umbu-cajazeira é repositório natural de parasitoides de tefritídeos, e sua preservação é fundamental para a manutenção das relações tróficas entre as espécies de mosca-das-frutas e parasitoides.The objective of this work was to assess the species diversity of fruit fly and their parasitoids in fruit of umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Fruit were collected in nine municipalities of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fruit infestation, fruit fly parasitism rates, and frequencies of the parasitoid species were estimated. For the first time, Anastrepha obliqua infesting umbu-cajá fruit and the presence of the native parasitoid Asobara anastrephae in Anastrepha oblique larvae were recorded. The native parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent. Umbu-cajá tree is a natural repository of Tephritidae parasitoids, and its preservation is essential for the maintenance of trophic relationships between fruit fly species and parasitoids.

  19. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an

  20. Production of polygalacturonase by Aspergillus niger BC23 isolated from Irvingia gabonensis (African mango fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Nwokoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase was produced from Aspergillus niger BC 23 which was isolated from spoiled Irvingia gabonensis fruit. The influence of carbon substrates on enzyme production showed that the medium containing sucrose produced a maximum enzyme yield of 38.5 U/mg protein after 72 h. Enzyme productivity in this medium was much higher than in the medium that contained only citrus pectin as the sole carbon source. Medium containing yeast extract as a nitrogen source caused the production of specific enzyme activity of 31.2 U/mg protein. Results on the effect of metal ions on enzyme activity showed that Ca2+ gave a percent relative activity of 214% in comparison to the native enzyme activity. The enzyme showed maximum activity in slight acid and neutral pH media with optimal activity at pH 4.0. Temperature activity profile of the enzyme showed best activity at a temperature of 35ºC. Dried fruit peels were tested for their abilities to support enzyme production in a media devoid of citrus pectin. The best enzyme productivity of 102.3 U/mg protein was achieved after 72 h in the medium containing orange peel and this level was much higher than that achieved when pure carbon sources or citrus pectin alone were used for enzyme production.

  1. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development.

  2. Huanglongbing Resistance and Tolerance in Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Stover, E.; McCollum, G.; Driggers, R.; Duan, Y; Shatters, Jr., R. G.; Ritenour, M.; Hall, D.G.; J. Chaparro

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected genotypes, often with greatly thinned canopies. Fruit size and quality are often adversely affected as the disease advances. HLB was assessed in diverse cultivars in commercial groves with high HLB-incidence. ‘Temple’ had the lowest HLB symptoms and Liberibacter (Las) titer, while ‘Murcott’ and ‘Minneola’ had the highest. The USDA Ft. Pierce, FL farm is managed to reveal genotype responses to ...

  3. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Results: Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001 higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05 and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47 than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79. FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.

  4. Optimization design based on kinetic model and extraction process of pectin from pomelo (Citrus grandis L.Osbeck) fruit peel%柚果皮果胶浸提过程及动力学分析优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周存山; 余筱洁; 马海乐; 王允祥; 韩平

    2013-01-01

    以琯溪蜜柚果皮为原料,采用果胶酸解浸提法,基于果胶在浸提过程中包括原果胶转变为果胶、果胶从组织扩散到溶剂、果胶大分子降解等进程,以同步串联反应法构建果胶浸提动力学模型,获得基于浸提工艺优化和果胶同步降解影响的浸提动力学方程,进而进行模型验证分析及参数优化.有效性(残差分析及F检验)检验表明:该模型可应用于分析柚果皮果胶浸提动力学过程,在温度70 ~ 90℃,浸提过程表观活化能Ea为31.34kJ· mol-1;优化分析获得在浸提液pH =2.0,浸提温度90℃,浸提时间90.25 min,料液质量与体积比为1:40时,柚果皮果胶浸提得率11.83%,此结果与正交设计优化结果吻合.%The pectin extraction of pomelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) fruit peel was investigated by the method of acid hydrolysis. The kinetic model of the processes of protopectin hydrolysis to pectin, pectin diffusion from tissue to solvent, degradation of some pectin macromolecules was established by synchronous series reaction method to estimate the most important mass transfer coefficients. Based on the effects of degradation and extraction of pectin, and optimization of simultaneous extraction conditions, the kinetic equations were obtained to realize model validation and optimization parameter. The validations of residual error analysis and F test show that the model can be applied to the kinetic analysis of pectin extraction from pomelo fruit peel. The apparent activation energy of extraction process is 31. 34 kJ·mol-1 at temperature of 70 - 90 ℃ . According to the optimization analysis, the pectin extraction yield from pomelo fruit peel is 11. 83% of dried peel at the optimized conditions with pH value of 2. 0,extraction temperature of 90 ℃ , extraction time of 90 min and solid to liquid ration of 1 : 40. The optimization condition and the maximum yield from kinetic model are confirmed by the results from orthogonal experiment.

  5. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their associations with native host plants in a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, K; Martins, D S; Zucchi, R A

    2008-10-01

    The results presented in this paper refer to a host survey, lasting approximately three and a half years (February 2003-July 2006), undertaken in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest located in Linhares County, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 330 fruit samples were collected from native plants, representing 248 species and 51 plant families. Myrtaceae was the most diverse family with 54 sampled species. Twenty-eight plant species, from ten families, are hosts of ten Anastrepha species and of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Among 33 associations between host plants and fruit flies, 20 constitute new records, including the records of host plants for A. fumipennis Lima and A. nascimentoi Zucchi. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for rain forest conservation efforts and the study of evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts.

  6. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  7. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  8. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies.

  9. Evaluation of codon biology in citrus and Poncirus trifoliata based on genomic features and frame corrected expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2013-04-01

    Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close association with AT richness of Citrus species and P. trifoliata. The present study postulates a large repertoire of a set of optimal codons for the Citrus genus and P. trifoliata and demonstrates that GCT and GGT are evolutionary conserved optimal codons. Our observation suggested that mutational bias is the dominating force in shaping the codon usage bias (CUB) in Citrus and P. trifoliata. Correspondence analysis (COA) revealed that the principal axis [axis 1; COA/relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU)] contributes only a minor portion (∼10.96%) of the recorded variance. In all analysed species, except P. trifoliata, Gravy and aromaticity played minor roles in resolving CUB. Compositional constraints were found to be strongly associated with the amino acid signatures in Citrus species and P. trifoliata. Our present analysis postulates compositional constraints in Citrus species and P. trifoliata and plausible role of the stress with GC3 and coevolution pattern of amino acid.

  10. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail.

  11. Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA FRANCO

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a dois, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença.The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among them, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

  12. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  13. Ethno medicinal values of Citrus genus: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Citrus genus play an important role as a dietary supplement and therapeutic assent as well since ages. The present review summarizes some such attributes of Citrus genus. Literature review was done through published works to gather information on nutritional and ethnic values, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Citrus. Information about the plant and phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities were collected from the published reports. The plant was found to possess significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, and hypolipidemic properties. They are found to be significant antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic activity. The phytoconstituents which are present in the plant are mainly coumarins and flavonoids which are responsible for the actions. The phytochemical constituents and isolated bioactive compounds of Citrus can be investigated further to develop novel herbal drugs by using reverse pharmacological approaches especially in the treatment of liver diseases, arthritis, malignancies, and other inflammatory diseases.

  14. Identificação e quantificação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares autóctones em municípios produtores de citros no Rio Grande do Sul Identification and quantification of native arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi of citrus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar os esporos de FMA presentes em viveiros e pomares de citros no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas amostras de solo e de raízes de dez viveiros e doze pomares de oito municípios produtores de citros, nas quais avaliaramse conteúdo nutricional, número de esporos por 100 g de solo seco e colonização das radicelas, e determinaramse as espécies autóctones. As espécies, em ordem decrescente de ocorrência, foram: Glomus macrocarpum > Scutellospora heterogama > Acaulospora scrobiculata = Acaulospora birreticulata > Glomus invermaium = Glomus occultum = Entrophospora colombiana > Glomus claroideum = Glomus constrictum > Scutellospora persica.The objective of this work was to identify and quantify AMF spores present in citrus nurseries and orchards in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Soil and root samples were collected at ten nurseries and twelve citrus orchards. Mineral composition of the soil samples was determined as well as the number of spores in 100 g of dry soil, root colonization and native species taxonomic identification. AMF species, in decreasing order of occurrence were: Glomus macro- carpum > Scutellospora heterogama > Acaulospora scrobi- culata = Acaulospora birreticulata > Glomus invermaium = Glomus occultum = Entrophospora colombiana > Glomus claroideum = Glomus constrictum > Scutellospora persica.

  15. Tratamento hidrotérmico na mortalidade de larvas de Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae em tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco = Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the mortality of fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae larvae in tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a eficiência do tratamento hidrotérmico no controle de larvas de C. capitata em frutos de tangerina para fins quarentenários. Tangerinas da variedade ‘Dancy’ infestadas por larvas de Ceratitis capitata foram submetidas aostratamentos hidrotérmicos de 46±1°C e 50±1°C, em diferentes tempos de exposição. Para a temperatura de 46±1°C foram utilizados nove períodos de exposição: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 min. Na temperatura de 50±1°C, utilizaram-se sete tempos de exposição: 0, 5,10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 min., sendo o tempo (0 infestado e sem tratamento para as duas temperaturas. Cada tratamento foi composto de cinco repetições com dois frutos. Frutos maduros e semi-maduros infestados foram imersos em água quente, visando quantificar ototal de larvas vivas e mortas, sendo que, um grupo de frutos foi mantido sem imersão como controle. Os índices quarentenários, na temperatura de 46±1°C foram atingidos aos 32,0 e 35,3 min. para frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. Na temperatura de50±1°C, os índices quarentenários foram atingidos aos 20,8 e 21,7 minutos para os frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. A mortalidade das larvas de C. capitata foi crescente com o aumento da temperatura e o tempo de exposição.This research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of hydrothermaltreatment in the control of C. capitata larvae in tangerine fruit for quarantine safety. Tangerines fruits infested by larvae of Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 46±1°C and 50±1°C for different exposure times. The fruits were selected in two maturity stages (ripe and semi-ripe and immersed in hot water. For temperature at 46±1°C, nine exposure times were used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes. The same procedure was used for temperature at 50±1°C, where the exposure times were: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Infested

  16. Effect of citrus young fruit extract on lipid oxidation of raw ground pork during refrigerated storage%柑橘幼果提取物对猪肉冷藏过程中抗脂质氧化影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进杰; 顾伟钢; 姚燕佳; 吕兵兵; 陈健初; 叶兴乾

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of different mass fraction of citrus young fruit extract (CE) in retarding oxidative rancidity was tested in raw ground pork during storage. Fresh ground pork meat was assigned to one of the following five processing: control (no antioxidants); AC-0.02 (0.02% ascorbic acid); CE-0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% CE, respectively). The pH of the samples decreased and the TBARS values and free fatty acids increased considerably (p<0.05) during storage. Samples treated with CE-0.1 and CE-0.2 presented lower total bacterial count than the control samples through the whole storage. The L value and a value decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of CE. The internal b* value of CE treatments were higher (p<0.05) than that of the control one and increased incrementally with CE concentration. The TBARS value and free fatty acids of CE-0.2 treated samples were the lowest among the treatments. The peroxide value (POV) of the control increased for 6 days and reached the maximum value at a certain storage time and decreased thereafter. In other treatments, POV increased all along the storage time. All treatments had lower concentration of conjugated dienes (CD) (p<0.05) compared to the control sample after the first day. Citrus young fruits of ethanolic extract exhibitsa protective effect against lipid oxidation in raw ground pork and provides the reference for meat processing industry.%为了研究不同浓度的柑橘幼果乙醇提取物(CE)在新鲜猪肉中的抗脂质氧化和抑菌作用.在冷藏(4℃)条件下对鲜猪肉进行以下5种处理:对照组(不添加保鲜剂);AC-0.02(添加0.02%抗坏血酸);CE-0.05(添加0.05%柑橘幼果醇提物,下同),CE-0.1和CE-0.2.在12 d的冷藏(4℃)过程中,各样品的pH值均显著降低(p<0.05),而硫代巴比妥酸值(TBARS)和游离脂肪酸的含量显著增加(p<0.05).CE-0.1和CE-0.2处理组的菌落总数在贮藏过程中均低于对照组.CE的加入使猪肉样品的L*值和a*值都显著

  17. Certification Programs for Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus certification programs designed to ensure that healthy plants of the highest genetic potential are being planted in the field are the basic building block of an integrated pest management program. Certification programs began for citrus began with the discovery that the diseases were graft t...

  18. Enxertia de progênies de maracujazeiro-roxo australiano em espécies nativas Grafting of australian purple passion fruit progenies in different native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Carvalho Pires

    2009-09-01

    evaluate the production of clonal nursery plants of Australian purple passion fruit it was realized at the Fruit Section of University of Brasília an experiment from May 2005 to February 2006. Randomized blocks were used with 3 replications in a factorial arrangement 7 x 2 x 3 with 7 rootstock, 2 varieties and 3 periods of evaluation, where each parcel had 3 plants. P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, (P. coccinea X P. setacea, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' were used as rootstock and as a scion the purple passion fruit '96A' and '25' from Australia. The rooted rootstock was transferred to plastic bags and kept under misting condition and grafted 30 days later. The rooting success rate was evaluated 31 and 61 days after grafting (DAG. The scion/rootstock combination ("25" and "96 A" X P. nítida followed by ("25" and "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' with 100%, 90%, 90% and 80%, respectively, achieved high success rate 61 DAG. The production of purple passion fruits grafted onto native and commercial species as rootstock P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' and P. edulis is viable since there is no evidence of incompatibility and the grafted plants showed high percentage of success rate.

  19. The IDA peptide controls abscission in Arabidopsis and Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro H Estornell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organ abscission is an important process in plant development and reproduction. During abscission, changes in cellular adhesion of specialised abscission zone (AZ cells ensure the detachment of infected organs or those no longer serving a function to the plant. In addition, abscission also plays an important role in the release of ripe fruits. Different plant species display distinct patterns and timing of organ shedding, most likely adapted during evolution to their diverse life styles. However, it appears that key regulators of cell separation may have conserved function in different plant species. Here we investigate the functional conservation of the citrus orthologue of the Arabidopsis peptide ligand INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (AtIDA, controlling floral organ abscission. We discuss the possible implications of modifying the citrus IDA orthologue for citrus fruit production.

  20. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  1. Abundance of citrus leafminer larvae on citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a key pest in most citrus growing regions worldwide. Adult citrus leafminers oviposit primarily on young elongating flush of citrus as well as other Rutaceae and some ornamental plants. Larvae feed on the epiderm...

  2. Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ferreira de Souza; Silvana Aparecida da Silva Souza; Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes; Fernando Antônio Abrantes Ferrara; Stenilson Araújo Nascimento; William Costa Rodrigues; Paulo César Rodrigues Cassino

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos ...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41...

  4. Estudio de la floración, fructificación y producción de dos variedades de naranja, citrus sinensis L. Oesbeck, y dos de mandarina, Citrus reticulata blanco, en condiciones climáticas de Palmira, Valle del Cauca Analysis of flowering, fruitfulness, and production in two varieties of orange Citrus sinensis L. Oesbeck, and two varieties of tangerine Citrus reticulata blanco, in Palmira, the Cauca Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar T. William

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el trabajo realizado en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se emplearon 12 árboles cítricos de nueve años, injertados sobre mandarina Cleopatra y pertenecientes a dos variedades de naranja: (Nativa del Chocó y Pera del Río y dos de mandarina (Dancy y Wamurco. Se evaluó el desarrollo floral, tomando dos árboles por variedad, la época e intensidad de la floración y fructificación, el porcentaje de cuajamiento, el desarrollo del fruto y el porcentaje de frutos caídos. Se realizó además un estudio de maduración y calidad del fruto. Los períodos de máxima floración ocurrieron a intervalos de 15 - 30 días después de lluvias intensas. El porcentaje de cuajamiento presenta diferencias entre variedades y entre árboles de una misma variedad, lo mismo que el desarrollo y caída de frutos. El punto de madurez fisiológica medido por la relación de sólidos solubles/acidez, muestra la precocidad de la naranja sobre la mandarina. El potencial productivo, dado por la relación entre la fructificación y la cosecha, presenta diferencias acentuadas entre variedades y fluctua entre 9.2 y 44.6%.

    This work was made at the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira in the Cauca Valley. Twelve citric trees nine years old were used grafted with Cleopatra tangerine belonging to two oranges varieties: Nativa del  Chocó and Pera del Río and two tangerine varieties: Dancy and Wamurco. Flowering development was evaluated taking two trees per variety, epoch and intensity of flowering and fruitation, thicken percentage, fruit's development, fruits falled percentage. In addition, maduration and quality studies was made. Definite periods of highest flowering occurs in intervals of 15 to 30 days after intensity rainy day epoch. The thicken percentage of flowers and fruits, fruit's falled and fruit's development show differences among varieties and among trees of a single variety. The physiological maturity point

  5. Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Kupper

    2009-12-01

    , verificou-se que, onde foram aplicados os ACBs 69; 76; 74 e 77, as porcentagens de pétalas sem sintomas de infecção por C. acutatum foram de 83; 92; 92 e 97%, respectivamente. Mediante avaliações a campo, verificou-se a potencialidade de B. subtilis e de biofertilizantes em controlar a doença.Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus (PDF, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, has caused losses to citrus producers and therefore it is economically very important. This disease is generally controlled by fungicide sprayings, which increase the production cost, and affects the environment. Thus, this work aimed at developing an alternative control method through the use of biocontrol agents, or biofertilizers. Different concentrations of biofertilizers (from two distinct sources and named Bio1 and Bio2, three strains of Bacillus subitlis (BCA-69, 72 and 77 and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (BCA-14, 37 and 39 were tested, in vitro, alone or in combination, for the inhibitory capacity of conidia germination of C. acutatum. It was studied the production of thermo-stable metabolites by B. subtilis and their effect on the germination of C. acutatum conidia. Under in vivo conditions, 15 isolates of B. subtilis were tested for the ability to prevent C. acutatum infection on 'Tahiti' lime detached flowers and in the field, where two experiments were installed, for testing the BCA and biofertilizers in the control of the disease. It was found that the isolate BCA-72 (B. subtilis and BCA-37 (T. pseudokoningii were the most efficient in inhibiting conidia germination. BCA69 and BCA-77 were the most effective in producing anti-fungal substances, and in quantities sufficient to inhibit the germination of C. acutatum. The mixture of four strains of Bacillus (BCA: 69, 72, 77 and AP3 presented the highest percentage of inhibition (73%. Regarding the use of biofertilizers (Bio1 and Bio2, it was observed that concentrations above 10% of the product, when combined with the strains of Trichoderma spp

  6. Citrus Black Rot is Caused by Phylogenetically Distinct Lineages of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, T L; Carpenter-Boggs, L; Timmer, L W; Carris, L M; Bhatia, A

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates of Alternaria alternata causing black rot of citrus were associated with six well-supported evolutionary lineages. Isolates recovered from brown spot lesions on Minneola tangelo, leaf spot lesions on rough lemon, and healthy citrus tissue and noncitrus hosts were related closely to isolates from black-rotted fruit. Phylogenies estimated independently from DNA sequence data from an endopolygalacturonase gene (endoPG) and two anonymous regions of the genome (OPA1-3 and OPA2-1) had similar topologies, and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the combined data set. In the combined phylogeny, isolates from diverse ecological niches on citrus and noncitrus hosts were distributed in eight clades. Isolates from all lineages, regardless of ecological or host association, caused black rot in fruit inoculation assays, demonstrating that small-spored Alternaria isolates associated with different ecological niches on citrus and other plant hosts are potential black rot pathogens. These data also indicated that the fungi associated with black-rotted fruit do not form a natural evolutionary group distinct from other Alternaria pathogens and saprophytes associated with citrus. The use of the name A. citri to describe fungi associated with citrus black rot is not justified and it is proposed that citrus black rot fungi be referred to as A. alternata.

  7. Diversity in the carotenoid profiles and the expression of genes related to carotenoid accumulation among citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are not only important to the plants themselves but also are beneficial to human health. Since citrus fruit is a good source of carotenoids for the human diet, it is important to study carotenoid profiles and the accumulation mechanism in citrus fruit. Thus, in the present paper, we describe the diversity in the carotenoid profiles of fruit among citrus genotypes. In regard to carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, lycopene, and β-citraurin, the relationship between the carotenoid profile and the expression of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes is discussed. Finally, recent results of quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of carotenoid contents and expression levels of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes in citrus fruit are shown.

  8. 7 CFR 457.121 - Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... type, if applicable: (1) The number of trees damaged, dehorned or removed; any change in practices or... fresh packed citrus fruit crop as shown below. In the absence of marketing records on a carton basis, production will be converted to cartons on the basis of the following average net pounds of packed fruit in...

  9. 喷树增产耐贮剂对沙糖桔果实生长成熟期的影响%Effects of “Foliar Reagents for Enhancing Fruits Yield and Storability” on the Growth of Seedless Citrus Shatangju in the Stage of Maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁广坚; 邵玲; 钟镜波; 陈艺菁

    2012-01-01

    以沙糖桔为材料,在果实转色期喷施“喷树增产耐贮剂”.与对照组相比,该处理可增加果实成熟期可溶性糖和可溶性固形物的含量。增幅分别为8.5%和8.9%;同时,显著减少了维生素c的降幅,比对照组低了16.26%.经喷施耐贮荆处理60d后,处理组比对照组可溶性糖含量增加了8%,可溶性固形物增加了10%,维生素c增加了20%.果实与果径生长动态分析表明:经“喷树增产耐贮剂”处理后21~40d的果径生长速率与对照组相比差异显著,采果时经过处理的果树单果质量显著增加,采果时的落果率显著减少.%When the green-colored Citrus reticulata Banco (cv. 'Shatangju') fruits was transforming into orange, the aqueous solution of “Foliar Reagents for Enhancing Fruits Yield and Storage” was sprayed on the trees. During the fruits maturation, compared with the control group, the treatment significantly enhanced the increasing rates of soluble sugar and soluble solids by 8.5% and 8.9% respectively; and reduced the dropping rate of vitamin C content by 16.26%. 60 d after the treatment, the contents of soluble sugar and soluble solids and vitamin C in the treated fruits were increased by 8% and 10% and 20% than those of untreated fruits respectively. The dynamic analysis of fruits and fruit diameters shows that the treatment of spraying also increased the growth rate of fruit diameters after 21 d to 40 d of treatment, significantly increased the single fi'uit quality, obviously reduced the drop rate of fi-uits during the maturation period.

  10. INDUKSI KALUS JERUK KASTURI (CITRUS MICROCARPA) MENGGUNAKAN HORMON 2,4-D DAN BAP DENGAN METODE IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Calamansi fruits (Citrus microcarpa) or musk lime is one horticulture crops has been known as beverage and food flavorings. This research aimed to determine the effect of 2,4-D and BAP on callus induction of explants calamansi fruits (Citrus microcarpa). Parameters observed is percentage of explants, time appeared callus, callus width, and texture of the callus. Research results and a growing percentage of the width callus explants were analyzed by ANOVA and a further test DMRT at 5% level. T...

  11. Citrus Tristeza Virus on the Island of Crete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shegani, M.; Tsikou, D.; Velimirovic, A.

    2012-01-01

    ) region using quantitative RT-PCR, revealed consistent differences in abundance for each of these RNAs among flowers, stems, young fruits and leaves of infected orange trees. CTV p23 RNAs accumulated at highest levels, reaching a maximum in the flowers and the lowest levels in the leaves, while POL RNAs......Over a period of two years, more than 5,000 citrus trees were tested for the presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) on the island of Crete, resulting in thirty eight positives. Comparisons of the relative transcript levels of CTV p23, coat protein (CP), polymerase (POL) and an intergenic (POL/p33...

  12. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  13. First Report of Citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The citrus blackfly Aleroucanthus woglumi Ashby, (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae is an important pest that occurs in citrus groves, native to south-east Asia. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, this is a quarantine pest (A2 under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA and is not widespread in the country. The insect can infest more than 300 host plants, including cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but mostly occurs in the plants of the genus citrus. This paper is the first report of citrus blackfly in the State of Paraná.

  14. Comparison of citrus orchard inventory using LISS-III and LISS-IV data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niti; Chaudhari, K. N.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    In India, in terms of area under cultivation, citrus is the third most cultivated fruit crop after Banana and Mango. Among citrus group, lime is one of the most important horticultural crops in India as the demand for its consumption is very high. Hence, preparing citrus crop inventories using remote sensing techniques would help in maintaining a record of its area and production statistics. This study shows how accurately citrus orchard can be classified using both IRS Resourcesat-2 LISS-III and LISS-IV data and depicts the optimum bio-widow for procuring satellite data to achieve high classification accuracy required for maintaining inventory of crop. Findings of the study show classification accuracy increased from 55% (using LISS-III) to 77% (using LISS-IV). Also, according to classified outputs and NDVI values obtained, April and May months were identified as optimum bio-window for citrus crop identification.

  15. Citrus paradisi: An Effective bio-adsorbent for Arsenic (V Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar I. Khaskheli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study As (V was removed by citrus paradisi (grape fruit peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradisi peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradisi was 37.76 mg.g-1 at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO and hydroxyl (OH groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradisi peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples.

  16. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  17. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Omani Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and Comparative Analysis within the Rosids

    OpenAIRE

    Huei-Jiun Su; Hogenhout, Saskia A.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.; Chih-Horng Kuo

    2014-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains many economically important fruits that are grown worldwide for their high nutritional and medicinal value. Due to frequent hybridizations among species and cultivars, the exact number of natural species and the taxonomic relationships within this genus are unclear. To compare the differences between the Citrus chloroplast genomes and to develop useful genetic markers, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete chloroplast genome of Omani lime (C....

  18. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  19. Effects of Different Rootstocks on Key Photosynthetic Enzyme in Leaves and Fruit Quality of Citrus cv.‘Huangguogan’%不同砧木对‘黄果柑’叶片光合作用关键酶和果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖玲; 汪志辉; 曾海琼; 曹淑燕; 古咸杰; 李清南; 高婧斐; 张婷婷; 石冬冬; 熊博

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the variation patterns in the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), leaf concentra-tions of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and Rubisco activase (RCA), and quality dynamics of fruits in Citrus cv.‘Huangguogan’ trees grafted using Poncirus trifoliate, Citrus reticulata and C. junos rootstocks. The results showed that diurnal variations of leaf Pn in ‘Huangguogan’ exhibited bimodal curves. Peak Pn values were obtained at different times with different magnitudes in the three types of grafted trees. Trees grafted on C. junos and P. trifoliate rootstocks showed higher leaf Pn values. Leaf concentrations of the two photosynthetic enzymes in grafted trees were signiifcantly higher than those in the control trees. Com-pared with control trees, in grafted trees, the peak values of total soluble solids (TSS) were postponed to differ-ent degrees, thereby prolonging the preservation time of the fruits of the trees. Therefore, out of the three root-stocks, C. junos has the most profound effect on the fruit quality of‘Huangguogan’.%本文研究了以枳壳、红橘、香橙为砧木的‘黄果柑’嫁接树叶片净光合速率(Pn)、核酮糖-1,5-二磷酸羧化酶/加氧酶(Rubisco)和活化酶(RCA)浓度及果实动态品质的变化规律。结果表明:‘黄果柑’ Pn日变化呈双峰曲线,3种嫁接树峰值的出现时间及大小不同,以香橙和枳壳为砧木的‘黄果柑’叶片Pn较高;嫁接树叶片中2种酶浓度均显著高于对照;与对照相比,3种嫁接树的总可溶性固形物(TSS)峰值出现时间有不同程度推迟,果实留树保鲜时间延长。由此可见,3种砧木中香橙对‘黄果柑’果实品质的影响最大。

  20. Overexpression of citrus polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein in citrus black rot pathogen Alternaria citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Nalumpang, Sarunya; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2007-05-01

    The rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (RlemPGIPA) was overexpressed in the pathogenic fungus Alternaria citri. The overexpression mutant AcOPI6 retained the ability to utilize pectin as a sole carbon source, and the overexpression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein did not have any effect on the growth of AcOPI6 in potato dextrose and pectin medium. The pathogenicity of AcOPI6 to cause a black rot symptom in citrus fruits was also unchanged. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein was secreted together with endopolygalacturonase into culture filtrates of AcOPI6, and oligogalacturonides were digested from polygalacturonic acid by both proteins in the culture filtrates. The reaction mixture containing oligogalacturonides possessed activity for induction of defense-related gene, RlemLOX, in rough lemon leaves.

  1. The Role of Image Enhancement in Citrus Canker Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Padmavathi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing is employed in numerous areas of biology to identify and analyse problems. This approach aims to use image processing techniques for citrus canker disease detection through leaf inspection. Citrus canker is a severe bacterium-based citrus plant disease. The symptoms of citrus canker disease typically occur in the leaves, branches, fruits and thorns. The leaf images show the health status of the plant and facilitate the observation and detection of the disease level at an early stage. The leaf image analysis is an essential step for the detection of numerous plant diseases. The proposed approach consists of two stages to improve the clarity and quality of leaf images. The primary stage uses Recursively Separated Weighted Histogram Equalization (RSWHE, which improves the contrast level. The second stage removes the unwanted noise using a Median filter. This proposed approach uses these methods to improve the clarity of the images and implements these methods in lemon citrus canker disease detection.

  2. Bat Virus Downunder: The Hendra Virus and Its Relationship to Native Fruit Bats, Horses and Human --Learning and Teaching Opportunities for Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2013-01-01

    The fatal effect of the Hendra virus was noticed first in Queensland, Australia in 1994 when several horses died from an "unidentified cause". This was followed by the death of trainers and veterinarians called to assist affected horses. It is now known that the "unidentified cause", is a virus harboured in native Australian…

  3. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  4. Measurements on hydrocyanic acid absorbed by citrus tissues during fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, E.T.; Sinclair, W.B.; Lindgren, D.L.

    1942-05-01

    Methods for the accurate determination of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and studies of factors affecting the recovery of HCN from fumigated citrus tissues have been previously reported. This study is concerned with the results of the application of the principles derived from the earlier studies to further laboratory experiments, performed in conjunction with the fumigation studies of citrus trees under orchard conditions. The effect of certain factors, such as oil sprays, the locality in which the trees were grown, and the temperature, age, and moisture content of citrus tissues at time of fumigation, have been studied in relation to the absorption and retention of HCN under both laboratory and field conditions. The comparative amounts of absorption and lengths of time of retention of HCN have also been studied in relation to maturity of leaves and fruits and in relation to their injurious or noninjurious effects. The results of laboratory experiments cannot always be applied directly to the solution of orchard fumigation problems, but they may serve as a basis for the formulation of field experiments. The trees, leaves, and fruits used in the experiments described in this study were of the Valencia-orange variety (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). 13 references, 9 figures, 11 tables.

  5. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion pattern of soil available water content, irrigation systems and fertigation. Various micro-irrigation systems have established their superiority over traditionally used flood irrigation with micro-jets having little edge over rest of the others. Similarly, fertigation has shown good responses on growth, yield, quality and uniform distribution pattern of applied nutrients within the plant rootzone compared to band placement involving comparatively localized fertilization. Automated fertigation in citrus orchards is a new concept, which would be the only solitary choice amongst many irrigation monitoring methods in near future. The present status of the review on micro-irrigation and fertigation in citrus cultivars is clearly indicated in this article.

  6. Evaluation of the Mastication and Comparison of Fruit Quality with Different Bearing Habits in Nanfeng Tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Kinokuni)%南丰蜜橘化渣性评价及不同结果习性果实的品质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏清江; 汪妙秋; 曾知富; 杨成泉; 彭抒昂; 刘永忠

    2014-01-01

    Nanfeng Tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Kinokuni), and to provide clues for the cultivation measures to improve the mastication of Nanfeng Tangerine based on comparing the quality of fruits with different bearing habits. [Method] Nanfeng Tangerine was used in this study, and mastication grades of the fruits were judged by sensory evaluations. Then quantitative indices of fruits with different mastication quality such as thickness of segment membrane, and shear force, hardness and chewiness of segment of fruits were determined. Moreover, the correlation between mastication quality and these indices was analyzed. The mastication quality and the common quality (vitamin C, total soluble solution and titratable acid) of the fruits with different bearing habits were also determined.[Result]Two indices, thickness of segment membrane and shear force of segment, could be used for quantitatively evaluating and classifying the mastication quality of fruits. Based on the statistics of sensory evaluations, thickness of segment membrane and shear force of segment, the mastication of Nanfeng Tangerine could be classified into three grades: the superior mastication fruits with segment membrane thickness ranging from 0.09 to 0.12 cm and the segment shear force ranging from 1.15 to 1.64 kg;the medium mastication fruits with segment membrane thickness ranging from 0.12 to 0.14 cm and the segment shear force ranging 1.64 to 2.63 kg;and the inferior mastication fruits with segment membrane thickness ranging from 0.14 to 0.17 cm and the segment shear force ranging from 2.63 to 5.70 kg. The results of comparing quality of fruits with different bearing habits showed as follow:the big fruits had superior mastication quality than the medium fruits and small fruits,and the medium fruits had superior common quality than the small fruits and the big fruits;the fruits from short branch had superior mastication quality than the fruits from long branches, but they showed no difference in common

  7. 金佛手果叶多糖提取工艺的优化%Optimization of Extracting Conditions of Polysaccharides from the Fruit and Leaf of Citrus bergamot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继; 陆智明; 陆国权

    2011-01-01

    Through single factor and multi-factor experiments,and response surface experimental design method, the best extraction process of polysaccharides by water extraction of the Citrus bergamot is studied.The result shows that:for polysaccharides,the optimal extraction conditions is 247 minutes of extracting time,91℃of extracting temperature, and the ratio of sample to extracting reagent with 1:64.Polysaccharides yield in Citrus bergamot was 4.542 and 1.776 g/100 g,respectively.Reliable experiment verified the reliability of the above optimized condition.%通过单因素和多因素实验,采用响应面实验设计方法对金佛手果叶多糖以水提取的最佳提取工艺进行了研究,结果表明:多糖最佳提取组合是提取时间是247min,温度是91℃,料液比是1:64,此时1g金佛手果、叶粉多糖得率分别是4.542和1.776g/100g。可靠性验证实验表明,上述提取方法的优化条件是可靠的。

  8. Natural products for cancer-targeted therapy: citrus flavonoids as potent chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyanto, Edy; Hermawan, Adam; Anindyajati

    2012-01-01

    Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research. Many molecular mechanims of diseases have been known to be regulated by abundance of proteins, such as receptors and hormones. Chemoprevention for treatment and prevention of diseases are continuously developed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies in chemoprevention field yielded many valuable data in preventing the onset of disease and suppressing the progress of their growth, making chemoprevention a challenging and a very rational strategy in future researches. Natural products being rich of flavonoids are those fruits belong to the genus citrus. Ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantiifolia peels showed anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, co-chemotherapeutic and estrogenic effects. Several examples of citrus flavonoids that are potential as chemotherapeutic agents are tangeretin, nobiletin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, and naringin. Those flavonoids have been shown to possess inhibition activity on certain cancer cells' growth through various mechanisms. Moreover, citrus flavonoids also perform promising effect in combination with several chemotherapeutic agents against the growth of cancer cells. Some mechanisms involved in those activities are through cell cycle modulation, antiangiogenic effect, and apoptosis induction. Previous studies showed that tangeretin suppressed the growth of T47D breast cancer cells by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. While in combination with tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and 5-FU, respectively, it was proven to be synergist on several cancer cells. Hesperidin and naringenin increased cytotoxicitity of doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Besides, citrus flavonoids also performed estrogenic effect in vivo. One example is hesperidin having the ability to decrease the concentration of serum and hepatic lipid and reduce osteoporosis of ovariectomized rats. Those studies showed the great potential of citrus fruits as natural product

  9. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  10. Formulating a natural colorant containing wax for a one-step color-add application for fresh citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Florida, the early season fruits such as ‘Parson Brown’ and ‘Hamlin’ reach full maturity in terms of internal quality during early fall, but their peel are often still green due to the lack of cold nights needed to turn the fruit orange. The improvement of citrus peel color to better meet consume...

  11. The effect of home processing on postharvest fungicide residues in citrus fruit: residues of imazalil, 2-phenylphenol and thiabendazole in 'home-made' marmalade, prepared from late Valencia oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friar, P M; Reynolds, S L

    1994-01-01

    The effects of domestic marmalade-making procedures on residues of imazalil, 2-phenylphenol and thiabendazole in 'sweet' oranges were investigated by comparing residue levels in raw fruit and in marmalades, prepared by heating the oranges with water and sugar for about 4 h in a preserving pan on a gas ring or for about 1 h in a microwave oven. Determination of residues in raw oranges and in marmalades was carried out by extraction with dichloromethane, followed by clean-up and reversed phase HPLC with UV detection for imazalil and fluorescence detection for 2-phenylphenol and thiabendazole. Residue analysis showed that the extent of carry-through of imazalil, 2-phenylphenol and thiabendazole residues into the marmalades depended on the method of marmalade-making and the nature of the fungicide. Persistence of fungicides was higher in the marmalade prepared in the microwave oven than in that prepared in the preserving pan. An increase (about 50%) in levels of imazalil in the fruit portions of marmalades compared with raw fruit residue levels indicated that imazalil was more readily extracted from oranges after processing. Comparison of 2-phenylphenol levels in raw fruit and fruit portions of marmalades showed that the longer exposure to heat, needed for marmalade-making in a preserving pan, reduced residue levels more severely (48%) than cooking in the microwave oven (13%). Thiabendazole levels in the fruit portion of marmalade prepared in the microwave oven stayed the same as in the raw fruit, but cooking in the preserving pan decreased residue levels by about 22%.

  12. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus causes damage to citrus fibrous roots before visual decline of Huanglongbing-infected citrus trees

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, J. H.; Johnson, E.G.; Gottwald, T. R.; Irey, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), was first detected in Florida in late 2005 and is now widely distributed throughout the commercial citrus-growing regions. In recent seasons, concurrent with freeze and drought episodes, symptomatic HLB-infected trees were much more affected by the extremes of temperature and moisture than trees without HLB. Symptoms exhibited by the stressed trees were excessive leaf loss and premature fruit drop even when HLB-infe...

  13. BABA处理提高采后砂糖桔对青霉菌的抗病性%Postharvest BABA treatment induces resistance of mandrin(Citrus Reticulata Blancdo cv.Shiyueju)fruit to Penicillium digitatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪跃华; 徐兰英; 庞学群; 张昭其

    2011-01-01

    诱导抗病性是水果采后病害生物防治的重要内容之一.对非呼吸跃变型的砂糖桔(Citrus Reticulata Blancdo Cv.Shiyueju)果实进行BABA渗透处理后接种绿霉病菌孢子,结果表明:不同浓度 BABA处理果实的发病率和病斑面积均比对照果实的低,其中0.5g/L BABA处理效果最好,BABA处理提高了沙糖桔果实CHT、GUN、PAL、PPO、POD活性,提高了果皮H2O2含量.

  14. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently.

  15. Socio-economic determinants of the awareness and adoption of citrus production practices in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Ashraf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is the leading fruit of Pakistan and famous worldwide especially kinnow cultivar because of its pleasant taste and remarkable quality. The yield of citrus per hectare in Pakistan is almost half of potential due to non-adoption of recommended horticultural practices by citrus growers. Adopting a decision regarding the improvement of practices is usually influenced by various factors including farmers' socio-economic attributes. In order to determine the relationship between socio-economic aspects and the awareness and adoption of recommended citrus production practices the present study was carried out in Sargodha district from central Punjab, Pakistan. The Study was based upon cross sectional survey research design due to availability of sampling frame, probability (random sampling was applied for sample selection. Through random sampling, 120 citrus growers were selected as sample. Structured questionnaire administered through interview was used as a research instrument. Analysis of the data collected from the targeted citrus growers revealed a highly significant influence of education on awareness and adoption. Moreover, significant association was found between citrus cultivation area and awareness and adoption of improved practices. Age also showed significant association with awareness and adoption. Moreover, dominancy of middle aged farmers and illiteracyin the study area strongly point the need of provision of formal and non-formal education and training program for farmers. Young generation needs to be focused and reorientation of youth clubs may help in better way to gain the utmost outcome.

  16. Isotope ratio analysis by HRGC-MS of monoterpene hydrocarbons from citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Atsushi; Une, Akitoshi; Ueno, Takao; Ukeda, Hiroyuki; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2003-03-01

    The isotope ratio of monoterpene hydrocarbons in citrus essential oils of different origins was measured by ordinary high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). The isotope ratio (Ir) was determined by the ratio of the isotope peak intensity (m/z 137) to the molecular mass peak intensity (m/z 136) of the monoterpene hydrocarbons. The accuracy of Ir was examined by measuring monoterpene hydrocarbon standards and 13C-labeled compounds. The isotope fingerprints based on the values of monoterpene hydrocarbons from lemon, lime and yuzu essential oils were determined. These citrus essential oils were also discriminated by a principal component analysis of their Ir data. The characteristic vectors showed that alpha-terpinene, beta-pinene and beta-phellandrene were important components for distinguishing between the citrus species. It is suggested that this technique will be applicable to evaluate the quality, genuineness and origin of citrus fruits and their products.

  17. The role as inoculum sources of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri surviving on the infected Satsuma mandarin fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, So Young; Kim, Ki Deok; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Hyun, He Nam; Jeun, Yong Chull

    2014-05-01

    Importing citrus fruits infected by Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xcc) can act as an inoculum source for the disease epidemic in citrus canker-free countries. In this study, the pathogenicity of the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker surviving on infected Satsuma mandarin fruits was evaluated. The washing solution of infected Satsuma mandarin fruits did not cause lesion formation on the citrus leaves. However, a typical citrus canker lesion was formed on the leaves after inoculation with higher concentrations of the inoculum from the washing solution (washing solution II). It indicated that the pathogenicity of the citrus canker surviving on the symptomatic Satsuma mandarin fruits was not changed. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed that the numbers of bacterial cells on the leaves of Satsuma mandarin which inoculated with the washing solution directly (washing solution I) was less compared to those of leaves inoculated with the washing solution II. This result spports that the pathogenicity of Xcc surviving on Satsuma mandarin fruits may not be changed but that the sucessful infection of citrus caker may depend on the concentration of the inoculum.

  18. N-methylated derivatives of tyramine in citrus genus plants: identification of N,N,N-trimethyltyramine (candicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; Ferrari, Giovanna; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2014-03-26

    The distribution of tyramine and its methylated derivatives, N-methyltyramine and N,N-dimethyltyramine, was investigated in tissue parts (leaves and fruits) of several plants of Citrus genus by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In the course of our study we discovered the occurrence of N,N,N-trimethyltyramine in all citrus plants examined. This quaternary ammonium compound, known to act in animals as a neurotoxin, was recognized and characterized by mass spectrometric analysis. The substance, never described before in the Citrus genus, is also known as candicine or maltoxin. Results indicate that N,N,N-trimethyltyramine is consistently expressed in leaves of clementine, bitter orange, and lemon. Conversely, low levels were found in the leaves of orange, mandarin, chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia), bergamot, citron, and pomelo. In the edible part of the fruits, N,N,N-trimethyltyramine was found at trace levels.

  19. DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF MITES IN A MANDARIN CITRUS ORCHARD IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affandi Affandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most destructive pests in citrus orchards are spider mites. Monitoring prior applied pest control is a standard procedure for integrated pest management (IPM. The study aimed to survey and determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of phytophagous, predatory, and detritivorous mites at different stages of development of arboreal plant parts, weeds and litter in the citrus orchard. A periodical sampling survey method was conducted on six growth stages of mandarin citrus, weeds and litter of the Indonesian Fruits Research Institute experimental field in Solok, West Sumatra in December 2003 to June 2004. All mites attached on each growth stage of citrus, weeds and litter were trapped and mounted on slide for identification purposes. Identification of the mites was conducted in the Acarology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of the Philippines at Los Banos in July-October 2004. The results showed that a very rich mite fauna of 130 species was found in the arboreal parts of citrus crops, weeds and litter below the canopy of the citrus orchard. Among the trophic groups, detritivorous mites were the most abundant, followed by the predators, phytophages, and those unknown feeding habit. Among the habitats, weeds harbored the most mite species followed by litter and arboreal parts of the citrus trees. The flush growth stage had the least diverse mite fauna with index diversity (H’ of 1.27, while the most diverse (H’ = 2.01 was found at fruit development phase II. Result of this research was useful in determining proper time for controlling phytophagous mites. Besides, the result also provides important information on potential predatory mites that can be used as biological control agents. Furthermore, the study implies the importance of maintaining cover crops of weeds and litter beneath the citrus trees as refuge and source of alternate prey for predators which suppressed populations of phytophagous mites.

  20. The potential for citrus cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus collections of pathogen-free plants are needed for breeding, research, and distribution to the user community. The Citrus Research Board funded research project “Development of cryotherapy as an improved method of eliminating graft transmissible pathogens in Citrus” sought to use cryotherapy,...

  1. Precocious flowering of juvenile citrus induced by a viral vector based on Citrus leaf blotch virus: a new tool for genetics and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Karelia; Agüero, Jesús; Vives, María C; Aleza, Pablo; Pina, José A; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Guerri, José

    2016-10-01

    The long juvenile period of citrus trees (often more than 6 years) has hindered genetic improvement by traditional breeding methods and genetic studies. In this work, we have developed a biotechnology tool to promote transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in juvenile citrus plants by expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana or citrus FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) genes using a Citrus leaf blotch virus-based vector (clbvINpr-AtFT and clbvINpr-CiFT, respectively). Citrus plants of different genotypes graft inoculated with either of these vectors started flowering within 4-6 months, with no alteration of the plant architecture, leaf, flower or fruit morphology in comparison with noninoculated adult plants. The vector did not integrate in or recombine with the plant genome nor was it pollen or vector transmissible, albeit seed transmission at low rate was detected. The clbvINpr-AtFT is very stable, and flowering was observed over a period of at least 5 years. Precocious flowering of juvenile citrus plants after vector infection provides a helpful and safe tool to dramatically speed up genetic studies and breeding programmes.

  2. A Virulence-Reducing Mutation in the Postharvest Citrus Pathogen Alternaria citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, H; Isshiki, A; Masunaka, A; Yamamoto, H; Akimitsu, K

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT Alternaria citri causes Alternaria black rot, a postharvest fruit disease, on a broad range of citrus cultivars. We previously described that an endopolygalacturonase minus mutant of A. citri caused significantly less black rot in citrus fruit. To search for other essential factors causing symptoms in addition to endopolygalacturonase, a random mutation analysis of pathogenicity was performed using restriction enzyme-mediated integration. Three isolates among 1,694 transformants of A. citri had a loss in pathogenicity in a citrus peel assay, and one of these three mutants was a histidine auxotroph. Gene AcIGPD that encodes imidazole glycerol phosphate dehydratase, the sixth enzyme in the histidine biosynthetic pathway, was cloned, and the mutant containing the disrupted target gene, AcIGPD, caused less black rot.

  3. Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia del Valle; Vera, Teresa

    2014-10-15

    The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus.

  4. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  5. 柑橘果实发育过程中有机酸含量及相关代谢酶活性的变化%Organic Acid Concentrations and the Relative Enzymatic Changes During the Development of Citrus Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗安才; 杨晓红; 邓英毅; 李纯凡; 向可术; 李道高

    2003-01-01

    测定了柠檬(高酸,Citrus limon L. Burm)、锦橙(中酸C. sinesis L. Osbeck)、冰糖橙(低酸,C. sinesis L. Osbeck)和奉节脐橙(C. sinesis L. Osbeck)及其低酸芽变株系、晚熟芽变株系果实在发育过程中柠檬酸的含量及其相关代谢酶活性.结果表明,除柠檬外,汁胞柠檬酸含量均在花后100~130 d达到高峰,以后逐渐下降;柠檬酸合成酶活性变化与各类型柑橘果实中柠檬酸含量差异没有明显联系;细胞溶液中的乌头酸酶后期升高对柑橘果实中酸的降解有明显影响;磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶活性和磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶/NAD-异柠檬酸脱氢酶值较高,酸积累较高.

  6. Effects of calcium and boron on leaf nutrition, fruit yield and quality of Changshanhuyou (Citrus changshanensis)%钙、硼对常山胡柚叶片养分、果实产量及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱超; 胡承孝; 谭启玲; 孙学成; 郑苍松; 苏少康; 胡育化; 赵四清; 陈健民

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives]Studies on seasonal changes of nutrient elements contents in leaves are very important for investigating surplus-deficit status of plant nutrient elements and regulation of nutrient metabolism, and improving fruit yield and quality.We conducted a consecutive four-year field experiment to investigate the effects of calcium and boron fertilizers application on leaf nutrition, fruit yield and quality of Changshanhuyou.[Methods]The field experiment was conducted during 2010-2013 in 13-year-old trees of Changshanhuyou grafted on trifoliate orange [ Poncirus trifoliata ( L.) Raf.] in a commercial orchard in the Changshan Country, Quzhou City, Zhejiang Province of China.There were four treatments, 1) no chemical fertilizer (CK), 2) soil Ca application (0.5 kg calcium oxide per tree), 3) soil B application (25 g sodium borate per tree), and 4) soil Ca +B application (0.5 kg calcium oxide +25 g sodium borate per tree).We sampled leaves located at the second or third position from the spring branch tip at different growth stages and fruits at the maturity stage, and analyzed the seasonal changes of mineral nutrient contents in leaves and the fruit quality.[Results]The contents of mineral elements in leaves are increased at the beginning and then declined in the entire period of fruit maturity.The contents of N, K, Mg and Zn reach their peaks at the stage of fruit set, and the P peak is at the fruit enlargement and the peaks of Ca, B, Fe, Mn and Cu are at the fruit swelling.The application of calcium or boron fertilizer improves the contents of Ca, B, N, K, Fe, Mn and Cu, and reduces the Zn content significantly.The interaction between Ca and B remarkably increases the Ca content in leaves in August and September.The average fruit yield for the 2 years is increased by 1.8%-21.4%in presence of different fertilizers, and the increased yields are in order:Ca+B>B≥Ca.The accumulation yield for the 2 years of the B applied alone is significantly higher than that of

  7. Parental Dominant Inheritance of Fruit Carotenoids, Sugars and Organic Acids in a Citrus Interspecific Allotetraploid Somatic Hybrid Between Bonnaza Navel Orange and Rough Lemon%脐橙与粗柠檬体细胞杂种果实类胡萝卜素、糖酸遗传的亲本偏向性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蓓蓓; 谢宗周; 郭文武

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid compounds in the fruit pulp of somatic hybrid [‘Bonnaza’ naval orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) + rough lemon (C.jambhiri Lush)] and both parental species were quantitatively evaluated by HPLC,sugars and organic acids content were investigated by GC,and Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect expression levels of key genes involved in the carotenoid,sugars and organic acids biosynthetic pathways.Results revealed that strong dominance of rough lemon was found for citric acid,malic acid and carotenoid compound in somatic hybrid fruit,while sucrose content showed mid-parent value.Gene expression was higher in navel orange than in rough lemon for four of seven genes analyzed involved in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.Rough lemon dominance was observed for expression of CitCrt,CitLcy-e and CitZep.These results indicated that rough lemon played a dominant role in inheritance of fruit quality characteristics and gene expression in the somatic hybrid.%采用高效液相色谱测定柑橘种间体细胞杂种[‘朋娜’脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)+粗柠檬(C.jambhiri Lush)]和其两个融合亲本果实的类胡萝卜素含量,气相色谱测定可溶性糖及有机酸含量,并检测代谢过程中关键基因的表达,比较分析体细胞杂种果实品质遗传及基因表达特点.结果表明,体细胞杂种类胡萝卜素成分及含量均偏向粗柠檬亲本,柠檬酸、苹果酸积累量也偏向粗柠檬;而蔗糖含量处在中亲值;实时定量PCR技术检测类胡萝卜素代谢途径中的7个基因,其中4个基因在‘朋娜’脐橙中的表达量高于粗柠檬,环化途径中番茄红素£环化酶基因(CitLcy-e)、玉米黄质环氧酶基因(CitZep)在体细胞杂种中表达量偏向粗柠檬亲本,显著低于‘朋娜’脐橙.可见粗柠檬遗传物质的表达在体细胞杂种中占主导地位.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Penjor

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjor, Tshering; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  10. 76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... propagative seed of several Rutaceae (citrus family) genera from certain countries where citrus greening or... Rutaceae may be a pathway for the introduction of those diseases. The interim rule was necessary in order...), we amended the regulations to prohibit the importation of propagative seed of several...

  11. Biotransformation of the citrus flavone tangeretin in rats. Identification of metabolites with intact flavane nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Breinholt, V.; Cornett, Claus;

    2000-01-01

    The present study mas carried out in order to investigate the in vivo biotransformation and excretion of the flavone, tangeretin, found in citrus fruits, by analysing urine and faeces samples from rats after repeated administration of 100 mg/kg body weight/day tangeretin. The formed metabolites w...

  12. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report No. 2, April 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

    1981-03-15

    Systems that reduce energy usage and are economically viable in the citrus fruit processing industry are identified. The preliminary results of Phase I are presented. Alternative systems to be considered are classified and denoted as central, modular, integrated, and combined. Progress is reported on the central and modular systems. (MCW)

  13. 柑桔果实糖酸比及线粒体乌头酸酶活性的变化%CHANGES IN SUGAR/ACID RATIO AND ACTIVITY OF MITOCHONDRIAL ACONIDASE IN DEVELOPING CITRUS FRUIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗安才; 李道高; 李纯凡

    2004-01-01

    测定了尤力克柠檬(高酸Citrus limon Burm.F)、冰糖橙(低酸C. sinensis Osbeck)、锦橙(中酸C. sinensis Osbeck)、奉节脐橙(C.sinensis Osbeck)72-1及其低酸和晚熟芽变在果实发育过程中还原糖含量、糖酸比以及线粒体乌头酸酶(Aconitase,EC 4.2.1.3)和苹果酸脱氢酶(Malate dehydrogenase,MDH,EC 1.1.1.37)活性变化.结果表明:各类型柑橘果实发育过程中糖的含量,随着果实的生长而增加,奉节脐橙的低酸芽变还原糖含量和糖酸比的增长速度最快,与其说它是低酸还不如说是早熟更为合理.各类型柑橘果实线粒体乌头酸酶活性变化一致随果实发育降低,表明果实发育后期有机酸降解与线粒体乌头酸酶活性的降低无关,而较低的细胞质乌头酸酶活性有利于酸的积累;柠檬MDH活性一直较低,但其他柑桔MDH活性变化与果实柠檬酸含量差异没有发现有明显的关系.

  14. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  15. Mucor rot - An emerging postharvest disease of mandarin fruit caused by Mucor piriformis and other Mucor spp. in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, an emerging, undescribed postharvest fruit rot disease was observed on mandarin fruit after extended storage in California. We collected decayed mandarin fruit from three citrus packinghouses in the Central Valley of California in 2015 and identified this disease as Mucor rot caused...

  16. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  17. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described.

  18. Regional Division of Production and Development Strategy of Citrus in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu YANG; Wen DENG; Jianquan LI; Weihong WANG; Guolin HUANG; Ping ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research regional division of citrus production and development strategies in Hunan Province. [Method] According to Rural Statisti- cal Yearbook in Hunan Province during 2002-2011, Citrus in Hunan province were divided into three production regions, namely, superior region, sub-superior and non- superior region. On the base of the divisions, the ecological regionalization and brand strategy, Optimization of regional distribution and developing strategy were proposed, with consideration of avoiding frozen zones, in this paper. [Result] Fresh and processing bases of mandarin orange (C.unshiu Marc), and specialty industries of seedless ponkan(C.reticulata Blanco), Bingtang orange (C.sinensis Osbeck Bing- tangcheng), Dayongjuhuaxinyou (Cgrandis (L.) Osbeck Dayongjuhuaxinyou) and An- jiangxiangyou (C.grandis (L.) Osbeck Anjiangxiangyou) should be constructed, where fresh fruit is dominant, supplemented by canned fruit and juice. Industry belt of sat- suma orange, fresh or processing food, is mainly built, for proportion of early and earlier ripe satsuma orange is over 50% of total yield in Xiangzhong citrus zone; in- dustry belt of excellent fresh navel orange and processing sweet orange should be highlighted in Xiangnan. [Conclusion] The research provides references for decision- making for governments, especially on optimization of citrus production regions and development of citrus industry.

  19. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against eggs of Citrus black fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Araujo, Michel M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert H.S.F.; Silva, Priscila P.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radibiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Faria, Jose Tadeu [Ministerio da Agricultura Pecuaria e Abastecimento (MAPA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dt-sp@agricultura.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The citrus black fruit fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) is an important pest of citrus originated in Southeast Asia and its first record in the new world was in Jamaica in 1913. In Brazil, it was detected in 2001 in the state of Para and more recently it was detected in Sao Paulo in 2008. This pest that attacks over 300 species of plants, but its main host are citrus. It is an A2 quarantine pest, because it is not spread throughout the country. The objective of this study was to test doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy of gamma irradiation for disinfection of eggs of the citrus black fruit fly in leaves of citrus plants. Treatment consisted of 5 replicates with 60 eggs each. Evaluations were performed in the following periods: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after irradiation. Under the conditions assayed, it could be concluded that a dose of 200 Gy caused 100% mortality of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby eggs and could be recommended as a successful quarantine processing against infested plants. (author)

  20. 柑橘采后腐烂主要致病菌的分离鉴定及丁香精油对其抑制作用研究%Isolation and identification of dominant pathogen on citrus fruit and the antifungal effect of clove oil on these fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解淑慧; 邵兴锋; 王可; 张兴龙; 王鸿飞

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]Six strains of fungi were isolated from rotten citrus in Ninghai, Zhejiang province. [Method]Based on the traditional morphological identification method and rDNA -Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) analysis, [Resultjthese strains were identified as Penicillium digitatum, Alternaria citri, Cladosporium cladosporioides , Aspergillus sydowii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Pichia coribbica. Especially , P. digitatum and C. dados porioides were the main fungi, which caused the disease of fruit after harvest. Meanwhile, the antifungal effect of clove oil on those was studied in vitro. Clove oil showed obvious antifungal effect on P. digitatum and C. dadosporioides. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (EC50) were 2.51 mL·L-1 and 0.57 mL·L-1 respectively; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were 6 rnL·L-1 and 3 mL·L-1 respectively. [Conclusion]The results suggested that clove oil could be used to control the postharvest pathogens on citrus fruit.%[目的]为了确定浙江宁海本地柑橘优势腐败菌及丁香精油对其的抑菌效果,[方法]从自然腐烂的柑橘上分离优势菌,采用传统真菌形态学鉴定方法结合rDNA-ITS序列分析方法进行鉴定,并采用体外试验研究丁香精油对优势菌的抑菌效果.[结果]结果表明,浙江宁海本地柑橘分离所得6株真菌分别为指状青霉(Penicillium digitatum)、柑橘链格孢(Alternariac itri)、枝孢样枝孢霉(Cladosporium cladosporioides)、聚多曲霉[Aspergillus sydowii)、近玫色锁掷孢酵母(Sporidiobolus pararoseus)和卡利比克毕赤酵母(Pichiacaribbica);其中P.digitatum和C.cladosporioides是优势腐败菌;体外抑菌试验表明,丁香精油对P.digitatum和C.cladosporioides有较好的抑菌效果,抑制中浓度(EC50)分别为2.51 mL·L-1和0.57 mL·L-1;最小抑菌浓度(MIC)分别为6 mL· L-1和3 mL·L-1.[结论]丁香精油可以抑制柑橘采后主要病原菌的生长.

  1. THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS DERIVED FROM SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS PLANTLET AND SCION STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Friyanti Devy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis (SE of callus culture in vitro is one of citrus propagation ways for producing free virus and genetically true-to-type plantlets. To induce growing of plantlets derived from this technology, they should be grafted ex vitro onto a citrus rootstock. The research aimed to evaluate the growth performance of citrus plants cv. Siam Kintamani (Citrus nobilis L. that used both plantlets and scions as their stocks. The research was conducted at Tlekung Research Station, Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute from June 2011 to December 2012. The treatments were done at nursery house by grafting a plantlet and budding a scion onto an eight-month-old Japanese Citroon (JC rootstock plant. The grafted and budded plants of one-year old were maintained at nursery house then transplanted into the field. In the field, the research was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and used 15 plants as unit samples. The results showed that the vegetative growth of Siam Kintamani seedling derived from SE or grafted plant was faster than that of budded plant started from 10 to 12 months after treatment in the nersery house. In the field, the growth of SE grafted plant was only significantly different up to 6 months after transplanting. Plantlets produced from SE in vitro propagation can be used as a good alternative stock material for producing healthy citrus plants. Therefore, a further research is required especially on varieties used, reproductive growth and massive planlets production.

  2. 柑桔砧木育种研究进展%Advances in Citrus Rootstock Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世平; 江东; 洪棋斌; 龚桂芝; 刘小丰; 赵晓春

    2013-01-01

    柑桔主要通过嫁接进行繁殖.柑桔砧木对接穗生长势、产量、果实大小、品质和抗性等都有直接的影响.砧木遗传改良是保持柑桔产业具有较强竞争力和较高生产力的重要步骤,世界各国都在致力于柑桔优良砧木的培育.本文就近几十年来柑桔砧木育种进展进行简要综述.%Citrus is mainly propagated by grafting. The rootstock directly affects the growth vigor, production, fruit size and quality, and stress-responsiveness of the scion. The health and productivity of citrus industry is greatly dependent on the performance of the rootstocks. The genetic improvement of citrus rootstocks has become a vital step towards the industry being more productive and competitive. In most of citrus growing countries, selecting and creating superior rootstock is one of the most important practices in citrus breeding. In this paper, the progresses in citrus root-stock breeding in the past decades will be briefly reviewed.

  3. Hydrogen cyanamide on citrus: Phytotoxicity, influences on flush in potted and field trees and effects on bloom and cropload in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom in individual citrus trees typically continues for more than a month in south Florida. Prolonged bloom increases susceptibility to postbloom fruit drop disease (caused by Colletotrichum acutatum) and contributes to variable fruit maturity at harvest. Hydrogen cyanamide (HCN) is used to acceler...

  4. Electronic tongue response to chemicals in orange juice that change concentration in relation to harvest maturity and citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an earlier study, the electronic tongue system (etongue) was used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an etongue system to the main chemicals in orange ...

  5. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  6. Relações interespecíficas entre parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas e o braconídeo exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata em frutos de 'umbu-cajá' Interespecific relations between native parasitoids of fruit flies and exotic braconid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata in fruits of 'umbu-cajá'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzinaide Vidal Bomfim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de vespas parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae são importantes agentes de controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer os efeitos da liberação e as relações de competitividade interespecífica do parasitoide exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead sobre o complexo de parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas associado a frutos de 'umbu-cajá' (Spondias spp. na região do Recôncavo Baiano. Entre os meses de abril e julho de 2006, 8.955 frutos (192,93kg foram coletados antes e após (24 e 48 horas a liberação de 9.600 fêmeas de D. longicaudata em campo. Obteve-se um total de 8.724 pupários de Tephritidae, dos quais emergiram 3.963 adultos de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e 1.115 parasitoides. A maior frequência relativa foi de Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, seguida por Asobara Anastrephae (Muesebeck e Utetes Anastrephae (Viereck. Após 24 e 48 horas da liberação do parasitoide exótico D. longicaudata em campo, constatou-se que o índice de parasitismo total aumentou de 15,86 para 20,4 e 45,19%, respectivamente. Assim, observou-se que a liberação da espécie exótica D. longicaudata não apresenta efeitos negativos na ocorrência dos parasitoides nativos e contribui para complementar o controle biológico natural de A. obliqua em frutos de 'umbu-cajá', nas condições deste estudo.Wasps parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae are fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae biological control important agents. This study aimed to know the effects of the release and interspecific competitive relationships of the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on the native parasitoid complex of fruit flies in Spondias spp. in the region of Recôncavo Baiano. From April to July of 2006, 8.955 fruits (192.93kg were collected before and after (24 and 48 hours release of 9.600 females of D. longicaudata. Exactly 8.724 Tephritidae

  7. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Y Folimonova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our ‘recipe’ for selection of protecting isolates.

  8. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP: a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia, and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  9. Citrus-derived flavonoid naringenin exerts uterotrophic effects in female mice at human relevant doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke Miller; Svendsen, Gitte Winkel; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2004-01-01

    Gavage administration of the citrus flavonoid naringenin, 3',4,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanon for 4 consecutive days, to immature female mice (postnatal day 17-20) at 4 or 100 mg/kg b.wt. significantly increased uterine weights 3 and 4 times, respectively. Analysis of uterine oestrogen receptor a revea...... ingestion of 400-760 ml of orange juice (Erlund et al. 2001). This could be taken to suggests that ingestion of orange juice and other citrus fruits and juices may give rise to sufficiently high tissue levels of naringenin in man to exert a biological effect....

  10. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Might Citrus Flavonoids Play a Protective Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Cirmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases (ND result from the gradual and progressive degeneration of the structure and function of the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system or both. They are characterized by deterioration of neurons and/or myelin sheath, disruption of sensory information transmission and loss of movement control. There is no effective treatment for ND, and the drugs currently marketed are symptom-oriented, albeit with several side effects. Within the past decades, several natural remedies have gained attention as potential neuroprotective drugs. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have suggested that dietary intake of vegetables and fruits can prevent or delay the onset of ND. These properties are mainly due to the presence of polyphenols, an important group of phytochemicals that are abundantly present in fruits, vegetables, cereals and beverages. The main class of polyphenols is flavonoids, abundant in Citrus fruits. Our review is an overview on the scientific literature concerning the neuroprotective effects of the Citrus flavonoids in the prevention or treatment of ND. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of nutraceuticals, food supplements or complementary and alternative drugs to maintain and improve the neurophysiological status.

  11. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ..., clones, cultivars, strains, varieties, or hybrids of the genera Citrus and Fortunella, and all clones... in agricultural products and other commodities that pose a risk of harboring plant pest in ways...

  12. Teores de proteína e minerais de espécies nativas, potenciais hortaliças e frutas Protein and mineral contents of native species, potential vegetables, and fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdely Ferreira Kinupp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA, Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, apresenta uma significativa riqueza de hortaliças e frutas nativas com potencial alimentício negligenciado. Além de indicativos etnológicos sobre seus usos como alimento, pouco se conhece sobre elas, principalmente sobre sua composição bromatológica. Estudos revelam que plantas alimentícias não-convencionais são mais ricas nutricionalmente do que plantas domesticadas. Com o objetivo de prospectar o potencial alimentício e contribuir com dados sobre os teores de proteína e minerais de plantas nativas na RMPA foram selecionadas 69 espécies, distribuídas em 58 gêneros e 33 famílias botânicas, totalizando 76 análises de diferentes partes comestíveis. Além do N convertido em proteína, foram analisados os teores de Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S e B. Muitas espécies mostraram-se promissoras, com teores protéico e mineral superiores ao das espécies comerciais de usos similares. Apesar de adaptadas e abundantes na RMPA e dos conteúdos significativos de proteína e minerais, a grande maioria destas espécies permanece desconhecida ou subutilizada. Estudos e incentivos efetivos para o aproveitamento econômico de espécies negligenciadas poderiam contribuir para a conservação, a valorização das espécies autóctones e para uma dieta mais diversa e saudável do homem.The Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre (MRPA, Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, presents a significant richness of native vegetables and fruits with neglected nourishing potential. Beyond the ethnological indicatives on their uses as food, little is known on these vegetables and fruits, mainly regard to the bromatological composition. Studies reveal that the unconventional food plants are nutritionally richer than domesticated plants. In the aim to evaluate the nourishing potential of the native plants in the MRPA region and to contribute with data on their protein and mineral contents

  13. Determining Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Henderson Grapefruit and Some Pomelo (Shaddock Varieties under Adana Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berken Çimen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomelo [Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck] has the largest fruit size among citrus species. There are several cultivars for pomelo species which is sensitive to low temperatures thus its cultivation is possible in relatively preserved areas in subtropical regions. The interest to pomelo production has increased due to several reasons such as, its has a little or no bitterness in fruit flesh conversaly to grapefruit, avaibility of pigmented varieties, high concentration of vitamin C, total phenolics and carotenoids in fruit flesh, as well as its efficiency in destroying free radicals such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. Several pomelo varieties have been introduced to Turkey and adaptation studies have been established. In the present study, Reinking, Pomelo WN, Kao Panne and Citrus hassaku which is a spontaneous hybrid between pomelo and mandarin were investigated in terms of fruit yield and pomological characteristics. In addition, Henderson grapefruit was included in this study in order to obtain a comparasion between pomelo and grapefruit. A large variation was observed in fruit yield of cultivars established in 2011 and 2012. In 2011, the highest yield was determined in Henderson whereas it was obtained from Citrus hassaku in 2012. Pomelo varieties yielded between 5-60 kg fruit per tree and 8.6-50 kg fruit per tree in 2011 and 2012, respectively. In terms of pomological traits, Citrus hassaku had the highest fruit weight; Pink, Kao Panne and Reinking pomelos had the highest peel thickness and Pomelo WN yielded the highest TSS/TA ratio.

  14. The effects of inter-crop cultivation Between rows of citrus crop on spreading of Guignardia citricarpa Ascospores and in the citrus black spot occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Miranda Bellotte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the effect of planting coast-cross grass and forage peanut cv. Amarilis between rows of Natal oranges on spreading of Guignardia citricarpa ascospores and consequent citrus black spot control. Treatments evaluated were: 1- conventional cultivation, free of fungicides; 2- conventional cultivation, using protective fungicides; 3- inter-crop cultivation of coast-cross grass between rows of citrus crops and; 4- inter-cropping cultivation of forage peanut between the rows of citrus crops. Quest Volumetric Spore SystemTM traps were set in order to determine the number of ascospores released. A total of 33 inspections were conducted weekly, from the end of August until early September the following year. A diagrammatic scale was used to determine the severity of the disease as well as the percentage of fruits having a commercial standard. The coast-cross grass was more effective in reducing the number of ascospores produced, whose average statistics were lower than in the conventional treatments, free-fungicides. The inter-crop and conventional cultivation method coupled with fungicide treatment was more effective in reducing the severity of citrus black spot symptoms, and differs statistically from the fungicide-free control method. These methods also resulted in a higher percentage of fruits of a commercial standard, ranging from the 89% through the 91% percentile, and the cultivation, free of fungicides, fell within the 73%.

  15. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT FROM LOCAL CITRUS GERMPLASMS AVAILABLE IN THE SOUTH WESTERN REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Akhter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to study the physico-chemical characteristics of 20 selected citrus fruits germplasm of South Western region of Bangladesh during July 2010 to January 2012. There was significant variation among the germplasms in relation to fruit characteristics and organolaptic evaluation. Better performance was found in germplasm No. 20 in respect of total fruit weight, weight of seed and skin thickness of fruits. Germplasm No.1 showed better performance in respect of percentage of edible portion and germplasm No. 6 in respect of percentage of non edible portion. The total soluble solids found higher in germplasm No. 20 (12.23 % and titratable acidity in germplasm No. 16 (49.33 %. Vitamin C and carotenoids found maximum in germplasm No. 20 (442.70 mg/100g. Germplasm No. 4 and 12 was better in respect of anthocyanin (0.10 mg/100gm and flavonoids (0.19 gm content of fruit pulp. Considering desired fruit characteristics germplasam No. 20 (pummelo was found better. Citrus fruits' squash was successfully prepared by using 60 g sugar containing treatment consisting 50-80 g of sugar with 10 g variation of sugar in three treatments without changing other ingredient. Citrus fruits jelly was successfully prepared by using 300 g sugar containing treatment consisting 250-350 g of sugar with 50 g variation of sugar in three treatments without changing other ingredient. Citrus fruits jarok was successfully prepared by using 55 g salt containing treatment consisting 50-60 g of salt with 5 g variation of salt in three treatments without changing other ingredient.

  16. A Phylogenetic Analysis of 34 Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships between Wild and Domestic Species within the Genus Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Ibañez, Victoria; Terol, Javier; Talon, Manuel; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2015-08-01

    Citrus genus includes some of the most important cultivated fruit trees worldwide. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, the origin of cultivated citrus species and the history of its domestication still remain an open question. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the chloroplast genomes of 34 citrus genotypes which constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed study to date on the evolution and variability of the genus Citrus. A statistical model was used to estimate divergence times between the major citrus groups. Additionally, a complete map of the variability across the genome of different citrus species was produced, including single nucleotide variants, heteroplasmic positions, indels (insertions and deletions), and large structural variants. The distribution of all these variants provided further independent support to the phylogeny obtained. An unexpected finding was the high level of heteroplasmy found in several of the analyzed genomes. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA not only paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within the Citrus genus but also provides original insights into other elusive evolutionary processes, such as chloroplast inheritance, heteroplasmy, and gene selection.

  17. Survey for Citrus diseases in French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Thermoz, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The presence on the continent of major threats for Citrus orchards has required a survey to assess the situation of Citrus pathogens in the French territory of Guiana. Agriculture in French Guiana is located on the coast (about 300 Kms from west to east and 50 Km wide). There are 1200 Ha of Citrus orchards (Ministry of Agriculture). Citrus are grown either for export (Tahiti lime) or for local consumption : sweet oranges, tangerines and hybrids. Trees are grafted on Carrizo citrange, Rough le...

  18. Fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK e seus efeitos sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis O. 'Valência' Fertigation with different doses of NPK and its effect on fruit yield and quality of valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZA HELENA DUENHAS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Três Irmãos, no município de Pratânia, Estado de São Paulo, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK aplicadas por meio de um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão na cultura da laranja em comparação com a adubação convencional irrigada e não irrigada. A avaliação dos efeitos da irrigação e da fertirrigação na cultura foi feita com base na produção e qualidade dos frutos colhidos, na análise de solo da camada de 0-20 cm e na análise de folhas. Os tratamentos não influenciaram significativamente a produtividade de acordo com a análise estatística realizada, embora se tenha observado uma tendência de maior produtividade nos tratamentos de fertirrigação para uma mesma dose. A análise de qualidade dos frutos não mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os teores de alguns dos elementos obtidos na análise de solo apresentaram diferenças significativas proporcionadas pela irrigação e/ou modo de aplicação dos fertilizantes à cultura. A análise de folhas diferiu quanto aos teores de Ca, Mg e K.The experiment was carried out in Fazenda Três Irmãos, in the municipal district of Pratânia, State of São Paulo, with the objective of studying the effect of fertigation with different rates of applied NPK through a microsprinkler irrigation system for an orange crop in comparison with conventional fertilization with and without irrigation. The evaluation of the irrigation and fertigation effects on the crop was done considering the production and quality of the fruits, the 0-20 cm layer soil analysis and the leaves analyzes. The treatments did not influence the productivity significantly, although a tendency of larger productivity was observed for the fertigation treatments. The quality of the fruits was also not affected. The results of soil analysis indicated differences for some of the elements due to the irrigation

  19. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  20. Biological Characteristics and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4 Isolated from Elite Citrus nobilis Cultivar Ham Yen of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thi Hong-Thao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ham Yen orange (Citrus nobilis Lour is the highly valuable commercial fruit of Vietnam. With the blooming of fruit production and farming area, this specialty crop is facing threats from several serious diseases; therefore the search for new effective biocontrollers is required to prevent the existing excessive use of fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. Endophytic actinomycetes are of great scientific interest due to their high potential of application in agriculture and pharmaceutical research. In this work, endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from a native orange species of Northeast mountainous province Tuyen Quang. Among 49 isolates obtained, the isolate TQR12-4 strongly inhibited test pathogens Colletotrichum truncatum, Geotrichum candidum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. udum. This isolate gave comparatively high biomass yields on different substrates, for example, carboxy methyl cellulose, starch, protein, and chitin, within a wide range of temperature from 15 to 45°C and pH from 4 to 10. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene showed that TQR12-4 shared 99% similarity to Streptomyces prasinopilosus; however, it slightly differed from the latter in spore morphology and hence was named as Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4. A thermostable antifungal substance of nonpeptide nature produced by Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4 had MIC against Fusarium udum of 100 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL respective to extract fractions X4 and X5.

  1. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)

    2007-09-15

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  2. The role of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase and phytoene synthase gene family in citrus carotenoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gang; Wang, Chunyan; Song, Song; Fu, Xiumin; Azam, Muhammad; Grierson, Don; Xu, Changjie

    2013-10-01

    Three 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthases (DXS) and three phytoene synthases (PSY) were identified in citrus, from Affymetrix GeneChip Citrus Genome Array, GenBank and public orange genome databases. Tissue-specific expression analysis of these genes was carried out on fruit peel and flesh, flower and leaf of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in order to determine their roles in carotenoid accumulation in different tissues. Expression of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 was highest in all test tissues, while that of CitDXS2 and CitPSY2 was lower, and that of CitDXS3 and CitPSY3 undetectable. The transcript profiles of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 paralleled carotenoid accumulation in flesh of Satsuma mandarin and orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) during fruit development, and CitPSY1 expression was also associated with carotenoid accumulation in peel, while the CitDXS1 transcript level was only weakly correlated with carotenoid accumulation in peel. Similar results were obtained following correlation analysis between expression of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 and carotenoid accumulation in peel and flesh of 16 citrus cultivars. These findings identify CitPSY1 and CitDXS1 as the main gene members controlling carotenoid biosynthesis in citrus fruit. Furthermore, chromoplasts were extracted from flesh tissue of these citrus, and chromoplasts of different shape (spindle or globular), different size, and color depth were observed in different cultivars, indicating chromoplast abundance, number per gram tissue, size and color depth were closely correlated with carotenoid content in most cultivars. The relationship between carotenoid biosynthesis and chromoplast development was discussed.

  3. Selection of Small Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides Inhibiting Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Causing Citrus Canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeahyuk; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Hyun, Jae-Wook; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Citrus canker disease decreases the fruit quality and yield significantly, furthermore, emerging of streptomycin-resistant pathogens threatens the citrus industry seriously because of a lack of proper control agents. Small synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could be a promising alternative. Fourteen hexapeptides were selected by using positional scanning of synthetic peptide combinatorial libraries. Each hexapeptide showed different antimicrobial spectrum against Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, and Candida species. Intriguingly, BHC10 showed bactericidal activity exclusively on Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), while BHC7 was none-active exclusively against two Pseudomonas spp. at concentration of 100 μg/ml suggesting potential selectivity constrained in hexapeptide frame. Three hexapeptides, BHC02, 06 and 11, showed bactericidal activities against various Xcc strains at concentration of 10 μg/ml. When they were co-infiltrated with pathogens into citrus leaves the disease progress was suppressed significantly. Further study would be needed to confirm the actual disease control capacity of the selected hexapeptides. PMID:28167892

  4. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Fang, Bo; Zhao, Qiyang; Jiao, Bining; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-10-15

    China is one of the most important diversity centres of the genus Citrus L. and is particularly rich in pummelo germplasm. In this study, the flavonoids in the peels and pulps of 28 Chinese local pummelos and four grapefruits were determined by optimised Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide anion methods. We found that naringin was the predominant flavonoid in pummelo, while naringin and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in grapefruit. The fruit peels of Citrus paradisi cvs. Rio Red and Cocktail had the highest contents of naringin (9871.69mg/kg FW) and neohesperidin (7011.15mg/kg FW), respectively. Overall, C. paradisi cvs. Cocktail, Rio Red and Changshanhuyou, Citrus grandis cvs. 28-19, Chandler, and Hongxinyou contained more flavonoids and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities and are potentially good sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  5. Complex history of admixture during citrus domestication revealed by genome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aur& #233; lio,; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Fabbro, Cristian Del; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco; Estornell, Leandro H.; Mu?oz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; P& #233; rez, Juli& #225; n P& #233; rez,; Ramon, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, Francois; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-06-30

    Although Citrus is the most globally significant tree fruit, its domestication history is poorly understood. Cultivated citrus types are believed to comprise selections from and/or hybrids of several wild progenitor species, but the identities of these progenitors, and their contribution to modern cultivars, remain controversial. Here we report the genomes of a collection of mandarins, pummelos, and oranges, including a high quality reference sequence from a haploid Clementine mandarin. By comparative genome analysis we show that these cultivated types can be derived from two progenitor species. Cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species C. maxima. Unexpectedly, however, we find that cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into a distinct second population that we identify with the ancestral wild mandarin species C. reticulata. Sweet and sour oranges are found to be interspecific hybrids. Sweet orange, the most widely cultivated citrus, arose as the offspring of previously admixed individuals. In contrast, sour (or Seville) orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. Surprisingly, we also find that a wild Chinese mandarin from Mangshan, China shows substantial sequence divergence from C. reticulata and appears to represent a distinct taxon. Understanding the relationships and phylogeny of cultivated citrus through genome analysis will clarify taxonomic relationships and enable previously inconceivable opportunities for sequence-directed genetic improvement. Citrus are widely consumed worldwide as juice or fresh fruit, providing important sources of vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds. Global production in 2012 exceeded 86 million metric tons, with an estimated value of US$9 billion (http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/citrus.pdf). The very narrow genetic diversity of cultivated citrus makes it highly

  6. Regulation of Vacuolar pH in Citrus limon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln Taiz

    2005-06-22

    The primary objective of this grant was to characterize the vacuolar V-ATPase of lemon fruits. Lemon fruit vacuoles have an internal pH of about 2.5. Since a typical plant vacuole has a luminal pH of around 5.5, the lemon fruit V-APTase must have special properties which allow it to acidify the lumen to such a low pH: (1) it might have a different structure; (2) it might have a different H{sup +}/ATP stoichiometry; and (3) it might be regulated differently. During the course of the investigations (which began in 1996) they characterized these aspects of the V-ATPases of both lemon fruits and lime fruits. They examined lime fruits because of the availability of both acidic limes with a low vacuolar pH and sweet limes, which have a much higher vacuolar pH. The existence of two types of lime fruits allowed a comparison of the V-ATPases of the two varieties. In this report they are including two publications from 1996 and 1997 as background for the later publications. A review article with Heven Sze on V-ATPase nomenclature was also generated during the funding period. In addition to the studies on citrus fruit vacuoles, they also initiated studies in two new areas: polar auxin transport and the regulation of stomatal opening by UV-B irradiation. These studies were intended to serve as a basis of future separate grants, but the proposals they submitted on these topics were not funded.

  7. Monoterpene biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon) cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; El Tamer, M.K.; Schwab, W.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus limon possesses a high content and large variety of monoterpenoids, especially in the glands of the fruit flavedo. The genes responsible for the production of these monoterpenes have never been isolated. By applying a random sequencing approach to a cDNA library from mRNA isolated from the pe

  8. Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

  9. Hydrogen cyanamide on citrus: preliminary data on phytotoxicity and influence on flush in potted and field trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom in individual citrus trees typically continues for more than a month in south Florida, with even greater bloom duration within most orchard blocks because of variation in bloom timing between trees. Prolonged bloom contributes to variable fruit maturity as harvest approaches and increases seve...

  10. Control of citrus postharvest green mold and sour rot by potassium sorbate combined with heat and fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium sorbate (KS), a common food preservative, was evaluated to control postharvest decay of citrus fruit. Significant advantages of KS over the commonly used sodium bicarbonate, which similarly improved fungicide performance, are the relatively low salt concentration of KS, the absence of sodi...

  11. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, Antonio G.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions...

  12. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE TANGERINAS DE BANCO ATIVO DE GERMOPLASMA DE CITROS DO CENTRO DE CITRICULTURA SYLVIO MOREIRA/IAC MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MANDARIN FRUITS FROM CITRUS GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK OF `CENTRO DE CITRICULTURA SYLVIO MOREIRA/IAC'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O número de variedades de tangerinas utilizadas economicamente é muito restrito, apesar da importância comercial deste grupo de citros. O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros do Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC possui em torno de 383 acessos de tangerineiras e híbridos, os quais têm sido estudados sob o ponto de vista botânico, genético e agronômico. Este trabalho visa descrever por meio de 38 caracteres morfológicos, os frutos das tangerineiras Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará e Mexerica-do-Rio. Foram coletados 30 frutos maduros de cada acesso, sendo 10 frutos por planta, num total de 3 plantas por acesso. As tangerineiras, enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra e espaçadas de 7,5 m entre linhas por 5,5 m entre plantas, foram estudadas com 8 anos de plantio (safra 1994. Foi observada variabilidade fenotípica acentuada entre os acessos estudados, para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados e verificou-se que muitos caracteres agronômicos desejáveis encontram-se dispersos entre os acessos analisados, podendo vir a ser aproveitados em programas de melhoramento. A análise de agrupamento dos acessos através dos caracteres avaliados quantitativamente pode fornecer indicativos sobre as distâncias filogenéticas entre os diferentes genótipos.The number of mandarin varieties economically explored is very restricted, in spite of their commercial importance. The Active Citrus Germplasm Bank, of the `Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC' holds around 383 accessions of mandarins and hybrids, which are analyzed in botanical, genetic and agronomic aspects. As a part of this program, this work aims the fruit morphological description through 38 characters of the following mandarins: Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará and Mexerica-do-Rio. The mandarin trees are about 8 years old spaced 7

  13. In silico analysis of phytohormone metabolism and communication pathways in citrus transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Quecini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormones play a crucial role in integrating endogenous and exogenous signals and in determining developmental responses to form the plant body throughout its life cycle. In citrus species, several economically important processes are controlled by phytohormones, including seed germination, secondary growth, fruit abscission and ripening. Integrative genomics is a powerful tool for linking newly researched organisms, such as tropical woody species, to functional studies already carried out on established model organisms. Based on gene orthology analyses and expression patterns, we searched the Citrus Genome Sequencing Consortium (CitEST database for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST consensus sequences sharing similarity to known components of hormone metabolism and signaling pathways in model species. More than 600 homologs of functionally characterized hormone metabolism and signal transduction members from model species were identified in citrus, allowing us to propose a framework for phytohormone signaling mechanisms in citrus. A number of components from hormone-related metabolic pathways were absent in citrus, suggesting the presence of distinct metabolic pathways. Our results demonstrated the power of comparative genomics between model systems and economically important crop species to elucidate several aspects of plant physiology and metabolism.

  14. Rapid estimation of nutritional elements on citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eGálvez Sola

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient nutrient application is one of the most important factors in producing quality citrus fruits. One of the main guides in planning citrus fertilizer programs is by directly monitoring the plant nutrient content. However, this requires analysis of a large number of leaf samples using expensive and time-consuming chemical techniques. Over the last five years, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to quantitatively estimate certain nutritional elements in citrus leaves by using the spectral reflectance values, obtained by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. This technique is rapid, non-destructive, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly. Therefore, the estimation of macro and micronutrients in citrus leaves by this method would be beneficial in identifying the mineral status of the trees. However, to be used effectively NIRS must be evaluated against the standard techniques across different cultivars. In this study, NIRS spectral analysis, and subsequent nutrient estimations for N, K, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn content, were performed using 217 leaf samples from different citrus trees species. Partial least square regression and different pre-processing signal treatments were used to generate the best estimation against the current best practice techniques. It was verified a high proficiency in the estimation of N (r=0.99 and Ca (r=0.98 as well as achieving acceptable estimation for K, Mg, Fe and Zn. However, no successful calibrations were obtained for the estimation of B, Cu and Mn.

  15. Reasoned opinion on the setting of an import tolerance for didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, The Netherlands, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Exponent International Ltd (on behalf of ICA International Chemicals (PTY Ltd to set an import tolerance in citrus from South Africa for the active substance didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC at the level of 6 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the data require the setting of an import tolerance of 6 mg/kg for citrus. However, additional information on the typical South African post-harvest treatment practice should be provided to decide whether the submitted trials are representative of the authorised GAP. A sufficiently validated analytical method to enforce the proposed MRL of DDAC on citrus is available. EFSA concludes that the consumer risk assessment did not identify a consumer health risk resulting from the post harvest uses of DDAC on citrus fruits. However it should be noted that the risk assessment is affected by a high degree of uncertainties which result from data gaps identified in the dossier. Finally, EFSA concludes that risk managers have to decide whether the setting of an import tolerance of 6 mg/kg is acceptable since the MRL currently into force for citrus in South Africa is 2 mg/kg only.

  16. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VARIOUS STATISTICAL CLASSIFIERS IN DETECTING THE DISEASED CITRUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHEER REDDY BANDI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits are in lofty obligation because the humans consume them daily. This research aims to amend citrus production, which knows a low upshot bourgeois on the production and complex during measurements. Nowadays citrus plants grappling some traits/diseases. Harm of the insect is one of the major trait/disease. Insecticides are not ever evidenced effectual because insecticides may be toxic to some gracious of birds. Farmers get outstanding difficulties in detecting the diseases ended open eye and also it is quite expensive.Machine vision and Image processing techniques helps in sleuthing the disease mark in citrus leaves and sound job. In this search, Citrus leaves of four classes like Normal, Greasy spot, Melanose and Scab are collected and investigated using texture analysis based on the Color Co-occurrence Method (CCM to take Hue, Saturation and Intensity (HSI features. In the arrangement form, the features are categorised for all leafage conditions using k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN, Naive Bayes classifier (NBC, Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA classifier and Random Forest Tree Algorithm classifier (RFT. The experimental results inform that proposed attack significantly supports 98.75% quality in automated detection of regular and struck leaves using texture psychotherapy based CCM method using LDA formula. Eventually all the classifiers are compared using Earphone Operative Characteristic contour and analyzed the performance of all the classifiers.

  17. Characterization of Citrus-Associated Alternaria Species in Mediterranean Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganese, Francesca; Schena, Leonardo; Siciliano, Ilenia; Prigigallo, Maria Isabella; Spadaro, Davide; De Grassi, Anna; Ippolito, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria brown spot is one of the most important diseases of tangerines and their hybrids worldwide. Recently, outbreaks in Mediterranean areas related to susceptible cultivars, refocused attention on the disease. Twenty representatives were selected from a collection of 180 isolates of Alternaria spp. from citrus leaves and fruit. They were characterized along with reference strains of Alternaria spp. Micro- and macroscopic characteristics separated most Alternaria isolates into six morphotypes referable to A. alternata (5) and A. arborescens (1). Phylogenetic analyses, based on endopolygalacturonase (endopg) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), confirmed this finding. Moreover, a five-gene phylogeny including two anonymous genomics regions (OPA 1–3 and OPA 2–1), and the beta-tubulin gene (ß-tub), produced a further clustering of A. alternata into three clades. This analysis suggested the existence of intra-species molecular variability. Investigated isolates showed different levels of virulence on leaves and fruit. In particular, the pathogenicity on fruit seemed to be correlated with the tissue of isolation and the clade. The toxigenic behavior of Alternaria isolates was also investigated, with tenuazonic acid (TeA) being the most abundant mycotoxin (0.2–20 mg/L). Isolates also synthesized the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), its derivate alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and altenuene (ALT), although to a lesser extent. AME production significantly varied among the six morphotypes. The expression of pksJ/pksH, biosynthetic genes of AOH/AME, was not correlated with actual toxin production, but it was significantly different between the two genotypes and among the four clades. Finally, ten isolates proved to express the biosynthetic genes of ACTT1 phytotoxin, and thus to be included in the Alternaria pathotype tangerine. A significant correlation between pathogenicity on leaves and ACTT1 gene expression was recorded. The latter was significantly

  18. Expression profile of oxidative and antioxidative stress enzymes based on ESTs approach of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Peroni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only evolve but also reduce oxygen in photosynthesis. An inevitable consequence of this normal process is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants are adequately protected by the presence of multiple antioxidative enzymes in the cytosol and also in the different cell organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Traditionally, ROS were considered to be only a toxic byproduct of aerobic metabolism. However, recently it has become apparent that plants actively produce these molecules which may control many different physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress response, pathogen defense and systemic signaling. The search results using the Citrus Genome Program in Brazil (CitEST for oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in Citrus Sinensis variety ‘Pera IAC’ indicated that the multiple ROS-scavenging enzymes were expressed throughout all citrus tissues. The analyses demonstrated the ubiquitous expression of metallothioneins, probably indicating a constitutive expression pattern. Oxalate oxidase has been identified as the most abundant expressed gene in developing fruits, which suggests a specific function in the ripening of citrus fruit. Moreover, infected leaves with Xylella fastidiosa and Leprosis citri showed a massive change in their ROS gene expression profile which may indicate that the suppression of ROS detoxifying mechanisms may be involved in the induction of the diseases.

  19. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa, and Pomelo (Citrus maxima Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, data were analyzed by probit. The results of this study show that (1 the LC95 value after 24 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 3,176 ppm; 4,174 ppm; and 6,369 ppm. (2 the LC95 value after 48 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 2,499 ppm; 3,256 ppm; and 4,886 ppm. (3 leaf extract of Citrus hystrix is the most effective among others as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae. Leaf extract of Citrus hystrix can be used as alternative biolarvicidal.

  20. Huanglongbing, a systemic disease, restructures the bacterial community associated with citrus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

    2010-06-01

    To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P citrus by "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" has a profound effect on the structure and composition of the bacterial community associated with citrus roots.

  1. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host.

  2. Acylphloroglucinol biosynthesis in strawberry fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa, we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native strawberr...

  3. Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Darren CJ; Sweetman, Crystal; Ford, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related bi...

  4. Effect of solvent and extraction time on the antioxidant properties of Citrus macroptera

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of solvents and different time intervals on the extractions of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of the pulp of the Citrus macroptera. The pulp of the fruit was extracted for one and two hours separately with four types of solvent namely- methanol, ethanol, acetone and water. Total phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ceucalteu method, while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl...

  5. Field ID guide to citrus relative hosts of Asian citrus psyllid & Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rutaceae family of plants includes not only species within the genus Citrus, but also several other genera and species that may not be easily recognized as having any relationship to citrus at all. However, many of these citrus relatives are used for ornamental, culinary, or religious purposes. ...

  6. The information extraction of Gannan citrus orchard based on the GF-1 remote sensing image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Chen, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    The production of Gannan oranges is the largest in China, which occupied an important part in the world. The extraction of citrus orchard quickly and effectively has important significance for fruit pathogen defense, fruit production and industrial planning. The traditional spectra extraction method of citrus orchard based on pixel has a lower classification accuracy, difficult to avoid the “pepper phenomenon”. In the influence of noise, the phenomenon that different spectrums of objects have the same spectrum is graveness. Taking Xunwu County citrus fruit planting area of Ganzhou as the research object, aiming at the disadvantage of the lower accuracy of the traditional method based on image element classification method, a decision tree classification method based on object-oriented rule set is proposed. Firstly, multi-scale segmentation is performed on the GF-1 remote sensing image data of the study area. Subsequently the sample objects are selected for statistical analysis of spectral features and geometric features. Finally, combined with the concept of decision tree classification, a variety of empirical values of single band threshold, NDVI, band combination and object geometry characteristics are used hierarchically to execute the information extraction of the research area, and multi-scale segmentation and hierarchical decision tree classification is implemented. The classification results are verified with the confusion matrix, and the overall Kappa index is 87.91%.

  7. Novel character impact compounds in Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) peel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Norio; Tomita, Naomi; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Akira; Ohkubo, Yasutaka; Maeda, Tomoko; Fujita, Akira

    2009-03-11

    Yuzu ( Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a tree-grown fruit similar to a kind of sour orange, is widely used in Japanese food/cooking for its pleasant flavor. To clarify the odor-active volatiles that differentiate yuzu from other citrus fruits, sensory evaluations were conducted on yuzu peel oil. The results revealed that the polar part of yuzu peel oil was the source of the characteristic aroma of fresh yuzu fruit. By aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the polar volatile part of yuzu peel oil, seven odorants were newly identified as odor-active volatiles in yuzu peel oil in the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors of 128 and 32: oct-1-en-3-one, (E)-non-4-enal, (E)-dec-4-enal, 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, (E)-non-6-enal, (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-3-one (Yuzunone), and (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-4-ol (Yuzuol). Among the most odor-active volatiles in yuzu, (E)-non-6-enal and Yuzunone were identified for the first time solely in yuzu peel oil and not in the peel of other citrus species, and Yuzuol was identified for the first time in nature. Sensory evaluation of yuzu aroma reconstitutions revealed that the newly identified compound, Yuzunone, contributes greatly to the distinct yuzu aroma.

  8. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide insight into production of volatile and non-volatile flavor components in mandarin hybrid fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many of the volatile constituents of flavor and aroma in citrus have been identified, the molecular mechanism and regulation of volatile production is not well understood. Our aim was to understand mechanisms of flavor volatile production and regulation in mandarin fruit. To this end fruits...

  9. Bioproduction of neohesperidin and naringin in callus cultures of Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Marín, F R; Puig, D G; Sabater, F

    1992-10-01

    The accumulation of both neohesperidin and naringin as major flavonoids in callus cultures of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) was demonstrated using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector. The identity of both compounds was confirmed by their corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The levels of neohesperidin are higher than those of naringin in callus culture, as they are in immature fruit, and high concentrations of both are found in young tissues such as immature fruits and the outer zone of calli.

  10. Asian citrus psyllid RNAi pathway : RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Olivier Christiaens; Guy Smagghe

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  11. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified.

  12. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  13. Phenylethanol promotes adhesion and biofilm formation of the antagonistic yeast Kloeckera apiculata for the control of blue mold on citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Liu; Jingfan, Fang; Kai, Chen; Chao-an, Long; Yunjiang, Cheng

    2014-06-01

    The yeast Kloeckera apiculata strain 34-9 is an antagonist with biological control activity against postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. In a previous study it was demonstrated that K. apiculata produced the aromatic alcohol phenylethanol. In the present study, we found that K. apiculata was able to form biofilm on citrus fruit and embed in an extracellular matrix, which created a mechanical barrier interposed between the wound surface and pathogen. As a quorum-sensing molecule, phenylethanol can promote the formation of filaments by K. apiculata in potato dextrose agar medium, whereas on the citrus fruit, the antagonist remains as yeast after being treated with the same concentration of phenylethanol. It only induced K. apiculata to adhere and form biofilm. Following genome-wide computational and experimental identification of the possible genes associated with K. apiculata adhesion, we identified nine genes possibly involved in triggering yeast adhesion. Six of these genes were significantly induced after phenylethanol stress treatment. This study provides a new model system of the biology of the antagonist-pathogen interactions that occur in the antagonistic yeast K. apiculata for the control of blue mold on citrus caused by Penicillium italicum.

  14. Green Fluorescent Detection of Fungal Colonization and Endopolygalacturonase Gene Expression in the Interaction of Alternaria citri with Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, A; Ohtani, K; Kyo, M; Yamamoto, H; Akimitsu, K

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Alternaria citri, a postharvest pathogen, produces endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) and causes black rot on citrus fruit. We previously described that an endoPG-disrupted mutant of Alternaria citri was significantly reduced in its ability to macerate plant tissue and cause black rot symptoms on citrus. In order to investigate colonization of citrus fruit tissues by Alternaria citri, pTEFEGFP carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was introduced into wild-type Alternaria citri and its endoPG-disrupted mutant (M60). Green fluorescence was observed in spores, germ tubes, appressoria, and infection hyphae of transformants G1 (derived from wild type) and GM4 (derived from M60). Hyphae of G1 but not GM4 vertically penetrated the peel, but the hyphae of both G1 and GM4 spread equally in the juice sac area of citrus fruit. Green fluorescence of Alternaria citri transformant EPG7 carrying a GFP gene under control of the endoPG gene promoter of Alternaria citri was induced by pectin in the peel during the infection stage, but repressed completely in the juice sac area, likely by carbon catabolite repression by sugars in the juice.

  15. Citogenética de algumas espécies frutíferas nativas do nordeste do Brasil Cytogenetics of some species of native fruits from northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erllens Éder-Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o cariótipo de seis espécies de frutíferas nativas do Brasil por meio da análise do número e morfologia cromossômica das mesmas. As pontas de raízes jovens foram pré-tratadas com 8-hidroxiquinolina 0,002M, esmagadas em ácido acético 45% e coradas convencionalmente com Giemsa. O material estudado apresentou cariótipo simétrico, com cromossomos pequenos, medindo de 0,6 a 2,5µm, predominantemente metacêntricos a submetacêntricos com uma a duas constrições secundárias visíveis em todas as espécies, exceto em Bromelia karatas, onde não foi possível identificar a morfologia cromossômica ou a presença de constrições secundárias. Na família Myrtaceae, observou-se um complemento cromossômico diplóide com 2n=98 em Psidium arboreum Vell. e 2n=44 em P. araça Raddi; na família Bromeliaceae, 2n=50 em Bromelia karatas L.; na família Malvaceae, 2n=16 para Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.; na família Sapindaceae, 2n=32 em Talisia esculenta Radlk., e, na família Caricaceae, 2n=18 em Jaracatia spinosa (Aubl. A. DC. Todos os dados cromossômicos apresentados neste trabalho são inéditos, exceto para a espécie T. esculenta, que teve seu registro prévio confirmado. As espécies possuem potencial para utilização no melhoramento de plantas, e uma inversão em heterozigoze parece estar envolvida na evolução cariotípica de Guazuma ulmifolia.This work aimed to characterize the karyotype of six species of native fruits from Brazil through number and chromosome morphology analysis. The young root tips were pretreated with 8-hydroxiquinolin 0.002M, squashed in 45% acetic acid, and conventionally stained with Giemsa. All species showed symmetrical karyotype with small chromosomes and 0.6-2.5µm of length, mainly meta to sub-metacentric ones with one to two secondary visible constrictions in all species, except in Bromelia karatas in which it was not possible to identify the chromosome

  16. Variation in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung Woo; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Park, Semin; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kim, Gon-Sup; Jin, Jong Sung; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Huh, Moo Ryong; Lee, Ji Eun; Song, Yi; Shin, Sung Chul

    2014-04-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. Fruit peels infected with C. gloeosporioides and the peels of healthy fruit were analysed for flavonoids, using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, to evaluate variations in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. Seventeen flavonoids were characterised from the fruit peels. The flavonoids were validated using structurally related standards and quantified. Among the 17 flavonoids, the concentration of component 3 was the highest and that of component 10 was the lowest. During 8 days after inoculation, the concentration of the seven flavonoids 1-3, 5, 6, 13, and 14 increased gradually up to day 8. Flavonoid 4 was detected from day 7. The seven minor flavonoid components, 8-12, 15, and 16 increased to day 5 and then decreased. However, flavonoids level variations were not significantly different from that of the non-infected fruits during the experimental period. The monitoring suggested that the constitutively formed seven polymethoxyflavones (8-12, 15, and 16) may act as phytoanticipins in the defence mechanism against the fungus, and that hespertin 7-O-glucoside (4), produced de novo on day 6 after infection, may function as a phytoalexin.

  17. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sanctioned for the purpose. (2) One or more of the following: Component Limitations Fatty acids Complying with § 172.860. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids Complying with § 172.862. Partially...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR...

  18. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  19. Fruit quality properties of some virus-free grapefruit varieties grafted on different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay KURT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation studies against virus and virus like diseases causing large economic losses in citrus plantations in Turkey were begun at Antalya Citrus Research Institute in 1988. As a result of the study, some virus-free grapefruit varieties (Redblush, Rio Red, Ray Ruby, Henderson, Star Ruby and Marsh Seedless budded on Local sour orange and Troyer citrange rootstocks were planted at breeding parcel in 1995. Effects of rootstocks on fruit quality properties were investigated in these grapefruit varieties. Local sour orange and Troyer citrange affected similarly on the fruit quality of grapefruit cultivars. It could be suggested that these rootstocks could be recommended for grapefruit growing.

  20. Comparison of FTIR spectra between Huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Samantha A; Park, Bosoon; Poole, Gavin H; Gottwald, Tim R; Windham, William R; Albano, Joseph; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2010-05-26

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease huanglongbing (HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant from a healthy plant. However, many citrus diseases display similar visible symptoms and are of concern to citrus growers. In this study several citrus diseases (citrus leaf rugose virus, citrus tristeza virus, citrus psorosis virus, and Xanthomonas axonopodis ) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium) were compared with HLB using FTIR spectroscopy to determine if the spectra alone can be used to identify plants that are infected with HLB instead of another disease. The results indicate that the spectra of some diseases and deficiencies more closely resemble those of apparently healthy plants and some share the carbohydrate transformation that has been seen in the spectra of HLB-infected plants.

  1. Prospective study of fruits and vegetables and risk of oral premalignant lesions in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy Nairi; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Zavras, Athanasios; Joshipura, Kaumudi

    2006-09-15

    The authors prospectively evaluated fruit and vegetable consumption and the incidence of oral premalignant lesions among 42,311 US men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Diet was assessed every 4 years by food frequency questionnaires. The authors confirmed 207 cases of clinically or histopathologically diagnosed oral premalignant lesions occurring between 1986 and 2002. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks were calculated from proportional hazards models. Significant inverse associations were observed with citrus fruits, citrus fruit juice, and vitamin-C-rich fruits and vegetables, indicating 30-40% lower risks with greater intakes (e.g., citrus fruit juice quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 relative risk = 0.65, 95% confidence interval: 0.42, 0.99). Inverse associations with fruits did not vary by smoking status and were stronger in analyses of baseline consumption, with a 10-year lag time to disease follow-up (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 relative risk = 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.82; p = 0.01). No associations were observed with total vegetables or with beta-carotene-rich or lycopene-rich fruits and vegetables. For current smokers, green leafy vegetables (ptrend = 0.05) and beta-carotene-rich fruits and vegetables (ptrend = 0.02) showed significant linear trends of increased risk (one additional serving/day relative risk = 1.7). The risk of oral premalignant lesions was significantly reduced with higher consumption of fruits, particularly citrus fruits and juices, while no consistent associations were apparent for vegetables.

  2. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  3. Chemical and functional characterization of seed, pulp and skin powder from chilto (Solanum betaceum), an Argentine native fruit. Phenolic fractions affect key enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orqueda, María Eugenia; Rivas, Marisa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Alberto, María Rosa; Torres, Sebastian; Cuello, Soledad; Sayago, Jorge; Thomas-Valdes, Samanta; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Isla, María Inés

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional and functional components of powder obtained by lyophilization of whole fruits, seeds, pulp and skin from chilto (Solanum betaceum Cav) cultivated in the ecoregion of Yungas, Argentina. The powders have low carbohydrate and sodium content and are a source of vitamin C, carotenoid, phenolics, potassium and fiber. The HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the fractions enriched in phenolics allowed the identification of 12 caffeic acid derivatives and related phenolics, 10 rosmarinic acid derivatives and 7 flavonoids. The polyphenols enriched extracts before and after simulated gastroduodenal digestion inhibited enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome, including α-glucosidase, amylase and lipase and exhibited antioxidant activity by different mechanisms. None of the analyzed fruit powders showed acute toxicity or genotoxicity. The powders from the three parts of S. betaceum fruit may be a potential functional food and the polyphenol enriched extract of seed and skin may have nutraceutical properties.

  4. Plant resistance within the Rutaceae to Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA-ARS recently initiated research on host plant resistance to the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid is an important invasive pest of citrus in the United States because it transmits a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening). There is no cure for this bacterial disease. ...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  6. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  7. First record of occurrence of mosca-negra-dos-citrus, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) in Roraima, Brazil = Primeiro registro da ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel; Marcos Wanderley da Silva; Anderson Gonçalves da Silva; Ruy Guilherme Correia; Paulo Roberto Silva Farias; Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2011-01-01

    The Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of citrus. Originated in Asia, this pest was detected in Brazil for the first time in the State of Para, Brazil in 2001. In the culture of citrus fruits the black fly carries direct and indirect damage, impeding the development and production of plants. In addition to restricting trade in local areas from its occurrence to the presence of the plague, since the A. woglumi quarantine pest is considered present (A2) of...

  8. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  9. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  10. Limited and time-delayed internal resource allocation generates oscillations and chaos in the dynamics of citrus crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xujun, E-mail: yexujun@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hirosaki University, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Sakai, Kenshi, E-mail: ken@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Environmental and Agricultural Engineering Department, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Alternate bearing or masting is a yield variability phenomenon in perennial crops. The complex dynamics in this phenomenon have stimulated much ecological research. Motivated by data from an eight-year experiment with forty-eight individual trees, we explored the mechanism inherent to these dynamics in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). By integrating high-resolution imaging technology, we found that the canopy structure and reproduction output of individual citrus crops are mutually dependent on each other. Furthermore, it was revealed that the mature leaves in early season contribute their energy to the fruiting of the current growing season, whereas the younger leaves show a delayed contribution to the next growing season. We thus hypothesized that the annual yield variability might be caused by the limited and time-delayed resource allocation in individual plants. A novel lattice model based on this hypothesis demonstrates that this pattern of resource allocation will generate oscillations and chaos in citrus yield.

  11. Ecological and Economic Benefits of Vegetation Management Measures in Citrus Orchards on Red Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Jian-Guo; WANG Qiu-Zhen; LIAO Gen-Qing; J.AU; J.L.ALLARD

    2008-01-01

    A three-year experiment was conducted to investigate and compare the economic and ecological benefits of six types of vegetation management measures in citrus orchards of the hilly red soil region of the eastern part of China.Six vegetation treatments,including tillage without herbicide (clean tillage) and no tillage without herbicide (sod culture)and with herbicide paraquat (paraquat),glyphosate (glyphosate),glyphosate-glyphosate-paraquat (G-G-P),and paraquatparaquat-glyphosate (P-P-G),were applied in the citrus orchards on a clayey red soil with slopes of 8° and 13° and a sandy soil with slope of 25°.The results showed that the sod culture,paraquat,glyphosate,G-G-P,and P-P-G treatments reduced surface runoff by 38.8%,42.5%,18.7%,28.7%,and 37.5%,then the soil-water losses by 55.5%,51.7%,39.9%,46.8%,and 50.0%,and the N,P,and K nutrient losses by 60.3%,50.2%,37.0%,41.8%,and 45.4%,respectively,as compared with the clean tillage treatment.The weed regeneration ratios with the treatments of clean tillage without herbicide,paraquat,glyphosate,G-G-P,and P-P-G were reduced by 55.1%,67.2%,30.3%,36.8%,and 51.2%,respectively,as compared withthe sod culture.The sod culture,paraquat,glyphosate,G-G-P,and P-P-G treatments could increase the soil fertility (annual accumulation of N,P,K,and OM) by 7.1%,6.9%,5.3%,6.2%,and 6.6%,respectively,whereas the clean tillage treatment without herbicide reduced soil fertility by 4.4% after the three-year experiment.The citrus fruit yields in the treatments of paraquat,glyphosate,G-G-P,and P-P-G increased by 7%-10%;the soluble solid,total sugar,total acidity,sugar-acid ratio,and single fruit weight of citrus fruits of all treatments except sod culture significantly (P > 0.05)exceeded that of the clean tillage treatment.In general,the paraquat treatment showed the best economic and ecological benefits among the six treatments;therefore,it could be regarded as the best available vegetation management measure in citrus orchards of hilly red

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Copia-like Retrotransposons from 12 Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng-Guo TAO; Juan XU; Yun-Jiang CHENG; Liu HONG; Wen-Wu GUO; Hua-Lin YI; Xiu-Xin DENG

    2005-01-01

    As the largest transposable element in the plant genome, retrotransposons are thought to be involved in citrus genetic instability and genome evolution, especially in sweet orange, which is prone to bud mutation. In the present study, the presence of copia-like retrotransposons, their heterogeneity, genomic distribution, and transcriptional activities in Citrus were investigated in 12 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) cultivars using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT)sequences. Twelve amplification products from each cultivar were cloned and sequenced. The cloned sequences showed great heterogeneity, except "Dream" navel and "Hamlin", both of which shared the same sequence. Frame shifting, termination, deletion, and substitution accounted for the heterogeneity of RT sequences. Southern blot hybridization using the RT1 clone from the "Cara Cara" navel as a probe showed that multiple copies were integrated throughout the sweet orange genomes, which made the retrotransposon possible an effective molecular marker to detect citrus evolution events and to reveal its relationship with bud mutation. No transcriptional activities of the retrotransposon were detected by RT-PCR and Northern analysis in the fruits and leaves of either "Cara Cara" or "Seike" navels.

  13. Citrus quarantine, sanitary and certification programs in the USA. Prevention of introduction and distribution of citrus diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus germplasm originated in Australasia, the Far East, and Africa, thus all citrus grown in the New World was imported. This importation of citrus also resulted in importation of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus, many of which are latent in their original host but can cause epidemics of t...

  14. Production of tetraploid plants of non apomictic citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Ploidy manipulation in Citrus is a major issue of current breeding programs aiming to develop triploid seedless mandarins to address consumer demands for seedless fruits. The most effective method to obtain triploid hybrids is to pollinate tetraploid non apomictic cultivars with pollen of diploid varieties. Such non apomictic tetraploid lines are not found in the citrus germplasm and need to be created. In this work we describe a new methodology based on in vitro shoot-tip grafting combined with treatment of the micro-grafted shoot-tip with colchicine and oryzalin to achieve chromosome doubling and a dechimerization procedure assisted by flow cytometry. Stable tetraploid plants of Clemenules, Fina and Marisol clementines and Moncada mandarin have been obtained directly from shoot tip grafting combined with colchicine and oryzalin treatments or after dechimerization of mixoploids plants (2x-4x). These stable tetraploid plants have been used in 4x x 2x hybridizations, to recover over 3,250 triploid hybrids in 3 years.

  15. Time Series Analysis of Remote Sensing Observations for Citrus Crop Growth Stage and Evapotranspiration Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, S. A.; Chakraborty, M.; Suradhaniwar, S.; Adinarayana, J.; Durbha, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite based earth observation (EO) platforms have proved capability to spatio-temporally monitor changes on the earth's surface. Long term satellite missions have provided huge repository of optical remote sensing datasets, and United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat program is one of the oldest sources of optical EO datasets. This historical and near real time EO archive is a rich source of information to understand the seasonal changes in the horticultural crops. Citrus (Mandarin / Nagpur Orange) is one of the major horticultural crops cultivated in central India. Erratic behaviour of rainfall and dependency on groundwater for irrigation has wide impact on the citrus crop yield. Also, wide variations are reported in temperature and relative humidity causing early fruit onset and increase in crop water requirement. Therefore, there is need to study the crop growth stages and crop evapotranspiration at spatio-temporal scale for managing the scarce resources. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the citrus crop growth stages using Normalized Difference Time Series (NDVI) time series data obtained from Landsat archives (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/). Total 388 Landsat 4, 5, 7 and 8 scenes (from year 1990 to Aug. 2015) for Worldwide Reference System (WRS) 2, path 145 and row 45 were selected to understand seasonal variations in citrus crop growth. Considering Landsat 30 meter spatial resolution to obtain homogeneous pixels with crop cover orchards larger than 2 hectare area was selected. To consider change in wavelength bandwidth (radiometric resolution) with Landsat sensors (i.e. 4, 5, 7 and 8) NDVI has been selected to obtain continuous sensor independent time series. The obtained crop growth stage information has been used to estimate citrus basal crop coefficient information (Kcb). Satellite based Kcb estimates were used with proximal agrometeorological sensing system observed relevant weather parameters for crop ET estimation. The

  16. Dietary supplementation with purified citrus limonin glucoside does not alter ex vivo functions of circulating T lymphocytes or monocytes in overweight/obese human adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweight/obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and impairs both innate and adaptive immune responses. Limonoids found in citrus fruits have shown health benefits in human and animal studies. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, 10 overweight/obese human subjects were fed pur...

  17. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian