WorldWideScience

Sample records for native bacterioplankton community

  1. Marine bacterioplankton community turnover within seasonally hypoxic waters of a subtropical sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, Rachel J.; Nelson, Craig E.; Carlson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bacterioplankton community dynamics in coastal hypoxic environments is relevant to global biogeochemistry because coastal hypoxia is increasing worldwide. The temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton communities were analysed throughout the illuminated water column of Devil's Hole...

  2. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...... of common drivers of bacterioplankton community functions in two different systems indicates that the drivers may be of broader relevance in coastal temperate waters....

  3. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...

  4. Phylogenetic comparisons of a coastal bacterioplankton community with its counterparts in open ocean and freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappé; Vergin; Giovannoni

    2000-09-01

    In order to extend previous comparisons between coastal marine bacterioplankton communities and their open ocean and freshwater counterparts, here we summarize and provide new data on a clone library of 105 SSU rRNA genes recovered from seawater collected over the western continental shelf of the USA in the Pacific Ocean. Comparisons to previously published data revealed that this coastal bacterioplankton clone library was dominated by SSU rRNA gene phylotypes originally described from surface waters of the open ocean, but also revealed unique SSU rRNA gene lineages of beta Proteobacteria related to those found in clone libraries from freshwater habitats. beta Proteobacteria lineages common to coastal and freshwater samples included members of a clade of obligately methylotrophic bacteria, SSU rRNA genes affiliated with Xylophilus ampelinus, and a clade related to the genus Duganella. In addition, SSU rRNA genes were recovered from such previously recognized marine bacterioplankton SSU rRNA gene clone clusters as the SAR86, SAR11, and SAR116 clusters within the class Proteobacteria, the Roseobacter clade of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria, the marine group A/SAR406 cluster, and the marine Actinobacteria clade. Overall, these results support and extend previous observations concerning the global distribution of several marine planktonic prokaryote SSU rRNA gene phylotypes, but also show that coastal bacterioplankton communities contain SSU rRNA gene lineages (and presumably bacterioplankton) shown previously to be prevalent in freshwater habitats.

  5. Distribution, Community Composition, and Potential Metabolic Activity of Bacterioplankton in an Urbanized Mediterranean Sea Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa, Kumari; Balestra, Cecilia; Piredda, Roberta; Benes, Vladimir; Borra, Marco; Passarelli, Augusto; Margiotta, Francesca; Saggiomo, Maria; Biffali, Elio; Sanges, Remo; Scanlan, David J; Casotti, Raffaella

    2017-09-01

    Bacterioplankton are fundamental components of marine ecosystems and influence the entire biosphere by contributing to the global biogeochemical cycles of key elements. Yet, there is a significant gap in knowledge about their diversity and specific activities, as well as environmental factors that shape their community composition and function. Here, the distribution and diversity of surface bacterioplankton along the coastline of the Gulf of Naples (GON; Italy) were investigated using flow cytometry coupled with high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Heterotrophic bacteria numerically dominated the bacterioplankton and comprised mainly Alphaproteobacteria , Gammaproteobacteria , and Bacteroidetes Distinct communities occupied river-influenced, coastal, and offshore sites, as indicated by Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, distance metric (UniFrac), linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe), and multivariate analyses. The heterogeneity in diversity and community composition was mainly due to salinity and changes in environmental conditions across sites, as defined by nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations. Bacterioplankton communities were composed of a few dominant taxa and a large proportion (92%) of rare taxa (here defined as operational taxonomic units [OTUs] accounting for coastal zones is of critical importance, considering that these areas are highly productive and anthropogenically impacted. Their richness and evenness, as well as their potential activity, are very important to assess ecosystem health and functioning. Here, we investigated bacterial distribution, community composition, and potential metabolic activity in the GON, which is an ideal test site due to its heterogeneous environment characterized by a complex hydrodynamics and terrestrial inputs of varied quantities and quality. Our study demonstrates that bacterioplankton communities in this region are highly diverse and strongly regulated by a combination of different environmental

  6. Fish-mediated changes in bacterioplankton community composition: an in situ mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Congqiang; Yi, Chunlong; Ni, Leyi; Guo, Longgen

    2017-06-01

    We characterized variations in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in mesocosms subject to three different treatments. Two groups contained fish (group one: Cyprinus carpio; group two: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix); and group three, the untreated mesocosm, was the control. Samples were taken seven times over a 49-day period, and BCC was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results revealed that introduction of C. carpio and H. molitrix had a remarkable impact on the composition of bacterioplankton communities, and the BCC was significantly different between each treatment. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the bacterioplankton community in the different treatment groups was consistent at a taxonomic level, but differed in its abundance. H. molitrix promoted the richness of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while more bands affiliated to Cyanobacteria were detected inC. carpio mesocosms. The redundancy analysis (RDA) result demonstrated that the BCC was closely related to the bottom-up (total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton biomass) and top-down forces (biomass of copepods and cladocera) in C. carpio and control mesocosms, respectively. We found no evidence for top-down regulation of BCC by zooplankton in H. molitrix mesocosms, while grazing by protozoa (heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates) became the major way to regulate BCC. Total bacterioplankton abundances were significantly higher in C. carpio mesocosms because of high nutrient concentration and suspended solids. Our study provided insights into the relationship between fish and bacterioplankton at species level, leading to a deep understanding of the function of the microbial loop and the aquatic ecosystem.

  7. Fish-mediated changes in bacterioplankton community composition: an in situ mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Congqiang; Yi, Chunlong; Ni, Leyi; Guo, Longgen

    2018-03-01

    We characterized variations in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in mesocosms subject to three different treatments. Two groups contained fish (group one: Cyprinus carpio; group two: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix); and group three, the untreated mesocosm, was the control. Samples were taken seven times over a 49-d period, and BCC was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results revealed that introduction of C. carpio and H. molitrix had a remarkable impact on the composition of bacterioplankton communities, and the BCC was significantly different between each treatment. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the bacterioplankton community in the different treatment groups was consistent at a taxonomic level, but differed in its abundance. H. molitrix promoted the richness of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while more bands affiliated to Cyanobacteria were detected in C. carpio mesocosms. The redundancy analysis (RDA) result demonstrated that the BCC was closely related to the bottom-up (total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton biomass) and top-down forces (biomass of copepods and cladocera) in C. carpio and control mesocosms, respectively. We found no evidence for top-down regulation of BCC by zooplankton in H. molitrix mesocosms, while grazing by protozoa (heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates) became the major way to regulate BCC. Total bacterioplankton abundances were significantly higher in C. carpio mesocosms because of high nutrient concentration and suspended solids. Our study provided insights into the relationship between fish and bacterioplankton at species level, leading to a deep understanding of the function of the microbial loop and the aquatic ecosystem.

  8. Bacterioplankton Community Dynamics and Nutrient Availability in a Shallow Well Mixed Estuary of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, M. P.

    2016-02-01

    Sabine Lake Estuary is a shallow, well mixed, tidal lagoon of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. This study defines the bacterioplankton community composition and factors that may influence its variation in Sabine Lake Estuary. Twenty physicochemical parameters, phytoplankton photopigments, and bacterial 16SrDNA sequences were analyzed seasonally from twelve sites ranging from the inflows of Sabine and Neches Rivers to the Sabine Pass outflow. Photopigments were used to estimate phytoplankton groups via CHEMTAX, and bacterioplankton 16SrDNA sequences of 97% similarity were quantified and taxa identified. Nutrient availability experiments were conducted on bacterioplankton. Notable seasonal differences were seen in six of the ten most common (>3% of total sequences) classes of bacterioplankton. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of common classes was used to explore physiochemical parameters and phytoplankton groups influencing variation in the bacterioplankton. Alphaproteobacteria were most abundant throughout the year. Opitutae, Actinobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Beta-proteobacteria were strongly influenced by conditions with higher TDN, DOC, turbidity, and Chlorophytes during winter when high river discharges reduced salinity. Planctomycetacia were most prevalent during spring and coincide with predominance of Cryptophytes. In summer and fall the aforementioned classes decline, and there is an increase in Synechococcophycideae. Nitrogen was least available to bacterioplankton during summer and fall. Clearer, warmer and more saline conditions with lower DOC reflect tidal movement of seawater into the estuary when river discharges were low, conditions favorable for Synechococcophycidea. Seasonal fluctuations in physicochemical conditions and certain phytoplankton groups influence the variation in the bacterioplankton community in Sabine Lake Estuary.

  9. Basin-scale seasonal changes in marine free-living bacterioplankton community in the Ofunato Bay

    KAUST Repository

    Reza, Md. Shaheed

    2018-04-26

    The Ofunato Bay in the northeastern Pacific Ocean area of Japan possesses the highest biodiversity of marine organisms in the world and has attracted much attention due to its economic and environmental importance. We report here a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the year-round variation in free-living bacterioplankton collected across the entire length of the bay. Phylogenetic differences among spring, summer, autumn and winter bacterioplankton suggested that members of Proteobacteria tended to decrease at high water temperatures and increase at low temperatures. It was revealed that Candidatus Pelagibacter varied seasonally, reaching as much as 60% of all sequences at the genus level in the surface waters during winter. This increase was more evident in the deeper waters, where they reached up to 75%. The relative abundance of Planktomarina also rose during winter and fell during summer. A significant component of the winter bacterioplankton community was Archaea (mainly represented by Nitrosopumilus), as their relative abundance was very low during spring and summer but high during winter. In contrast, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria appeared to be higher in abundance during high-temperature periods. It was also revealed that Bacteroidetes constituted a significant component of the summer bacterioplankton community, being the second largest bacterial phylum detected in the Ofunato Bay. Its members, notably Polaribacter and Flavobacterium, were found to be high in abundance during spring and summer, particularly in the surface waters. Principal component analysis and hierarchal clustering analyses showed that the bacterial communities in the Ofunato Bay changed seasonally, likely caused by the levels of organic matter, which would be deeply mixed with surface runoff in the winter.

  10. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  11. Interactive network configuration maintains bacterioplankton community structure under elevated CO2 in a eutrophic coastal mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Huang, Ruiping; Li, Yan; Li, Futian; Wu, Yaping; Hutchins, David A.; Dai, Minhan; Gao, Kunshan

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the effects of ocean acidification on marine biogeochemical and ecological processes and the organisms that drive them, including marine bacteria. Here, we examine the effects of elevated CO2 on the bacterioplankton community during a mesocosm experiment using an artificial phytoplankton community in subtropical, eutrophic coastal waters of Xiamen, southern China. Through sequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region, we found that the bacterioplankton community in this high-nutrient coastal environment was relatively resilient to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. Based on comparative ecological network analysis, we found that elevated CO2 hardly altered the network structure of high-abundance bacterioplankton taxa but appeared to reassemble the community network of low abundance taxa. This led to relatively high resilience of the whole bacterioplankton community to the elevated CO2 level and associated chemical changes. We also observed that the Flavobacteria group, which plays an important role in the microbial carbon pump, showed higher relative abundance under the elevated CO2 condition during the early stage of the phytoplankton bloom in the mesocosms. Our results provide new insights into how elevated CO2 may influence bacterioplankton community structure.

  12. Nearly a decade-long repeatable seasonal diversity patterns of bacterioplankton communities in the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Qingyun [Environmental Microbiome Research Center and the School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou China; Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Stegen, James C. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Yu, Yuhe [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Deng, Ye [CAS Key Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Li, Xinghao [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Wu, Shu [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Dai, Lili [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Zhang, Xiang [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Li, Jinjin [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Wang, Chun [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Ni, Jiajia [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Li, Xuemei [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Hu, Hongjuan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Xiao, Fanshu [Environmental Microbiome Research Center and the School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou China; Feng, Weisong [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Ning, Daliang [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; He, Zhili [Environmental Microbiome Research Center and the School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou China; Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Van Nostrand, Joy D. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Wu, Liyou [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Zhou, Jizhong [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA

    2017-05-21

    Uncovering which environmental factors have the greatest influence on community diversity patterns and how ecological processes govern community turnover are key questions related to understanding community assembly mechanisms. Although we have good understanding of plant and animal community assembly, the mechanisms regulating diversity patterns of aquatic bacterial communities in lake ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here we present nearly a decade-long time-series study of bacterioplankton communities from the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found strong repeatable seasonal patterns for the overall community, common (detected in more than 50% samples) and dominant bacterial taxa (relative abundance > 1%). Moreover, community composition tracked the seasonal temperature gradient, indicating that temperature is an important environmental factor controlling observed diversity patterns. Total phosphorus also contributed significantly to the seasonal shifts in bacterioplankton composition. However, any spatial pattern across the main lake areas was overwhelmed by temporal variability in this eutrophic lake system. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated that 75%-82% of community turnover was governed by homogeneous selection, suggesting that the bacterioplankton communities are mainly controlled by niche-based processes. However, dominant niches available within seasons might be occupied by similar combinations of bacterial taxa with modest dispersal rates throughout this lake system. This study gives us important insights into community assembly and seasonal turnover of lake bacterioplankton, it may be also useful to predict temporal patterns of other planktonic communities.

  13. Bacterioplankton diversity and community composition in the Southern Lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Francesca; Gómez-Pereira, Paola R; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Amann, Rudolf

    2010-04-01

    The Lagoon of Venice is a large water basin that exchanges water with the Northern Adriatic Sea through three large inlets. In this study, the 16S rRNA approach was used to investigate the bacterial diversity and community composition within the southern basin of the Lagoon of Venice and at one inlet in October 2007 and June 2008. Comparative sequence analysis of 645 mostly partial 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated high diversity and dominance of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes at the lagoon as well as at the inlet station, therefore pointing to significant mixing. Many of these sequences were close to the 16S rRNA of marine, often coastal, bacterioplankton, such as the Roseobacter clade, the family Vibrionaceae, and class Flavobacteria. Sequences of Actinobacteria were indicators of a freshwater input. The composition of the bacterioplankton was quantified by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) with a set of rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. CARD-FISH counts corroborated the dominance of members of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. When assessed by a probe set for the quantification of selected clades within Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, bacterioplankton composition differed between October 2007 and June 2008, and also between the inlet and the lagoon. In particular, members of the readily culturable copiotrophic gammaproteobacterial genera Vibrio, Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas were enriched in the southern basin of the Lagoon of Venice. Interestingly, the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 clade and related clusters were also present in high abundances at the inlet and within the lagoon, which was indicative of inflow of water from the open sea.

  14. Bacterioplankton community composition along a salinity gradient of sixteen high-mountain lakes located on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Q.L.; Zwart, G.; Schauer, M.; Kamst-van Agterveld, M.P.; Hahn, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of altitude and salinity on bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in 16 high-mountain lakes located at altitudes of 2,817 to 5,134 m on the Eastern Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau, China, spanning a salinity gradient from 0.02% (freshwater) to 22.3% (hypersaline), was

  15. Seasonality Affects the Diversity and Composition of Bacterioplankton Communities in Dongjiang River, a Drinking Water Source of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality ranks the most vital criterion for rivers serving as drinking water sources, which periodically changes over seasons. Such fluctuation is believed associated with the state shifts of bacterial community within. To date, seasonality effects on bacterioplankton community patterns in large rivers serving as drinking water sources however, are still poorly understood. Here we investigated the intra-annual bacterial community structure in the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source of Hong Kong, using high-throughput pyrosequencing in concert with geochemical property measurements during dry, and wet seasons. Our results showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla of bacterioplankton communities, which varied in composition, and distribution from dry to wet seasons, and exhibited profound seasonal changes. Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria seemed to be more associated with seasonality that the relative abundances of Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were significantly higher in the dry season than those in the wet season (p < 0.01, while the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria was about 10-fold higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Temperature and NO3--N concentration represented key contributing factors to the observed seasonal variations. These findings help understand the roles of various bacterioplankton and their interactions with the biogeochemical processes in the river ecosystem.

  16. Response of bacterioplankton community structure to an artificial gradient of pCO2 in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the influences of ocean acidification on the ocean pelagic ecosystem, so far the largest CO2 manipulation mesocosm study (European Project on Ocean Acidification, EPOCA was performed in Kings Bay (Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen. During a 30 day incubation, bacterial diversity was investigated using DNA fingerprinting and clone library analysis of bacterioplankton samples. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of the PCR amplicons of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that general bacterial diversity, taxonomic richness and community structure were influenced by the variation of productivity during the time of incubation, but not the degree of ocean acidification. A BIOENV analysis suggested a complex control of bacterial community structure by various biological and chemical environmental parameters. The maximum apparent diversity of bacterioplankton (i.e., the number of T-RFs in high and low pCO2 treatments differed significantly. A negative relationship between the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and pCO2 levels was observed for samples at the end of the experiment by the combination of T-RFLP and clone library analysis. Our study suggests that ocean acidification affects the development of bacterial assemblages and potentially impacts the ecological function of the bacterioplankton in the marine ecosystem.

  17. Response of bacterioplankton community structure to an artificial gradient of pCO2 in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Xia, X.; Lau, S. C. K.; Motegi, C.; Weinbauer, M. G.; Jiao, N.

    2013-06-01

    In order to test the influences of ocean acidification on the ocean pelagic ecosystem, so far the largest CO2 manipulation mesocosm study (European Project on Ocean Acidification, EPOCA) was performed in Kings Bay (Kongsfjorden), Spitsbergen. During a 30 day incubation, bacterial diversity was investigated using DNA fingerprinting and clone library analysis of bacterioplankton samples. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the PCR amplicons of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that general bacterial diversity, taxonomic richness and community structure were influenced by the variation of productivity during the time of incubation, but not the degree of ocean acidification. A BIOENV analysis suggested a complex control of bacterial community structure by various biological and chemical environmental parameters. The maximum apparent diversity of bacterioplankton (i.e., the number of T-RFs) in high and low pCO2 treatments differed significantly. A negative relationship between the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and pCO2 levels was observed for samples at the end of the experiment by the combination of T-RFLP and clone library analysis. Our study suggests that ocean acidification affects the development of bacterial assemblages and potentially impacts the ecological function of the bacterioplankton in the marine ecosystem.

  18. Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.

    2011-01-01

    . Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine bacterioplankton communities in a tropical island at the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:21408023

  19. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Vieira, Ricardo P; Cardoso, Alexander M; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M; Martins, Orlando B

    2011-03-09

    bacterioplankton communities in a tropical island at the South Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    parameters. Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine bacterioplankton communities in a tropical island at the South Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Macrophyte Species Drive the Variation of Bacterioplankton Community Composition in a Shallow Freshwater Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jin; Bian, Yuanqi; Xing, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Macrophytes play an important role in structuring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we explored whether macrophyte species are involved in determining the bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in shallow freshwater lakes. The BCC in field areas dominated by different macrophyte species in Taihu Lake, a large, shallow freshwater lake, was investigated over a 1-year period. Subsequently, microcosm experiments were conducted to determine if single species of different types of macrophytes in an isolated environment would alter the BCC. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), followed by cloning and sequence analysis of selected samples, was employed to analyze the BCC. The DGGE results of the field investigations indicated that the BCC changed significantly from season to season and that the presence of different macrophyte species resulted in lower BCC similarities in the summer and fall. LIBSHUFF analysis of selected clone libraries from the summer demonstrated different BCCs in the water column surrounding different macrophytes. Relative to the field observations, the microcosm studies indicated that the BCC differed more pronouncedly when associated with different species of macrophytes, which was also supported by LIBSHUFF analysis of the selected clone libraries. Overall, this study suggested that macrophyte species might be an important factor in determining the composition of bacterial communities in this shallow freshwater lake and that the species-specific influence of macrophytes on BCC is variable with the season and distance. PMID:22038598

  2. Habitat filtering of bacterioplankton communities above polymetallic nodule fields and sediments in the Clarion-Clipperton zone of the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Maillot, Brianne M; Smith, Craig R; Church, Matthew J

    2018-04-01

    Deep-sea mining of commercially valuable polymetallic nodule fields will generate a seabed sediment plume into the water column. Yet, the response of bacterioplankton communities, critical in regulating energy and matter fluxes in marine ecosystems, to such disturbances is unknown. Metacommunity theory, traditionally used in general ecology for macroorganisms, offers mechanistic understanding on the relative role of spatial differences compared with local environmental conditions (habitat filtering) for community assembly. We examined bacterioplankton metacommunities using 16S rRNA amplicons from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the eastern Pacific Ocean and in global ocean transect samples to determine sensitivity of these assemblages to environmental perturbations. Habitat filtering was the main assembly mechanism of bacterioplankton community composition in the epi- and mesopelagic waters of the CCZ and the Tara Oceans transect. Bathy- and abyssopelagic bacterioplankton assemblages were mainly assembled by undetermined metacommunity types or neutral and dispersal-driven patch-dynamics for the CCZ and the Malaspina transect. Environmental disturbances may alter the structure of upper-ocean microbial assemblages, with potentially even more substantial, yet unknown, impact on deep-sea communities. Predicting such responses in bacterioplankton assemblage dynamics can improve our understanding of microbially-mediated regulation of ecosystem services in the abyssal seabed likely to be exploited by future deep-sea mining operations. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Grazer and virus-induced mortality of bacterioplankton accelerates development of .i.Flectobacillus./i. populations in a freshwater community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Weinbauer, M.G.; Horňák, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Nedoma, Jiří; Dolan, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2007), s. 789-800 ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) Barrande 2004-004-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : bacterioplankton community composition * virus lysis * flagellate bacterivory * reservoir * FISH analysis of food vacuoles * microautoradiography Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.929, year: 2007

  4. Bacterioplankton communities of Crater Lake, OR: Dynamic changes with euphotic zone food web structure and stable deep water populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, E.; Vergin, K.L.; Larson, G.L.; Giovannoni, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of bacterial and archaeal species in Crater Lake plankton varies dramatically over depth and with time, as assessed by hybridization of group-specific oligonucleotides to RNA extracted from lakewater. Nonmetric, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of relative bacterial phylotype densities revealed complex relationships among assemblages sampled from depth profiles in July, August and September of 1997 through 1999. CL500-11 green nonsulfur bacteria (Phylum Chloroflexi) and marine Group I crenarchaeota are consistently dominant groups in the oxygenated deep waters at 300 and 500 m. Other phylotypes found in the deep waters are similar to surface and mid-depth populations and vary with time. Euphotic zone assemblages are dominated either by ??-proteobacteria or CL120-10 verrucomicrobia, and ACK4 actinomycetes. MDS analyses of euphotic zone populations in relation to environmental variables and phytoplankton and zooplankton population structures reveal apparent links between Daphnia pulicaria zooplankton population densities and microbial community structure. These patterns may reflect food web interactions that link kokanee salmon population densities to community structure of the bacterioplankton, via fish predation on Daphnia with cascading consequences to Daphnia bacterivory and predation on bacterivorous protists. These results demonstrate a stable bottom-water microbial community. They also extend previous observations of food web-driven changes in euphotic zone bacterioplankton community structure to an oligotrophic setting. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. Insights into bacterioplankton community structure from Sundarbans mangrove ecoregion using Sanger and Illumina MiSeq sequencing approaches: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwesha Ghosh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing using platforms such as Illumina MiSeq provides a deeper insight into the structure and function of bacterioplankton communities in coastal ecosystems compared to traditional molecular techniques such as clone library approach which incorporates Sanger sequencing. In this study, structure of bacterioplankton communities was investigated from two stations of Sundarbans mangrove ecoregion using both Sanger and Illumina MiSeq sequencing approaches. The Illumina MiSeq data is available under the BioProject ID PRJNA35180 and Sanger sequencing data under accession numbers KX014101-KX014140 (Stn1 and KX014372-KX014410 (Stn3. Proteobacteria-, Firmicutes- and Bacteroidetes-like sequences retrieved from both approaches appeared to be abundant in the studied ecosystem. The Illumina MiSeq data (2.1 GB provided a deeper insight into the structure of bacterioplankton communities and revealed the presence of bacterial phyla such as Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Tenericutes, Verrucomicrobia which were not recovered based on Sanger sequencing. A comparative analysis of bacterioplankton communities from both stations highlighted the presence of genera that appear in both stations and genera that occur exclusively in either station. However, both the Sanger sequencing and Illumina MiSeq data were coherent at broader taxonomic levels. Pseudomonas, Devosia, Hyphomonas and Erythrobacter-like sequences were the abundant bacterial genera found in the studied ecosystem. Both the sequencing methods showed broad coherence although as expected the Illumina MiSeq data helped identify rarer bacterioplankton groups and also showed the presence of unassigned OTUs indicating possible presence of novel bacterioplankton from the studied mangrove ecosystem.

  6. Bacterioplankton: a sink for carbon in a coastal marine plankton community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducklow, H.W.; Purdie, D.A.; Williams, P.J.LeB.; Davis, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent determinations of high production rates (up to 30% of primary production in surface waters) implicate free-living marine bacterioplankton as a link in a microbial loop that supplements phytoplankton as food for herbivores. An enclosed water column of 300 cubic meters was used to test the microbial loop hypothesis by following the fate of carbon-14-labeled bacterioplankton for over 50 days. Only 2% of the label initially fixed from carbon-14-labeled glucose by bacteria was present in larger organisms after 13 days, at which time about 20% of the total label added remained in the particulate fraction. Most of the label appeared to pass directly from particles smaller than 1 micrometer (heterotrophic bacterioplankton and some bacteriovores) to respired labeled carbon dioxide or to regenerated dissolved organic carbon-14. Secondary (and, by implication, primary) production by organisms smaller than 1 micrometer may not be an important food source in marine food chains. Bacterioplankton can be a sink for carbon in planktonic food webs and may serve principally as agents of nutrient regeneration rather than as food

  7. Invasive lionfish harbor a different external bacterial community than native Bahamian fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J. L.; Olson, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The introduction and subsequent spread of lionfish into the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea has become a worldwide conservation issue. These highly successful invaders may also be capable of introducing non-native microorganisms to the invaded regions. This study compared the bacterial communities associated with lionfish external tissue to those of native Bahamian fishes and ambient water. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses demonstrated that lionfish bacterial communities were significantly different than those associated with three native Bahamian fishes. Additionally, all fishes harbored distinct bacterial communities from the ambient bacterioplankton. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries from invasive lionfish and native squirrelfish indicated that lionfish communities were more diverse than those associated with squirrelfish, yet did not contain known fish pathogens. Using microscopy and molecular genetic approaches, lionfish eggs were examined for the presence of bacteria to evaluate the capacity for vertical transmission. Eggs removed from the ovaries of gravid females were free of bacteria, suggesting that lionfish likely acquire bacteria from the environment. This study was the first examination of bacterial communities associated with the invasive lionfish and indicated that they support different communities of environmentally derived bacteria than Caribbean reef fishes.

  8. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Cynthia Barbosa da; Vieira, Ricardo Pilz; Cardoso, Alexander Machado; Paranhos, Rodolfo Pinheiro da Rocha; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Martins, Orlando Bonifácio

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. MET...

  9. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialin; Li, Nan; Li, Fuchao; Zou, Tao; Yu, Shuxian; Wang, Yinchu; Qin, Song; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS). Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones) and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  10. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Li

    Full Text Available The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS. Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  11. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates.

  12. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus V Lindh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, intensifying loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2 and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6 water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundance than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating a higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating replacement. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating adjustment. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, the original triggering, or priming effect, resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment, and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial

  13. Experimental Incubations Elicit Profound Changes in Community Transcription in OMZ Bacterioplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Frank J.; Dalsgaard, Tage; Young, Curtis R.; Thamdrup, Bo; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    Sequencing of microbial community RNA (metatranscriptome) is a useful approach for assessing gene expression in microorganisms from the natural environment. This method has revealed transcriptional patterns in situ, but can also be used to detect transcriptional cascades in microcosms following experimental perturbation. Unambiguously identifying differential transcription between control and experimental treatments requires constraining effects that are simply due to sampling and bottle enclosure. These effects remain largely uncharacterized for “challenging” microbial samples, such as those from anoxic regions that require special handling to maintain in situ conditions. Here, we demonstrate substantial changes in microbial transcription induced by sample collection and incubation in experimental bioreactors. Microbial communities were sampled from the water column of a marine oxygen minimum zone by a pump system that introduced minimal oxygen contamination and subsequently incubated in bioreactors under near in situ oxygen and temperature conditions. Relative to the source water, experimental samples became dominated by transcripts suggestive of cell stress, including chaperone, protease, and RNA degradation genes from diverse taxa, with strong representation from SAR11-like alphaproteobacteria. In tandem, transcripts matching facultative anaerobic gammaproteobacteria of the Alteromonadales (e.g., Colwellia) increased 4–13 fold up to 43% of coding transcripts, and encoded a diverse gene set suggestive of protein synthesis and cell growth. We interpret these patterns as taxon-specific responses to combined environmental changes in the bioreactors, including shifts in substrate or oxygen availability, and minor temperature and pressure changes during sampling with the pump system. Whether such changes confound analysis of transcriptional patterns may vary based on the design of the experiment, the taxonomic composition of the source community, and on the

  14. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Markus V.; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, intensifying loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundance than Bothnian Sea bacteria ...

  15. Linking Activity and Function to Ecosystem Dynamics in a Coastal Bacterioplankton Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Michael Gifford

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For bacterial communities containing hundreds to thousands of distinct populations, connecting functional processes and environmental dynamics at high taxonomic resolution has remained challenging. Here we use the expression of ribosomal proteins (%RP as a proxy for in situ activity of 200 taxa within 20 metatranscriptomic samples in a coastal ocean time series encompassing both seasonal variability and diel dynamics. %RP patterns grouped the taxa into seven activity clusters with distinct profiles in functional gene expression and correlations with environmental gradients. Clusters 1-3 had their highest potential activity in the winter and fall, and included some of the most active taxa, while Clusters 4-7 had their highest potential activity in the spring and summer. Cluster 1 taxa were characterized by gene expression for motility and complex carbohydrate degradation (dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Cluster 2 taxa by transcription of genes for amino acid and aromatic compound metabolism and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy (Roseobacter. Other activity clusters were enriched in transcripts for proteorhodopsin and methylotrophy (Cluster 4; SAR11 and methylotrophs, photosynthesis and attachment (Clusters 5 and 7; Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes, Verucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes, and sulfur oxidation (Cluster 7; Gammaproteobacteria. The seasonal patterns in activity were overlain, and sometimes obscured, by large differences in %RP over shorter day-night timescales. Seventy-eight taxa, many of them heterotrophs, had a higher %RP activity index during the day than night, indicating strong diel activity at this coastal site. Emerging from these taxonomically- and time-resolved estimates of in situ microbial activity are predictions of specific ecological groupings of microbial taxa in a dynamic coastal environment.

  16. Current Conditions in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    The school experience of American Indian and Alaska Native children hinges on the context in which their schooling takes place. This context includes the health and well-being of their families, communities, and governments, as well as the relationship between Native and non-Native people. Many Native children are in desperate straits because of…

  17. Alaska Native Villages and Rural Communities Water Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant human health and water quality problems exist in Alaska Native Village and other rural communities in the state due to lack of sanitation. To address these issues, EPA created the Alaska Rural and Native Villages Grant Program.

  18. pH Tolerance in Freshwater Bacterioplankton: Trait Variation of the Community as Measured by Leucine Incorporation

    OpenAIRE

    Bååth, Erland; Kritzberg, Emma

    2015-01-01

    pH is an important factor determining bacterial community composition in soil and water. We have directly determined the community tolerance (trait variation) to pH in communities from 22 lakes and streams ranging in pH from 4 to 9 using a growth-based method not relying on distinguishing between individual populations. The pH in the water samples was altered to up to 16 pH values, covering in situ pH ± 2.5 U, and the tolerance was assessed by measuring bacterial growth (Leu incorporation) in...

  19. Influence of environmental variation on the bacterioplankton community and its loss to viral lysis in the Curonian Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulčius, Sigitas; Reunamo, Anna; Paškauskas, Ričardas; Leskinen, Piia

    2018-05-01

    Coastal lagoons are continuously exposed to strong environmental gradients that determine the distribution and trophic interactions of microbial communities. Therefore, in this study we assessed whether and how environmental changes influence the bacterial community and its vulnerability to viral infection and lysis along the major environmental gradient in the Curonian Lagoon. We found significant differences in bacterial community profiles, their richness and evenness between the riverine, freshwater southern part and the Baltic Sea water intrusion-influenced northern part of the lagoon, suggesting strong environmental control of the structure of bacterial communities. Viruses were found to be play an important role in bacterial mortality in the Curonian Lagoon, being responsible for the removal of 20-50% of the bacterial standing stock. We observed differences in virioplankton decay rates and virus burst sizes between the northern and southern parts of the lagoon. However, no relationships were found between viral activity and bacterial communities within the lagoon ecosystem. The frequency of infected cells and virus-mediated bacterial mortality (VMBM) remained constant among the sampling sites irrespective of differences in bacteria community assemblages and environmental conditions. The results indicate that factors determining changes in bacterial diversity are different from the factors limiting their vulnerability to viral infection and lysis. This study also suggests that under changing environmental conditions, virus-bacteria interactions are more stable than the interacting viral and bacterial communities themselves. These findings are important for understanding the functioning of the coastal ecosystems under the rapidly changing local (spatial and temporal) and global (e.g. eutrophication, climate change) conditions.

  20. pH tolerance in freshwater bacterioplankton: trait variation of the community as measured by leucine incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bååth, Erland; Kritzberg, Emma

    2015-11-01

    pH is an important factor determining bacterial community composition in soil and water. We have directly determined the community tolerance (trait variation) to pH in communities from 22 lakes and streams ranging in pH from 4 to 9 using a growth-based method not relying on distinguishing between individual populations. The pH in the water samples was altered to up to 16 pH values, covering in situ pH ± 2.5 U, and the tolerance was assessed by measuring bacterial growth (Leu incorporation) instantaneously after pH adjustment. The resulting unimodal response curves, reflecting community tolerance to pH, were well modeled with a double logistic equation (mean R(2) = 0.97). The optimal pH for growth (pHopt) among the bacterial communities was closely correlated with in situ pH, with a slope (0.89 ± 0.099) close to unity. The pH interval, in which growth was ≥90% of that at pHopt, was 1.1 to 3 pH units wide (mean 2.0 pH units). Tolerance response curves of communities originating from circum-neutral pH were symmetrical, whereas in high-pH (8.9) and especially in low-pH (pH waters, decreasing pH was more detrimental for bacterial growth than increasing pH, with a tendency for the opposite for high-pH waters. A pH tolerance index, using the ratio of growth at only two pH values (pH 4 and 8), was closely related to pHopt (R(2) = 0.83), allowing for easy determination of pH tolerance during rapid changes in pH. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Response of native insect communities to invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezemer, T Martijn; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Cronin, James T

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants can disrupt a range of trophic interactions in native communities. As a novel resource they can affect the performance of native insect herbivores and their natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators, and this can lead to host shifts of these herbivores and natural enemies. Through the release of volatile compounds, and by changing the chemical complexity of the habitat, invasive plants can also affect the behavior of native insects such as herbivores, parasitoids, and pollinators. Studies that compare insects on related native and invasive plants in invaded habitats show that the abundance of insect herbivores is often lower on invasive plants, but that damage levels are similar. The impact of invasive plants on the population dynamics of resident insect species has been rarely examined, but invasive plants can influence the spatial and temporal dynamics of native insect (meta)populations and communities, ultimately leading to changes at the landscape level.

  2. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  3. Community-Based Native Teacher Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbecker, Connie; Minner, Sam; Prater, Greg

    This paper describes two exemplary school-based Native teacher education programs offered by Northern Arizona University (NAU) to serve Navajo students and by Lakehead University (Ontario) to serve members of the Nishnabe Nation of northern Ontario. The Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators (RAISE) program is located in Kayenta,…

  4. Community-level plant-soil feedbacks explain landscape distribution of native and non-native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmatiski, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have gained attention for their potential role in explaining plant growth and invasion. While promising, most PSF research has measured plant monoculture growth on different soils in short-term, greenhouse experiments. Here, five soil types were conditioned by growing one native species, three non-native species, or a mixed plant community in different plots in a common-garden experiment. After 4 years, plants were removed and one native and one non-native plant community were planted into replicate plots of each soil type. After three additional years, the percentage cover of each of the three target species in each community was measured. These data were used to parameterize a plant community growth model. Model predictions were compared to native and non-native abundance on the landscape. Native community cover was lowest on soil conditioned by the dominant non-native, Centaurea diffusa , and non-native community cover was lowest on soil cultivated by the dominant native, Pseudoroegneria spicata . Consistent with plant growth on the landscape, the plant growth model predicted that the positive PSFs observed in the common-garden experiment would result in two distinct communities on the landscape: a native plant community on native soils and a non-native plant community on non-native soils. In contrast, when PSF effects were removed, the model predicted that non-native plants would dominate all soils, which was not consistent with plant growth on the landscape. Results provide an example where PSF effects were large enough to change the rank-order abundance of native and non-native plant communities and to explain plant distributions on the landscape. The positive PSFs that contributed to this effect reflected the ability of the two dominant plant species to suppress each other's growth. Results suggest that plant dominance, at least in this system, reflects the ability of a species to suppress the growth of dominant competitors

  5. Mining and Environmental Health Disparities in Native American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Johnnye; Hoover, Joseph; MacKenzie, Debra

    2017-06-01

    More than a century of hard rock mining has left a legacy of >160,000 abandoned mines in the Western USA that are home to the majority of Native American lands. This article describes how abrogation of treaty rights, ineffective policies, lack of infrastructure, and a lack of research in Native communities converge to create chronic exposure, ill-defined risks, and tribal health concerns. Recent results show that Native Americans living near abandoned uranium mines have an increased likelihood for kidney disease and hypertension, and an increased likelihood of developing multiple chronic diseases linked to their proximity to the mine waste and activities bringing them in contact with the waste. Biomonitoring confirms higher than expected exposure to uranium and associated metals in the waste in adults, neonates, and children in these communities. These sites will not be cleaned up for many generations making it critical to understand and prioritize exposure-toxicity relationships in Native populations to appropriately allocate limited resources to protect health. Recent initiatives, in partnership with Native communities, recognize these needs and support development of tribal research capacity to ensure that research respectful of tribal culture and policies can address concerns in the future. In addition, recognition of the risks posed by these abandoned sites should inform policy change to protect community health in the future.

  6. Native plant community response to alien plant invasion and removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara ANDREU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the potential ecological impacts of invasive species, removal of alien plants has become an important management challenge and a high priority for environmental managers. To consider that a removal effort has been successful requires both, the effective elimination of alien plants and the restoration of the native plant community back to its historical composition and function. We present a conceptual framework based on observational and experimental data that compares invaded, non-invaded and removal sites to quantify invaders’ impacts and native plant recover after their removal. We also conduct a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of plant invaders and the consequences of their removal on the native plant community, across a variety of ecosystems around the world. Our results that invasion by alien plants is responsible for a local decline in native species richness and abundance. Our analysis also provides evidence that after removal, the native vegetation has the potential to recover to a pre-invasion target state. Our review reveal that observational and experimental approaches are rarely used in concert, and that reference sites are scarcely employed to assess native species recovery after removal. However, we believe that comparing invaded, non-invaded and removal sites offer the opportunity to obtain scientific information with relevance for management.

  7. Women finding the way: American Indian women leading intervention research in Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; Chase, Josephine; Elkins, Jennifer; Martin, Jennifer; Nanez, Jennifer; Mootz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although there is literature concentrating on cross-cultural approaches to academic and community partnerships with Native communities, few address the process and experiences of American Indian women leading federally funded and culturally grounded behavioral health intervention research in Native communities. This paper summarizes relevant literature on community-engaged research with Native communities, examines traditional roles and modern challenges for American Indian women, describes the culturally grounded collaborative process for the authors' behavioral health intervention development with Native communities, and considers emergent themes from our own research experiences navigating competing demands from mainstream and Native communities. It concludes with recommendations for supporting and enhancing resilience.

  8. Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Puneet Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

  9. Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K W; Svejcar, T J; Bates, J D

    2009-09-01

    Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and restore native plant communities. We evaluated the response of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh plant communities to their historical disturbance regime compared to other disturbance regimes. The historical disturbance regime of these plant communities was periodic fires with minimal grazing by large herbivores. We also investigated the influence of prior disturbance (grazing) on the response of these communities to subsequent disturbance (burning). Treatments were: (1) ungrazed (livestock grazing excluded since 1936) and unburned, (2) grazed and unburned, (3) ungrazed and burned (burned in 1993), and (4) grazed and burned. The ungrazed-burned treatment emulated the historical disturbance regime. Vegetation cover, density, and biomass production were measured the 12th, 13th, and 14th year post-burning. Prior to burning the presence of Bromus tectorum L., an exotic annual grass, was minimal (resilience to more severe disturbances. Modern deviations from historical conditions can alter ecosystem response to disturbances, thus restoring the historical disturbance regime may not be an appropriate strategy for all ecosystems.

  10. Comparison of root-associated communities of native and non-native ectomycorrhizal hosts in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothamer, K; Brown, S P; Mattox, J D; Jumpponen, A

    2014-05-01

    Non-native tree species are often used as ornamentals in urban landscapes. However, their root-associated fungal communities remain yet to be examined in detail. Here, we compared richness, diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizosphere fungi in general and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi in particular between a non-native Pinus nigra and a native Quercus macrocarpa across a growing season in urban parks using 454-pyrosequencing. Our data show that, while the ectomycorrhizosphere community richness and diversity did not differ between the two host, the EcM communities associated with the native host were often more species rich and included more exclusive members than those of the non-native hosts. In contrast, the ectomycorrhizosphere communities of the two hosts were compositionally clearly distinct in nonmetric multidimensional ordination analyses, whereas the EcM communities were only marginally so. Taken together, our data suggest EcM communities with broad host compatibilities and with a limited numbers of taxa with preference to the non-native host. Furthermore, many common fungi in the non-native Pinus were not EcM taxa, suggesting that the fungal communities of the non-native host may be enriched in non-mycorrhizal fungi at the cost of the EcM taxa. Finally, while our colonization estimates did not suggest a shortage in EcM inoculum for either host in urban parks, the differences in the fungi associated with the two hosts emphasize the importance of using native hosts in urban environments as a tool to conserve endemic fungal diversity and richness in man-made systems.

  11. Mentoring in Native American Communities using STEM Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we will present a concept for mentoring built on STEM principles, and applied to the Native American community in Chinle, AZ. Effective mentoring includes being sensitive, listening to, and advising mentees based upon a 'correct' appreciation not only of their needs but also of the desires of the community they come from. Our project is an outreach effort on the part of NASA's contribution to the International Rosetta mission. Our initial program design incorporated ambitious STEM materials developed by NASA/JPL for other communities that excite and engage future generations in geoscience careers, to be re-packaged and brought to the Navajo community in Chinle. We were cognizant of the communities' emphasis on the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Recognizing that one of the most important near-term problems in Native American communities across the country is preservation of aboriginal language, a first step in our program involved defining STEM vocabulary. Community participation was required to identify existing words, write a STEM thesaurus, and also define contemporary words (what we called 'NASA words') that have no equivalent in the native tongue. This step critically involved obtaining approval of new words from tribal Elders. Finally, our objective was to put this newly defined STEM vocabulary to work, helping the kids to learn STEM curriculum in their own language. The communities' response to our approach was guarded interest, an invitation to return for further work, and finally a request that we co-sponsor a Summer Science Academy that was not focused on the subjects of space exploration originally envisioned by the project. Thus a first lesson learned was that ambitious material might not be the first step to a sustained educational program on the reservation. Understanding the end-users' environment, requirements and constraints is a major component to sustainability. After several months of

  12. Healthy Native Community Fellowship: An Indigenous Leadership Program to Enhance Community Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rae

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Native Communities Fellowship (HNCF is a grassroots evidence-based mentorship and leadership program that develops the skills and community-building capacities of leaders and community teams to improve health status through several intermediate social and cultural mechanisms: (a strengthening social participation (also known as social capital or cohesion; (b strengthening cultural connectedness and revitalization of cultural identity; and (c advocating for health-enhancing policies, practices, and programs that strengthen systems of prevention and care, as well as address the structural social determinants of health. This leadership program uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR approach and participatory evaluation to investigate how the work of local American Indian and Alaska Native leaders (fellows and their community coalitions contributes to individual, family, and community level health outcomes.

  13. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters foliar bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosakkannu, Anbu; Nissinen, Riitta; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2017-11-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant-associated microbes are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that colonization by an AM fungus affects microbial species richness and microbial community composition of host plant tissues. We grew the grass, Deschampsia flexuosa in a greenhouse with or without the native AM fungus, Claroideoglomus etunicatum. We divided clonally produced tillers into two parts: one inoculated with AM fungus spores and one without AM fungus inoculation (non-mycorrhizal, NM). We characterized bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal communities (internal transcribed spacer region) in surface-sterilized leaf and root plant compartments. AM fungus inoculation did not affect microbial species richness or diversity indices in leaves or roots, but the AM fungus inoculation significantly affected bacterial community composition in leaves. A total of three OTUs in leaves belonging to the phylum Firmicutes positively responded to the presence of the AM fungus in roots. Another six OTUs belonging to the Proteobacteria (Alpha, Beta, and Gamma) and Bacteroidetes were significantly more abundant in NM plants when compared to AM fungus-inoculated plants. Further, there was a significant correlation between plant dry weight and leaf microbial community compositional shift. Also, there was a significant correlation between leaf bacterial community compositional shift and foliar nitrogen content changes due to AM fungus inoculation. The results suggest that AM fungus colonization in roots has a profound effect on plant physiology that is reflected in leaf bacterial community composition.

  14. Phytophagous insects on native and non-native host plants: combining the community approach and the biogeographical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Meijer

    Full Text Available During the past centuries, humans have introduced many plant species in areas where they do not naturally occur. Some of these species establish populations and in some cases become invasive, causing economic and ecological damage. Which factors determine the success of non-native plants is still incompletely understood, but the absence of natural enemies in the invaded area (Enemy Release Hypothesis; ERH is one of the most popular explanations. One of the predictions of the ERH, a reduced herbivore load on non-native plants compared with native ones, has been repeatedly tested. However, many studies have either used a community approach (sampling from native and non-native species in the same community or a biogeographical approach (sampling from the same plant species in areas where it is native and where it is non-native. Either method can sometimes lead to inconclusive results. To resolve this, we here add to the small number of studies that combine both approaches. We do so in a single study of insect herbivory on 47 woody plant species (trees, shrubs, and vines in the Netherlands and Japan. We find higher herbivore diversity, higher herbivore load and more herbivory on native plants than on non-native plants, generating support for the enemy release hypothesis.

  15. Biogeochemical cycling and phyto- and bacterioplankton communities in a large and shallow tropical lagoon (Términos Lagoon, Mexico) under 2009-2010 El Niño Modoki drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Pascal; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Agab, Marina; Calva-Benítez, Laura; Chifflet, Sandrine; Douillet, Pascal; Dussud, Claire; Fichez, Renaud; Grenz, Christian; Gutierrez Mendieta, Francisco; Origel-Moreno, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Sauret, Caroline; Severin, Tatiana; Tedetti, Marc; Torres Alvarado, Rocío; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2017-03-01

    The 2009-2010 period was marked by an episode of intense drought known as the El Niño Modoki event. Sampling of the Términos Lagoon (Mexico) was carried out in November 2009 in order to understand the influence of these particular environmental conditions on organic matter fluxes within the lagoon's pelagic ecosystem and, more specifically, on the relationship between phyto- and bacterioplankton communities. The measurements presented here concern biogeochemical parameters (nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic matter [POM], and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]), phytoplankton (biomass and photosynthesis), and bacteria (diversity and abundance, including PAH degradation bacteria and ectoenzymatic activities). During the studied period, the water column of the Términos Lagoon functioned globally as a sink and, more precisely, as a nitrogen assimilator. This was due to the high production of particulate and dissolved organic matter (DOM), even though exportation of autochthonous matter to the Gulf of Mexico was weak. We found that bottom-up control accounted for a large portion of the variability of phytoplankton productivity. Nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry mostly accounted for the heterogeneity in phytoplankton and free-living prokaryote distribution in the lagoon. In the eastern part, we found a clear decoupling between areas enriched in dissolved inorganic nitrogen near the Puerto Real coastal inlet and areas enriched in phosphate (PO4) near the Candelaria estuary. Such a decoupling limited the potential for primary production, resulting in an accumulation of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC and DON, respectively) near the river mouths. In the western part of the lagoon, maximal phytoplankton development resulted from bacterial activity transforming particulate organic phosphorus (PP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) to available PO4 and the coupling between Palizada River inputs of nitrate (NO3) and PP. The

  16. Listening to the Community: Guidance from Native Community Members for Emerging Culturally Responsive Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christine A.; Jaime, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) emphasizes the importance of listening to the counter-narratives of people from marginalized groups. However, the applicability of CRT in practical settings often remains unclear for educators and scholars. This project offers not only a place for Native community members to share their experiences and ideas, it also…

  17. Spatially uniform but temporally variable bacterioplankton in a semi-enclosed coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziti, Alexandra; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Karayanni, Hera

    2015-07-01

    Studies focusing on the temporal and spatial dynamics of bacterioplankton communities within littoral areas undergoing direct influences from the coast are quite limited. In addition, they are more complicated to resolve compared to communities in the open ocean. In order to elucidate the effects of spatial vs. temporal variability on bacterial communities in a highly land-influenced semi-enclosed gulf, surface bacterioplankton communities from five coastal sites in Igoumenitsa Gulf (Ionian Sea, Greece) were analyzed over a nine-month period using 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing. Temporal differences were more pronounced than spatial ones, with lower diversity indices observed during the summer months. During winter and early spring, bacterial communities were dominated by SAR11 representatives, while this pattern changed in May when they were abruptly replaced by members of Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, and Alteromonadales. Additionally, correlation analysis showed high negative correlations between the presence of SAR11 OTUs in relation to temperature and sunlight that might have driven, directly or indirectly, the disappearance of these OTUs in the summer months. The dominance of SAR11 during the winter months further supported the global distribution of the clade, not only in the open-sea, but also in coastal systems. This study revealed that specific bacteria exhibited distinct succession patterns in an anthropogenic-impacted coastal system. The major bacterioplankton component was represented by commonly found marine bacteria exhibiting seasonal dynamics, while freshwater and terrestrial-related phylotypes were absent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  19. Deep UV Native Fluorescence Imaging of Antarctic Cryptoendolithic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Douglas, S.; Sun, H.; McDonald, G. D.; Bhartia, R.; Nealson, K. H.; Hug, W. F.

    2001-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Center for Life Detection has embarked on a project to provide in situ chemical and morphological characterization of Antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial communities. We present here in situ deep ultraviolet (UV) native fluorescence and environmental scanning electron microscopy images transiting 8.5 mm into a sandstone sample from the Antarctic Dry Valleys. The deep ultraviolet imaging system employs 224.3, 248.6, and 325 nm lasers to elicit differential fluorescence and resonance Raman responses from biomolecules and minerals. The 224.3 and 248.6 nm lasers elicit a fluorescence response from the aromatic amino and nucleic acids. Excitation at 325 nm may elicit activity from a variety of biomolecules, but is more likely to elicit mineral fluorescence. The resultant fluorescence images provide in situ chemical and morphological maps of microorganisms and the associated organic matrix. Visible broadband reflectance images provide orientation against the mineral background. Environmental scanning electron micrographs provided detailed morphological information. The technique has made possible the construction of detailed fluorescent maps extending from the surface of an Antarctic sandstone sample to a depth of 8.5 mm. The images detect no evidence of microbial life in the superficial 0.2 mm crustal layer. The black lichen component between 0.3 and 0.5 mm deep absorbs all wavelengths of both laser and broadband illumination. Filamentous deep ultraviolet native fluorescent activity dominates in the white layer between 0.6 mm and 5.0 mm from the surface. These filamentous forms are fungi that continue into the red (iron-rich) region of the sample extending from 5.0 to 8.5 mm. Using differential image subtraction techniques it is possible to identify fungal nuclei. The ultraviolet response is markedly attenuated in this region, apparently from the absorption of ultraviolet light by iron-rich particles coating

  20. Impact of native ungulates and beaver on riparian communities in the intermountain west

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the impact native ungulates, primarily elk and moose, and beaver can have on riparian communities in the Western United States. In Yellowstone National Park and in other areas where ungulates are not managed, repeated browsing has reduced tall willow, aspen, and cottonwood communities by approximately 95 percent since the late 1800's. Native ungulates can also severely reduce or eliminate palatable grasses and forbs from herbaceous riparian communities. By eliminating woody...

  1. Enhancing Cancer Education through the Arts: Building Connections with Alaska Native People, Cultures and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Cueva, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Building upon the dynamic traditions of Alaska Native people, which include the arts as a viable way of knowing, the expressive arts were woven into a five-day cancer education course for Alaska village-based Community Health Workers (CHWs). Cancer is the leading cause of mortality for Alaska Native people. Course learning modalities included…

  2. Start with the seed: Native crops, indigenous knowledge, and community seed systems prerequisites for food sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dynamic conservation and sustainable utilization of native crop genetic resources are crucial for food sovereignty of Native American communities. Indigenous knowledge of crop diversity when linked to food traditions, local practices and social norms provide the basis for building sovereign comm...

  3. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.

  4. Submerged macrophytes shape the abundance and diversity of bacterial denitrifiers in bacterioplankton and epiphyton in the Shallow Fresh Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhou; Han, Rui-Ming; Ma, Jie; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    nirK and nirS genes are important functional genes involved in the denitrification pathway. Recent studies about these two denitrifying genes are focusing on sediment and wastewater microbe. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of the abundance and diversity of denitrifiers in the epiphyton of submerged macrophytes Potamogeton malaianus and Ceratophyllum demersum as well as in bacterioplankton in the shallow fresh lake Taihu, China. Results showed that nirK and nirS genes had significant different niches in epiphyton and bacterioplankton. Bacterioplankton showed greater abundance of nirK gene in terms of copy numbers and lower abundance of nirS gene. Significant difference in the abundance of nirK and nirS genes also existed between the epiphyton from different submerged macrophytes. Similar community diversity yet different community abundance was observed between epiphytic bacteria and bacterioplankton. No apparent seasonal variation was found either in epiphytic bacteria or bacterioplankton; however, environmental parameters seemed to have direct relevancy with nirK and nirS genes. Our study suggested that submerged macrophytes have greater influence than seasonal parameters in shaping the presence and abundance of bacterial denitrifiers. Further investigation needs to focus on the potential contact and relative contribution between denitrifiers and environmental factors.

  5. Regulation of bacterioplankton density and biomass in tropical shallow coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana MacCord

    Full Text Available AIM: Estimating bacterioplankton density and biomass and their regulating factors is important in order to evaluate aquatic systems' carrying capacity, regarding bacterial growth and the stock of matter in the bacterial community, which can be consumed by higher trophic levels. We aim to evaluate the limnological factors which regulate - in space and time - the bacterioplankton dynamics (abundance and biomass in five tropical coastal lagoons in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHOD: The current study was carried out at the following lagoons: Imboassica, Cabiúnas, Comprida, Carapebus and Garças. They differ in morphology and in their main limnological factors. The limnological variables as well as bacterioplankton abundance and biomass were monthly sampled for 14 months. Model selection analyses were performed in order to evaluate the main variables regulating the bacterioplankton's dynamics in these lagoons. RESULT: The salt concentration and the "space" factor (i.e. different lagoons explained great part of the bacterial density and biomass variance in the studied tropical coastal lagoons. When the lagoons were analyzed separately, salinity still explained great part of the variation of bacterial density and biomass in the Imboassica and Garças lagoons. On the other hand, phosphorus concentration was the main factor explaining the variance of bacterial density and biomass in the distrophic Cabiúnas, Comprida and Carapebus lagoons. There was a strong correlation between bacterial density and biomass (r² = 0.70, p < 0.05, indicating that bacterial biomass variations are highly dependent on bacterial density variations. CONCLUSION: (i Different limnological variables regulate the bacterial density and biomass in the studied coastal lagoons, (ii salt and phosphorus concentrations greatly explained the variation of bacterial density and biomass in the saline and distrophic lagoons, respectively, and (iii N-nitrate and chlorophyll

  6. A NASA Community of Practice for Scientists and Educators Working with American Indians and Alaskan Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalice, D.; Sparrow, E. B.; Johnson, T. A.; Allen, J. E.; Gho, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    One size does not fit all. This is especially true in education, where each learner meets new information from a unique standpoint, bringing prior experiences and understandings to the learning space. It is the job of the educator to be sensitive to these unique perspectives, and work with them to bring learners to new levels of knowledge. This principle is foundational to conducting science education with Native American communities, as they have a distinct history in the US, especially where education is concerned. Many scientists and educators at agencies like NASA are engaging in science education with Native communities across the US, and are approaching the work from varied prior experiences, levels of knowledge of the history of Native America, and desired outcomes. Subsequently, there are varied levels of success, and in some cases, oppressive patterns may be perpetuated. It is therefore the responsibility of the science educator to become informed and sensitized to the unique situation of Native Americans and their history with education and science. It is incumbent on science educators to ensure that the goals they have for Native youth are derived from the goals Native leaders have for their youth, and programming is co-created with Native partners. Toward supporting its science education community to do this, NASA's Science Mission Directorate has initiated a Working Group of individuals, teams, and organizations that are involved in science education with Native American communities via K-12 and/or tribal college programming, and/or grant-making. The purpose is to cultivate a Community of Practice through the sharing of information, knowledge, wisdom, ideas, experience, and best practices, and through the leveraging of resources, assets, and networks. The ultimate goal is the improvement and increased cultural competence of the programs implemented and managed by the group's members.

  7. Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelkes, Tim; Meisner, Annelein; Morriën, Elly

    2016-01-01

    in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional...... abundance, the presence of a congeneric native species, and their co-occurrence in the riparian ecosystem. All plant communities were covered by tents with insect mesh. Five tents were open on the leeward side to allow herbivory. The other five tents were completely closed in order to exclude insects...... and vertebrates. Herbivory reduced aboveground biomass by half and influenced which of the plant species dominated the establishing communities. Exposure to herbivory did not reduce the total biomass of natives more than that of exotics, so aboveground herbivory did not selectively enhance exotics during...

  8. Native fish conservation areas: a vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Richard N. Williams; Russell F. Thurow; Leah Elwell; David P. Philipp; Fred A. Harris; Jeffrey L. Kershner; Patrick J. Martinez; Dirk Miller; Gordon H. Reeves; Christopher A. Frissell; James R. Sedell

    2011-01-01

    The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we...

  9. Field and laboratory guide to freshwater cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms for Native American and Alaska Native communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Barry H.; St. Amand, Ann

    2015-09-14

    Cyanobacteria can produce toxins and form harmful algal blooms. The Native American and Alaska Native communities that are dependent on subsistence fishing have an increased risk of exposure to these cyanotoxins. It is important to recognize the presence of an algal bloom in a waterbody and to distinguish a potentially toxic harmful algal bloom from a non-toxic bloom. This guide provides field images that show cyanobacteria blooms, some of which can be toxin producers, as well as other non-toxic algae blooms and floating plants that might be confused with algae. After recognition of a potential toxin-producing cyanobacterial bloom in the field, the type(s) of cyanobacteria present needs to be identified. Species identification, which requires microscopic examination, may help distinguish a toxin-producer from a non-toxin producer. This guide also provides microscopic images of the common cyanobacteria that are known to produce toxins, as well as images of algae that form blooms but do not produce toxins.

  10. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. M. Connolly; D. E. Pearson; R. N. Mack

    2014-01-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food...

  11. Properties of native plant communities do not determine exotic success during early forest succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldo Compagnoni; Charles B. Halpern

    2009-01-01

    Considerable research has been devoted to understanding how plant invasions are influenced by properties of the native community and to the traits of exotic species that contribute to successful invasion. Studies of invasibility are common in successionally stable grasslands, but rare in recently disturbed or seral forests. We used 16 years of species richness and...

  12. Microbial Communities in Cerrado Soils under Native Vegetation Subjected to Prescribed Fires and Under Pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fire regimes and vegetation cover on the structure and dynamics of soil microbial communities, through phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Comparisons were made between native areas with different woody covers ("cerra...

  13. Short-term dynamics of North Sea bacterioplankton-dissolved organic matter coherence on molecular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eLucas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Remineralisation and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM by marine microbes shape the DOM composition and thus, have large impact on global carbon and nutrient cycling. However, information on bacterioplankton-DOM interactions on a molecular level is limited. We examined the variation of bacterial community composition at Helgoland Roads (North Sea in relation to variation of molecular DOM composition and various environmental parameters on short-time scales. Surface water samples were taken daily over a period of twenty days. Bacterial community and molecular DOM composition were assessed via 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing and ultrahigh resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS, respectively. Environmental conditions were driven by a coastal water influx during the first half of the sampling period and the onset of a summer phytoplankton bloom towards the end of the sampling period. These phenomena led to a distinct grouping of bacterial communities and DOM composition which was particularly influenced by total dissolved nitrogen concentration, temperature and salinity, as revealed by distance-based linear regression analyses. Bacterioplankton-DOM interaction was demonstrated in strong correlations between specific bacterial taxa and particular DOM molecules, thus, suggesting potential specialization on particular substrates. We propose that a combination of high resolution techniques, as used in this study, may provide substantial information on substrate generalists and specialists and thus, contribute to prediction of bacterial community composition variation.

  14. Energetic differences between bacterioplankton trophic groups and coral reef resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole Somera, Tracey; Bailey, Barbara; Barott, Katie; Grasis, Juris; Hatay, Mark; Hilton, Brett J; Hisakawa, Nao; Nosrat, Bahador; Nulton, James; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sullivan, Chris; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-27

    Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse marine ecosystems on the Earth. They are also particularly sensitive to changing energetic requirements by different trophic levels. Microbialization specifically refers to the increase in the energetic metabolic demands of microbes relative to macrobes and is significantly correlated with increasing human influence on coral reefs. In this study, metabolic theory of ecology is used to quantify the relative contributions of two broad bacterioplankton groups, autotrophs and heterotrophs, to energy flux on 27 Pacific coral reef ecosystems experiencing human impact to varying degrees. The effective activation energy required for photosynthesis is lower than the average energy of activation for the biochemical reactions of the Krebs cycle, and changes in the proportional abundance of these two groups can greatly affect rates of energy and materials cycling. We show that reef-water communities with a higher proportional abundance of microbial autotrophs expend more metabolic energy per gram of microbial biomass. Increased energy and materials flux through fast energy channels (i.e. water-column associated microbial autotrophs) may dampen the detrimental effects of increased heterotrophic loads (e.g. coral disease) on coral reef systems experiencing anthropogenic disturbance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Modification of a Community Garden to Attract Native Bee Pollinators in Urban San Luis Obispo, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbin W. Thorp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardens have become increasingly important places for growing nutritional food, for conserving biodiversity, for biological and ecological research and education, and for community gathering. Gardens can also be designed with the goal of attracting specific wildlife, like birds and butterflies, but pollinators, like bees, can also be drawn to specially planned and modified gardens. A community garden in San Luis Obispo, California provided the setting for modification with the goal of attracting native bee pollinators by planting known bee-attractive plants. The local gardeners participated in a survey questionnaire and focused interviews to provide their input and interest in such a project. Presentations on our work with native bees in urban environments and gardening to attract bees were also given to interested gardeners. Work of this type also benefited from a lead gardener who managed donated bee plants and kept up momentum of the project. Modification of the garden and monitoring of native bees started in 2007 and continued through the growing season of 2009. Diversity of collected and observed native bees has increased each year since 2007. To date, 40 species in 17 genera of mostly native bees has been recorded from the garden, and this number is expected to increase through time.

  16. The effect of native and introduced biofuel crops on the composition of soil biota communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, Jan; Hedenec, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel crops are an accepted alternative to fossil fuels, but little is known about the ecological impact of their production. The aim of this contribution is to study the effect of native (Salix viminalis and Phalaris arundinacea) and introduced (Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria sachalinensis and Silphium perfoliatum) biofuel crop plantations on the soil biota in comparison with cultural meadow vegetation used as control. The study was performed as part of a split plot field experiment of the Crop Research Institute in the city of Chomutov (Czech Republic). The composition of the soil meso- and macrofauna community, composition of the cultivable fraction of the soil fungal community, cellulose decomposition (using litter bags), microbial biomass, basal soil respiration and PLFA composition (incl. F/B ratio) were studied in each site. The C:N ratio and content of polyphenols differed among plant species, but these results could not be considered significant between introduced and native plant species. Abundance of the soil meso- and macrofauna was higher in field sites planted with S. viminalis and P. arundinacea than those planted with S. perfoliatum, H. tuberosus and R. sachalinensis. RDA and Monte Carlo Permutation Test showed that the composition of the faunal community differed significantly between various native and introduced plants. Significantly different basal soil respiration was found in sites planted with various energy crops; however, this difference was not significant between native and introduced species. Microbial biomass carbon and cellulose decomposition did not exhibit any statistical differences among the biofuel crops. The largest statistically significant difference we found was in the content of actinobacterial and bacterial (bacteria, G+ bacteria and G- bacteria) PLFA in sites overgrown by P. arundinacea compared to introduced as well as native biofuel crops. In conclusion, certain parameters significantly differ between various native

  17. Language Preservation: the Language of Science as a bridge to the Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.; Grant, G.

    2009-12-01

    Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language, and the need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. Almost 70 percent of Navajos speak their tribal language in the home, and 25 per cent do not know English very well. In contrast, only 30 percent of Native Americans as a whole speak their own tribal language in the home. For the Cherokee and the Chippewa, less than 10 percent speak the native language in the home. And for the Navajo, the number of first graders who solely speak English is almost four times higher than it was in 1970. The U.S. Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As outlined by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. The concept of ancient language as a key provides a theme for this NASA project’s outreach to Native American communities anxious for ways to enhance and improve the numbers of native speakers. In this talk we will present a concept for building on native language as it relates to STEM concepts. In 2009, a student from the Dine Nation interpreted 28 NASA terms for his senior project at Chinle High School in Chinle, AZ. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. This work represents a foundation for continued work between NASA and the Navajo Nation. Following approval by the tribal elders, the U.S. Rosetta project would host the newly translated Navajo words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map would allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. Extension to very remote teachers in the

  18. Linking Compositional and Functional Predictions to Decipher the Biogeochemical Significance in DFAA Turnover of Abundant Bacterioplankton Lineages in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Wemheuer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the ecological traits of abundant marine bacteria is a major challenge in marine microbial ecology. In the current study, we linked compositional and functional predictions to elucidate such traits for abundant bacterioplankton lineages in the North Sea. For this purpose, we investigated entire and active bacterioplankton composition along a transect ranging from the German Bight to the northern North Sea by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and transcripts. Functional profiles were inferred from 16S rRNA data using Tax4Fun. Bacterioplankton communities were dominated by well-known marine lineages including clusters/genera that are affiliated with the Roseobacter group and the Flavobacteria. Variations in community composition and function were significantly explained by measured environmental and microbial properties. Turnover of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA showed the strongest correlation to community composition and function. We applied multinomial models, which enabled us to identify bacterial lineages involved in DFAA turnover. For instance, the genus Planktomarina was more abundant at higher DFAA turnover rates, suggesting its vital role in amino acid degradation. Functional predictions further indicated that Planktomarina is involved in leucine and isoleucine degradation. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the biogeochemical significance of abundant bacterioplankton lineages in the North Sea.

  19. Linking Compositional and Functional Predictions to Decipher the Biogeochemical Significance in DFAA Turnover of Abundant Bacterioplankton Lineages in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemheuer, Bernd; Wemheuer, Franziska; Meier, Dimitri; Billerbeck, Sara; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Simon, Meinhard; Scherber, Christoph; Daniel, Rolf

    2017-11-05

    Deciphering the ecological traits of abundant marine bacteria is a major challenge in marine microbial ecology. In the current study, we linked compositional and functional predictions to elucidate such traits for abundant bacterioplankton lineages in the North Sea. For this purpose, we investigated entire and active bacterioplankton composition along a transect ranging from the German Bight to the northern North Sea by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and transcripts. Functional profiles were inferred from 16S rRNA data using Tax4Fun. Bacterioplankton communities were dominated by well-known marine lineages including clusters/genera that are affiliated with the Roseobacter group and the Flavobacteria . Variations in community composition and function were significantly explained by measured environmental and microbial properties. Turnover of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) showed the strongest correlation to community composition and function. We applied multinomial models, which enabled us to identify bacterial lineages involved in DFAA turnover. For instance, the genus Planktomarina was more abundant at higher DFAA turnover rates, suggesting its vital role in amino acid degradation. Functional predictions further indicated that Planktomarina is involved in leucine and isoleucine degradation. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the biogeochemical significance of abundant bacterioplankton lineages in the North Sea.

  20. 'Snag bags': adapting condoms to community values in Native American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Brian Joseph

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS researchers working among Native Americans have consistently noted resistance to discussions of sexuality and the distribution of condoms. This resistance is inspired by long held values about shame and public discussions of sexuality. Also, American Indians have been reluctant to welcome public discussions of HIV/AIDS and sexuality from external entities, such as governmental agencies. As a result, Native peoples have some of the lowest documented condom use rates. However, innovations in culturally integrating condoms and safe sex messages into Native cultural ideals are proving beneficial. One such innovation is the snag bag, which incorporates popular Native sexual ideology while working within local ideals of shame to distribute condoms and safe sex materials to sexually active young people and adults. Using snag bags as an example, this research proposes that an effective approach to HIV prevention among Native peoples is not cultural sensitivity but cultural integration. That is, HIV prevention strategies must move beyond the empty promise of merely culturally-sensitizing ideas about disease cause. Instead of simply 'translating' HIV/AIDS programming into Native culture, prevention strategies must be integrated by Native peoples into their own disease theories and contemporary culture.

  1. Dispersal timing and drought history influence the response of bacterioplankton to drying-rewetting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Anna J; Langenheder, Silke

    2017-08-01

    The extent and frequency of drought episodes is expected to increase in the following decades making it a crucial stress factor for smaller water bodies. However, very little is known about how bacterioplankton is affected by increased evaporation and how these communities reassemble after rewetting. Here, we present results from a microcosm experiment that assessed the effect of drying-rewetting stress on bacterioplankton in the light of the stress history and the rate and timing of dispersal after the rewetting. We found that the drying phase resulted mainly in a change of function, whereas the complete desiccation and rewetting processes strongly affected both composition and function, which were, however, influenced by the initial conditions and stress history of the communities. Effects of dispersal were generally stronger when it occurred at an early stage after the rewetting. At this stage, selective establishment of dispersed bacteria coupled with enhanced compositional and functional recovery was found, whereas effects of dispersal were neutral, that is, predictable by dispersal rates, at later stages. Our studies therefore show that both the stress history and the timing of dispersal are important factors that influence the response of bacterial communities to environmental change and stress events.

  2. Community-based native seed production for restoration in Brazil - the role of science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, I B; de Urzedo, D I; Piña-Rodrigues, F C M; Vieira, D L M; de Rezende, G M; Sampaio, A B; Junqueira, R G P

    2018-05-20

    Large-scale restoration programmes in the tropics require large volumes of high quality, genetically diverse and locally adapted seeds from a large number of species. However, scarcity of native seeds is a critical restriction to achieve restoration targets. In this paper, we analyse three successful community-based networks that supply native seeds and seedlings for Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado restoration projects. In addition, we propose directions to promote local participation, legal, technical and commercialisation issues for up-scaling the market of native seeds for restoration with high quality and social justice. We argue that effective community-based restoration arrangements should follow some principles: (i) seed production must be based on real market demand; (ii) non-governmental and governmental organisations have a key role in supporting local organisation, legal requirements and selling processes; (iii) local ecological knowledge and labour should be valued, enabling local communities to promote large-scale seed production; (iv) applied research can help develop appropriate techniques and solve technical issues. The case studies from Brazil and principles presented here can be useful for the up-scaling restoration ecology efforts in many other parts of the world and especially in tropical countries where improving rural community income is a strategy for biodiversity conservation and restoration. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agumanu McOliver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.

  4. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K.; Doyle, John T.; Eggers, Margaret J.; Ford, Tim E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  5. Trophic interactions between native and introduced fish species in a littoral fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, M; Maceda-Veiga, A; Caiola, N; De Sostoa, A

    2014-11-01

    The trophic interactions between 15 native and two introduced fish species, silverside Odontesthes bonariensis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, collected in a major fishery area at Lake Titicaca were explored by integrating traditional ecological knowledge and stable-isotope analyses (SIA). SIA suggested the existence of six trophic groups in this fish community based on δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures. This was supported by ecological evidence illustrating marked spatial segregation between groups, but a similar trophic level for most of the native groups. Based on Bayesian ellipse analyses, niche overlap appeared to occur between small O. bonariensis (<90 mm) and benthopelagic native species (31.6%), and between the native pelagic killifish Orestias ispi and large O. bonariensis (39%) or O. mykiss (19.7%). In addition, Bayesian mixing models suggested that O. ispi and epipelagic species are likely to be the main prey items for the two introduced fish species. This study reveals a trophic link between native and introduced fish species, and demonstrates the utility of combining both SIA and traditional ecological knowledge to understand trophic relationships between fish species with similar feeding habits. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Effects of hay management and native species sowing on grassland community structure, biomass, and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Bryan L; Kindscher, Kelly; Houseman, Greg R; Murphy, Cheryl A

    2009-10-01

    Prairie hay meadows are important reservoirs of grassland biodiversity in the tallgrass prairie regions of the central United States and are the object of increasing attention for conservation and restoration. In addition, there is growing interest in the potential use of such low-input, high-diversity (LIHD) native grasslands for biofuel production. The uplands of eastern Kansas, USA, which prior to European settlement were dominated by tallgrass prairie, are currently utilized for intensive agriculture or exist in a state of abandonment from agriculture. The dominant grasslands in the region are currently high-input, low-diversity (HILD) hay fields seeded to introduced C3 hay grasses. We present results from a long-term experiment conducted in a recently abandoned HILD hay field in eastern Kansas to evaluate effects of fertilization, haying, and native species sowing on community dynamics, biomass, and potential for restoration to native LIHD hay meadow. Fertilized plots maintained dominance by introduced grasses, maintained low diversity, and were largely resistant to colonization throughout the study. Non-fertilized plots exhibited rapid successional turnover, increased diversity, and increased abundance of C4 grasses over time. Haying led to modest changes in species composition and lessened the negative impact of fertilization on diversity. In non-fertilized plots, sowing increased representation by native species and increased diversity, successional turnover, and biomass production. Our results support the shifting limitations hypothesis of community organization and highlight the importance of species pools and seed limitations in constraining successional turnover, community structure, and ecosystem productivity under conditions of low fertility. Our findings also indicate that several biological and functional aspects of LIHD hay meadows can be restored from abandoned HILD hay fields by ceasing fertilization and reintroducing native species through

  7. Genetic ancestry and indigenous heritage in a Native American descendant community in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Vilar, Miguel G; Dulik, Matthew C; Gaieski, David F; Gittelman, Rachel M; Lindo, John; Gau, Lydia; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-11-01

    Discovered in the early 16th century by European colonists, Bermuda is an isolated set of islands located in the mid-Atlantic. Shortly after its discovery, Bermuda became the first English colony to forcibly import its labor by trafficking in enslaved Africans, white ethnic minorities, and indigenous Americans. Oral traditions circulating today among contemporary tribes from the northeastern United States recount these same events, while, in Bermuda, St. David's Islanders consider their histories to be linked to a complex Native American, European, and African past. To investigate the influence of historical events on biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in 111 members of Bermuda's self-proclaimed St. David's Island Native Community. Our results reveal that the majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplotypes are of African and West Eurasian origin. However, unlike other English-speaking New World colonies, most African mtDNA haplotypes appear to derive from central and southeast Africa, reflecting the extent of maritime activities in the region. In light of genealogical and oral historical data from the St. David's community, the low frequency of Native American mtDNA and NRY lineages may reflect the influence of genetic drift, the demographic impact of European colonization, and historical admixture with persons of non-native backgrounds, which began with the settlement of the islands. By comparing the genetic data with genealogical and historical information, we are able to reconstruct the complex history of this Bermudian community, which is unique among New World populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, B M; Pearson, D E; Mack, R N

    2014-07-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food preference. We evaluated the effect of postdispersal seed predators on the establishment of invasive, naturalized, and native species within and between adjacent forest and steppe communities of eastern Washington, USA that differ in severity of plant invasion. Seed removal from trays placed within guild-specific exclosures revealed that small mammals were the dominant seed predators in both forest and steppe. Seeds of invasive species (Bromus tectorum, Cirsium arvense) were removed significantly less than the seeds of native (Pseudoroegneria spicata, Balsamorhiza sagittata) and naturalized (Secale cereale, Centaurea cyanus) species. Seed predation limited seedling emergence and establishment in both communities in the absence of competition in a pattern reflecting natural plant abundance: S. cereale was most suppressed, B. tectorum was least suppressed, and P. spicata was suppressed at an intermediate level. Furthermore, seed predation reduced the residual seed bank for all species. Seed mass correlated with seed removal rates in the forest and their subsequent effects on plant recruitment; larger seeds were removed at higher rates than smaller seeds. Our vegetation surveys indicate higher densities and canopy cover of nonnative species occur in the steppe compared with the forest understory, suggesting the steppe may be more susceptible to invasion. Seed predation alone, however, did not result in significant differences in establishment for any species between these communities, presumably due to similar total small-mammal abundance between communities. Consequently, preferential seed predation by small

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina Drumonde; Luna, Sara; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, Christopher; Mendonça, Duarte; Fonseca, Henrique M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, Maria; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2017-02-01

    The communities of glomeromycotan fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) under native Juniperus brevifolia forest from two Azorean islands, Terceira and São Miguel, were compared, mainly by spore morphology, and when possible, by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine morphotypes were detected from 12 genera. Glomeromycotan fungal richness was similar in Terceira and São Miguel, but significantly different among the four fragments of native forest. Spore diversity and community composition differed significantly between the two islands. The less degraded island, Terceira, showed 10 exclusive morphotypes including more rare types, whereas the more disturbed forest on São Miguel showed 13 morphs, mostly of common types. Forests from Terceira were dominated by Acaulosporaceae and Glomeraceae. Whereas members of Acaulosporaceae, Glomeraceae and Ambisporaceae were most frequent and abundant in those from São Miguel. Spore abundance was greatest on Terceira, and correlated with soil chemical properties (pH), average monthly temperature and relative humidity.

  10. Invasion of a dominant floral resource: effects on the floral community and pollination of native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Karen; Parker, Ingrid M

    2017-01-01

    Through competition for pollinators, invasive plants may suppress native flora. Community-level studies provide an integrative assessment of invasion impacts and insights into factors that influence the vulnerability of different native species. We investigated effects of the nonnative herb Lythrum salicaria on pollination of native species in 14 fens of the eastern United States. We compared visitors per flower for 122 native plant species in invaded and uninvaded fens and incorporated a landscape-scale experiment, removing L. salicaria flowers from three of the invaded fens. Total flower densities were more than three times higher in invaded than uninvaded or removal sites when L. salicaria was blooming. Despite an increase in number of visitors with number of flowers per area, visitors per native flower declined with increasing numbers of flowers. Therefore, L. salicaria invasion depressed visitation to native flowers. In removal sites, visitation to native flowers was similar to uninvaded sites, confirming the observational results and also suggesting that invasion had not generated a persistent build-up of visitor populations. To study species-level impacts, we examined effects of invasion on visitors per flower for the 36 plant species flowering in both invaded and uninvaded fens. On average, the effect of invasion represented about a 20% reduction in visits per flower. We measured the influence of plant traits on vulnerability to L. salicaria invasion using meta-analysis. Bilaterally symmetrical flowers experienced stronger impacts on visitation, and similarity in flower color to L. salicaria weakly intensified competition with the invader for visitors. Finally, we assessed the reproductive consequences of competition with the invader in a dominant flowering shrub, Dasiphora fruticosa. Despite the negative effect of invasion on pollinator visitation in this species, pollen limitation of seed production was not stronger in invaded than in uninvaded

  11. The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohmberg, E.; Goble, R.; Sanchez, V.; Quigley, D.

    2000-01-01

    Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Dedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations

  12. Native-likeness in second language lexical categorization reflects individual language history and linguistic community norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Benjamin D; Malt, Barbara C; Ameel, Eef; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS FACE A DUAL CHALLENGE IN VOCABULARY LEARNING: First, they must learn new names for the 100s of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999), and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects. In the present study, Chinese learners of English with varying language histories and resident in two different language settings (Beijing, China and State College, PA, USA) named 67 photographs of common serving dishes (e.g., cups, plates, and bowls) in both Chinese and English. Participants' response patterns were quantified in terms of similarity to the responses of functionally monolingual native speakers of Chinese and English and showed the cross-language convergence previously observed in simultaneous bilinguals (Ameel et al., 2005). For English, bilinguals' names for each individual stimulus were also compared to the dominant name generated by the native speakers for the object. Using two statistical models, we disentangle the effects of several highly interactive variables from bilinguals' language histories and the naming norms of the native speaker community to predict inter-personal and inter-item variation in L2 (English) native-likeness. We find only a modest age of earliest exposure effect on L2 category native-likeness, but importantly, we find that classroom instruction in L2 negatively impacts L2 category native-likeness, even after significant immersion experience. We also identify a significant role of both L1 and L2 norms in bilinguals' L2 picture naming responses.

  13. Native-Likeness in Second Language Lexical Categorization Reflects Individual Language History and Linguistic Community Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Zinszer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Second language learners face a dual challenge in vocabulary learning: First, they must learn new names for the hundreds of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999, and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects. In the present study, Chinese learners of English with varying language histories and resident in two different language settings (Beijing, China and State College, PA, USA named 67 photographs of common serving dishes (e.g., cups, plates, and bowls in both Chinese and English. Participants’ response patterns were quantified in terms of similarity to the responses of functionally monolingual native speakers of Chinese and English and showed the cross-language convergence previously observed in simultaneous bilinguals (Ameel et al., 2005. For English, bilinguals’ names for each individual stimulus were also compared to the dominant name generated by the native speakers for the object. Using two statistical models, we disentangle the effects of several highly interactive variables from bilinguals' language histories and the naming norms of the native speaker community to predict inter-personal and inter-item variation in L2 (English native-likeness. We find only a modest age of earliest exposure effect on L2 category native-likeness, but importantly, we find that classroom instruction in L2 negatively impacts L2 category native-likeness, even after significant immersion experience. We also identify a significant role of both L1 and L2 norms in bilinguals’ L2 picture naming responses.

  14. The Diversity of the Limnohabitans Genus, an Important Group of Freshwater Bacterioplankton, by Characterization of 35 Isolated Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasalický, Vojtěch; Jezbera, Jan; Hahn, Martin W.; Šimek, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Limnohabitans, more precisely the R-BT lineage, have a prominent role in freshwater bacterioplankton communities due to their high rates of substrate uptake and growth, growth on algal-derived substrates and high mortality rates from bacterivory. Moreover, due to their generally larger mean cell volume, compared to typical bacterioplankton cells, they contribute over-proportionally to total bacterioplankton biomass. Here we present genetic, morphological and ecophysiological properties of 35 bacterial strains affiliated with the Limnohabitans genus newly isolated from 11 non-acidic European freshwater habitats. The low genetic diversity indicated by the previous studies using the ribosomal SSU gene highly contrasted with the surprisingly rich morphologies and different patterns in substrate utilization of isolated strains. Therefore, the intergenic spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes was successfully tested as a fine-scale marker to delineate individual lineages and even genotypes. For further studies, we propose the division of the Limnohabitans genus into five lineages (provisionally named as LimA, LimB, LimC, LimD and LimE) and also additional sublineages within the most diversified lineage LimC. Such a delineation is supported by the morphology of isolated strains which predetermine large differences in their ecology. PMID:23505469

  15. Competitive effects of non-native plants are lowest in native plant communities that are most vulnerable to invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Stephen Brewer; W. Chase Bailey

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment that disturbance favors invasion, a hypothesis that has received little attention is whether non-native invaders have greater competitive effects on native plants in undisturbed habitats than in disturbed habitats. This hypothesis derives from the assumption that competitive interactions are more persistent in habitats that have not...

  16. Bacterioplankton features and its relations with doc characteristics and other limnological variables in Paraná river floodplain environments (PR/MS-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mariana Carolina; Santana, Natália Fernanda; de Azevedo, Júlio César Rodrigues; Pagioro, Thomaz Aurélio

    2011-07-01

    Since the introduction of the Microbial Loop concept, many studies aimed to explain the role of bacterioplankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aquatic ecosystems. Paraná River floodplain system is a very complex environment where these subjects were little explored. The aim of this work was to characterize bacterial community in terms of density, biomass and biovolume in some water bodies of this floodplain and to verify its temporal variation and its relation with some limnological variables, including some indicators of DOC quality, obtained through Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Bacterial density, biomass and biovolume are similar to those from other freshwater environments and both density and biomass were higher in the period with less rain. The limnological and spectroscopic features that showed any relation with bacterioplankton were the concentrations of N-NH4 and P-PO4, water transparency, and some indicators of DOC quality and origin. The analysis of these relations showed a possible competition between bacterioplankton and phytoplankton for inorganic nutrients and that the DOC used by bacterioplankton is labile and probably from aquatic macrophytes.

  17. Bacterioplankton features and its relations with doc characteristics and other limnological variables in Paraná river floodplain environments (PR/MS-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carolina Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Microbial Loop concept, many studies aimed to explain the role of bacterioplankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC in aquatic ecosystems. Paraná River floodplain system is a very complex environment where these subjects were little explored. The aim of this work was to characterize bacterial community in terms of density, biomass and biovolume in some water bodies of this floodplain and to verify its temporal variation and its relation with some limnological variables, including some indicators of DOC quality, obtained through Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Bacterial density, biomass and biovolume are similar to those from other freshwater environments and both density and biomass were higher in the period with less rain. The limnological and spectroscopic features that showed any relation with bacterioplankton were the concentrations of N-NH4 and P-PO4, water transparency, and some indicators of DOC quality and origin. The analysis of these relations showed a possible competition between bacterioplankton and phytoplankton for inorganic nutrients and that the DOC used by bacterioplankton is labile and probably from aquatic macrophytes.

  18. Exploring the Ecological Coherence between the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bacterioplankton in Boreal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Niño-García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major contemporary challenges in microbial ecology has been to discriminate the reactive core from the random, unreactive components of bacterial communities. In previous work we used the spatial abundance distributions of bacterioplankton across boreal lakes of Québec to group taxa into four distinct categories that reflect either hydrology-mediated dispersal along the aquatic network or environmental selection mechanisms within lakes. Here, we test whether this categorization derived from the spatial distribution of taxa is maintained over time, by analyzing the temporal dynamics of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs within those spatially derived categories along an annual cycle in the oligotrophic lake Croche (Québec, Canada, and assessing the coherence in the patterns of abundance, occurrence, and environmental range of these OTUs over space and time. We report that the temporal dynamics of most taxa within a single lake are largely coherent with those derived from their spatial distribution over large spatial scales, suggesting that these properties must be intrinsic of particular taxa. We also identified a set of rare taxa cataloged as having a random occupancy based on their spatial distribution, but which showed clear seasonality and abundance peaks along the year, yet these comprised a very small fraction of the total rare OTUs. We conclude that the presence of most rare bacterioplankton taxa in boreal lakes is random, since both their temporal and spatial dynamics suggest links to passive downstream transport and persistence in freshwater networks, rather than environmental selection.

  19. Diversity in UV sensitivity and recovery potential among bacterioneuston and bacterioplankton isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A L; Lopes, S; Baptista, I; Henriques, I; Gomes, N C M; Almeida, A; Correia, A; Cunha, A

    2011-04-01

    To assess the variability in UV-B (280-320 nm) sensitivity of selected bacterial isolates from the surface microlayer and underlying water of the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) estuary and their ability to recover from previous UV-induced stress. Bacterial suspensions were exposed to UV-B radiation (3·3 W m⁻²). Effects on culturability and activity were assessed from colony counts and (3) H-leucine incorporation rates, respectively. Among the tested isolates, wide variability in UV-B-induced inhibition of culturability (37·4-99·3%) and activity (36·0-98·0%) was observed. Incubation of UV-B-irradiated suspensions under reactivating regimes (UV-A, 3·65 W m⁻²; photosynthetic active radiation, 40 W m⁻²; dark) also revealed diversity in the extent of recovery from UV-B stress. Trends of enhanced resistance of culturability (up to 15·0%) and enhanced recovery in activity (up to 52·0%) were observed in bacterioneuston isolates. Bacterioneuston isolates were less sensitive and recovered more rapidly from UV-B stress than bacterioplankton isolates, showing enhanced reduction in their metabolism during the irradiation period and decreased culturability during the recovery process compared to bacterioplankton. UV exposure can affect the diversity and activity of microbial communities by selecting UV-resistant strains and alter their metabolic activity towards protective strategies. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Hexavalent chromium reduction under fermentative conditions with lactate stimulated native microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somenahally, Anil C; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yuan, Tong; Podar, Mircea; Phelps, Tommy J; Brown, Steven D; Yang, Zamin K; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam P; Palumbo, Anthony V; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Elias, Dwayne A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in-situ is a plausible bioremediation strategy in electron-acceptor limited environments. However, higher [Cr(VI)] may impose stress on syntrophic communities and impact community structure and function. The study objectives were to understand the impacts of Cr(VI) concentrations on community structure and on the Cr(VI)-reduction potential of groundwater communities at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were used to grow native communities enriched with lactate (30 mM) and continuously amended with Cr(VI) at 0.0 (No-Cr), 0.1 (Low-Cr) and 3.0 (High-Cr) mg/L. Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI), 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) levels were below detection from week 1 until week 15. With lactate enrichment, native bacterial diversity substantially decreased as Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., became the dominant groups, but did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. The Archaea diversity also substantially decreased after lactate enrichment from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%). Methane production was lower in High-Cr reactors suggesting some inhibition of methanogens. Several key functional genes were distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant microbes, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not impact the overall bacterial community structure.

  1. Hexavalent chromium reduction under fermentative conditions with lactate stimulated native microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil C Somenahally

    Full Text Available Microbial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI in-situ is a plausible bioremediation strategy in electron-acceptor limited environments. However, higher [Cr(VI] may impose stress on syntrophic communities and impact community structure and function. The study objectives were to understand the impacts of Cr(VI concentrations on community structure and on the Cr(VI-reduction potential of groundwater communities at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were used to grow native communities enriched with lactate (30 mM and continuously amended with Cr(VI at 0.0 (No-Cr, 0.1 (Low-Cr and 3.0 (High-Cr mg/L. Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI, 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI levels were below detection from week 1 until week 15. With lactate enrichment, native bacterial diversity substantially decreased as Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., became the dominant groups, but did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. The Archaea diversity also substantially decreased after lactate enrichment from Methanosaeta (35%, Methanosarcina (17% and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%. Methane production was lower in High-Cr reactors suggesting some inhibition of methanogens. Several key functional genes were distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant microbes, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI reduction, and as a result 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI did not impact the overall bacterial community structure.

  2. Hexavalent Chromium Reduction under Fermentative Conditions with Lactate Stimulated Native Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somenahally, Anil C [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yuan, Tong [University of Oklahoma; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Hazen, Terry C [ORNL; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Van Nostrand, Dr. Joy D. [Oklahoma University; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in-situ is a plausible bioremediation strategy in electron-acceptor limited environments. However, higher [Cr(VI)] may impose stress on syntrophic communities and impact community structure and function. The study objectives were to understand the impacts of Cr(VI) concentrations on community structure and on the Cr(VI)-reduction potential of groundwater communities at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were used to grow native communities enriched with lactate (30 mM) and continuously amended with Cr(VI) at 0.0 (No-Cr), 0.1 (Low-Cr) and 3.0 (High-Cr) mg/L. Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI), 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) levels were below detection from week 1 until week 15. With lactate enrichment, native bacterial diversity substantially decreased as Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., became the dominant groups, but did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. The Archaea diversity also substantially decreased after lactate enrichment from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%). Methane production was lower in High-Cr reactors suggesting some inhibition of methanogens. Several key functional genes were distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant microbes, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not impact the overall bacterial community structure.

  3. Investigating temporal patterns of a native bee community in a remnant North American bunchgrass prairie using blue vane traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Chiho; Debano, Sandra J; Thorp, Robbin W; Rao, Sujaya; Stephen, William P

    2012-01-01

    Native bees are important ecologically and economically because their role as pollinators fulfills a vital ecosystem service. Pollinators are declining due to various factors, including habitat degradation and destruction. Grasslands, an important habitat for native bees, are particularly vulnerable. One highly imperiled and understudied grassland type in the United States is the Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass Prairie. No studies have examined native bee communities in this prairie type. To fill this gap, the bee fauna of the Zumwalt Prairie, a large, relatively intact remnant of the Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass Prairie, was examined. Native bees were sampled during the summers of 2007 and 2008 in sixteen 40-ha study pastures on a plateau in northeastern Oregon, using a sampling method not previously used in grassland studies-blue vane traps. This grassland habitat contained an abundant and diverse community of native bees that experienced marked seasonal and inter-annual variation, which appears to be related to weather and plant phenology. Temporal variability evident over the entire study area was also reflected at the individual trap level, indicating a consistent response across the spatial scale of the study. These results demonstrate that temporal variability in bee communities can have important implications for long-term monitoring protocols. In addition, the blue vane trap method appears to be well-suited for studies of native bees in large expanses of grasslands or other open habitats, and may be a useful tool for monitoring native bee communities in these systems.

  4. The red road to wellness: cultural reclamation in a Native First Nations community treatment center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2011-03-01

    This article explores how Native American cultural practices were incorporated into the therapeutic activities of a community-controlled substance abuse treatment center on a "First Nations" reserve in the Canadian north. Analysis of open-ended interviews with nineteen staff and clients-as contextualized by participant observation, program records, and existing ethnographic resources-yielded insights concerning local therapeutic practice with outpatients and other community members. Specifically, program staff adopted and promoted a diverse array of both western and Aboriginal approaches that were formally integrated with reference to the Aboriginal symbol of the medicine wheel. Although incorporations of indigenous culture marked Lodge programs as distinctively Aboriginal in character, the subtle but profound influence of western "therapy culture" was centrally evident in healing activities as well. Nuanced explication of these activities illustrated four contributions of cultural analysis for community psychology.

  5. The Arsenite Oxidation Potential of Native Microbial Communities from Arsenic-Rich Freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Stefano; Crognale, Simona; Casentini, Barbara; Amalfitano, Stefano; Lotti, Francesca; Rossetti, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in speciation and mobility of arsenic in the environment, by mediating redox transformations of both inorganic and organic species. Since arsenite [As(III)] is more toxic than arsenate [As(V)] to the biota, the microbial driven processes of As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation may play a prominent role in mediating the environmental impact of arsenic contamination. However, little is known about the ecology and dynamics of As(III)-oxidizing populations within native microbial communities exposed to natural high levels of As. In this study, two techniques for single cell quantification (i.e., flow cytometry, CARD-FISH) were used to analyze the structure of aquatic microbial communities across a gradient of arsenic (As) contamination in different freshwater environments (i.e., groundwaters, surface and thermal waters). Moreover, we followed the structural evolution of these communities and their capacity to oxidize arsenite, when experimentally exposed to high As(III) concentrations in experimental microcosms. Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the main groups retrieved in groundwaters and surface waters, while Beta and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the bacteria community in thermal waters. At the end of microcosm incubations, the communities were able to oxidize up to 95 % of arsenite, with an increase of Alphaproteobacteria in most of the experimental conditions. Finally, heterotrophic As(III)-oxidizing strains (one Alphaproteobacteria and two Gammaproteobacteria) were isolated from As rich waters. Our findings underlined that native microbial communities from different arsenic-contaminated freshwaters can efficiently perform arsenite oxidation, thus contributing to reduce the overall As toxicity to the aquatic biota.

  6. Using Storytelling to Address Oral Health Knowledge in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Brenda; Gebel, Christina; Crawford, Andrew; Barker, Judith C; Henshaw, Michelle; Garcia, Raul I; Riedy, Christine; Wimsatt, Maureen A

    2018-05-24

    We conducted a qualitative analysis to evaluate the acceptability of using storytelling as a way to communicate oral health messages regarding early childhood caries (ECC) prevention in the American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) population. A traditional story was developed and pilot tested among AIAN mothers residing in 3 tribal locations in northern California. Evaluations of the story content and acceptability followed a multistep process consisting of initial feedback from 4 key informants, a focus group of 7 AIAN mothers, and feedback from the Community Advisory Board. Upon story approval, 9 additional focus group sessions (N = 53 participants) were held with AIAN mothers following an oral telling of the story. Participants reported that the story was culturally appropriate and used relatable characters. Messages about oral health were considered to be valuable. Concerns arose about the oral-only delivery of the story, story content, length, story messages that conflicted with normative community values, and the intent to target audiences. Feedback by focus group participants raised some doubts about the relevance and frequency of storytelling in AIAN communities today. AIAN communities value the need for oral health messaging for community members. However, the acceptability of storytelling as a method for the messaging raises concerns, because the influence of modern technology and digital communications may weaken the acceptability of the oral tradition. Careful attention must be made to the delivery mode, content, and targeting with continual iterative feedback from community members to make these messages engaging, appropriate, relatable, and inclusive.

  7. Flow cytometric monitoring of bacterioplankton phenotypic diversity predicts high population-specific feeding rates by invasive dreissenid mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Props, Ruben; Schmidt, Marian L; Heyse, Jasmine; Vanderploeg, Henry A; Boon, Nico; Denef, Vincent J

    2018-02-01

    Species invasion is an important disturbance to ecosystems worldwide, yet knowledge about the impacts of invasive species on bacterial communities remains sparse. Using a novel approach, we simultaneously detected phenotypic and derived taxonomic change in a natural bacterioplankton community when subjected to feeding pressure by quagga mussels, a widespread aquatic invasive species. We detected a significant decrease in diversity within 1 h of feeding and a total diversity loss of 11.6 ± 4.1% after 3 h. This loss of microbial diversity was caused by the selective removal of high nucleic acid populations (29 ± 5% after 3 h). We were able to track the community diversity at high temporal resolution by calculating phenotypic diversity estimates from flow cytometry (FCM) data of minute amounts of sample. Through parallel FCM and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis of environments spanning a broad diversity range, we showed that the two approaches resulted in highly correlated diversity measures and captured the same seasonal and lake-specific patterns in community composition. Based on our results, we predict that selective feeding by invasive dreissenid mussels directly impacts the microbial component of the carbon cycle, as it may drive bacterioplankton communities toward less diverse and potentially less productive states. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The role of culture in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legha, Rupinder Kaur; Novins, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Culture figures prominently in discussions regarding the etiology of alcohol and substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, and a substantial body of literature suggests that it is critical to developing meaningful treatment interventions. However, no study has characterized how programs integrate culture into their services. Furthermore, reports regarding the associated challenges are limited. Twenty key informant interviews with administrators and 15 focus groups with clinicians were conducted in 18 alcohol and substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. Substance abuse treatment programs for AI/AN communities are integrating culture into their services in two discrete ways: by implementing specific cultural practices and by adapting Western treatment models. More important, however, are the fundamental principles that shape these programs and their interactions with the people and communities they serve. These foundational beliefs and values, defined in this study as the core cultural constructs that validate and incorporate AI/AN experience and world view, include an emphasis on community and family, meaningful relationships with and respect for clients, a homelike atmosphere within the program setting, and an “open door” policy for clients. The primary challenges for integrating these cultural practices include AI/AN communities' cultural diversity and limited socioeconomic resources to design and implement these practices. The prominence of foundational beliefs and values is striking and suggests a broader definition of culture when designing services. This definition of foundational beliefs and values should help other diverse communities culturally adapt their substance abuse interventions in more meaningful ways.

  9. Maximum growth rates and possible life strategies of different bacterioplankton groups in relation to phosphorus availability in a freshwater reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Horňák, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Nedoma, Jiří; Vrba, Jaroslav; Straškrábová, Viera; Macek, Miroslav; Dolan, J. R.; Hahn, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2006), s. 1613-1624 ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Grant - others:MŠM(CZ) 60076658/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : bacterioplankton community composition * growth of bacteria and flagellates * phosphorus availability * reservoir * top-down and bottom-up control Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.630, year: 2006

  10. Latitudinal patterns in the abundance of major marine bacterioplankton groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Gram, Lone; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    relative abundance 37%, average absolute abundance 3.7×105 cells mL-1) including SAR11 (30%/3×105), Gammaproteobacteria (14%/1.2×105), and Bacteroidetes (12%/1.3×105) globally dominated the bacterioplankton. The SAR86 clade (4.6%/4.1×104) and Actinobacteria (4.5%/4×104) were detected ubiquitously, whereas...

  11. Ecophysiological Responses of Invasive and Native Grass Communities with Simulated Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, B.; Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    William Quade1, Sujith Ravi2, Ashley Weide2, Greg Barron-Gafford2, Katerina Dontsova2 and Travis E Huxman2 1Carthage College, WI 2 B2 Earthscience & UA Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson. Abstract Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) responses of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that Buffelgrass can assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes Buffelgrass performed better than Tangle head in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decrease in stomatal conductance with warmer conditions, however the Buffel grass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Key words: Buffelgrass, Tanglehead, Biosphere 2, stomatal conductance, climate change

  12. Helminth communities of the exotic introduced turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans in southwestern Spain: Transmission from native turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Vila, J; Díaz-Paniagua, C; Ribas, A; Florencio, M; Pérez-Santigosa, N; Casanova, J C

    2009-06-01

    We report the prevalence and diversity of helminth parasites found in native turtles Mauremys leprosa and Emys orbicularis from three localities in southwestern Spain and we describe the helminth communities of exotic turtles Trachemys scripta elegans coexisting in the wild with both native turtle species. Five nematodes species were identified, of which Serpinema microcephalus was the only species common between two localities, although infection parameters were different between them. This is the first report of cross transmission of S. microcephalus and Falcaustra donanaensis from native to exotic turtles and the first report of genus Physaloptera in turtles of the Palearctic Region. Continuous releasing of exotic pet turtles in wildlife ecosystems increases the risk of parasite introductions and, consequently, potential transmission to native species, and highlights the impending need for regulation of pet turtle trade in Europe.

  13. Darwin's naturalization hypothesis up-close: Intermountain grassland invaders differ morphologically and phenologically from native community dominants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Samantha J. Sears

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's naturalization hypothesis predicts that successful invaders will tend to differ taxonomically from native species in recipient communities because less related species exhibit lower niche overlap and experience reduced biotic resistance. This hypothesis has garnered substantial support at coarse scales. However, at finer scales, the influence of traits...

  14. Influence of Remedial Education Policies: Experiences of Low-Income Native American Women at a Midwestern Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Armour, Carole Cristine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how policies regarding remedial education can influence the experiences of students who identify as low socioeconomic (SES) Native American women at a Midwestern community college. This study proposed to use interpretive policy analysis and phenomenological qualitative research to learn more about how low…

  15. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Desirae N; Lewis, Johnnye; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Montrose, Luke; Noonan, Curtis W; Semmens, Erin O; Ward, Tony J

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6-2.5), while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6%) was lower than national prevalence estimates. Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  16. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirae N. Ware

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. Objective: To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. Design: In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Results: Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged <5 years had a recent history of pneumonia and/or bronchitis. Children with these conditions were 2 times more likely to live in a wood-heated home, but these findings were imprecise. Resident concern with mould was associated with elevated prevalence of respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6–2.5, while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6% was lower than national prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  17. Seasonality in molecular and cytometric diversity of marine bacterioplankton: the reshuffling of bacterial taxa by vertical mixing

    KAUST Repository

    García, Francisca C.

    2015-07-17

    The ’cytometric diversity’ of phytoplankton communities has been studied based on single-cell properties, but the applicability of this method to characterize bacterioplankton has been unexplored. Here, we analysed seasonal changes in cytometric diversity of marine bacterioplankton along a decadal time-series at three coastal stations in the Southern Bay of Biscay. Shannon-Weaver diversity estimates and Bray-Curtis similarities obtained by cytometric and molecular (16S rRNA tag sequencing) methods were significantly correlated in samples from a 3.5-year monthly time-series. Both methods showed a consistent cyclical pattern in the diversity of surface bacterial communities with maximal values in winter. The analysis of the highly resolved flow cytometry time-series across the vertical profile showed that water column mixing was a key factor explaining the seasonal changes in bacterial composition and the winter increase in bacterial diversity in coastal surface waters. Due to its low cost and short processing time as compared to genetic methods, the cytometric diversity approach represents a useful complementary tool in the macroecology of aquatic microbes.

  18. Contested Domains of Science and Science Learning in Contemporary Native American Communities: Three Case Studies from a National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Nancy Brossard

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of three informal science education partnerships that resulted from a 2003-2006 National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners" (ESI-0307858), hosted by the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center. This dissertation is designed to contribute to understandings of learning processes that occur within and at the intersection of diverse worldviews and knowledge systems, by drawing upon experiences derived from three disparate contexts: 1) The Navajo Nation Museum in Window Rock, Arizona; 2) The A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center on the Zuni Reservation in Zuni, New Mexico; and 3) Science learning camps at the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center for Native youth of southern New England. While informal science education is increasingly moving toward decolonizing and cross-cutting institutional boundaries of learning through critical thinking and real-world applications, the construction of "science" (even within diverse contexts) continues to be framed within a homogenous, predominantly Euro-American perspective. This study analyzes the language of Western science employed in these partnerships, with particular attention to the use of Western/Native binaries that shape perceptions of Native peoples and communities, real or imagined. Connections are drawn to broader nation-state interests in education, science, and the global economy. The role of educational evaluation in these case studies is also critically analyzed, by questioning the ways in which it is constructed, conducted, and evaluated for the purposes of informing future projects and subsequent funding. This study unpacks problems of the dominant language of "expert" knowledge embedded in Western science discourse, and highlights the possibilities of indigenous knowledge systems that can inform Western science frameworks of education and evaluation. Ultimately, this study suggests that research

  19. Diversity of bacterioplankton in the surface seawaters of Drake Passage near the Chinese Antarctic station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengxin; Li, Zhao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Mi

    2015-07-01

    The determination of relative abundances and distribution of different bacterial groups is a critical step toward understanding the functions of various bacteria and its surrounding environment. Few studies focus on the taxonomic composition and functional diversity of microbial communities in Drake Passage. In this study, marine bacterioplankton communities from surface seawaters at five locations in Drake Passage were examined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The results indicated that psychrophilic bacteria were the most abundant group in Drake Passage, and mainly made up of Bacillus, Aeromonas, Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas and Halomonas. Diversity analysis showed that surface seawater communities had no significant correlation with latitudinal gradient. Additionally, a clear difference among five surface seawater communities was evident, with 1.8% OTUs (only two) belonged to Bacillus consistent across five locations and 71% OTUs (80) existed in only one location. However, the few cosmopolitans had the largest population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that the dominant bacterial groups appear to be analogous between geographical sites, but significant differences may be detected among rare bacterial groups. The microbial diversity of surface seawaters would be liable to be affected by environmental factors. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Habitat template approach for green roofs using a native rocky sea coast plant community in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Ayako; Tashiro-Ishii, Yurika

    2018-01-15

    The present study examined whether it is possible to simulate a local herbaceous coastal plant community on a roof, by studying the natural habitats of rocky sea coast plants and their propagation and performance on a green roof. After studying the natural habitat of coastal areas in Izu peninsula, a germination and cutting transplant study was carried out using herbaceous plants from the Jogasaki sea coast. Many plant species did not germinate at all and the use of cuttings was a better method than direct seeding. The green roof was installed in the spring of 2012 in Chiba city. Thirteen plant species from the Jogasaki sea coast, which were successfully propagated, were planted in three kinds of substrate (15 cm depth): pumice, roof tile and commercial green roof substrate. The water drainage was restricted and a reservoir with 5 cm depth of water underlaid the substrate to simulate a similar growing environment to the sea coast. Volcanic rocks were placed as mulch to create a landscape similar to that on the Jogasaki sea coast. Plant coverage on the green roof was measured every month from June 2012 to October 2014. All plants were harvested and their dry shoot weight was measured in December 2014. The type of substrate did not cause significant differences in plant survival and dry shoot weight. Sea coast plant species were divided into four categories: vigorous growth; seasonal change; disappearing after a few years; limited growth. Understanding the ecology of natural habitats was important to simulating a local landscape using native plant communities on the green roof. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing plant community composition fails to capture impacts of white-tailed deer on native and invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Victoria; Dávalos, Andrea; Blossey, Bernd

    2017-07-01

    Excessive herbivory can have transformative effects on forest understory vegetation, converting diverse communities into depauperate ones, often with increased abundance of non-native plants. White-tailed deer are a problematic herbivore throughout much of eastern North America and alter forest understory community structure. Reducing (by culling) or eliminating (by fencing) deer herbivory is expected to return understory vegetation to a previously diverse condition. We examined this assumption from 1992 to 2006 at Fermilab (Batavia, IL) where a cull reduced white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) abundance in 1998/1999 by 90 % from 24.6 to 2.5/km 2 , and at West Point, NY, where we assessed interactive effects of deer, earthworms, and invasive plants using 30 × 30 m paired fenced and open plots in 12 different forests from 2009 to 2012. We recorded not only plant community responses (species presence and cover) within 1 m 2 quadrats, but also responses of select individual species (growth, reproduction). At Fermilab, introduced Alliaria petiolata abundance initially increased as deer density increased, but then declined after deer reduction. The understory community responded to the deer cull by increased cover, species richness and height, and community composition changed but was dominated by early successional native forbs. At West Point plant community composition was affected by introduced earthworm density but not deer exclusion. Native plant cover increased and non-native plant cover decreased in fenced plots, thus keeping overall plant cover similar. At both sites native forb cover increased in response to deer reduction, but the anticipated response of understory vegetation failed to materialize at the community level. Deer-favoured forbs ( Eurybia divaricata , Maianthemum racemosum , Polygonatum pubescens and Trillium recurvatum ) grew taller and flowering probability increased in the absence of deer. Plant community monitoring fails to capture

  2. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  3. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi T Makino

    Full Text Available When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies, and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  4. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, T.

    1992-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  5. Promoting Communities of Practice among Non-Native Speakers of English in Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoe Kyeung

    2011-01-01

    An online discussion involving text-based computer-mediated communication has great potential for promoting equal participation among non-native speakers of English. Several studies claimed that online discussions could enhance the academic participation of non-native speakers of English. However, there is little research around participation…

  6. Status and use of important native grasses adapted to sagebrush communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Jones; Steven R. Larson

    2005-01-01

    Due to the emphasis on restoration, native cool-season grass species are increasing in importance in the commercial seed trade in the Western U.S. Cultivated seed production of these native grasses has often been hampered by seed dormancy, seed shattering, and pernicious awns that are advantageous outside of cultivation. Relatively low seed yields and poor seedling...

  7. Soil nematode community under the non-native trees in the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushchuk Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The particularities of soil nematode communities of the rhizosphere of non-native trees were studied in the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University (Republic of Karelia. Taxonomic diversity, abundance, community structure and ecological indices derived from nematode fauna analysis were used as the evaluation parameters. Nematode fauna included 51 genera, 6 of them were plant parasitic. The dominant eco-trophic group in the nematode community structure of coniferous trees was bacterial feeders; fungal feeders in most cases were observed in the second numbers. The contribution of bacterial feeders was decreased and plant parasites were increased in eco-trophic structure of nematode communities of deciduous trees in compared with coniferous trees. Analysis of ecological indices showed that the state of soil nematode communities reflects complex, structured (stable soil food web in the biocenoses with deciduous trees, and degraded (basal food web – under coniferous trees.

  8. [Malocclusions in children and adolescents from villages and native communities in the Ucayali Amazon region in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga-Del Castillo, Arón; Mattos-Vela, Manuel Antonio; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Rosalinda; Del Castillo-Mendoza, Claudia

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the prevalence of malocclusions in children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years of villages and native communities of the Ucayali jungle of Peru. We assessed the presence of malocclusions using Angle's classification and orthodontic changes. We evaluated 201 individuals, 106 (52.7%) were women, most of them (54.7%) had between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of malocclusions was 85.6%, the most prevalent according to Angle's classification was class I (59.6%). Orthodontic alterations were present in 67.2% of cases. The most frequent were dental crowding (28.4%), anterior crossbite (17.4%), exaggerated overjet (8.5%), excessive overbite (5.0%) and anterior open bite (5.0%). We found a high prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic changes in the evaluated native communities, highlighting the need to implement preventive programs to improve the oral health of these neglected populations.

  9. Strong variability in bacterioplankton abundance and production in central and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Ramaiah, N.; Paul, J.T.; Sardessai, S.; Jyothibabu, R.; Gauns, M.

    to low or no nutrient injections into the surface, primary production in Bay of Bengal is reportedly low. As a consequence, the Bay of Bengal is considered as a region of low biological productivity. Along with many biological parameters, bacterioplankton...

  10. Exploring the Potential for Technology-Based Nutrition Education Among WIC Recipients in Remote Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Julianne M; Braun, Kathryn L; Bersamin, Andrea

    Estimate media technology use in Alaska Native communities to inform the feasibility of technology-based nutrition education. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random selection of about 50% of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) authorized representatives in remote Alaska Native communities (n = 975). Media technology use, interest in media technology-based nutrition education, and potential barriers were assessed. Chi-square tests were used to investigate associations among technology use, age, and education. Technology use was common among respondents (n = 368); use was significantly more common among younger age groups and participants with a higher level of education. Smartphone (78.8%) and Facebook (95.8%) use was comparable to national averages, but having a computer at home (38.4%) was much less likely. Less than 50% of participants have Internet access at home. Findings shed light on new opportunities for WIC and other programs to deliver nutrition education to Alaska Native people in remote communities. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Euphotic zone bacterioplankton sources major sedimentary bacteriohopanepolyols in the Holocene Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Martin; Seifert, Richard; Kasten, Sabine; Bahlmann, Enno; Michaelis, Walter

    2009-02-01

    molecular fossils in the sediments does not represent an integrated image of the entire community living in the water column. Remnants of organisms living in zones where effective transport mechanisms - such as the fecal pellet express - exist are accumulated while those of others are underrepresented. Our work shows a high stability of BHPs over geological time scales. Largely uniform distributions and only minor changes in structures like an increasing prevalence of saturated over unsaturated BHPs with time were observed. Consequently, sedimentary BHP distributions are less suitable as markers for in situ living bacteria but are useful for paleoreconstructions of bacterioplanktonic communities and productivity changes.

  12. Assessing the Impact of Spectral Resolution on Classification of Lowland Native Grassland Communities Based on Field Spectroscopy in Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Melville

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study for the analysis of endangered lowland native grassland communities in the Tasmanian Midlands region using field spectroscopy and spectral convolution techniques. The aim of the study was to determine whether there was significant improvement in classification accuracy for lowland native grasslands and other vegetation communities based on hyperspectral resolution datasets over multispectral equivalents. A spectral dataset was collected using an ASD Handheld-2 spectroradiometer at Tunbridge Township Lagoon. The study then employed a k-fold cross-validation approach for repeated classification of a full hyperspectral dataset, a reduced hyperspectral dataset, and two convoluted multispectral datasets. Classification was performed on each of the four datasets a total of 30 times, based on two different class configurations. The classes analysed were Themeda triandra grassland, Danthonia/Poa grassland, Wilsonia rotundifolia/Selliera radicans, saltpan, and a simplified C3 vegetation class. The results of the classifications were then tested for statistically significant differences using ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc comparisons. The results of the study indicated that hyperspectral resolution provides small but statistically significant increases in classification accuracy for Themeda and Danthonia grasslands. For other classes, differences in classification accuracy for all datasets were not statistically significant. The results obtained here indicate that there is some potential for enhanced detection of major lowland native grassland community types using hyperspectral resolution datasets, and that future analysis should prioritise good performance in these classes over others. This study presents a method for identification of optimal spectral resolution across multiple datasets, and constitutes an important case study for lowland native grassland mapping in Tasmania.

  13. Perceptions of Obvious and Disruptive Climate Change: Community-Based Risk Assessment for Two Native Villages in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Rosales

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work operationalizes the determinants of climate change risk, exposure and vulnerability, through the perceptions held by Native hunters, fishers, and gatherers in Savoonga and Shaktoolik, Alaska. Informed by their skill, experience, and the traditional knowledge of their elders, hunters, fishers, and gatherers in these communities are astute observers of their environment and environmental change. A questionnaire is used to sort and rank their perceptions of the most obvious and disruptive elements of climate change as representations of exposure and vulnerability, respectively. Results represent the relative strength and significance of those perceptions of environmental change. In addition to other changes, storms are among the most obvious and disruptive impacts of climate change to respondents in both communities, while changes to sea ice tend to be more disruptive in Savoonga, a more ice-obligate culture, than Shaktoolik. Changes on the tundra are more obvious in Shaktoolik, but is the least disruptive category of change in both villages. Changes along the coast were both obvious and disruptive, albeit more so in Shaktoolik than Savoonga. The findings suggest that traditional ecological knowledge is a valuable source of information to access perceptions of risk, and develop climate risk management and adaptation plans. The questionnaire design and statistical methodology may be of interest to those working on community-based adaptation and risk assessment projects in high-risk, poor, and marginalized Native communities with small populations.

  14. Alkane Hydroxylase Gene (alkB Phylotype Composition and Diversity in Northern Gulf of Mexico Bacterioplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Blake Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic activities introduce alkanes into marine systems where they are degraded by alkane hydroxylases expressed by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Partial sequences for alkB, one of the structural genes of alkane hydroxylase, have been used to assess the composition of alkane-degrading communities, and to determine their responses to hydrocarbon inputs. We present here the first spatially extensive analysis of alkB in bacterioplankton of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM, a region that experiences numerous hydrocarbon inputs. We have analyzed 401 partial alkB gene sequences amplified from genomic extracts collected during March 2010 from 17 water column samples that included surface waters and bathypelagic depths. Previous analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences for these and related samples have shown that nGoM bacterial community composition and structure stratify strongly with depth, with distinctly different communities above and below 100 m. Although we hypothesized that alkB gene sequences would exhibit a similar pattern, PCA analyses of operational protein units (OPU indicated that community composition did not vary consistently with depth or other major physical-chemical variables. We observed 22 distinct OPUs, one of which was ubiquitous and accounted for 57% of all sequences. This OPU clustered with alkB sequences from known hydrocarbon oxidizers (e.g., Alcanivorax and Marinobacter. Some OPUs could not be associated with known alkane degraders, however, and perhaps represent novel hydrocarbon-oxidizing populations or genes. These results indicate that the capacity for alkane hydrolysis occurs widely in the nGoM, but that alkane degrader diversity varies substantially among sites and responds differently than bulk communities to physical-chemical variables.

  15. Stress tolerance of soil fungal communities from native Atlantic forests, reforestations, and a sand mining degraded area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo C; Pupin, Breno; Rangel, Drauzio E N

    2018-06-01

    Microorganisms are essential to the functionality of the soil, particularly in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling, which regulate plant productivity and shape the soil structure. However, biotic and abiotic stresses greatly disrupt soil fungal communities and, thereby, disturb the ecosystem. This study quantified seasonal tolerances to UV-B radiation and heat of fungal communities, which could be cultured, found in soil from two native Atlantic forest fragments called F1 and F2, five reforested areas (RA) planted in 1994, 1997, 2004, 2007, and 2009 with native species of the Atlantic forest, and one sand mining degraded soil (SMDS). The cold activity of the soil fungal communities (FC) from the eight different areas was also studied. Higher tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat was found in the FC from the SMDS and the 2009RA, where the incidence of heat and UV radiation from sun was more intense, which caused selection for fungal taxa that were more UV-B and heat tolerant in those areas. Conversely, the FC from the native forests and older reforested sites were very susceptible to heat and UV-B radiation. The cold activity of the soil FC from different areas of the study showed an erratic pattern of responses among the sampling sites. Little difference in tolerance to UV-B radiation and heat was found among the FC of soil samples collected in different seasons; in general soil FC collected in winter were less tolerant to UV-B radiation, but not for heat. In conclusion, FC from SMDS soil that receive intense heat and UV radiation, as well as with low nutrient availability, were more tolerant to both UV-B radiation and heat. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Community of Learning: Music Learning and Performance Practices among the Native Peoples of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J. Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Through descriptions drawn from interviews of Native American musicians and observations of tribal musical events, this paper presents a challenge to the "conservative educational practices" in public schools of the United States. In conclusion, the paper suggests that by more closely examining different cultural learning, values and traditions,…

  17. EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY IN AGRICULTURAL AND NATIVE SYSTEMS IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increase in agricultural practices in the Cerrado (tropical savannah) and Amazon regions in Brazil is causing drastic changes in the nutrient and carbon cycling of native areas. Because microorganisms play a key role in biogeochemical cycling, monitoring the shifts in the microb...

  18. Challenges to Evaluating Physical Activity Programs in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Erica Blue; Butler, James; Green, Kerry M.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of evaluation to successful programming, a lack of physical activity program (PAP) evaluation for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) programs exists, which is significant given the high rates of obesity and diabetes in this population. While evaluation barriers have been identified broadly among AI/AN programs, challenges…

  19. STRUCTURE OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN NATIVE AND CONVERTED SAVANNA AREAS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian savannas (Cerrado) have suffered drastic changes in land use with major conversion of native areas to agriculture since 1960. Burning, both due to natural conditions and as a human-induced practice, is a common event during the dry season (April to September) and plays ...

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drumonde Melo, C.; Luna, S.; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, C.; Mendonça, D.; Fonseca, H. M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, M.; da Camara Machado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 79, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 48-61 ISSN 1146-609X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * Juniperus bravifolia * native forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2016

  1. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. Methods The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13?17?years, young adults aged 18?24?years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups wit...

  2. A Functional Approach to Zooplankton Communities in Mountain Lakes Stocked With Non-Native Sportfish Under a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Laura E.; Loewen, Charlie J. G.; Vinebrooke, Rolf D.

    2018-03-01

    Cumulative impacts of multiple stressors on freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem function likely increase with elevation, thereby possibly placing alpine communities at greatest risk. Here, consideration of species traits enables stressor effects on taxonomic composition to be translated into potential functional impacts. We analyzed data for 47 taxa across 137 mountain lakes and ponds spanning large latitudinal (491 km) and elevational (1,399 m) gradients in western Canada, to assess regional and local factors of the taxonomic composition and functional structure of zooplankton communities. Multivariate community analyses revealed that small body size, clonal reproduction via parthenogenesis, and lack of pigmentation were species traits associated with both introduced non-native sportfish and also environmental conditions reflecting a warmer and drier climate—namely higher water temperatures, shallower water depths, and more chemically concentrated water. Thus, historical introductions of sportfish appear to have potentially induced greater tolerance in zooplankton communities of future climatic warming, especially in previously fishless alpine lakes. Although alpine lake communities occupied a relatively small functional space (i.e., low functional diversity), they were contained within the broader regional functional structure. Therefore, our findings point to the importance of dispersal by lower montane species to the future functional stability of alpine communities.

  3. Phylogenetically poor plant communities receive more alien species, which more easily coexist with natives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhold, P.; Pärtel, M.; Tackenberg, O.; Hennekens, S.M.; Bartish, I.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Fergus, A.J.F.; Ozinga, W.A.; Prinzing, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alien species can be a major threat to ecological communities, but we do not know why some community types allow the entry of many more alien species than do others. Here, for the first time, we suggest that evolutionary diversity inherent to the constituent species of a community may determine its

  4. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach J Farris

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica. Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year, the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans (mean=58 consumed/year, and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox (mean=31 consumed/year. Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest

  5. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  6. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore c...

  7. Plant-associated bacterial populations on native and invasive plant species: comparisons between 2 freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapade, Ola A; Pung, Kayleigh

    2012-06-01

    Plant-microbial interactions have been well studied because of the ecological importance of such relationships in aquatic systems. However, general knowledge regarding the composition of these biofilm communities is still evolving, partly as a result of several confounding factors that are attributable to plant host properties and to hydrodynamic conditions in aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrences of various bacterial phylogenetic taxa on 2 native plants, i.e., mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum L.) and cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum Bartram), and on an invasive species, i.e., garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande), were quantitatively examined using nucleic acid staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The plants were incubated in triplicates for about a week within the Kalamazoo River and Pierce Cedar Creek as well as in microcosms. The bacterial groups targeted for enumeration are known to globally occur in relatively high abundance and are also ubiquitously distributed in freshwater environments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of the bacterioplankton assemblages revealed that the majority of bacterial cells that hybridized with the different probes were similar between the 2 sites. In contrast, the plant-associated populations while similar on the 3 plants incubated in Kalamazoo River, their representations were highest on the 2 native plants relative to the invasive species in Pierce Cedar Creek. Overall, our results further suggested that epiphytic bacterial assemblages are probably under the influences of and probably subsequently respond to multiple variables and conditions in aquatic milieus.

  8. Survival of bacterial indicators and the functional diversity of native microbial communities in the Floridan aquifer system, south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.

    2014-01-01

    model than when exposed to groundwater from the APPZ (range: 0.540–0.684 h-1). The inactivation rates for the first phase of the models for P. aeruginosa were not significantly different between the UFA (range: 0.144–0.770 h-1) and APPZ (range: 0.159–0.772 h-1) aquifer zones. The inactivation rates for the second phase of the model for this P. aeruginosa were also similar between UFA (range: 0.003–0.008 h-1) and APPZ (0.004–0.005 h-1) zones, although significantly slower than the model’s first phase rates for this bacterial species. Geochemical data were used to determine which dissimilatory biogeochemical reactions were most likely to occur under the native conditions in the UFA and APPZ zones using thermodynamics principles to calculate free energy yields and other cell-related energetics data. The biogeochemical processes of acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane dominated in all six groundwater sites. A high throughput DNA microarray sequencing technology was used to characterize the diversity in the native aquifer bacterial communities (bacteria and archaea) and assign putative physiological capabilities to the members of those communities. The bacterial communities in both zones of the aquifer were shown to possess the capabilities for primary and secondary fermentation, acetogenesis, methanogenesis, anaerobic methane oxidation, syntrophy with methanogens, ammonification, and sulfate reduction. The data from this study provide the first determination of bacterial indicator survival during exposure to native geochemical conditions of the Floridan aquifer in south Florida. Additionally, the energetics and functional bacterial diversity characterizations are the first descriptions of native bacterial communities in this region of the Floridan aquifer and reveal how these communities persist under such extreme conditions. Collectively, these types of data can be used to develop and refine

  9. Focus groups to increase the cultural acceptability of a contingency management intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirchak, Katherine A; Leickly, Emily; Herron, Jalene; Shaw, Jennifer; Skalisky, Jordan; Dirks, Lisa G; Avey, Jaedon P; McPherson, Sterling; Nepom, Jenny; Donovan, Dennis; Buchwald, Dedra; McDonell, Michael G

    2018-07-01

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people seek evidence-based, cost-effective, and culturally acceptable solutions for treating alcohol use disorders. Contingency management (CM) is a feasible, low-cost approach to treating alcohol use disorders that uses "reinforcers" to promote and support alcohol abstinence. CM has not been evaluated among AI/AN communities. This study explored the cultural acceptability of CM and adapted it for use in diverse AI/AN communities. We conducted a total of nine focus groups in three AI/AN communities: a rural reservation, an urban health clinic, and a large Alaska Native healthcare system. Respondents included adults in recovery, adults with current drinking problems, service providers, and other interested community members (n = 61). Focus group questions centered on the cultural appropriateness of "reinforcers" used to incentivize abstinence and the cultural acceptability of the intervention. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded independently by two study team members using both a priori and emergent codes. We then analyzed coded data. Across all three locations, focus group participants described the importance of providing both culturally specific (e.g., bead work and cultural art work supplies), as well as practical (e.g., gas cards and bus passes) reinforcers. Focus group participants underscored the importance of providing reinforcers for the children and family of intervention participants to assist with reengaging with family and rebuilding trust that may have been damaged during alcohol use. Respondents indicated that they believed CM was in alignment with AI/AN cultural values. There was consensus that Elders or a well-respected community member implementing this intervention would enhance participation. Focus group participants emphasized use of the local AI/AN language, in addition to the inclusion of appropriate cultural symbols and imagery in the delivery of the intervention. A CM

  10. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar’s largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar’s largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (x¯ = 90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (x¯ = 58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (x¯ = 31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are

  11. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana F. Tomback

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz conifer communities in the alpine-treeline ecotone (ATE, and thus potentially provides capacity for critical ecosystem services such as snow retention and soil stabilization. The invasive, exotic pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine communities, to their northern limits. Here, we synthesize data from 10 studies to document geographic variation in structure, conifer species, and understory plants in whitebark pine treeline communities, and examine the potential role of these communities in snow retention and regulating downstream flows. Whitebark pine mortality is predicted to alter treeline community composition, structure, and function. Whitebark pine losses in the ATE may also alter response to climate warming. Efforts to restore whitebark pine have thus far been limited to subalpine communities, particularly through planting seedlings with potential blister rust resistance. We discuss whether restoration strategies might be appropriate for treeline communities.

  12. Fish community of the river Tiber basin (Umbria-Italy: temporal changes and possible threats to native biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carosi A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of exotic fish species in the river Tiber basin has probably caused a serious alteration of original faunal composition. The purpose of this research was to assess the changes occurred over time in the state of the fish communities with particular reference to the reduction of local communities of endemic species. The study area comprised 68 watercourses of the Umbrian portion of the River Tiber basin; the analyses were carried out using the data of the Regional Fish Map of 1st and 2nd level and the 1st update, respectively collected during the periods between the 1990–1996, 2000–2006 and 2007–2014, in 125 sampling stations. The results show a progressive alteration of the fish communities’ structure, as confirmed by the appearance in recent times of new alien species. A total of 40 species was found, only 14 native. The qualitative change of the fish communities appear to be closely related to the longitudinal gradient of the river. The results shows that particularly in the downstream reaches, the combined action of pollution and introduction of exotic species resulted in a gradual decrease in the indigenous component of fish communities. The information collected are the indispensable premise for taking the necessary strategies for conservation of endangered species.

  13. Native freshwater species get out of the way: Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) impacts both fish and benthic invertebrate communities in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Docherty, Cassandra; Neufeld, Kenton; Hamilton, Kyle; MacPherson, Laura; Poesch, Mark S

    2017-10-01

    Prussian carp ( Carassius gibelio ) are one of the most noxious non-native species in Eurasia. Recently, Prussian carp, a non-native freshwater fish species, were genetically confirmed in Alberta, Canada and have been rapidly expanding their range in North America since establishment. Given their rapid range expansion, there is an increasing need to determine how Prussian carp may impact native species. We assessed the severity of the Prussian carp invasion by (i) determining their impact on fish communities, (ii) assessing their impact on benthic invertebrate communities, (iii) evaluating if Prussian carp alter abiotic conditions, and (iv) identifying where we find higher abundances of Prussian carp. When Prussian carp were established, we found significant changes to the fish community. Correspondingly, the degree of impact to benthic invertebrate communities was related to the stage of invasion (none, early or recent), where changes in fish communities were significantly concordant with changes in benthic invertebrate communities. Finally, we found that higher abundances of Prussian carp were significantly associated with lower abundances of a majority of native fish species. Altogether, using three lines of evidence, we determine that Prussian carp can have wide-ranging impacts on freshwater ecosystems in North America, pressing the need for management intervention.

  14. Tailoring an Alcohol Intervention for American Indian Alaska Native Women of Childbearing Age: Listening to the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Annika C; Dusek, Marlené L; Ortega, Marina L; Camp-Mazzetti, Alexandrea; Calac, Dan J; Chambers, Christina D

    2017-11-01

    Reduction of risky drinking in women of childbearing age is 1 strategy that may be employed to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, a sequela of prenatal alcohol exposure. Communities differ in risk and protective factors, necessitating culturally informed interventions for maximal efficacy. This article describes the modification of an existing web-based screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment intervention to reduce risky drinking among American Indian Alaska Native (AIAN) women of childbearing age in Southern California into a peer-to-peer-based intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). The modification process was iterative and included various community focus groups, interviews, and a final review. Intervention modification was required for cultural congruence. Components of the peer-to-peer intervention designed by this project included a flip chart used to guide the motivational interviewing, charts of the financial and physical costs of alcohol consumption, revised baseline and follow-up questionnaires, and guidance regarding the application of MI techniques. This study may inform the modification of future interventions among AIAN communities. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Temporal and vertical distributions of bacterioplankton at the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxin; Sun, Shulei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Hollibaugh, James T; Mou, Xiaozhen

    2015-02-01

    Large spatial scales and long-term shifts of bacterial community composition (BCC) in the open ocean can often be reliably predicted based on the dynamics of physical-chemical variables. The power of abiotic factors in shaping BCC on shorter time scales in shallow estuarine mixing zones is less clear. We examined the diurnal variation in BCC at different water depths in the spring and fall of 2011 at a station in the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS). This site is located in the transition zone between the estuarine plume and continental shelf waters of the South Atlantic Bight. A total of 234,516 pyrotag sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were recovered; they were taxonomically affiliated with >200 families of 23 bacterial phyla. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed significant differences in BCC between spring and fall samples, likely due to seasonality in the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrate plus nitrite. Within each diurnal sampling, BCC differed significantly by depth only in the spring and differed significantly between day and night only in the fall. The former variation largely tracked changes in light availability, while the latter was most correlated with concentrations of polyamines and chlorophyll a. Our results suggest that at the GRNMS, a coastal mixing zone, diurnal variation in BCC is attributable to the mixing of local and imported bacterioplankton rather than to bacterial growth in response to environmental changes. Our results also indicate that, like members of the Roseobacter clade, SAR11 bacteria may play an important role in processing dissolved organic material in coastal oceans. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Depth distributions of DNA damage in Antarctic marine phyto- and bacterioplankton exposed to summertime UV radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, A.G.J.; de Boer, M.K.; Boelen, P.

    During a survey from January to March 1998, the occurrence of W-B radiation (UVBR)-induced DNA damage in Antarctic marine phytoplankton and bacterioplankton was investigated, Sampling was done in Ryder Bay, off the British base Rothera Station, 67 degreesS, 68 degreesW (British Antarctic Survey).

  17. Effects of UV radiation on DNA photodamage and production in bacterioplankton in the coastal Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.M; Snelder, E; Kop, A.J; Boelen, P.; Buma, A.G.J.; van Duyl, F.C

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on bacterioplankton. The effect of different parts of the sunlight spectrum on the leucine and thymidine incorporation and on the induction of DNA damage in natural bacterial populations in the coastal Caribbean Sea off Curacao were

  18. INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ON BACTERIOPLANKTON PRODUCTION AND RESPIRATION IN A SUBTROPICAL CORAL REEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of sunlight on bacterioplankton production (14C-leucine (Leu) and 3H-thymidine (TdR) incorporation; changes in cell abundances) and O2 consumption was investigated in a shallow subtropical coral reef located near Key Largo, Florida. Quartz (light) and opaque (dark) ...

  19. 78 FR 25473 - Information Collection: Northern Alaska Native Community Surveys; Proposed Collection for OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...). An action's ``aesthetic, historic, cultural, economic, social or health'' effects must be assessed... subsistence (harvest data) and sharing networks of the communities. The Social Indicators Study will be given... use a systematic, interdisciplinary approach to ensure the integrated use of the natural and social...

  20. Current and potential use of broadleaf herbs for reestablishing native communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott C. Walker; Nancy L. Shaw

    2005-01-01

    Use of forbs for revegetation in the Intermountain West has been problematic due to the large number of species and lack of research data. Some forbs are found in numerous plant communities and distributed over wide geographic ranges while others are more narrowly adapted. Seed sources for revegetation use may be selected from species and ecotypes indigenous to the...

  1. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community structure and diversity of lignocellulolytic bacteria in Vietnamese native goat rumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, Huyen Thi; Dao, Khoa Trong; Nguyen, Viet Khanh Hoang; Le Ngoc, Giang; Nguyen, Phuong Thi Mai; Le, Lam Tung; Phung, Nguyet Thu; M. van Straalen, Nico; Roelofs, Dick; Truong, Hai Nam

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen

  2. A Community Stakeholder Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Delp, Justin A.; Stone, Kristina; Dinson, Ay-Laina; Stetkiewicz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines and validates the drug resistance strategies identified by rural Hawaiian youth from prior research with a sample of community stakeholders on the Island of Hawai'i. One hundred thirty-eight stakeholders with a vested interest in reducing youth substance use (i.e., teachers, principals, social service agency providers, and…

  3. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species: A case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Struelens

    Full Text Available Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas. Here we explored some of the social-economical and environmental drivers that motivate Bolivian pastoralists to prefer exotic over native livestock species, based on 36 household surveys in the Cordillera Real. We constructed a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model in order to assess the relationships between these drivers. Our results suggest that the access to market influenced pastoralists to reshape their herd composition, by increasing the number of sheep. They also suggest that community size increased daily grazing time in pastures, therefore intensifying the grazing pressure. At a broader scale, this study highlights the effects of some social-economical and environmental drivers on mountain herding systems.

  4. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species: A case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, Quentin; Gonzales Pomar, Karina; Loza Herrera, Susi; Nina Huanca, Gaby; Dangles, Olivier; Rebaudo, François

    2017-01-01

    Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas. Here we explored some of the social-economical and environmental drivers that motivate Bolivian pastoralists to prefer exotic over native livestock species, based on 36 household surveys in the Cordillera Real. We constructed a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model in order to assess the relationships between these drivers. Our results suggest that the access to market influenced pastoralists to reshape their herd composition, by increasing the number of sheep. They also suggest that community size increased daily grazing time in pastures, therefore intensifying the grazing pressure. At a broader scale, this study highlights the effects of some social-economical and environmental drivers on mountain herding systems.

  5. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-03-23

    This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13-17 years, young adults aged 18-24 years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups with high smoking prevalence or smoking risk. Using nine graphic labels, this study collected participant data in the field via an iPad-administered survey and card sorting of graphic warning labels. This paper reports on findings for AI/AN participants. After viewing graphic warning labels, participants rated their likelihood of talking about smoking risks to friends, parents and siblings higher than their likelihood of talking to teachers and doctors. Further, this study found that certain labels (eg, the label of the toddler in the smoke cloud) made them think about their friends and family who smoke. Given the influence of community social networks on health beliefs and attitudes, health communication using graphic warning labels could effect change in the smoking habits of AI/AN community members. Study findings suggest that graphic labels could serve as stimuli for conversations about the risks of smoking among AI/AN community members, and could be an important element of a peer-to-peer smoking cessation effort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. From native to outlander: exploring informal community in Chengzhongcun of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ni PENG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the existing research on Chinese migration, rural domestic Chinese migrants are often portrayed as a community of intruders with a detached culture who invade a host destination city. Usually, as a first step, they settle down in a so-called “Chengzhongcun” (literally a village encircled by the city boundaries, hereafter CZC, which is a kind of “urban village”, or an undeveloped part of a city that is overshadowed by the more developed areas. The present paper tries to give an image of the rural-to-urban migrants as a more vigorous mediator that forms their migration destination. The aims are the following: first, to achieve a detailed written analysis of an existing CZC community and its functioning as a mirror of the discriminating division between the rural and urban life in China. Secondly, by taking into account the experiences of migrant communities in their host cities, this paper seeks to highlight the migrants' emotional conflict and increasing loss of values that occurs in the migration process from the rural to the urban. Thirdly, the migrants' household survival strategies shall be explored. Finally, weaving these strands together, this paper presents a case study of a Tulou collective housing project in Guangzhou Province, China.

  7. Potential impacts of sea level rise on native plant communities and associated cultural sites in coastal areas of the main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Warshauer, Frederick R.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian coastal vegetation is comprised of plant species that are adapted to growing in extremely harsh conditions (salt spray, wave wash, wind, and substrates with limited nutrients) found in this habitat zone. Prior to human colonization of Hawai‘i coastal vegetation extended as a continuous ring around each of the islands, broken only by stretches of recent lava flows or unstable cliff faces. However, since humans arrived in Hawai‘i many areas that originally supported native coastal plant communities have been highly altered or the native vegetation totally removed for agriculture, housing, or resort development, destroyed by fire, displaced by invasive plants, eaten by introduced mammals, or damaged by recreational use. This study was focused on identifying sites that still retain relatively intact and highly diverse native coastal plant communities throughout the main Hawaiian Islands that may be further impacted by projected sea level rise. Approximately 40 percent of Hawai‘i’s coastlines were found to still contain high quality native coastal plant communities. Most of these sites were located in areas where the coastal vegetation can still migrate inshore in response to rising sea level and associated inundation by waves. However, six sites with high-quality native coastal vegetation were found on low-lying offshore islets that will be totally inundated with a one meter increase in sea level and thirty sites were found to have some type of fixed barrier, such as a paved road or structure, which would restrict the plants from colonizing the adjacent inland areas. Many of these sites also have other cultural resources that are fixed in place and will definitely be impacted by rising sea level. The results of this study can help refine our understanding of Hawai‘i’s remaining native coastal vegetation and aid with the development of management and restoration strategies to ensure the long-term survival of these unique plant communities.

  8. The Effects of Crop Intensification on the Diversity of Native Pollinator Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L; Rand, Tatyana A; Fausti, Scott W; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2016-08-01

    Increases in agricultural conversion are leading to declines in native grasslands and natural resources critical for beneficial insects. However, little is known regarding how these changes affect pollinator diversity. Land use types were categorized within 300 m and 3 km radii of pollinator sampling locations in Brookings County, SD. Pollinator abundance and species richness were regressed on the proportion of the landscape dedicated to row crops, grass and pasture, forage crops, small grains, and aquatic habitats using variance components modeling. Row crops had a negative effect on bee abundance at 300 m, after fixed effects modeling accounted for outliers skewing this relationship. At 3 km, corn positively affected bee abundance and richness, while soybean acreage decreased species richness. The landscape matrix of outlying sites consisted of large monocultured areas with few alternative habitat types available, leading to inflated populations of Melissodes and Halictidae. Syrphids had a positive parabolic relationship between diversity and row crops, indicating potential for competitive exclusion from intermediate landscapes. Unlike other studies, landscape diversity within 300 m was not found to significantly benefit pollinator diversity. Within especially agriculturally developed areas of the region, high abundances of pollinators suggest selection for a few dominant species. There was no effect of forage crops or aquatic habitats on pollinator diversity, indicating that less highly managed areas still represent degraded habitat within the landscape. Incorporating pollinator-friendly crops at the farm level throughout the region is likely to enhance pollinator diversity by lessening the negative effects of large monocultures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Co-occurrence analysis of microbial taxa in the Atlantic Ocean reveals high connectivity in the free-living bacterioplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eMilici

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We determined the taxonomic composition of the bacterioplankton of the epipelagic zone of the Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal transect (51°S – 47°N using Illumina sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and inferred co-occurrence networks. Bacterioplankon community composition was distinct for Longhurstian provinces and water depth. Free-living microbial communities (between 0.22-3 µm were dominated by highly abundant and ubiquitous taxa with streamlined genomes (e.g. SAR11, SAR86, OM1, Prochlorococcus and could clearly be separated from particle-associated communities which were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Planktomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Roseobacters. From a total of 369 different communities we then inferred co-occurrence networks for each size fraction and depth layer of the plankton between bacteria and between bacteria and phototrophic micro-eukaryotes. The inferred networks showed a reduction of edges in the deepest layer of the photic zone. Networks comprised of free-living bacteria had a larger amount of connections per OTU when compared to the particle associated communities throughout the water column. Negative correlations accounted for roughly one third of the total edges in the free-living communities at all depths, while they decreased with depth in the particle associated communities where they amounted for roughly 10% of the total in the last part of the epipelagic zone. Co-occurrence networks of bacteria with phototrophic micro-eukaryotes were not taxon-specific, and dominated by mutual exclusion (~60%. The data show a high degree of specialization to micro-environments in the water column and highlight the importance of interdependencies particularly between free-living bacteria in the upper layers of the epipelagic zone.

  10. Building research capacity with members of underserved American Indian/Alaskan Native communities: training in research ethics and the protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Karen M; Yarborough, Mark; Cassady, Diana L; Styne, Dennis M

    2015-05-01

    To develop a research ethics training course for American Indian/Alaskan Native health clinic staff and community researchers who would be conducting human subjects research. Community-based participatory research methods were used in facilitated discussions of research ethics centered around topics included in the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative research ethics course. The community-based participatory research approach allowed all partners to jointly develop a research ethics training program that was relevant for American Indian/Alaskan Native communities. All community and clinic partners were able to pass the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative course they were required to pass so that they could be certified to conduct research with human subjects on federally funded projects. In addition, the training sessions provided a foundation for increased community oversight of research. By using a collaborative process to engage community partners in research ethics discussions, rather than either an asynchronous online or a lecture/presentation format, resulted in significant mutual learning about research ethics and community concerns about research. This approach requires university researchers to invest time in learning about the communities in which they will be working prior to the training. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. Impact of hydraulic well restoration on native bacterial communities in drinking water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwautz, Clemens; Lueders, Tillmann

    2014-01-01

    The microbial monitoring of drinking water production systems is essential to assure water quality and minimize possible risks. However, the comparative impact of microbes from the surrounding aquifer and of those established within drinking water wells on water parameters remains poorly understood. High pressure jetting is a routine method to impede well clogging by fine sediments and also biofilms. In the present study, bacterial communities were investigated in a drinking water production system before, during, and after hydraulic purging. Variations were observed in bacterial communities between different wells of the same production system before maintenance, despite them having practically identical water chemistries. This may have reflected the distinct usage practices of the different wells, and also local aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic jetting of one well preferentially purged a subset of the dominating taxa, including lineages related to Diaphorobacter, Nitrospira, Sphingobium, Ralstonia, Alkanindiges, Janthinobacterium, and Pseudomonas spp, suggesting their tendency for growth in well-associated biofilms. Lineages of potential drinking water concern (i.e. Legionellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Acinetobacter spp.) reacted distinctly to hydraulic jetting. Bacterial diversity was markedly reduced in drinking water 2 weeks after the cleaning procedure. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of drinking water wells as a microbial habitat, as well as their role in the microbiology of drinking water systems.

  12. Impact of Hydraulic Well Restoration on Native Bacterial Communities in Drinking Water Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwautz, Clemens; Lueders, Tillmann

    2014-01-01

    The microbial monitoring of drinking water production systems is essential to assure water quality and minimize possible risks. However, the comparative impact of microbes from the surrounding aquifer and of those established within drinking water wells on water parameters remains poorly understood. High pressure jetting is a routine method to impede well clogging by fine sediments and also biofilms. In the present study, bacterial communities were investigated in a drinking water production system before, during, and after hydraulic purging. Variations were observed in bacterial communities between different wells of the same production system before maintenance, despite them having practically identical water chemistries. This may have reflected the distinct usage practices of the different wells, and also local aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic jetting of one well preferentially purged a subset of the dominating taxa, including lineages related to Diaphorobacter, Nitrospira, Sphingobium, Ralstonia, Alkanindiges, Janthinobacterium, and Pseudomonas spp, suggesting their tendency for growth in well-associated biofilms. Lineages of potential drinking water concern (i.e. Legionellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Acinetobacter spp.) reacted distinctly to hydraulic jetting. Bacterial diversity was markedly reduced in drinking water 2 weeks after the cleaning procedure. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of drinking water wells as a microbial habitat, as well as their role in the microbiology of drinking water systems. PMID:25273229

  13. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community structure and diversity of lignocellulolytic bacteria in Vietnamese native goat rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thi Huyen; Dao, Trong Khoa; Nguyen, Khanh Hoang Viet; Le, Ngoc Giang; Nguyen, Thi Mai Phuong; Le, Tung Lam; Phung, Thu Nguyet; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick; Truong, Nam Hai

    2018-05-01

    In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen was conducted to elucidate a role of bacterial structure for effective degradation of plant materials. The metagenomic data had been subjected into Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTX) algorithm and the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant sequence database. Here the BLASTX hits were further processed by the Metagenome Analyzer program to statistically analyze the abundance of taxa. Microbial community in the rumen is defined by dominance of Bacteroidetes compared to Firmicutes. The ratio of Firmicutes versus Bacteroidetes was 0.36:1. An abundance of Synergistetes was uniquely identified in the goat microbiome may be formed by host genotype. With regard to bacterial lignocellulose degraders, the ratio of lignocellulolytic genes affiliated with Firmicutes compared to the genes linked to Bacteroidetes was 0.11:1, in which the genes encoding putative hemicellulases, carbohydrate esterases, polysaccharide lyases originated from Bacteroidetes were 14 to 20 times higher than from Firmicutes. Firmicutes seem to possess more cellulose hydrolysis capacity showing a Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of 0.35:1. Analysis of lignocellulolytic potential degraders shows that four species belonged to Bacteroidetes phylum, while two species belonged to Firmicutes phylum harbouring at least 12 different catalytic domains for all lignocellulose pretreatment, cellulose, as well as hemicellulose saccharification. Based on these findings, we speculate that increasing the members of Bacteroidetes to keep a low ratio of Firmicutes versus Bacteroidetes in goat rumen has resulted most likely in an increased lignocellulose digestion.

  14. Feasibility of a community intervention for the prevention of suicide and alcohol abuse with Yup'ik Alaska Native youth: the Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2014-09-01

    The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies evaluated the feasibility of a community intervention to prevent suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth in two remote communities. The intervention originated in an Indigenous model of protection, and its development used a community based participatory research process. Feasibility assessment aimed to assess the extent to which (1) the intervention could be implemented in rural Alaska Native communities, and (2) the intervention was capable of producing measurable effects. Scales maximally sensitive to change were derived from earlier measurement work, and the study contrasted implementation process and outcomes across the two communities. In one community, medium dose response effects (d = .30-.50), with dose defined as number of intervention activities attended, were observed in the growth of intermediate protective factors and ultimate variables. In the other community, medium dose effects were observed for one intermediate protective factor variable, and small dose effects were observed in ultimate variables. Differences across communities in resources supporting intervention explain these contrasting outcomes. Results suggest implementation in these rural Alaska settings is feasible when sufficient resources are available to sustain high levels of local commitment. In such cases, measureable effects are sufficient to warrant a prevention trial.

  15. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  16. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization-confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity. © FEMS 2015.

  17. Engaging Native Hawaiians and Pilipinos in creating supportive and safe violence-free communities for women through a piloted "talkstory" intervention: Implications for program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoultz, Jan; Magnussen, Lois; Kreidman, Nanci; Oneha, Mary Frances; Iannce-Spencer, Cindy; Hayashi-Simpliciano, Ronda

    2015-08-01

    In Hawaii, 20% of women have been victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Although disaggregated data specific to Native Hawaiians or Pilipinos (The official Filipino language recognizes both Filipino (Filipina) and Pilipino (Pilipina) as terms for the citizens of the country. Participants in this study chose to use the terms Pilipino (Pilipina). Retrieved from: www.pilipino-express.com/history-a-culture/in-other-words) are limited, greater than 70% of women murdered in Hawaii as a result of IPV are Pilipino or native Hawaiian. A consortium was formed to assist Native Hawaiian and Pilipino women addressing abuse and strengthening support from the community. A quasi-experimental community-based participatory research study was designed to assess a community "talkstory" intervention for IPV. "Talkstory" refers to informal gatherings considered to be a laid-back conversation involving a "reciprocal exchange of thoughts, ideas, feelings about self, and other issues" (Affonso et al., 1996. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 25, 738). This article describes the development of an intervention to address IPV in Hawaii and presents the findings obtained from the pilot studies. Results from the pilot study were used to modify the proposed "talkstory" intervention, revise the data collection tools, and provide the program developers with insights into how the community viewed IPV. The most significant change was an increased perception of their awareness, knowledge, and confidence to address IPV following the intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilizing Science to Ensure Safe Access to Cultural Resources on Public Lands: The Portland Native American Community and Traditional Gathering of Camas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C.

    2017-12-01

    Native Americans have been conducting and contributing to science for millenia. We have observed nature and passed on evidence-based Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) from generation to generation. Prior to colonization, this knowledge enabled our people to live with ample nutritional resources. Our long-standing relationship to nature continues today in tribal, rural, and urban communities, yet access to cultural resources (traditional food and medicines) proves challenging due to modern land management practices. The Native American community and public land managers in Portland, Oregon are addressing this challenge through the restoration of cultural resources across the landscape. One focus in these efforts is the camas plant (Camssia quamash), which grows in wetland and prairie ecosystems. The harvested bulbs are traditionally pit roasted, converting the indigestible inulin into carbohydrates of high nutritional value. Access to local natural areas has been granted for Native American community members to gather camas, yet pesticide and herbicide application as land management practices have created uncertainty regarding the safety of ingesting the camas bulbs. The Native American community gathered camas bulbs in November 2015 for analysis, which resulted in glyphosate (pesticide) and triclopyr (herbicide). There are various factors which may influence the uptake of pesticide and herbicide residuals in camas which need further investigation, including pesticide/herbicide application details (date, location), preferential uptake of pesticide/herbicides in camas among the present plant community, the impact of pit roasting bulbs on residuals, and traditional land management practices like prescribed burning. Utilizing TEK and science to ensure safe access to cultural resources is paramount in preserving our cultures and enhancing the value of indigenous perspectives on land management practices and policies.

  19. Covariance of bacterioplankton composition and environmental variables in a temperate delta system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanauskas, R.; Moran, M.A.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hollibaugh, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    We examined seasonal and spatial variation in bacterioplankton composition in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (CA) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Cloned 16S rRNA genes from this system were used for putative identification of taxa dominating the T-RFLP profiles. Both cloning and T-RFLP analysis indicated that Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium and Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterioplankton groups in the Delta. Despite the broad variety of sampled habitats (deep water channels, lakes, marshes, agricultural drains, freshwater and brackish areas), and the spatial and temporal differences in hydrology, temperature and water chemistry among the sampling campaigns, T-RFLP electropherograms from all samples were similar, indicating that the same bacterioplankton phylotypes dominated in the various habitats of the Delta throughout the year. However, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS) of T-RFLP profiles revealed consistent grouping of samples on a seasonal, but not a spatial, basis. ??-Proteobacteria related to Ralstonia, Actinobacteria related to Microthrix, and ??-Proteobacteria identical to the environmental Clone LD12 had the highest relative abundance in summer/fall T-RFLP profiles and were associated with low river flow, high pH, and a number of optical and chemical characteristics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) indicative of an increased proportion of phytoplankton-produced organic material as opposed to allochthonous, terrestrially derived organic material. On the other hand, Geobacter-related ??-Proteobacteria showed a relative increase in abundance in T-RFLP analysis during winter/spring, and probably were washed out from watershed soils or sediment. Various phylotypes associated with the same phylogenetic division, based on tentative identification of T-RFLP fragments, exhibited diverse seasonal patterns, suggesting that ecological

  20. Object-based random forest classification of Landsat ETM+ and WorldView-2 satellite imagery for mapping lowland native grassland communities in Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Bethany; Lucieer, Arko; Aryal, Jagannath

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a random forest classification approach for identifying and mapping three types of lowland native grassland communities found in the Tasmanian Midlands region. Due to the high conservation priority assigned to these communities, there has been an increasing need to identify appropriate datasets that can be used to derive accurate and frequently updateable maps of community extent. Therefore, this paper proposes a method employing repeat classification and statistical significance testing as a means of identifying the most appropriate dataset for mapping these communities. Two datasets were acquired and analysed; a Landsat ETM+ scene, and a WorldView-2 scene, both from 2010. Training and validation data were randomly subset using a k-fold (k = 50) approach from a pre-existing field dataset. Poa labillardierei, Themeda triandra and lowland native grassland complex communities were identified in addition to dry woodland and agriculture. For each subset of randomly allocated points, a random forest model was trained based on each dataset, and then used to classify the corresponding imagery. Validation was performed using the reciprocal points from the independent subset that had not been used to train the model. Final training and classification accuracies were reported as per class means for each satellite dataset. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was undertaken to determine whether classification accuracy differed between the two datasets, as well as between classifications. Results showed mean class accuracies between 54% and 87%. Class accuracy only differed significantly between datasets for the dry woodland and Themeda grassland classes, with the WorldView-2 dataset showing higher mean classification accuracies. The results of this study indicate that remote sensing is a viable method for the identification of lowland native grassland communities in the Tasmanian Midlands, and that repeat classification and statistical significant testing can be

  1. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  2. Native SAD is maturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S

    2015-07-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow 'highly accurate data' to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a 'first-choice' method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development.

  3. Exotic, native and seeded species and soil biotic community response to post-fire seedings in northern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Post-fire seeding of native species is intended to reduce weed entry, yet few studies have addressed the impacts of seeding methods on the establishment and persistence of exotic annuals. In summers of 2010 and 2011, we investigated productivity of exotic annuals across rehabilitation seedings that were established on the Scooby Wildfire site in northern Utah. The site...

  4. THE SURVEY OF WELL-BEING OF YOUNG CHILDREN: RESULTS OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY WITH AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE COMMUNITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Sarche, Michelle; Trucksess, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of the Survey of Well-Being of Young Children (SWYC), a new screener for socioemotional and developmental problems and family risk in children birth to age 5 years, for use in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities. A Community of Learning within the Tribal Early Childhood Research Center, composed of university researchers, tribal early childhood program staff and evaluators, and federal partners, utilized a community-based participatory research approach to guide this qualitative study. Thirty-two focus groups and 20 key informant interviews (N = 199) were conducted with staff from Head Start, Home Visiting, and Child Care programs; pediatricians; behavioral health providers; parents of young children; tribal leaders; and other stakeholders in seven diverse AIAN communities. Three themes emerged: (a) a strong need to screen early for socioemotional and developmental problems and family risk; (b) the importance of a carefully designed process for screening; and (c) the importance of examining the content of the SWYC for cultural fit specific to tribal communities. Findings support two recommendations: (a) the development of guidelines for using the SWYC in tribal early childhood settings and (b) a full-scale validation study to determine appropriate use with and norms for children in tribal communities. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. .i.Candidatus./i. Planktophila limnetica, an actinobacterium representing one of the most numerically important taxa in freshwater bacterioplankton

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezbera, Jan; Sharma, A. K.; Brandt, U.; Doolittle, W.F.; Hahn, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 11 (2009), s. 2864-2869 ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Actinobacteria * Planktophila * freshwater * bacterioplankton Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2009

  6. Diurnal variations in depth profiles of UV-induced DNA damage and inhibition of bacterioplankton production in tropical coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, PM; Poos, JJ; Scheper, BB; Boelen, P; van Duyl, FC

    2002-01-01

    In this study, diurnal changes in bacterial production and DNA damage in bacterio-plankton (measured as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, CPDs) incubated in bags at different depths in tropical coastal waters were investigated. The DNA damage and inhibition of the bacterial production was highest at

  7. Macrophytes and periphyton carbon subsidies to bacterioplankton and zooplankton in a shallow eutrophic lake in tropical China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kluijver, A.; Ning, J.; Liu, Z.; Jeppesen, E.; Gulati, R.D.; Middelburg, J.J.

    The subsidy of carbon derived from macrophytes and associated periphyton to bacterioplankton and zooplankton in subtropical shallow eutrophic Huizhou West Lake in China was analyzed using carbon stable isotope signatures. A restored part of the lake dominated by macrophytes was compared with an

  8. Macrophytes and periphyton carbon subsidies to bacterioplankton and zooplankton in a shallow eutrophic lake in tropical China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kluijver, A.; Ning, J.; Liu, Z.; Jeppesen, E.; Gulati, R.D.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The subsidy of carbon derived from macrophytes and associated periphyton to bacterioplankton and zooplankton in subtropical shallow eutrophic Huizhou West Lake in China was analyzed using carbon stable isotope signatures. A restored part of the lake dominated by macrophytes was compared with an

  9. Metagenomic identification of bacterioplankton taxa and pathways involved in microcystin degradation in lake erie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Mou

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs that produce microcystins are appearing in an increasing number of freshwater ecosystems worldwide, damaging quality of water for use by human and aquatic life. Heterotrophic bacteria assemblages are thought to be important in transforming and detoxifying microcystins in natural environments. However, little is known about their taxonomic composition or pathways involved in the process. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the metagenomes of Lake Erie free-living bacterioplankton assemblages in laboratory microcosms amended with microcystins relative to unamended controls. A diverse array of bacterial phyla were responsive to elevated supply of microcystins, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subdivisions and Verrucomicrobia. At more detailed taxonomic levels, Methylophilales (mainly in genus Methylotenera and Burkholderiales (mainly in genera Bordetella, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Polaromonas, Ralstonia, Polynucleobacter and Variovorax of Betaproteobacteria were suggested to be more important in microcystin degradation than Sphingomonadales of Alphaproteobacteria. The latter taxa were previously thought to be major microcystin degraders. Homologs to known microcystin-degrading genes (mlr were not overrepresented in microcystin-amended metagenomes, indicating that Lake Erie bacterioplankton might employ alternative genes and/or pathways in microcystin degradation. Genes for xenobiotic metabolism were overrepresented in microcystin-amended microcosms, suggesting they are important in bacterial degradation of microcystin, a phenomenon that has been identified previously only in eukaryotic systems.

  10. Relation between presence-absence of a visible nucleoid and metabolic activity in bacterioplankton cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon, W.; Sherr, E.B.; Sherr, B.F. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the report of Zweifel and Hagstroem that only a portion of marine bacteria contain nucleoids--the DNA-containing regions of procaryotic cells-- and that such bacteria correspond to the active or viable fraction of bacterioplankton. In Oregon coastal waters, 21-64% of bacteria had visible nucleoids; number of nucleoid-visible (NV) bacteria were greater than numbers of metabolically active bacteria, based on cells with active electron transport systems (ETS) and intact cell membranes. During log growth of a marine isolate, proportions of NV and ETS-active cells approached 100%. In stationary growth phase, the fraction of ETS-active cells decreased rapidly, while that of NV cells remained high for 7 d. When starved cells of the isolate were resupplied with nutrient (50 mg liter{sup -1} peptone), total cell number did not increase during the initial 6 h, but the proportion of NV cells increased from 27 to 100%, and that of ETS-active cells from 6 to 75%. In an analogous experiment with a bacterioplankton assemblage, a similar trend was observed: the number of NV cells double during the initial 6 h prior to an increase in total cell counts. These results show that some bacteria without visible nucleoids are capable of becoming NV cells, and thus have DNa in a nucleoid region not detectable with the method used here. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  12. No evidence of enemy release in pathogen and microbial communities of common wasps (Vespula vulgaris in their native and introduced range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Lester

    Full Text Available When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris, which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand. We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range. Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult.

  13. No evidence of enemy release in pathogen and microbial communities of common wasps (Vespula vulgaris) in their native and introduced range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Philip J; Bosch, Peter J; Gruber, Monica A M; Kapp, Eugene A; Peng, Lifeng; Brenton-Rule, Evan C; Buchanan, Joe; Stanislawek, Wlodek L; Archer, Michael; Corley, Juan C; Masciocchi, Maitè; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris), which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England) and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand). We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range). Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult.

  14. Impact of water regimes on an experimental community of four desert arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species, as affected by the introduction of a non-native AMF species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symanczik, Sarah; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Al-Yahya'ei, Mohamed N

    2015-11-01

    Field studies have revealed the impact of changing water regimes on the structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities, but it is not known what happens to the abundance of individual AMF species within the community when the water conditions in the rhizosphere change. The behavior of four AMF species isolated from the Arabian desert (Diversispora aurantia, Diversispora omaniana, Septoglomus africanum, and an undescribed Paraglomus species) was investigated when assembled in microcosms containing Sorghum bicolor as host plant, and treated with various water regimes. Furthermore, the impact of invasion of these assemblages by Rhizophagus irregularis, an AMF species widely used in commercial inocula, was studied. The abundance of each AMF species in sorghum roots was measured by determining the transcript numbers of their large ribosomal subunit (rLSU) by real-time PCR, using cDNA and species-specific primers. Plant biomass and length of AMF extraradical hyphae were also measured. The abundance of each AMF species within the sorghum roots was influenced by both the water regime and the introduction of R. irregularis. Under dry conditions, the introduction of R. irregularis reduced the total abundance of all native AMF species in roots and also led to a reduction in the amount of extraradical mycelium, as well as to a partial decrease in plant biomass. The results indicate that both water regime and the introduction of an invasive AMF species can strongly alter the structure of an AMF native assemblage with a consequent impact on the entire symbiotic mycorrhizal relationship.

  15. The effects of an invasive seaweed on native communities vary along a gradient of land-based human impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bulleri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in teasing apart the effects of biological invasions from those of other anthropogenic perturbations has hampered our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the global biodiversity crisis. The recent elaboration of global-scale maps of cumulative human impacts provides a unique opportunity to assess how the impact of invaders varies among areas exposed to different anthropogenic activities. A recent meta-analysis has shown that the effects of invasive seaweeds on native biota tend to be more negative in relatively pristine than in human-impacted environments. Here, we tested this hypothesis through the experimental removal of the invasive green seaweed, Caulerpa cylindracea, from rocky reefs across the Mediterranean Sea. More specifically, we assessed which out of land-based and sea-based cumulative impact scores was a better predictor of the direction and magnitude of the effects of this seaweed on extant and recovering native assemblages. Approximately 15 months after the start of the experiment, the removal of C. cylindracea from extant assemblages enhanced the cover of canopy-forming macroalgae at relatively pristine sites. This did not, however, result in major changes in total cover or species richness of native assemblages. Preventing C. cylindracea re-invasion of cleared plots at pristine sites promoted the recovery of canopy-forming and encrusting macroalgae and hampered that of algal turfs, ultimately resulting in increased species richness. These effects weakened progressively with increasing levels of land-based human impacts and, indeed, shifted in sign at the upper end of the gradient investigated. Thus, at sites exposed to intense disturbance from land-based human activities, the removal of C. cylindracea fostered the cover of algal turfs and decreased that of encrusting algae, with no net effect on species richness. Our results suggests that competition from C. cylindracea is an important determinant of

  16. The effects of an invasive seaweed on native communities vary along a gradient of land-based human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulleri, Fabio; Badalamenti, Fabio; Iveša, Ljiljana; Mikac, Barbara; Musco, Luigi; Jaklin, Andrej; Rattray, Alex; Vega Fernández, Tomás; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty in teasing apart the effects of biological invasions from those of other anthropogenic perturbations has hampered our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the global biodiversity crisis. The recent elaboration of global-scale maps of cumulative human impacts provides a unique opportunity to assess how the impact of invaders varies among areas exposed to different anthropogenic activities. A recent meta-analysis has shown that the effects of invasive seaweeds on native biota tend to be more negative in relatively pristine than in human-impacted environments. Here, we tested this hypothesis through the experimental removal of the invasive green seaweed, Caulerpa cylindracea, from rocky reefs across the Mediterranean Sea. More specifically, we assessed which out of land-based and sea-based cumulative impact scores was a better predictor of the direction and magnitude of the effects of this seaweed on extant and recovering native assemblages. Approximately 15 months after the start of the experiment, the removal of C. cylindracea from extant assemblages enhanced the cover of canopy-forming macroalgae at relatively pristine sites. This did not, however, result in major changes in total cover or species richness of native assemblages. Preventing C. cylindracea re-invasion of cleared plots at pristine sites promoted the recovery of canopy-forming and encrusting macroalgae and hampered that of algal turfs, ultimately resulting in increased species richness. These effects weakened progressively with increasing levels of land-based human impacts and, indeed, shifted in sign at the upper end of the gradient investigated. Thus, at sites exposed to intense disturbance from land-based human activities, the removal of C. cylindracea fostered the cover of algal turfs and decreased that of encrusting algae, with no net effect on species richness. Our results suggests that competition from C. cylindracea is an important determinant of benthic assemblage

  17. Changes in the microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi in response to elevated CO(2) and warming in an Australian native grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Helen L; Mele, Pauline M; Bougoure, Damian S; Allan, Claire Y; Norng, Sorn; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Desantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Williams, Amity L; Hovenden, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    The microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi is described in an Australian native grassland soil after more than 5 years exposure to different atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) (ambient, +550 ppm) and temperatures (ambient, + 2°C) under different plant functional types (C3 and C4 grasses) and at two soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). Archaeal community diversity was influenced by elevated [CO2], while under warming archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers increased for C4 plant Themeda triandra and decreased for the C3 plant community (P fungi in soil responded differently to elevated [CO2], warming and their interaction. Taxa identified as significantly climate-responsive could show differing trends in the direction of response ('+' or '-') under elevated CO2 or warming, which could then not be used to predict their interactive effects supporting the need to investigate interactive effects for climate change. The approach of focusing on specific taxonomic groups provides greater potential for understanding complex microbial community changes in ecosystems under climate change. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Community-Led Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Mercury by Native Amerindian Wayana in Southeast Suriname

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peplow, D.; Augustine, S.; Peplow, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was a collaboration between Western public health researchers and Suriname indigenous communities. The question asked was how can Western researchers effectively engage traditional indigenous communities in Suriname, South America, in public health research. The approach used a combination of Participatory Action Research methods in which Western researchers became participating observers in an indigenous-led research initiative. The Wayana communities of Puleowime (Apetina) and Kawemhakan (Anapayke) defined a single objective: determine for themselves whether they are at risk from exposure to mercury (Hg) contamination. Community members collected hair samples for analysis. Hair samples were analyzed using a portable Hg analyzer. Individual, community and hazard quotient indices were used to quantify risk. Results showed the Wayana were at a high lifetime risk of adverse effects from exposure to Hg. This study showed that the community-led approach is an effective way Westerners can engage indigenous communities and address serious public health threats. While factors that appealed to indigenous communities were identified, obstacles inherent to Western research methodology were also encountered

  19. Effect of nitrate, acetate and hydrogen on native perchlorate-reducing microbial communities and their activity in vadose soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa-Inoue, Mamie; Jien, Mercy; Yang, Kun; Rolston, Dennis E.; Hristova, Krassimira R.; Scow, Kate M.

    2011-01-01

    Effect of nitrate, acetate and hydrogen on native perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) was examined by conducting microcosm tests using vadose soil collected from a perchlorate-contaminated site. The rate of perchlorate reduction was enhanced by hydrogen amendment and inhibited by acetate amendment, compared to unamendment. Nitrate was reduced before perchlorate in all amendments. In hydrogen-amended and unamended soils, nitrate delayed perchlorate reduction, suggesting the PRB preferentially use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In contrast, nitrate eliminated the inhibitory effect of acetate amendment on perchlorate reduction and increased the rate and the extent, possibly because the preceding nitrate reduction/denitrification decreased the acetate concentration which was inhibitory to the native PRB. In hydrogen-amended and unamended soils, perchlorate reductase gene (pcrA) copies, representing PRB densities, increased with either perchlorate or nitrate reduction, suggesting either perchlorate or nitrate stimulates growth of the PRB. In contrast, in acetate-amended soil pcrA increased only when perchlorate was depleted: a large portion of the PRB may have not utilized nitrate in this amendment. Nitrate addition did not alter the distribution of the dominant pcrA clones in hydrogen-amended soil, likely because of the functional redundancy of PRB as nitrate-reducers/denitrifiers, whereas acetate selected different pcrA clones from those with hydrogen amendment. PMID:21284679

  20. Metabolic Roles of Uncultivated Bacterioplankton Lineages in the Northern Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, J Cameron; Seitz, Kiley W; Baker, Brett J; Temperton, Ben; Gillies, Lauren E; Rabalais, Nancy N; Henrissat, Bernard; Mason, Olivia U

    2017-09-12

    Marine regions that have seasonal to long-term low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, sometimes called "dead zones," are increasing in number and severity around the globe with deleterious effects on ecology and economics. One of the largest of these coastal dead zones occurs on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), which results from eutrophication-enhanced bacterioplankton respiration and strong seasonal stratification. Previous research in this dead zone revealed the presence of multiple cosmopolitan bacterioplankton lineages that have eluded cultivation, and thus their metabolic roles in this ecosystem remain unknown. We used a coupled shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach to determine the metabolic potential of Marine Group II Euryarchaeota , SAR406, and SAR202. We recovered multiple high-quality, nearly complete genomes from all three groups as well as candidate phyla usually associated with anoxic environments- Parcubacteria (OD1) and Peregrinibacteria Two additional groups with putative assignments to ACD39 and PAUC34f supplement the metabolic contributions by uncultivated taxa. Our results indicate active metabolism in all groups, including prevalent aerobic respiration, with concurrent expression of genes for nitrate reduction in SAR406 and SAR202, and dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonia and sulfur reduction by SAR406. We also report a variety of active heterotrophic carbon processing mechanisms, including degradation of complex carbohydrate compounds by SAR406, SAR202, ACD39, and PAUC34f. Together, these data help constrain the metabolic contributions from uncultivated groups in the nGOM during periods of low DO and suggest roles for these organisms in the breakdown of complex organic matter. IMPORTANCE Dead zones receive their name primarily from the reduction of eukaryotic macrobiota (demersal fish, shrimp, etc.) that are also key coastal fisheries. Excess nutrients contributed from anthropogenic activity

  1. Nativity differences in allostatic load by age, sex, and Hispanic background from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R. Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allostatic load (AL, an index of biological “wear and tear” on the body from cumulative exposure to stress, has been little studied in US Hispanics/Latinos. We investigated AL accumulation patterns by age, sex, and nativity in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 15,830 Hispanic/Latinos of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent aged 18–74 years, 77% of whom were foreign-born. Consistent with the conceptualization of AL, we developed an index based upon 16 physiological markers that spanned the cardiometabolic, parasympathetic, and inflammatory systems. We computed mean adjusted AL scores using log-linear models across age-groups (18–44, 45–54, 55–74 years, by sex and nativity status. Among foreign-born individuals, differences in AL by duration of residence in the US (<10, ≥10 years and age at migration (<24, ≥24 years were also examined. In persons younger than 55 years old, after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors, AL was highest among US-born individuals, intermediate in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos with longer duration in the US (≥10 years, and lowest among those with shorter duration in the US (<10 years (P<0.0001 for increasing trend. Similarly, AL increased among the foreign-born with earlier age at immigration. These trends were less pronounced among individuals ≥55 years of age. Similar patterns were observed across all Hispanic/Latino heritage groups (P for interaction=0.5. Our findings support both a “healthy immigrant” pattern and a loss of health advantage over time among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse heritages. Keywords: Allostatic load, Physiological dysregulation, Hispanic ethnicity, Nativity, Age patterns

  2. Native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the

  3. A diagnostic evaluation model for complex research partnerships with community engagement: The partnership for Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP) model

    OpenAIRE

    Trotter, Robert T.; Laurila, Kelly; Alberts, David; Huenneke, Laura F.

    2014-01-01

    Complex community oriented health care prevention and intervention partnerships fail or only partially succeed at alarming rates. In light of the current rapid expansion of critically needed programs targeted at health disparities in minority populations, we have designed and are testing an “logic model plus” evaluation model that combines classic logic model and query based evaluation designs (CDC, NIH, Kellogg Foundation) with advances in community engaged designs derived from industry-univ...

  4. Bridging the gap between tribal risk perceptions and scientific decision-making for uranium legacy sites located in Native American communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, C.; Waugh, W.; Glenn, E.; Chief, K.

    2017-12-01

    There are approximately 15,000 abandoned uranium mines (AUM) in the western United States, of which 500 AUMs are located in the Colorado Plateau Four-Corners region. Uranium mill tailings, referred to as legacy waste, compromise the largest volume of any category of radioactive waste in the nation. Today, the Department of Energy Legacy Management is responsible for long-term stewardship and maintenance of inactive uranium processing sites that have been remediated to prevent further migration and exposure of tailings to the environment and surrounding communities. In collaboration with the DOE-LM, I am investigating the impact of climate change and community adaptation on the long-term performance of disposal cell covers for uranium mill tailings located in Native American communities, as well as how these communities have adapted to and perceive these areas. I am interested in how abiotic engineered cell covers may be candidate sites for future conversion to vegetated evapotranspirative caps for arid to semi-arid climates. The objectives are to: 1) assess above-ground tissue of plants encroaching engineered cell covers for concentrations of uranium, radium, selenium, molybdenum, thorium, arsenic, lead, and manganese and compare them to control sites; 2) determine if above-cell plant tissue is accumulating to toxic levels that may create an exposure pathway, 3) identify climate scenarios for site locations and determine how short-and long-scale climate projections will influence spatial and temporal plant distribution for specific woody species; and 4) evaluate the risk perceptions of Hopi villages located five miles downstream of one site location. To date, risk perception and stakeholder outreach to the Hopi communities has been absent. This study will help inform how land use, water use, and sustenance practices may contribute to environmental health disparities for one of the few tribes that has maintained physical continuity within their ancestral homeland.

  5. Quantification of carbon and phosphorus co-limitation in bacterioplankton: new insights on an old topic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Dorado-García

    Full Text Available Because the nature of the main resource that limits bacterioplankton (e.g. organic carbon [C] or phosphorus [P] has biogeochemical implications concerning organic C accumulation in freshwater ecosystems, empirical knowledge is needed concerning how bacteria respond to these two resources, available alone or together. We performed field experiments of resource manipulation (2×2 factorial design, with the addition of C, P, or both combined in two Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems with contrasting trophic states (oligotrophy vs. eutrophy and trophic natures (autotrophy vs. heterotrophy, measured as gross primary production:respiration ratio. Overall, the two resources synergistically co-limited bacterioplankton, i.e. the magnitude of the response of bacterial production and abundance to the two resources combined was higher than the additive response in both ecosystems. However, bacteria also responded positively to single P and C additions in the eutrophic ecosystem, but not to single C in the oligotrophic one, consistent with the value of the ratio between bacterial C demand and algal C supply. Accordingly, the trophic nature rather than the trophic state of the ecosystems proves to be a key feature determining the expected types of resource co-limitation of bacteria, as summarized in a proposed theoretical framework. The actual types of co-limitation shifted over time and partially deviated (a lesser degree of synergism from the theoretical expectations, particularly in the eutrophic ecosystem. These deviations may be explained by extrinsic ecological forces to physiological limitations of bacteria, such as predation, whose role in our experiments is supported by the relationship between the dynamics of bacteria and bacterivores tested by SEMs (structural equation models. Our study, in line with the increasingly recognized role of freshwater ecosystems in the global C cycle, suggests that further attention should be focussed on the biotic

  6. Asháninka medicinal plants: a case study from the native community of Bajo Quimiriki, Junín, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luziatelli Gaia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asháninka Native Community Bajo Quimiriki, District Pichanaki, Junín, Peru, is located only 4 km from a larger urban area and is dissected by a major road. Therefore the loss of traditional knowledge is a main concern of the local headman and inhabitants. The present study assesses the state of traditional medicinal plant knowledge in the community and compares the local pharmacopoeia with the one from a related ethnic group. Methods Fieldwork was conducted between July and September 2007. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, collection of medicinal plants in the homegardens, forest walks, a walk along the river banks, participant observation, informal conversation, cross check through voucher specimens and a focus group interview with children. Results Four-hundred and two medicinal plants, mainly herbs, were indicated by the informants. The most important families in terms of taxa were Asteraceae, Araceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Piperaceae. Eighty-four percent of the medicinal plants were wild and 63% were collected from the forest. Exotics accounted to only 2% of the medicinal plants. Problems related to the dermal system, digestive system, and cultural belief system represented 57% of all the medicinal applications. Some traditional healers received non-indigenous customers, using their knowledge as a source of income. Age and gender were significantly correlated to medicinal plant knowledge. Children knew the medicinal plants almost exclusively by their Spanish names. Sixteen percent of the medicinal plants found in this community were also reported among the Yanesha of the Pasco Region. Conclusions Despite the vicinity to a city, knowledge on medicinal plants and cultural beliefs are still abundant in this Asháninka Native Community and the medicinal plants are still available in the surroundings. Nevertheless, the use of Spanish names for the medicinal plants and the shift of

  7. A diagnostic evaluation model for complex research partnerships with community engagement: the partnership for Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Robert T; Laurila, Kelly; Alberts, David; Huenneke, Laura F

    2015-02-01

    Complex community oriented health care prevention and intervention partnerships fail or only partially succeed at alarming rates. In light of the current rapid expansion of critically needed programs targeted at health disparities in minority populations, we have designed and are testing an "logic model plus" evaluation model that combines classic logic model and query based evaluation designs (CDC, NIH, Kellogg Foundation) with advances in community engaged designs derived from industry-university partnership models. These approaches support the application of a "near real time" feedback system (diagnosis and intervention) based on organizational theory, social network theory, and logic model metrics directed at partnership dynamics, combined with logic model metrics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dental therapists linked to improved dental outcomes for Alaska Native communities in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Lenaker, Dane; Mancl, Lloyd; Dunbar, Matthew; Babb, Michael

    2018-01-29

    Dental Health Aide Therapists (DHATs) have been part of the dental workforce in Alaska's Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) Delta since 2006. They are trained to provide preventive and restorative care such as filling and extractions. In this study, we evaluated community-level dental outcomes associated with DHATs. This was a secondary data analysis of Alaska Medicaid and electronic health record data for individuals in Alaska's YK Delta (2006-2015). The independent variable was the number of DHAT treatment days in each community. Child outcomes were preventive care, extractions, and general anesthesia. Adult outcomes were preventive care and extractions. We estimated Spearman partial correlation coefficients to test our hypotheses that increased DHAT treatment days would be associated with larger proportions utilizing preventive care and smaller proportions receiving extractions at the community-level. DHAT treatment days were positively associated with preventive care utilization and negatively associated with extractions for children and adults (P justice. © 2018 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in well water from a native community of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama-Carmona, Ana Paola; Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Pablo; Álvarez-Valencia, Luis Humberto; Castro-Espinoza, Luciano; Balderas-Cortés, José de Jesús; Mondaca-Fernández, Iram; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Meza-Montenegro, María Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are gastrointestinal disease-causing organisms transmitted by the fecal-oral route, zoonotic and prevalent in all socioeconomic segments with greater emphasis in rural communities. The goal of this study was to assess the risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis of Potam dwellers consuming drinking water from communal well water. To achieve the goal, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was carried out as follows: (a) identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water samples by information collection rule method, (b) assessment of exposure to healthy Potam residents, (c) dose-response modelling, and (d) risk characterization using an exponential model. All well water samples tested were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The QMRA results indicate a mean of annual risks of 99:100 (0.99) for cryptosporidiosis and 1:1 (1.0) for giardiasis. The outcome of the present study may drive decision-makers to establish an educational and treatment program to reduce the incidence of parasite-borne intestinal infection in the Potam community, and to conduct risk analysis programs in other similar rural communities in Mexico.

  10. Effects of water stress, organic amendment and mycorrhizal inoculation on soil microbial community structure and activity during the establishment of two heavy metal-tolerant native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, D A; Roldán, A; Azcón, R; Caravaca, F; Bååth, E

    2012-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the effect of water stress on plant growth and development of two native plant species (Tetraclinis articulata and Crithmum maritimum) and on microbial community composition and activity in the rhizosphere soil, following the addition of an organic amendment, namely sugar beet residue (SBR), and/or the inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, namely Glomus mosseae, in a non-sterile heavy metal-polluted soil. The AM inoculation did not have any significant effect on plant growth of both species. In T. articulata, SBR increased shoot growth, foliar P, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), fungi-related PLFA, AM fungi-related neutral lipid fatty acid, bacterial gram-positive/gram-negative PLFA ratio and the β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities. SBR and AM inoculation increased phosphatase activity in T. articulata plants grown under drought conditions. In both plants, there was a synergistic effect between AM inoculation and SBR on mycorrhizal colonisation under drought conditions. In C. maritimum, the increase produced by the SBR on total amounts of PLFA, bacterial gram-positive-related PLFA and bacterial gram-negative-related PLFA was considerably higher under drought conditions. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of the amendment with regard to stimulating microbial communities and plant growth was largely limited by drought, particularly for plant species with a low degree of mycorrhizal colonisation.

  11. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; Warshauer, F. R.; Price, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  12. National Conference on High Blood Pressure Control in Native American Communities (2nd, Tulsa, Oklahoma, November 6-7, 1980). Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    As part of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program effort, the conference explored the impact of high blood pressure (hypertension) on Native Americans. Participants, including health professionals, health service consumers, and volunteers providing health services to Native Americans, discussed these issues: traditional Native American…

  13. Diversity of endophytic and rhizoplane bacterial communities associated with exotic Spartina alterniflora and native mangrove using Illumina amplicon sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Liao, Dan; Hu, Anyi; Wang, Han; Chen, Jinsheng; Khan, Sardar; Su, Jianqiang; Li, Hu

    2015-10-01

    Root-associated microbial communities are very important for biogeochemical cycles in wetland ecosystems and help to elaborate the mechanisms of plant invasions. In the estuary of Jiulong River (China), Spartina alterniflora has widely invaded Kandelia obovata-dominated habitats, offering an opportunity to study the influence of root-associated bacteria. The community structures of endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria associated with selected plant species were investigated using the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing technique. The diversity indices of bacteria associated with the roots of S. alterniflora were higher than those of the transition stands and K. obovata monoculture. Using principal coordinate analysis with UniFrac metrics, the comparison of β-diversity showed that all samples could be significantly clustered into 3 major groups, according to the bacteria communities of origin. Four phyla, namely Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes, were enriched in the rhizoplane of both salt marsh plants, while they shared higher abundances of Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria among endophytic bacteria. Members of the phyla Spirochaetes and Chloroflexi were found among the endophytic bacteria of S. alterniflora and K. obovata, respectively. One of the interesting findings was that endophytes were more sensitive in response to plant invasion than were rhizosphere bacteria. With linear discriminate analysis, we found some predominant rhizoplane and endophytic bacteria, including Methylococcales, Pseudoalteromonadacea, Clostridium, Vibrio, and Desulfovibrio, which have the potential to affect the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. Thus, the results provide clues to the isolation of functional bacteria and the effects of root-associated microbial groups on S. alterniflora invasions.

  14. Investigation of bacterioplankton communities in aquatic karst pools in Bärenschacht cave of Bernese Oberland

    OpenAIRE

    Shabarova, T; Pernthaler, J

    2009-01-01

    Karst subterraneous aquifers are highly diverse in structure and very important in the formation of ground water, which is the main source of freshwater supply for a significant proportion of the world’s population. Microorganisms can play an important role in karstification, carbon cycle and element mobility, but so far little is known about the bacteria of aquatic karst ecosystems. In this study, karst pools with differing hydrology in the Bärenschacht cave of the Bernese Oberla...

  15. Basin-scale seasonal changes in marine free-living bacterioplankton community in the Ofunato Bay

    KAUST Repository

    Reza, Md. Shaheed; Kobiyama, Atsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Yuri; Ikeda, Daisuke; Mizusawa, Nanami; Ikeo, Kazuho; Sato, Shigeru; Ogata, Takehiko; Jimbo, Mitsuru; Kudo, Toshiaki; Kaga, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Shiho; Naiki, Kimiaki; Kaga, Yoshimasa; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi; Watabe, Shugo

    2018-01-01

    by Nitrosopumilus), as their relative abundance was very low during spring and summer but high during winter. In contrast, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria appeared to be higher in abundance during high-temperature periods. It was also revealed that Bacteroidetes

  16. The Design of a Multi-component Intervention to Promote Screening Mammography in an American Indian Community: The Native Women's Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Engelman, Kimberly; Stoner, Julie A.; Thomas, Cara; Joseph, Stephanie; Li, Ji; Blackwater, Cecily; Henderson, J. Neil; Carson, L. D.; Neely, Norma; Edwards, Tewanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is an important public health issue among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women in the US. This article describes the design and implementation of a culturally sensitive intervention to promote breast health among AI/AN women through a hybrid model that incorporates clinical and community-based approaches. This is one of the first studies using this model addressing breast cancer disparities among AI/AN populations in the US. Methods The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as the guiding framework of the intervention and Community Based Participatory Research was the primary vehicle for the intervention planning and implementation. Three preliminary studies took place that aimed to identify qualitatively and quantitatively what deterred or encouraged AI women to get past or future mammograms. The research results were shared with community members who, through a prioritization process, identified the theoretical focus of the intervention and its corresponding activities. The priority population consisted of AI women ages 40–74, with no recent mammogram, and no breast cancer history. Results The intervention centered on the promotion of social modeling and physician recommendation. The main corresponding activities included enhancing patient-physician communication about screening mammography through a structured dialogue, receipt of a breast cancer brochure, participation in an inter-generational discussion group, and a congratulatory bracelet upon receipt of a mammogram. Environmental and policy related changes also were developed. Conclusion Creating a theory-based, culturally-sensitive intervention through tribal participatory research is a challenging approach towards eliminating breast cancer disparities among hard-to-reach populations. PMID:29546205

  17. Native plants fare better against an introduced competitor with native microbes and lower nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya Shivega, W; Aldrich-Wolfe, Laura

    2017-01-24

    While the soil environment is generally acknowledged as playing a role in plant competition, the relative importance of soil resources and soil microbes in determining outcomes of competition between native and exotic plants has rarely been tested. Resilience of plant communities to invasion by exotic species may depend on the extent to which native and exotic plant performance are mediated by abiotic and biotic components of the soil. We used a greenhouse experiment to compare performance of two native prairie plant species and one exotic species, when grown in intraspecific competition and when each native was grown in interspecific competition with the exotic species, in the presence and absence of a native prairie soil community, and when nitrogen availability was elevated or was maintained at native prairie levels. We found that elevated nitrogen availability was beneficial to the exotic species and had no effect on or was detrimental to the native plant species, that the native microbial community was beneficial to the native plant species and either had no effect or was detrimental to the exotic species, and that intraspecific competition was stronger than interspecific competition for the exotic plant species and vice-versa for the natives. Our results demonstrate that soil nitrogen availability and the soil microbial community can mediate the strength of competition between native and exotic plant species. We found no evidence for native microbes enhancing the performance of the exotic plant species. Instead, loss of the native soil microbial community appears to reinforce the negative effects of elevated N on native plant communities and its benefits to exotic invasive species. Resilience of plant communities to invasion by exotic plant species is facilitated by the presence of an intact native soil microbial community and weakened by anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  18. Prevalence Of Traditional Medications Through Native Floral Elements Among Tribal Communities Of Kachchh Arid Ecosystem, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta B Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This communication deals with the documentation of 38 medicinal plant species used for indigenous medications by local villagers such as pastoralists (Maldharis and farmers of Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR, Bhuj Taluka, Kachchh District, Gujarat, India. Traditional knowledge on medicinally important plant species has been recorded from tribal communities through semi-questionnaire survey using an open-ended questionnaire datasheets. The response from the people interviewed clearly indicated that most of the villagers were fully or partially dependent on the forest produce for their primary healthcare requirements as well as for curing chronic or acute disorders and ailments. Plant parts such as bark, flowers, fruits, gum, latex, leaves, roots, seeds, and spadix, were found to be used for the cure of bronchitis, cold, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, earache, fever, fistula, gastric troubles, hypothermia, indigestion, piles, skin diseases, snake-bites, toothache, and ulcer. The most predominantly used 10 plant species in the area are Asparagus racemosus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Capparis cartilaginea, Cassia auriculata, Commiphora wightii, Enicostema axillare, Fagonia schweienfurthii, Maytenus emerginata, Tinospora cordifolia, and Tribulus terrestris. An enumeration of these 38 medicinal plant species is presented; each species is cited with correct scientific names, vernacular names, ailments treated for, mode of preparation and dosages. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 184-201 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9221

  19. [Prevalence and relation of dyspepsia to irritable bowel syndrome in a native community of the Peruvian jungle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioso, Walter H; Donaires Mendoza, Ninoska; Bacilio Zerpa, Carlos; Ganoza Gallardo, Christian; León Barúa, Raúl

    2002-01-01

    Dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are two of the most frequent syndromes in gastroenterology. However, very few epidemiological studies have been conducted in Peru and none in the Peruvian Jungle. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome in a jungle community of Peru and the recurrence percentage of these syndromes. A sample was taken from 231 persons randomly selected using the "home by home" method, according to the map provided by Punta del Este Medical Center (city of Tarapoto - Department of San Mart n). The persons, considered to best typify the general population of the city, took two tests (Dyspepsia Test and Manning Test) that were previously validated during the months of January through March 1999. The prevalence of dyspepsia was 37.6%, and that of IBS, 22.0%. From those with dyspepsia, 38% had also IBS. From those with IBS, 65% reported dyspepsia symptoms. Prevalence of IBS was higher in individuals with dyspepsia (37.9%) than in individuals without dyspepsia (12.5% p< 0.01). The prevalence of both dyspepsia and IBS decreases as age increases. A statistically significant difference related to ethnicity was found in individuals with IBS. Dyspepsia and ethnicity were associated in 31.4% to individuals having both pathologies (p< 0.0001 and OR=4.28). The dyspepsia/IBS ratio was 1.7/1. There is a high prevalence of IBS and dyspepsia in the study population. The high association found between both syndromes may be due to the common etiopathogenic mechanisms they share such as: a visceral hypersensibility due to peripheral or central mechanisms, bowel motility disturbances or parasitosis. Our study suggests that both dyspepsia and IBS are the manifestations of the same digestive disorder, which has not been fully clarified yet.

  20. Individual wealth rank, community wealth inequality, and self-reported adult poor health: a test of hypotheses with panel data (2002-2006) from native Amazonians, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nyberg, Colleen; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg; Reyes-García, Victoria; Huanca, Tomás; Leonard, William R; McDade, Thomas W; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent; Godoy, Ricardo

    2010-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that economic inequality in a community harms the health of a person. Using panel data from a small-scale, preindustrial rural society, we test whether individual wealth rank and village wealth inequality affects self-reported poor health in a foraging-farming native Amazonian society. A person's wealth rank was negatively but weakly associated with self-reported morbidity. Each step up/year in the village wealth hierarchy reduced total self-reported days ill by 0.4 percent. The Gini coefficient of village wealth inequality bore a positive association with self-reported poor health that was large in size, but not statistically significant. We found small village wealth inequality, and evidence that individual economic rank did not change. The modest effects may have to do with having used subjective rather than objective measures of health, having small village wealth inequality, and with the possibly true modest effect of a person's wealth rank on health in a small-scale, kin-based society. Finally, we also found that an increase in mean individual wealth by village was related to worse self-reported health. As the Tsimane' integrate into the market economy, their possibilities of wealth accumulation rise, which may affect their well-being. Our work contributes to recent efforts in biocultural anthropology to link the study of social inequalities, human biology, and human-environment interactions.

  1. A Native American community with a 7% cesarean delivery rate: does case mix, ethnicity, or labor management explain the low rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Lawrence; Leeman, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Cesarean delivery rates vary widely across populations. Studying communities with low rates of cesarean delivery may identify practices that can lower the cesarean rate. A population-based historical cohort study included all pregnant women (N = 1132) from 1992 through 1996 in a predominantly Native American region of northwestern New Mexico known to have a high prevalence of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The outcomes studied included delivery type (eg, cesarean, operative vaginal, spontaneous vaginal), indication for cesarean delivery, presence of obstetrical risk factors, and use of labor induction or augmentation. The cesarean delivery rate of the study group (7.3%) was only 35% of the 1996 US rate of 20.7%. Among study participants, the relative risk of a primary cesarean delivery for dystocia was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.35). Trial of labor after cesarean delivery was attempted by 93% of study participants compared with 42% of women nationwide in 1994. The cesarean delivery rates for women with diabetes in pregnancy (11.5% versus 35.4%) and preeclampsia (14.8% versus 37.4%) were significantly lower than nationwide rates. Case-mix analysis comparison with a standardized population and comparison of standard (ie, term, singleton, vertex) primiparous women demonstrate that the low rate of cesarean delivery was not because of a lower prevalence of risk factors. The community's low rate of cesarean delivery is primarily the result of a decreased use of cesarean delivery for labor dystocia and an almost universal acceptance of trial of labor after cesarean delivery. Cultural attitudes toward childbirth, design of the perinatal system, and genetic factors also may explain the low rate of cesarean delivery.

  2. High water-use efficiency and growth contribute to success of non-native Erodium cicutarium in a Sonoran Desert winter annual community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Sarah; Gremer, Jennifer R; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Angert, Amy L; Huxman, Travis E; Venable, D Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    The success of non-native, invasive species may be due to release from natural enemies, superior competitive abilities, or both. In the Sonoran Desert, Erodium cicutarium has increased in abundance over the last 30 years. While native species in this flora exhibit a strong among-species trade-off between relative growth rate and water-use efficiency, E. cicutarium seems to have a higher relative growth rate for its water-use efficiency value relative to the pattern across native species. This novel trait combination could provide the non-native species with a competitive advantage in this water-limited environment. To test the hypothesis that E. cicutarium is able to achieve high growth rates due to release from native herbivores, we compared the effects of herbivory on E. cicutarium and its native congener, Erodium texanum. We also compared these two species across a range of environmental conditions, both in a common garden and in two distinct seasons in the field, using growth analysis, isotopic compositions and leaf-level gas exchange. Additionally, we compared the competitive abilities of the two Erodium species in a greenhouse experiment. We found no evidence of herbivory to either species. Physiological measurements in a common environment revealed that E. cicutarium was able to achieve high growth rates while simultaneously controlling leaf-level water loss. Non-native E. cicutarium responded to favourable conditions in the field with greater specific leaf area and leaf area ratio than native E. texanum. The non-native Erodium was a stronger competitor than its native congener in a greenhouse competition experiment. The ability to maintain relatively higher values of water-use efficiency:relative growth rate in comparison to the native flora may be what enables E. cictarium to outcompete native species in both wet and dry years, resulting in an increase in abundance in the highly variable Sonoran Desert.

  3. The hidden seasonality of the rare biosphere in coastal marine bacterioplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura

    2015-04-08

    Summary: Rare microbial taxa are increasingly recognized to play key ecological roles, but knowledge of their spatio-temporal dynamics is lacking. In a time-series study in coastal waters, we detected 83 bacterial lineages with significant seasonality, including environmentally relevant taxa where little ecological information was available. For example, Verrucomicrobia had recurrent maxima in summer, while the Flavobacteria NS4, NS5 and NS2b clades had contrasting seasonal niches. Among the seasonal taxa, only 4 were abundant and persistent, 20 cycled between rare and abundant and, remarkably, most of them (59) were always rare (contributing <1% of total reads). We thus demonstrate that seasonal patterns in marine bacterioplankton are largely driven by lineages that never sustain abundant populations. A fewer number of rare taxa (20) also produced episodic \\'blooms\\', and these events were highly synchronized, mostly occurring on a single month. The recurrent seasonal growth and loss of rare bacteria opens new perspectives on the temporal dynamics of the rare biosphere, hitherto mainly characterized by dormancy and episodes of \\'boom and bust\\', as envisioned by the seed-bank hypothesis. The predictable patterns of seasonal reoccurrence are relevant for understanding the ecology of rare bacteria, which may include key players for the functioning of marine ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems. PMID:19707620

  5. Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2009-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A+PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems.

  6. The diversity of the Limnohabitans genus, an important group of freshwater bacterioplankton, by characterization of 35 isolated strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasalický, Vojtěch; Jezbera, Jan; Hahn, M.W.; Šimek, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2013), e58209 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0015; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/10/0566; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB060702; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB060901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bacterial microdiversity * aquatic * Limnohabitans * freshwater * bacterioplankton Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  7. Effects of decreased resource availability, protozoan grazing and viral impact on a structure of bacterioplankton assemblage in a canyon-shaped reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horňák, Karel; Mašín, Michal; Jezbera, Jan; Bettarel, Y.; Nedoma, Jiří; Sime-Ngando, T.; Šimek, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2005), s. 315-327 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0003 Grant - others:PICS(FR) project 1111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : bacterioplankton * protozoan grazing * viral lysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.787, year: 2005

  8. Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera) from the invasive range outperform those from the native range with an active soil community or phosphorus fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Two mechanisms that have been proposed to explain success of invasive plants are unusual biotic interactions, such as enemy release or enhanced mutualisms, and increased resource availability. However, while these mechanisms are usually considered separately, both may be involved in successful invasions. Biotic interactions may be positive or negative and may interact with nutritional resources in determining invasion success. In addition, the effects of different nutrients on invasions may vary. Finally, genetic variation in traits between populations located in introduced versus native ranges may be important for biotic interactions and/or resource use. Here, we investigated the roles of soil biota, resource availability, and plant genetic variation using seedlings of Triadica sebifera in an experiment in the native range (China). We manipulated nitrogen (control or 4 g/m(2)), phosphorus (control or 0.5 g/m(2)), soil biota (untreated or sterilized field soil), and plant origin (4 populations from the invasive range, 4 populations from the native range) in a full factorial experiment. Phosphorus addition increased root, stem, and leaf masses. Leaf mass and height growth depended on population origin and soil sterilization. Invasive populations had higher leaf mass and growth rates than native populations did in fresh soil but they had lower, comparable leaf mass and growth rates in sterilized soil. Invasive populations had higher growth rates with phosphorus addition but native ones did not. Soil sterilization decreased specific leaf area in both native and exotic populations. Negative effects of soil sterilization suggest that soil pathogens may not be as important as soil mutualists for T. sebifera performance. Moreover, interactive effects of sterilization and origin suggest that invasive T. sebifera may have evolved more beneficial relationships with the soil biota. Overall, seedlings from the invasive range outperformed those from the native range, however

  9. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  10. Serological and molecular typing of HIV type 1 infection in the Tiriyo tribe, a native Indian community of the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Luiz F A; Vallinoto, Antonio C R; Souza, Maria I M; Azevedo, Vania N; Ishak, Marluisa O G; Ishak, Ricardo

    2006-12-01

    The seroprevalence and the occurrence of an HIV-1 subtype was assessed in blood samples of the Tiriyo tribe. Antibody was found in 0.6% and the molecular analysis of the pro region detected the emergence of a subtype B for the first time in a native Indian tribe of the Amazon region of Brazil.

  11. EXAMINATION OF HABITAT USE AND DISPERSAL OF EXOTIC BULLFROGS AND THEIR POTENTIAL IMPACT ON NATIVE AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) are exotic in the west and have been implicated in the decline of western pond turtles and native ranids. Habitat alterations that favor bullfrogs have enhanced populations, particularly in agricultural areas such as the Willamette Valley. I will pres...

  12. Native Geoscience: Pathways to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Seielstad, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent accumulated knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have embraced the critical need of understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the continued growth of Native earth and environmental scientists The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on building and maintaining Native/Tribal students in earth and environmental sciences; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native leadership development in earth and environmental sciences; and 4) forward thinking for creating proaction collaborations addressing sustainable environmental, educational and social infrastructures for all people. Humboldt State University (HSU) and the University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment and the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. Unique collaborations are emerging "bridging" Native people across geographic areas in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive earth/environmental knowledge of tribal people. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native earth system students and scientists.

  13. Native Teen Voices: adolescent pregnancy prevention recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L

    2008-01-01

    American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.

  14. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  15. The effect of increased loads of dissolved organic matter on estuarine microbial community composition and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, Sachia J.; Rowe, Owen; Jakobsen, Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ele...... supply to the Baltic Sea will be efficiently mineralized by microbes. This will have consequences for bacterioplankton and phytoplankton community composition and function, and significantly affect nutrient biogeochemistry....

  16. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  17. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

  18. Germination phenology of some Great Basin native annual forb species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara A. Forbis

    2010-01-01

    Great Basin native plant communities are being replaced by the annual invasive cheatgrass Bromus tectorum. Cheatgrass exhibits a germination syndrome that is characteristic of facultative winter annuals. Although perennials dominate these communities, native annuals are present at many sites. Germination timing is often an important predictor of competitive...

  19. The Native Comic Book Project: native youth making comics and healthy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Michelle; Manuelito, Brenda; Nass, Carrie; Chock, Tami; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-04-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives have traditionally used stories and drawings to positively influence the well-being of their communities. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a curriculum that trains Native youth leaders to plan, write, and design original comic books to enhance healthy decision making. Project staff developed the Native Comic Book Project by adapting Dr. Michael Bitz's Comic Book Project to incorporate Native comic book art, Native storytelling, and decision-making skills. After conducting five train-the-trainer sessions for Native youth, staff were invited by youth participants to implement the full curriculum as a pilot test at one tribal community site in the Pacific Northwest. Implementation was accompanied by surveys and weekly participant observations and was followed by an interactive meeting to assess youth engagement, determine project acceptability, and solicit suggestions for curriculum changes. Six youths aged 12 to 15 (average age = 14) participated in the Native Comic Book Project. Youth participants stated that they liked the project and gained knowledge of the harmful effects of commercial tobacco use but wanted better integration of comic book creation, decision making, and Native storytelling themes. Previous health-related comic book projects did not recruit youth as active producers of content. This curriculum shows promise as a culturally appropriate intervention to help Native youth adopt healthy decision-making skills and healthy behaviors by creating their own comic books.

  20. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Indian Health Board) Welcome to the Native Health Database. Please enter your search terms. Basic Search Advanced ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Tutorial Video The NHD has made ...

  1. Epistemologies in the Text of Children's Books: Native- and non-Native-authored books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Bang, Megan; Medin, Douglas; Marin, Ananda; Leddon, Erin; Waxman, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    An examination of artifacts provides insights into the goals, practices, and orientations of the persons and cultures who created them. Here, we analyze storybook texts, artifacts that are a part of many children's lives. We examine the stories in books targeted for 4-8-year-old children, contrasting the texts generated by Native American authors versus popular non-Native authors. We focus specifically on the implicit and explicit 'epistemological orientations' associated with relations between human beings and the rest of nature. Native authors were significantly more likely than non-Native authors to describe humans and the rest of nature as psychologically close and embedded in relationships. This pattern converges well with evidence from a behavioral task in which we probed Native (from urban inter-tribal and rural communities) and non-Native children's and adults' attention to ecological relations. We discuss the implications of these differences for environmental cognition and science learning.

  2. Impacts of combined overfishing and oil spills on the plankton trophodynamics of the West Florida shelf over the last half century of 1965-2011: A two-dimensional simulation analysis of biotic state transitions, from a zooplankton- to a bacterioplankton-modulated ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. J.; Lenes, J. M.; Darrow, B.; Parks, A.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2016-03-01

    Over 50 years of multiple anthropogenic perturbations, Florida zooplankton stocks of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico declined ten-fold, with increments of mainly dominant toxic dinoflagellate harmful algal blooms (HABs), rather than diatoms, and a shift in loci of nutrient remineralization and oxygen depletion by bacterioplankton, from the sea floor to near surface waters. Yet, lytic bacterial biomass and associated ammonification only increased at most five-fold over the same time period, with consequently little indication of new, expanded "dead zones" of diatom-induced hypoxia. After bacterial lysis of intact cells of these increased HABs, the remaining residues of zooplankton biomass decrements evidently instead exited the water column as malign aerosolized HAB asthma triggers, correlated by co-traveling mercury aerosols, within wind-borne sea sprays. To unravel the causal mechanisms of these inferred decadal food web transitions, a 36-state variable plankton model of algal, bacterial, protozoan, and copepod component communities replicated daily time series of each plankton group's representatives on the West Florida shelf (WFS) during 1965-2011. At the lower phytoplankton trophic levels, 52% of the ungrazed HAB increments, between 1965-1967 and 2001-2002 before recent oil spills, remained in the water column to kill fishes and fuel bacterioplankton. But, another 48% of the WFS primary production then left the ocean's surface as a harbinger of increased public health hazards during continuing sea spray exports of salts, HAB toxins, and Hg poisons. Following the Deepwater Horizon petroleum releases in 2010, little additional change of element partition among the altered importance of WFS food web components of the trophic pyramid then pertained between 2001-2002 and 2010-2011, despite when anomalous upwelled nutrient supplies instead favored retrograde benign, oil-tolerant diatoms over the HABs during 2010. Indeed, by 2011 HABs were back, with biomass

  3. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  4. Potential for nest site competition between native and exotic tree squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Edelman; John L. Koprowski; Sadie R. Bertelsen

    2009-01-01

    In communities where strong interspecific competition between native species is lacking, exotic and native species often exhibit intense resource competition resulting in decline of native populations. We examined the potential for interspecific competition for nest sites between co-occurring native Mt. Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis...

  5. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  6. Seed rain under native and non-native tree species in the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Garcia, Andrea; Chinea, J Danilo

    2014-09-01

    Seed dispersal is a fundamental process in plant ecology and is of critical importance for the restoration of tropical communities. The lands of the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), formerly under agriculture, were abandoned in the 1970s and colonized mainly by non-native tree species of degraded pastures. Here we described the seed rain under the most common native and non-native trees in the refuge in an attempt to determine if focal tree geographic origin (native versus non-native) influences seed dispersal. For this, seed rain was sampled for one year under the canopies of four native and four non-native tree species common in this refuge using 40 seed traps. No significant differences were found for the abundance of seeds, or their diversity, dispersing under native versus non-native focal tree species, nor under the different tree species. A significantly different seed species composition was observed reaching native versus non-native focal species. However, this last result could be more easily explained as a function of distance of the closest adults of the two most abundantly dispersed plant species to the seed traps than as a function of the geographic origin of the focal species. We suggest to continue the practice of planting native tree species, not only as a way to restore the community to a condition similar to the original one, but also to reduce the distances needed for effective dispersal.

  7. Latitudinal Trends in Abundant and Rare Bacterioplankton Community Structure and Diversity in Surface Waters of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, W. H.; Moss, J. A.; Snyder, R.; Pakulski, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    To fully comprehend planktonic diversity and the roles of microorganisms in global biogeochemical cycling, we must recognize the distribution patterns of planktonic taxa and phylotypes and their controlling environmental factors. To advance this understanding, Illumina sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used to evaluate latitudinal patterns of bacterial taxa as well as diversity in surface waters in the Pacific Ocean. Surface water was collected at 37 stations at 370 km intervals in a 16,200 km transect from 71 N to 68 S in the Pacific Ocean from August to November 2003. These samples were collected on Sterivex filters and kept continuously at -80 C until recent processing which produced over 200k reads per site, half of which were discernible down to the genus level. Bray-Curtis analysis of known genera produced 4 major clusters—sub-Arctic/Arctic, tropical, temperate, and sub-Antarctic/Antarctic. Analysis of only the rare (< 1%) genera produced the same 4 major clusters, although the clusters were most congruent in their geographic distribution when only the abundant taxa were included. Key phyla responsible for these groupings include genera of the Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, and as expected, include the pronounced presence of Prochlorococcus in the temperate and equatorial regions. However, many robust trends such as unipolar and bipolar distribution in both the abundant (≥1%) and rare (< 1%) genera within phyla Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Barteriodetes, were also apparent. The data sheds light on distribution patterns of the Oleibacter, Thalassobius, Olleya, Salegentibacter, Ulvibacter, Bizionia, Pirellula, and many other additional, understudied genera. Of the 655 identified genera, no significant gradients in gamma diversity were apparent when 12 commonly used species and phylogenetic indices were applied.

  8. QUANTIFICATION OF RECA GENE EXPRESSION AS AN INDICATOR OF REPAIR POTENTIAL IN MARINE BACTERIOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES OF ANTARCTICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine bacteria in surface waters must cope daily with the damaging effects of exposure to solar radiation (containing both UV-A and UV-B wavelengths), which produces lesions in their DNA. As the stratospheric ozone layer is depleted, these coping mechanisms are likely to play an...

  9. Distribution and production of plankton communities in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea. I. Phytoplankton and bacterioplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemann, Lasse; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Kragh, Theis

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of biomass and productivity are often associated with ocean frontal systems. The Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ) in the southern Sargasso Sea shows pronounced and stable thermal fronts, but little is known about the ecological consequences of these hydrographic features....... With the aim of improving the understanding of physical and lower trophic level processes in the area, we carried out field studies of physical, chemical and biological characteristics along 3 transects crossing thermal fronts associated with the STCZ in March to April 2007. Thermal and chemical stratification...

  10. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podadera, Diego S.; Engel, Vera L.; Parrotta, John A.; Machado, Deivid L.; Sato, Luciane M.; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species ( Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  11. Water in the Native World: Hydrological Impacts of Future Land Use and Climate Change in the Lumbee River Watershed and Implications for Ecosystems and Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, R. E.; Singh, N.; Painter, J.; Sikes, J. A.; Vose, J. M.; Wear, D. N.; Martin, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    In the coming decades, the southeastern US will likely experience substantial shifts in land use due to population growth, food and energy production, and other factors. In the same period, climate change is expected to alter ecohydrological processes in terrestrial landscapes while contributing to further land use change. Increasingly, these changes will challenge the ability of the region's freshwater resources to support natural ecosystems and human communities. The impacts of land use and climate change on water are of particular concern to rural indigenous communities of the southeastern US. For these communities, the cultural significance of land and water, together with historical legacies of discrimination, marginalization and other factors, combine to create unique vulnerabilities to environmental change. Assessments of land use and climate impacts on water resources of the southeastern US tend to focus on quantity and quality concerns of large cities or on waters of special economic concern (e.g. estuaries and coastal fisheries). The potential impacts of land use and climate change on American Indian communities are largely overlooked or unknown. With this in mind, we used a semi-distributed hydrological model (SWAT) to assess impacts of climate and land use change on streamflow regimes in the Lumbee (aka Lumber) River, North Carolina (USA). This coastal plain blackwater river is a significant natural and cultural resource for indigenous people of the Lumbee Tribe, and its watershed, containing extensive riparian wetlands and agriculture-dominated uplands, is home to more than 30,000 tribal citizens. We ran SWAT with statistically downscaled output from four general circulation models (GCMs) for the mid-21st century (RCP8.5 scenario), together with a mid-century land use scenario from the US Forest Service's Southern Forest Futures Project. We used these inputs to simulate daily streamflows on the Lumbee River for the 2040-2060 period with uncertainty

  12. Bacterioplankton assemblages in coastal ponds reflect the influence of hydrology and geomorphological setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Megan J; Kavazos, Christopher R J; Bernasconi, Rachele; Czarnik, Robert; Horwitz, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    The factors that shape microbial community assembly in aquatic ecosystems have been widely studied; yet it is still unclear how distinct communities within a connected landscape influence one another. Coastal lakes are recipients of, and thus are connected to, both marine and terrestrial environments. Thus, they may host microbial assemblages that reflect the relative degree of influence by, and connectivity to, either system. In order to address this idea, we interrogated microbial community diversity at 49 sites in seven ponds in two seasons in the Lake MacLeod basin, a system fed by seawater flowing inland through underground karst. Environmental and spatial variation within ponds explain <9% of the community structure, while identity of the pond that samples were taken from explains 50% of community variation. That is, ponds each host distinct assemblages despite similarities in size, environment and position in the landscape, indicating a dominant role for local species sorting. The ponds contain a substantial amount of previously unknown microbial taxa, reflecting the unusual nature of this inland system. Rare marine taxa, possibly dispersed from seawater assemblages via the underground karst connection, are abundant within the inland system, suggesting an important role for regional dispersal within the metacommunities. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  14. Native plants for roadside revegetation : field evaluations and best practices identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Establishing native vegetation communities on roadsides can be a proactive approach to sustainable roadways. Revegetation : with native species is the preferred management practice on Idaho roadways. : The environmental and economic benefits of : inc...

  15. Top-down and bottom-up induced shifts in bacterial abundance, production and community composition in an experimentally divided humic lake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grossart, H. P.; Jezbera, Jan; Horňák, Karel; Hutalle, K. M. L.; Buck, U.; Šimek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2008), s. 635-652 ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : in situ hybridization * meso-eutrophic reservoir * dissolved organic carbon * fresh-water reservoir * bacterioplankton community * dystrophic lake Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.707, year: 2008

  16. Pollution Impacts on Bacterioplankton Diversity in a Tropical Urban Coastal Lagoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloto, Gigliola R. B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Chaia, Catia; Lima, Joyce L.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Clementino, Maysa M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a great number of published studies addressing estuarine, freshwater and marine bacterial diversity, few have examined urban coastal lagoons in tropical habitats. There is an increasing interest in monitoring opportunistic pathogens as well as indigenous microbial community members in these water bodies by current molecular and microbiological approaches. In this work, bacterial isolates were obtained through selective plate dilution methods to evaluate antibiotic resistances. In addition, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared from environmental waters and mixed cultures grown in BHI medium inoculated with Jacarepaguá lagoon waters. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses showed distinct community profiles between environmental communities from each studied site and their cultured counterparts. A total of 497 bacterial sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 245 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% similarity. CCA diagrams showcased how several environmental variables affect the distribution of 18 bacterial orders throughout the three distinct habitats. UniFrac metrics and Venn diagrams revealed that bacterial communities retrieved through each experimental approach were significantly different and that only one OTU, closely related to Vibrio cholerae, was shared between them. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from most sampled environments, fifty percent of which showed antibiotic resistance. PMID:23226484

  17. Pollution impacts on bacterioplankton diversity in a tropical urban coastal lagoon system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigliola R B Salloto

    Full Text Available Despite a great number of published studies addressing estuarine, freshwater and marine bacterial diversity, few have examined urban coastal lagoons in tropical habitats. There is an increasing interest in monitoring opportunistic pathogens as well as indigenous microbial community members in these water bodies by current molecular and microbiological approaches. In this work, bacterial isolates were obtained through selective plate dilution methods to evaluate antibiotic resistances. In addition, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared from environmental waters and mixed cultures grown in BHI medium inoculated with Jacarepaguá lagoon waters. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analyses showed distinct community profiles between environmental communities from each studied site and their cultured counterparts. A total of 497 bacterial sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 245 operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% similarity. CCA diagrams showcased how several environmental variables affect the distribution of 18 bacterial orders throughout the three distinct habitats. UniFrac metrics and Venn diagrams revealed that bacterial communities retrieved through each experimental approach were significantly different and that only one OTU, closely related to Vibrio cholerae, was shared between them. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from most sampled environments, fifty percent of which showed antibiotic resistance.

  18. Net heterotrophy in Faroe Islands clear-water lakes: causes and consequences for bacterioplankton and phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pålsson, C.; Kritzberg, E. S.; Christoffersen, K.

    2005-01-01

    conditions and hence low primary production in combination with an input of allochthonous C with a relatively high availability. 4. Mixotrophic phytoplankton (Cryptomonas spp., Dinobryon spp. and flagellates cf. Ochromonas spp.) constituted a large percentage of the plankton community (17-83%), possibly...

  19. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  20. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  1. Close Link Between Harmful Cyanobacterial Dominance and Associated Bacterioplankton in a Tropical Eutrophic Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iame A. Guedes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria tend to become the dominant phytoplankton component in eutrophic freshwater environments during warmer seasons. However, general observations of cyanobacterial adaptive advantages in these circumstances are insufficient to explain the prevalence of one species over another in a bloom period, which may be related to particular strategies and interactions with other components of the plankton community. In this study, we present an integrative view of a mixed cyanobacterial bloom occurring during a warm, rainy period in a tropical hydropower reservoir. We used high-throughput sequencing to follow temporal shifts in the dominance of cyanobacterial genera and shifts in the associated heterotrophic bacteria community. The bloom occurred during late spring-summer and included two distinct periods. The first period corresponded to Microcystis aeruginosa complex (MAC dominance with a contribution from Dolichospermum circinale; this pattern coincided with high water retention time and low transparency. The second period corresponded to Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Synechococcus spp. dominance, and the reservoir presented lower water retention time and higher water transparency. The major bacterial phyla were primarily Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes. Temporal shifts in the dominance of cyanobacterial genera were not only associated with physical features of the water but also with shifts in the associated heterotrophic bacteria. The MAC bloom was associated with a high abundance of Bacteroidetes, particularly Cytophagales. In the second bloom period, Planctomycetes increased in relative abundance, five Planctomycetes OTUs were positively correlated with Synechococcus or C. raciborskii OTUs. Our results suggest specific interactions of the main cyanobacterial genera with certain groups of the heterotrophic bacterial community. Thus, considering biotic

  2. Tidal switch on metabolic activity: Salinity induced responses on bacterioplankton metabolic capabilities in a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thottathil, S.D.; Balachandran, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Nair, S.

    , P.A., 2002. Compositional change in free-living bacterial communities along a salinity gradient in two temperate estuaries. Limnology and Oceanography 47, 453e470. Cottrell, M.T., Kirchman, D.L., 2000. Natural assemblages of marine proteo- bacteria...) according to a salinity gradient. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 24, 95e108. Pullin, M.J., Bertilsson, S., Goldstone, J.V., Voelker, B.M., 2004. Effects of sunlight and hydroxyl radical on dissolved organic matter: bacterial growth efficiency...

  3. Unpacking Race, Culture, and Class in Rural Alaska: Native and Non-Native Multidisciplinary Professionals' Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubar, Roe; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to unpack notions of class, culture, and race as they relate to multidisciplinary team (MDT) professionals and their perceptions of prevalence in child sexual abuse cases in Native and non-Native rural Alaska communities. Power and privilege within professional settings is significant for all social work professionals…

  4. Biogeography of pelagic bacterioplankton across an antagonistic temperature-salinity gradient in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David

    2011-12-01

    The Red Sea is a unique marine ecosystem with contrasting gradients of temperature and salinity along its north-to-south axis. It is an extremely oligotrophic environment that is characterized by perpetual year-round water column stratification, high annual solar irradiation, and negligible riverine and precipitation inputs. In this study, we investigated whether the contemporary environmental conditions shape community assemblages by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in surface water samples collected from the northeastern half of this water body. A combined total of 1855 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered from the \\'small-cell\\' and \\'large-cell\\' fractions. Here, a few major OTUs affiliated with Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria accounted for â93% of all sequences, whereas a tail of \\'rare\\' OTUs represented most of the diversity. OTUs allied to Surface 1a/b SAR11 clades and Prochlorococcus related to the high-light-adapted (HL2) ecotype were the most widespread and predominant sequence types. Interestingly, the frequency of taxa that are typically found in the upper mesopelagic zone was significantly elevated in the northern transects compared with those in the central, presumably as a direct effect of deep convective mixing in the Gulf of Aqaba and water exchange with the northern Red Sea. Although temperature was the best predictor of species richness across all major lineages, both spatial and environmental distances correlated strongly with phylogenetic distances. Our results suggest that the bacterial diversity of the Red Sea is as high as in other tropical seas and provide evidence for fundamental differences in the biogeography of pelagic communities between the northern and central regions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Biogeography of pelagic bacterioplankton across an antagonistic temperature-salinity gradient in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David; Antunes, Andre; Brune, Andreas; Stingl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The Red Sea is a unique marine ecosystem with contrasting gradients of temperature and salinity along its north-to-south axis. It is an extremely oligotrophic environment that is characterized by perpetual year-round water column stratification, high annual solar irradiation, and negligible riverine and precipitation inputs. In this study, we investigated whether the contemporary environmental conditions shape community assemblages by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in surface water samples collected from the northeastern half of this water body. A combined total of 1855 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered from the 'small-cell' and 'large-cell' fractions. Here, a few major OTUs affiliated with Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria accounted for â93% of all sequences, whereas a tail of 'rare' OTUs represented most of the diversity. OTUs allied to Surface 1a/b SAR11 clades and Prochlorococcus related to the high-light-adapted (HL2) ecotype were the most widespread and predominant sequence types. Interestingly, the frequency of taxa that are typically found in the upper mesopelagic zone was significantly elevated in the northern transects compared with those in the central, presumably as a direct effect of deep convective mixing in the Gulf of Aqaba and water exchange with the northern Red Sea. Although temperature was the best predictor of species richness across all major lineages, both spatial and environmental distances correlated strongly with phylogenetic distances. Our results suggest that the bacterial diversity of the Red Sea is as high as in other tropical seas and provide evidence for fundamental differences in the biogeography of pelagic communities between the northern and central regions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Mixing of water masses caused by a drifting iceberg affects bacterial activity, community composition and substrate utilization capability in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinasquet, Julie; Richert, Inga; Logares, Ramiro; Yager, Patricia; Bertilsson, Stefan; Riemann, Lasse

    2017-06-01

    The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean. An elevated bacterial production and a different community composition were observed in iceberg-influenced waters relative to the undisturbed water column nearby. These major differences were confirmed in short-term incubations with bromodeoxyuridine followed by CARD-FISH. Furthermore, one-week bottle incubations amended with inorganic nutrients and carbon substrates (a mix of substrates, glutamine, N-acetylglucosamine, or pyruvate) revealed contrasting capacity of bacterioplankton to utilize specific carbon substrates in the iceberg-influenced waters compared with the undisturbed site. Our study demonstrates that the hydrographical perturbations introduced by a drifting iceberg can affect activity, composition, and substrate utilization capability of marine bacterioplankton. Consequently, in a context of global warming, increased frequency of drifting icebergs in polar regions holds the potential to affect carbon and nutrient biogeochemistry at local and possibly regional scales. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Analysis of bacterial core communities in the central Baltic by comparative RNA-DNA-based fingerprinting provides links to structure-function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettar, Ingrid; Christen, Richard; Höfle, Manfred G

    2012-01-01

    Understanding structure-function links of microbial communities is a central theme of microbial ecology since its beginning. To this end, we studied the spatial variability of the bacterioplankton community structure and composition across the central Baltic Sea at four stations, which were up to 450 km apart and at a depth profile representative for the central part (Gotland Deep, 235 m). Bacterial community structure was followed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprints using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis. Species composition was determined by sequence analysis of SSCP bands. High similarities of the bacterioplankton communities across several hundred kilometers were observed in the surface water using RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints. In these surface communities, the RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints resulted in very different pattern, presumably indicating large difference between the active members of the community as represented by RNA-based fingerprints and the present members represented by the DNA-based fingerprints. This large discrepancy changed gradually over depth, resulting in highly similar RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints in the anoxic part of the water column below 130 m depth. A conceivable mechanism explaining this high similarity could be the reduced oxidative stress in the anoxic zone. The stable communities on the surface and in the anoxic zone indicate the strong influence of the hydrography on the bacterioplankton community structure. Comparative analysis of RNA- and DNA-based community structure provided criteria for the identification of the core community, its key members and their links to biogeochemical functions.

  8. Excess labile carbon promotes the expression of virulence factors in coral reef bacterioplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Anny; Neave, Matthew J; Haroon, Mohamed Fauzi; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Rädecker, Nils; Wild, Christian; Gärdes, Astrid; Voolstra, Christian R

    2018-01-01

    Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many coral reefs, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in reef waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on coral reefs are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to coral reef degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to assess gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows. We assembled 27 near-complete (>70%) microbial genomes through metagenomic sequencing and determined associated expression patterns through metatranscriptomic sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis revealed a shift in the central carbohydrate metabolism and the induction of metalloproteases, siderophores, and toxins in Alteromonas, Erythrobacter, Oceanicola, and Alcanivorax populations. Sugar-specific induction of virulence factors suggests a mechanistic link for the switch from a commensal to a pathogenic lifestyle, particularly relevant during increased algal cover and human-derived pollution on coral reefs. Although an explicit test remains to be performed, our data support the hypothesis that increased availability of specific sugars changes net microbial community activity in ways that increase the emergence and abundance of opportunistic pathogens, potentially contributing to coral reef degradation.

  9. Excess labile carbon promotes the expression of virulence factors in coral reef bacterioplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Cardenas, Anny

    2017-09-12

    Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many coral reefs, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in reef waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on coral reefs are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to coral reef degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to assess gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows. We assembled 27 near-complete (>70%) microbial genomes through metagenomic sequencing and determined associated expression patterns through metatranscriptomic sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis revealed a shift in the central carbohydrate metabolism and the induction of metalloproteases, siderophores, and toxins in Alteromonas, Erythrobacter, Oceanicola, and Alcanivorax populations. Sugar-specific induction of virulence factors suggests a mechanistic link for the switch from a commensal to a pathogenic lifestyle, particularly relevant during increased algal cover and human-derived pollution on coral reefs. Although an explicit test remains to be performed, our data support the hypothesis that increased availability of specific sugars changes net microbial community activity in ways that increase the emergence and abundance of opportunistic pathogens, potentially contributing to coral reef degradation.

  10. Excess labile carbon promotes the expression of virulence factors in coral reef bacterioplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Cardenas, Anny; Neave, Matthew J.; Haroon, Mohamed; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Radecker, Nils; Wild, Christian; Gä rdes, Astrid; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many coral reefs, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in reef waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on coral reefs are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to coral reef degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to assess gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows. We assembled 27 near-complete (>70%) microbial genomes through metagenomic sequencing and determined associated expression patterns through metatranscriptomic sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis revealed a shift in the central carbohydrate metabolism and the induction of metalloproteases, siderophores, and toxins in Alteromonas, Erythrobacter, Oceanicola, and Alcanivorax populations. Sugar-specific induction of virulence factors suggests a mechanistic link for the switch from a commensal to a pathogenic lifestyle, particularly relevant during increased algal cover and human-derived pollution on coral reefs. Although an explicit test remains to be performed, our data support the hypothesis that increased availability of specific sugars changes net microbial community activity in ways that increase the emergence and abundance of opportunistic pathogens, potentially contributing to coral reef degradation.

  11. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways in our natural sacred homelands and environments. Tribal cultures are the expression of deep understandings of geosciences shared through oral histories, language and ceremonies. Today, Native people as all people are living in a definite time of change. The developing awareness of "change" brings forth an immense opportunity to expand and elevate Native geosciences knowledge, specifically in the areas of earth, wind, fire and water. At the center of "change" is the need to balance the needs of the people with the needs of the environment. Native tradition and our inherent understanding of what is "sacred above is sacred below" is the foundation for an emerging multi-faceted approach to increasing the representation of Natives in geosciences. The approach is also a pathway to assist in Tribal language revitalization, connection of oral histories and ceremonies as well as building an intergenerational teaching/learning community. Humboldt State University, Sinte Gleska University and South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in partnership with Northern California (Hoopa, Yurok, & Karuk) and Great Plains (Lakota) Tribes have nurtured Native geosciences learning communities connected to Tribal Sacred Sites and natural resources. These sites include the Black Hills (Mato Paha, Mato Tiplia, Hinhan Kaga Paha, Mako Sica etc.), Klamath River (Ishkêesh), and Hoopa Valley (Natinixwe). Native geosciences learning is centered on the themes of earth, wind, fire and water and Native application of remote sensing technologies. Tribal Elders and Native geoscientists work collaboratively providing Native families in-field experiential intergenerational learning opportunities which invite participants to immerse themselves spiritually, intellectually, physically and emotionally in the experiences. Through this immersion and experience Native students and families strengthen the circle of our future Tribal

  12. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  13. Direct and Indirect Influence of Non-Native Neighbours on Pollination and Fruit Production of a Native Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Montero-Castaño

    Full Text Available Entomophilous non-native plants can directly affect the pollination and reproductive success of native plant species and also indirectly, by altering the composition and abundance of floral resources in the invaded community. Separating direct from indirect effects is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying the impacts of non-native species on recipient communities.Our aims are: (a to explore both the direct effect of the non-native Hedysarum coronarium and its indirect effect, mediated by the alteration of floral diversity, on the pollinator visitation rate and fructification of the native Leopoldia comosa and (b to distinguish whether the effects of the non-native species were due to its floral display or to its vegetative interactions.We conducted field observations within a flower removal experimental setup (i.e. non-native species present, absent and with its inflorescences removed at the neighbourhood scale.Our study illustrates the complexity of mechanisms involved in the impacts of non-native species on native species. Overall, Hedysarum increased pollinator visitation rates to Leopoldia target plants as a result of direct and indirect effects acting in the same direction. Due to its floral display, Hedysarum exerted a direct magnet effect attracting visits to native target plants, especially those made by the honeybee. Indirectly, Hedysarum also increased the visitation rate of native target plants. Due to the competition for resources mediated by its vegetative parts, it decreased floral diversity in the neighbourhoods, which was negatively related to the visitation rate to native target plants. Hedysarum overall also increased the fructification of Leopoldia target plants, even though such an increase was the result of other indirect effects compensating for the observed negative indirect effect mediated by the decrease of floral diversity.

  14. Multi-generational perspectives on health, cancer, and biomedicine: Northeastern Native American perspectives shaped by mistrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Mary K; Weiner, Diane; Samos, Markos; Wampler, Nina S

    2011-08-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death among Native Americans, who have-some of the poorest cancer survival rates of any race/ethnicity nationwide. Considering the cancer burden experienced by Native Americans and the lack of research exploring Northeastern tribal communities' cancer experiences, a qualitative investigation of Native Americans' cancer coping strategies and health education needs was undertaken. Data were collected through group (74) and individual (17) interviews with 91 Native Americans from the Northeast. Relationships between intergenerational mistrust, individual mistrust, and utilization of biomedical health care systems for Northeastern Native Americans are presented. Trust is central to the provider-patient relationship and the foundation for developing and maintaining connections to Native American communities. Intergenerational mistrust, shaped by historical and contemporary issues of prejudice and miscommunication, affect cancer health experiences and views. Approaches for reducing mistrust and building relationships between health care providers and Native communities are highlighted.

  15. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  16. Short-Term Response of Native Flora to the Removal of Non-Native Shrubs in Mixed-Hardwood Forests of Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Shields

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While negative impacts of invasive species on native communities are well documented, less is known about how these communities respond to the removal of established populations of invasive species. With regard to invasive shrubs, studies examining native community response to removal at scales greater than experimental plots are lacking. We examined short-term effects of removing Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle and other non-native shrubs on native plant taxa in six mixed-hardwood forests. Each study site contained two 0.64 ha sample areas—an area where all non-native shrubs were removed and a reference area where no treatment was implemented. We sampled vegetation in the spring and summer before and after non-native shrubs were removed. Cover and diversity of native species, and densities of native woody seedlings, increased after shrub removal. However, we also observed significant increases in L. maackii seedling densities and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard cover in removal areas. Changes in reference areas were less pronounced and mostly non-significant. Our results suggest that removing non-native shrubs allows short-term recovery of native communities across a range of invasion intensities. However, successful restoration will likely depend on renewed competition with invasive species that re-colonize treatment areas, the influence of herbivores, and subsequent control efforts.

  17. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  18. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Lortie, C. J.; Lambert, A. M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant ...

  19. Impact of Non-Native Birds on Native Ecosystems: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Albarracin, Valeria L; Amico, Guillermo C; Simberloff, Daniel; Nuñez, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and naturalization of non-native species is one of the most important threats to global biodiversity. Birds have been widely introduced worldwide, but their impacts on populations, communities, and ecosystems have not received as much attention as those of other groups. This work is a global synthesis of the impact of nonnative birds on native ecosystems to determine (1) what groups, impacts, and locations have been best studied; (2) which taxonomic groups and which impacts have greatest effects on ecosystems, (3) how important are bird impacts at the community and ecosystem levels, and (4) what are the known benefits of nonnative birds to natural ecosystems. We conducted an extensive literature search that yielded 148 articles covering 39 species belonging to 18 families -18% of all known naturalized species. Studies were classified according to where they were conducted: Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America, South America, Islands of the Indian, of the Pacific, and of the Atlantic Ocean. Seven types of impact on native ecosystems were evaluated: competition, disease transmission, chemical, physical, or structural impact on ecosystem, grazing/ herbivory/ browsing, hybridization, predation, and interaction with other non-native species. Hybridization and disease transmission were the most important impacts, affecting the population and community levels. Ecosystem-level impacts, such as structural and chemical impacts were detected. Seven species were found to have positive impacts aside from negative ones. We provide suggestions for future studies focused on mechanisms of impact, regions, and understudied taxonomic groups.

  20. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattling Leaf, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, James Rattling Leaf of Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Indian Country. As a thirty-year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. Sinte Gleska University (SGU) has initiated the development of a Geospatial Education Curriculum project. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building is a two-year project that entails a disciplined approach towards the development of a relevant Geospatial academic curriculum. This project is designed to meet the educational and land management needs of the Rosebud Lakota Tribe through the utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). In conjunction with the strategy and progress of this academic project, a formal presentation and demonstration of the SGU based Geospatial software RezMapper software will exemplify an innovative example of state of the art information technology. RezMapper is an interactive CD software package focused toward the 21 Lakota communities on the Rosebud Reservation that utilizes an ingenious concept of multimedia mapping and state of the art data compression and presentation. This ongoing development utilizes geographic data, imagery from space, historical aerial photography and cultural features such as historic Lakota documents, language, song, video and historical photographs in a multimedia fashion. As a tangible product, RezMapper will be a project deliverable tool for use in the classroom and to a broad range of learners.

  1. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  2. Epidemic pox and malaria in native forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C. T.; Dusek, R. J.; Iko, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies by Warner in the 1950’s and van Riper in the 1970’s identified disease as a potential limiting factor in the distribution and abundance of Hawaii’s native forest birds. Mosquito-transmitted protozoan and viral infections caused by malarial parasites and pox virus were especially significant. Both organisms were introduced to the islands after the arrival of Europeans and are thought to have affected avian communities the same way that measles devastated native Hawaiian peoples.

  3. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  4. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    assured water supplies and hydroelectricity constrains the opportunities for rehabilitation and limits the management objectives to focus either on restoring predam physical processes or recovering native fish fauna and/or recovering native plant communities.

  5. Seasonal and spatial distribution of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region: density, biomass, cellular volume and morphologic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnólia Fernandes Florêncio de Araújo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial fluctuations of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region (Pitimbu River and Jiqui Lake, RN were studied during the dry and the rainy periods. The bacterial abundance varied from 2.67 to 5.1 Cells10(7mL-1 and did not show a typical temporal variation, presenting only small oscillations between the rainy and the dry periods. The bacterial biomass varied from 123 µgC L-1 to 269 µgC L-1 in the sampling sites and the average cellular volume varied from 0.12 to 0.54µm³, showing a predominance of the rods. The temperature showed a positive correlation with the cellular volume of the rods (R=0.55; p=0.02 and vibrio (R=0.53; p=0.03. Significant spatial differences of biomass (Mann Whitney: p=0.01 and cellular volume of the morphotypes (Mann Whitney: p=0.003 were found between the sampling sites. The strong positive correlations of the water temperature and oxygen with bacterioplankton showed a probable high bacterial activity in this system.A variação temporal e espacial do bacterioplâncton em um sistema fluvial-lagunar de região tropical foi estudada em períodos seco e chuvoso. As médias da abundância bacteriana variaram de 2,67 a 5,1 x 10(7 e não exibiram uma variação temporal marcante, tendo apresentado apenas pequenas oscilações entre os períodos chuvoso e seco. A biomassa bacteriana variou de 123 µg C L-1 a 269 µg C L-1 entre os locais de coleta e o volume celular médio de 0,12µm³ a 0,54µm³, ocorrendo predominância de bacilos. A temperatura mostrou correlação positiva com o volume celular de bacilos (R=0,55; p=0,02 e de vibriões (R=0,53; p=0,03. Foram encontradas diferenças espaciais significativas de biomassa (Mann Whitney: p=0,01 e volume celular dos morfotipos (Mann Whitney: p= 0,003, entre os locais de coleta. As fortes correlações positivas da temperatura da água e do oxigênio, com o bacterioplâncton, são sugestivas de uma provavelmente elevada atividade

  6. Relationships between coastal bacterioplankton growth rates and biomass production: comparison of leucine and thymidine uptake with single-cell physiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Vidal, Leticia; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2011-02-01

    Specific growth rates of heterotrophic bacterioplankton have been frequently estimated from in situ bacterial production (BP) to biomass (BB) ratios, using a series of assumptions that may result in serious discrepancies with values obtained from predator-free cultures. Here, we used both types of approaches together with a comprehensive assessment of single-cell physiological characteristics (membrane integrity, nucleic acid content, and active respiration) of coastal bacterioplankton during a complete annual cycle (February 2007-January 2008) in the southern Bay of Biscay off Xixón, Spain. Both leucine and thymidine incorporation rates were used in conjunction with empirical tracer to carbon or cells conversion factors (eCFs) to accurately derive BP. Leu and TdR incorporation rates covaried year-round, as did the corresponding eCFs at 0 and 50 m depth. eCFs peaked in autumn, with mean annual values close to the theoretical ones (3.4 kg C mol Leu(-1) and 2.0 × 10(18) cells mol TdR(-1)). Bacterial abundance (0.2-1.5 × 10(6) cells L(-1)) showed a bimodal distribution with maxima in May and October and minima in March. Live (membrane-intact) cells dominated year-round (79-97%), with high nucleic acid cells (42-88%) and actively respiring bacteria (CTC+, 1-16%) showing distinct surface maxima in April and July, respectively. BB (557-1,558 mg C m(-2)) and BP (7-139 mg C m(-2) day(-1)) presented two distinct peaks in spring and autumn, both of similar size due to a strong upwelling event observed in September. Specific growth rates (0.35-3.8 day(-1)) were one order of magnitude higher in predator-free incubations than bacterial turnover rates derived from integrated BP:BB ratios (0.01-0.16 and 0.01-0.09 day(-1), for Leu and TdR, respectively) and were not correlated, probably due to a significant contribution of low activity cells to total standing stocks. The Leu:TdR molar ratio averaged for the water column (6.6-25.5) decreased significantly with higher integrated

  7. Successful aging through the eyes of Alaska Natives: exploring generational differences among Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jordan P

    2010-12-01

    There is very little research on Alaska Native (AN) elders and how they subjectively define a successful older age. The lack of a culturally-specific definition often results in the use of a generic definition that portrays Alaska Native elders as aging less successfully than their White counterparts. However, there is a very limited understanding of a diverse array of successful aging experiences across generations. This research explores the concept of successful aging from an Alaska Native perspective, or what it means to age well in Alaska Native communities. An adapted Explanatory Model (EM) approach was used to gain a sense of the beliefs about aging from Alaska Natives. Research findings indicate that aging successfully is based on local understandings about personal responsibility and making the conscious decision to live a clean and healthy life, abstaining from drugs and alcohol. The findings also indicate that poor aging is often characterized by a lack of personal responsibility, or not being active, not being able to handle alcohol, and giving up on oneself. Most participants stated that elder status is not determined by reaching a certain age (e.g., 65), but instead is designated when an individual has demonstrated wisdom because of the experiences he or she has gained throughout life. This research seeks to inform future studies on rural aging that prioritizes the perspectives of elders to impact positively on the delivery of health care services and programs in rural Alaska.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in native and in replanted Araucaria forest Comunidades de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em floresta nativa e replantada de Araucária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Moreira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia is an important Brazilian conifer, but it is endangered of extinction due to excessive logging. The objective of the present case study was to survey data on the diversity of AMF in Araucaria angustifolia forests, and to learn whether it is possible to discriminate between the AMF communities associated with natural, introduced, and impacted-by-anthropogenic-action ecosystems. Three ecosystems representative of the Campos do Jordão (São Paulo State, Brazil region were selected, as follows: (i a native climax forest, with predominance of Araucaria trees, without anthropogenic interference (NF, (ii Araucaria forest introduced in 1959 (RE, and (iii Araucaria forest introduced in 1958, submitted to accidental fire in July 2001 (RF. Sampling of rhizosphere soil was performed at a 0-20 cm depth around each Araucaria tree, and 2 m from the trunk, in the months of May and October, 2002. AMF spores were separated from the soil, counted, and taxonomically identified, while the roots were evaluated for mycorrhizal colonization. The ecological indices R (Richness, Is (Simpson's dominance index and H (Shannon's diversity index were calculated. All the data were submitted to univariate (two-way ANOVA and correspondence analysis (CA. Considering both samplings and the three areas, twenty-six AMF species were found, distributed among five genera, Acaulospora and Glomus being the most frequent ones. There were no differences among the three areas for R, Is, and H. CA demonstrated that there is a spatial separation among the three areas, and the AMF that preferentially associated with each area.A Araucaria angustifolia é uma importante conífera brasileira, mas encontra-se ameaçada de extinção. Levantaram-se dados sobre a diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs em florestas de Araucaria angustifolia, visando a discriminar entre as comunidades de FMAs associadas com ecossistemas natural, implantado e impactado pela a

  9. Spatial distribution of planktonic bacterial and archaeal communities in the upper section of the tidal reach in Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Limin; Song, Chao; Meng, Shunlong; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jianhong; Li, Dandan; Zhang, Cong; Hu, Gengdong; Chen, Jiazhang

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton and archaeaplankton communities play key roles in the biogeochemical processes of water, and they may be affected by many factors. In this study, we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile planktonic bacterial and archaeal community compositions in the upper section of the tidal reach in Yangtze River. We found that the predominant bacterial phyla in this river section were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, whereas the predominant archaeal classes were Halobacteria, Methanomicrobia, and unclassified Euryarchaeota. Additionally, the bacterial and archaeal community compositions, richnesses, functional profiles, and ordinations were affected by the spatial heterogeneity related to the concentration changes of sulphate or nitrate. Notably, the bacterial community was more sensitive than the archaeal community to changes in the spatial characteristics of this river section. These findings provide important insights into the distributions of bacterial and archaeal communities in natural water habitats. PMID:27966673

  10. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  11. A case study of cultural educational opportunities for Native students: The scientific storyteller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Shelly Ann

    2002-09-01

    This case study examines cultural educational opportunities for Native Alaskan students in Native Alaskan community schools. The study looks at three components of a larger initiative of systemic educational reform efforts for rural Alaskan communities: Native science fairs, summer science camps and involvement of elders. The study focuses on six Native Alaskan students from one Native Alaskan rural village in northern Alaska. The six students ranged from seventh, ninth and eleventh grades. Additionally twenty-one teachers, five Native Alaskan elders and four Alaskan Rural Systemic Initiative staff were interviewed as a part of this study. With interviews, observations, surveys, analysis of science and mathematics achievement scores, this case study will explore the effectiveness of including the science of Native Alaskan culture in the learning environment of rural Alaskan community schools. The outcomes of this study indicate that the self-esteem and attitudes of Native Alaskan students changed positively in relationship to pride in culture, honor of elders, interest in language maintenance and concern for inclusion of Native ways of knowing in school activities as a result of the cultural-rich experiences included in the learning environment. There were no significant results that indicated these types of cultural-rich experiences impacted positive gains in science and mathematics achievement scores of Native Alaskan students. At the end of the study several suggestions are made to improve and consider continued research in this area. It is hoped that this study will provide input to the continued dialogue on Indian Education.

  12. De etiske journalister: Native Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Asger Bach; Jeppesen, Annika; Turunen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the opinions about Native Advertising, among RUC-students who study journalism. In qualitative interviews a number of students point out advantages and disadvantages of Native Advertising as they see them, as well as they reflect upon if they eventually can see themselves work with Native Advertising.A selection of their responds are analysed with the use of a pragmatic argument analysis. The outcome of the analysis is the base of a discussion, which also include the...

  13. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  14. Reflections on Native Ethnography by a Nurse Researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrehman, Munib Said

    2017-03-01

    There are benefits and challenges associated with conducting research in a familiar setting, especially when the researcher is more an insider than an outsider. The aim of this article is to explore the author's experience as a native scholar conducting ethnographic research among the Swahili peoples of Lamu, Kenya. This article focuses on methodological issues related to conducting ethnographic research among the author's own people, including examining the issues of anthropological reflexivity as a native ethnographer and highlighting the author's experiences embodying multiple identities. Native ethnographers must consider the challenges associated with negotiating multiple roles in the research setting, especially in the presence of sociocultural factors such as gender stratification, complex kinship networks, socioeconomic hierarchies, illiteracy, and poverty. Embracing rather than being confused by the multiple levels of understanding native researchers bring to studies of their communities opens up new avenues of research and possibilities.

  15. Poor representation of Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M; Adelson, Wendi J

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how various systems in medicine are limiting representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. Flat and decreasing percentages of Underrepresented Minorities in Medicine (URMM), especially in the black and Native American populations, is concerning for family medicine since members from URMM groups care for minority and underserved populations in greater numbers. Underrepresentation is not only noted in the medical community but also in our medical schools when it comes to numbers of URMM faculty. The changing definition of "disadvantaged" in medical school admissions has also played a part in limiting URMM representation. In addition, the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) excludes black, Latino, and Native American students in greater numbers. The authors support these arguments with evidence from the medical literature. Although unintentional, these systems effectively limit representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine. Effective changes are suggested and can be implemented to ensure that URMM individuals have equal representation in careers in medicine.

  16. Long-term trends of native and non-native fish faunas in the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden, J. D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and the proliferation of non-native fish species threaten the endemic, and highly unique fish faunas of the American Southwest. The present study examines long-term trends (> 160 years of fish species distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin and identifies those native species (n = 28 exhibiting the greatest rates of decline and those non-native species (n = 48 exhibiting the highest rates of spread. Among the fastest expanding invaders in the basin are red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, western mosquitofish (Gambussia affinis and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; species considered to be the most invasive in terms of their negative impacts on native fish communities. Interestingly, non-native species that have been recently introduced (1950+ have generally spread at substantially lower rates as compared to species introduced prior to this time (especially from 1920 to 1950, likely reflecting reductions in human-aided spread of species. We found general agreement between patterns of species decline and extant distribution sizes and official listing status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. ‘Endangered’ species have generally experienced greater declines and have smaller present-day distributions compared to ‘threatened’ species, which in turn have shown greater declines and smaller distributions than those species not currently listed. A number of notable exceptions did exist, however, and these may provide critical information to help guide the future listing of species (i.e., identification of candidates and the upgrading or downgrading of current listed species that are endemic to the Lower Colorado River Basin. The strong correlation between probability estimates of local extirpation and patterns of native species decline and present-day distributions suggest a possible proactive

  17. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  18. Exploring Native and Non-Native Intuitions of Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Dunham, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Asked native and nonnative speakers to give judgments of frequency for near synonyms in second-language lexical sets and compared those responses to modern corpus word counts. Native speakers were able to discern the core word in lexical sets either 77% or 85%, and nonnative speakers at 71% or 79%. (Author/VWL)

  19. Native prairie revegetation on wellsites in southeastern Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulodre, E.; Naeth, A.; Hammermeister, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Native Prairie Revegetation Research Project (NPRRP) was initiated to address concerns about wellsite revegetation of native grassland. The objective was to determine the impact of alternative seeding treatments on soil and vegetation and to produce a quantifiable description of what constitutes successful revegetation of native prairie sites. Four wellsites, each site comprising four revegetation treatment plots and an undisturbed control plot, have been chosen for field study. The revegetation treatments included natural recovery without seeding; current mix dominated by native wheatgrass cultivars; simple mix seeding containing wheatgrasses plus other native grasses, and diverse mix seeding with a mixture of wheatgrasses, other grasses and thirteen perennial forbs. The plant communities were monitored for biomass production, species richness, species composition and a combination of factors which include density, frequency, canopy cover and basal cover, these collectively representing importance value. Nitrogen availability in the soil was also monitored. Results showed high importance values for wheatgrasses for all seeded treatments. Perennial non-wheatgrasses had low importance values in the seeded treatment but higher importance in the control plot. The dominance of wheatgrasses in the seeded treatments resulted in communities that differed significantly from both the control and natural recovery communities, probably due to suppression of the growth of other grasses

  20. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  1. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  2. Contrasting Pollinators and Pollination in Native and Non-Native Regions of Highbush Blueberry Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gibbs

    Full Text Available Highbush blueberry yields are dependent on pollination by bees, and introduction of managed honey bees is the primary strategy used for pollination of this crop. Complementary pollination services are also provided by wild bees, yet highbush blueberry is increasingly grown in regions outside its native range where wild bee communities may be less adapted to the crop and growers may still be testing appropriate honey bee stocking densities. To contrast crop pollination in native and non-native production regions, we sampled commercial 'Bluecrop' blueberry fields in British Columbia and Michigan with grower-selected honey bee stocking rates (0-39.5 hives per ha to compare bee visitors to blueberry flowers, pollination and yield deficits, and how those vary with local- and landscape-scale factors. Observed and Chao-1 estimated species richness, as well as Shannon diversity of wild bees visiting blueberries were significantly higher in Michigan where the crop is within its native range. The regional bee communities were also significantly different, with Michigan farms having greater dissimilarity than British Columbia. Blueberry fields in British Columbia had fewer visits by honey bees than those in Michigan, irrespective of stocking rate, and they also had lower berry weights and a significant pollination deficit. In British Columbia, pollination service increased with abundance of wild bumble bees, whereas in Michigan the abundance of honey bees was the primary predictor of pollination. The proportion of semi-natural habitat at local and landscape scales was positively correlated with wild bee abundance in both regions. Wild bee abundance declined significantly with distance from natural borders in Michigan, but not in British Columbia where large-bodied bumble bees dominated the wild bee community. Our results highlight the varying dependence of crop production on different types of bees and reveal that strategies for pollination improvement in

  3. Contrasting Pollinators and Pollination in Native and Non-Native Regions of Highbush Blueberry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason; Elle, Elizabeth; Bobiwash, Kyle; Haapalainen, Tiia; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-01-01

    Highbush blueberry yields are dependent on pollination by bees, and introduction of managed honey bees is the primary strategy used for pollination of this crop. Complementary pollination services are also provided by wild bees, yet highbush blueberry is increasingly grown in regions outside its native range where wild bee communities may be less adapted to the crop and growers may still be testing appropriate honey bee stocking densities. To contrast crop pollination in native and non-native production regions, we sampled commercial 'Bluecrop' blueberry fields in British Columbia and Michigan with grower-selected honey bee stocking rates (0-39.5 hives per ha) to compare bee visitors to blueberry flowers, pollination and yield deficits, and how those vary with local- and landscape-scale factors. Observed and Chao-1 estimated species richness, as well as Shannon diversity of wild bees visiting blueberries were significantly higher in Michigan where the crop is within its native range. The regional bee communities were also significantly different, with Michigan farms having greater dissimilarity than British Columbia. Blueberry fields in British Columbia had fewer visits by honey bees than those in Michigan, irrespective of stocking rate, and they also had lower berry weights and a significant pollination deficit. In British Columbia, pollination service increased with abundance of wild bumble bees, whereas in Michigan the abundance of honey bees was the primary predictor of pollination. The proportion of semi-natural habitat at local and landscape scales was positively correlated with wild bee abundance in both regions. Wild bee abundance declined significantly with distance from natural borders in Michigan, but not in British Columbia where large-bodied bumble bees dominated the wild bee community. Our results highlight the varying dependence of crop production on different types of bees and reveal that strategies for pollination improvement in the same crop can

  4. Native Music in College Curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Loran

    1986-01-01

    Culminating a 10-year effort to include the study of Native Americans and their music as it reflects cultural realities, life, thought, religion, and history as a choice in requirements for graduation, the elective course, "Native Music of North America," is now recognized at Washington State University as meeting both…

  5. Listening Natively across Perceptual Domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…

  6. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  7. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  8. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analyses, we investigate the potential threat of non-native species to threatened and endangered aquatic animal taxa inhabiting unprotected areas across the continental US. We compiled distribution information from existing publicly available databases at the watershed scale (12-digit hydrologic unit code). We mapped non-native aquatic plant and animal species richness, and an index of cumulative invasion pressure, which weights non-native richness by the time since invasion of each species. These distributions were compared to the distributions of native aquatic taxa (fish, amphibians, mollusks, and decapods) from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) database. We mapped the proportion of species listed by IUCN as threatened and endangered, and a species rarity index per watershed. An overlay analysis identified watersheds experiencing high pressure from non-native species and also containing high proportions of threatened and endangered species or exhibiting high species rarity. Conservation priorities were identified by generating priority indices from these overlays and mapping them relative to the distribution of protected areas across the US. Results/Conclusion

  9. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  10. New Interpretations of Native American Literature: A Survival Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Galen

    1980-01-01

    Uses examples from the work of several Native American authors, including N. Scott Momaday and Leslie Silko, to discuss five unique elements in American Indian literature: reverence for words, dependence on a sense of place, sense of ritual, affirmation of the need for community, and a significantly different world view. (SB)

  11. Treating downy brome with herbicide and seeding with native shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Owen; Carolyn Sieg

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome or cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is one of the most invasive and widespread exotic plants in North America. Downy brome can reduce soil nutrient availability, alter native plant community composition, and increase fire frequencies. The effectiveness of Plateau® imazapic herbicide in reducing downy brome cover has been variable, and there is uncertainty...

  12. 77 FR 66527 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... American dream. In paying tribute to Native American achievements, we must also acknowledge the parts of... to sign the Helping Expedite and Advance Responsible Tribal Homeownership (HEARTH) Act into law... succeed in college and careers. And under the Tribal Law and Order Act and the Safe Indian Communities...

  13. Primarity and biometric indices of native goats in western Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goats are well integrally part of communities' livelihoods in both rural and urban regions in Cameroon. Our study intended to contribute to genetic characterization of native goats populations found in one of the highest populated region based on morphometric indices as developed by Lauvergne and COGNOSAG ...

  14. Alcohol Problems in Alaska Natives: Lessons from the Inuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Spence, John

    2006-01-01

    In this Alaska Native study, cultural "insiders" analyzed problems associated with increased alcohol availability, factors which have reduced alcohol-related problems, and ideas for improving treatment in an Inuit community. Participants described frequent bingeing, blackouts, family violence, suicide, loss of child custody, and feelings…

  15. Promoting Optimal Native Outcomes (PONO) by Understanding Women's Stress Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Okihiro, May; Duke, Lisa; Goebert, Deborah; Ampolos, Lauren; Camacho, Casandra; Shanahan, Natasha; Hishinuma, Earl; Kaholokula, J. Keawe

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence links stress with mental illness and chronic disease. Existing scales of women's stress fail to capture the daily stressors of low-income, rural women. We explored the psychosocial stressors of local women residing in a rural Hawaii community with a large Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population. We recruited women, aged 18?35 years, at a community health center. We convened four focus groups to elicit information about women's stress. We identified key...

  16. The Nativization of the Tribal Workforce: A Vision for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Al-Asfour

    2018-01-01

    Perhaps the most challenging issue facing many Native nations is employment--or rather, the lack of employment opportunity--on or near the reservation. How to best foster economic development for Native American communities has long been discussed at the local, state, and federal levels. Agencies such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) have…

  17. Suppression of invasive topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva by native pike Esox lucius in ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, P.; Mergeay, J.; Vanhove, T.; De Meester, L.; Declerck, S.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    1. Asian topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva has been recognized as a highly invasive cyprinid fish species in Europe that can present risk to native fish communities. 2. The present study aimed to investigate whether a native piscivorous fish, pike Esox lucius, is able to reduce the establishment

  18. Weed biocontrol insects reduce native plant recruitment through second-order apparent competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway

    2008-01-01

    Small-mammal seed predation is an important force structuring native-plant communities that may also influence exotic-plant invasions. In the intermountain West, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are prominent predators of native-plant seeds, but they avoid consuming seeds of certain widespread invasives like spotted knapweed (Centaurea...

  19. Rehabilitating downy brome (Bromus tectorum)-invaded scrublands using imazapic and seeding with native shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Owen; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Catherine A. Gehring

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitation of downy brome-infested shrublands is challenging once this invasive grass dominates native communities. The effectiveness of imazapic herbicide in reducing downy brome cover has been variable, and there is uncertainty about the impacts of imazapic on native species. We used a before-after-control-impact (BACI) field experiment and greenhouse studies to...

  20. Incorporation of an invasive plant into a native insect herbivore food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, Menno; Santos Pimenta, Lúcia P; Lammers, Youri; Steenbergen, Peter J; Flohil, Marco; Beveridge, Nils G P; van Duijn, Pieter T; Meulblok, Marjolein M; Sosef, Nils; van de Ven, Robin; Werring, Ralf; Beentjes, Kevin K; Meijer, Kim; Vos, Rutger A; Vrieling, Klaas; Gravendeel, Barbara; Choi, Young; Verpoorte, Robert; Smit, Chris; Beukeboom, Leo W

    2016-01-01

    The integration of invasive species into native food webs represent multifarious dynamics of ecological and evolutionary processes. We document incorporation of Prunus serotina (black cherry) into native insect food webs. We find that P. serotina harbours a herbivore community less dense but more

  1. Native Students with Problems of Addiction. A Manual for Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Janet Campbell; And Others

    This manual's purpose is to help adult-education instructors to deal with addictive or preaddictive behavior in their Native American students. The impact of alcohol and drug-related social problems has been devastating to Native communities. It is essential to examine broader issues such as cultural identity, ethnic pride, self-confidence, and…

  2. Broadening the Participation of Native Americans in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Watts, Nievita

    Climate change is not a thing of the future. Indigenous people are being affected by climate changes now. Native American Earth scientists could help Native communities deal with both climate change and environmental pollution issues, but are noticeably lacking in Earth Science degree programs. The Earth Sciences produce the lowest percentage of minority scientists when compared with other science and engineering fields. Twenty semi-structured interviews were gathered from American Indian/ Alaska Native Earth Scientists and program directors who work directly with Native students to broaden participation in the field. Data was analyzed using qualitative methods and constant comparison analysis. Barriers Native students faced in this field are discussed, as well as supports which go the furthest in assisting achievement of higher education goals. Program directors give insight into building pathways and programs to encourage Native student participation and success in Earth Science degree programs. Factors which impede obtaining a college degree include financial barriers, pressures from familial obligations, and health issues. Factors which impede the decision to study Earth Science include unfamiliarity with geoscience as a field of study and career choice, the uninviting nature of Earth Science as a profession, and curriculum that is irrelevant to the practical needs of Native communities or courses which are inaccessible geographically. Factors which impede progress that are embedded in Earth Science programs include educational preparation, academic information and counseling and the prevalence of a Western scientific perspective to the exclusion of all other perspectives. Intradepartmental relationships also pose barriers to the success of some students, particularly those who are non-traditional students (53%) or women (80%). Factors which support degree completion include financial assistance, mentors and mentoring, and research experiences. Earth scientists

  3. Seasonality in molecular and cytometric diversity of marine bacterioplankton: the reshuffling of bacterial taxa by vertical mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Garcí a, Francisca C.; Alonso-Sá ez, Laura; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Ló pez-Urrutia, Á ngel

    2015-01-01

    were significantly correlated in samples from a 3.5-year monthly time-series. Both methods showed a consistent cyclical pattern in the diversity of surface bacterial communities with maximal values in winter. The analysis of the highly resolved flow

  4. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  6. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  7. Community Health Warriors: Marshallese Community Health Workers' Perceptions and Experiences with CBPR and Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Rachel S; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Jacob, Christopher J; Lang, Sharlynn; Mamis, Sammie; Ritok, Mandy; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2017-01-01

    Our manuscript highlights the viewpoints and reflections of the native Marshallese community health workers (CHWs) engaged in research with the local Marshallese community in Northwest Arkansas. In particular, this paper documents the vital role Marshallese CHWs play in the success of programs and research efforts. The negative health effects of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands has been passed down through many generations, along with unfavorable attitudes toward the U.S. government and researchers. However, the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach used by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) has allowed the native Marshallese CHWs to become advocates for the Marshallese community. The use of native CHWs has also leveled the power dynamics that can be a barrier to community-based research, and has strengthened trust with community stakeholders. Our paper shows how using Marshallese CHWs can produce positive health outcomes for the Marshallese community.

  8. Self-Determination in Health Research: An Alaska Native Example of Tribal Ownership and Research Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka; Julie A. Beans; Renee F. Robinson; Jennifer L. Shaw; Ileen Sylvester; Denise A. Dillard

    2017-01-01

    Alaska Native (AN) and American Indian (AI) people are underrepresented in health research, yet many decline to participate in studies due to past researcher misconduct. Southcentral Foundation (SCF), an Alaska Native-owned and operated health care organization, is transforming the relationship between researchers and the tribal community by making trust and accountability required features of health research in AN/AI communities. In 1998, SCF assumed ownership from the federal government of ...

  9. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  10. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  11. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  12. ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IMPACTED BY LARGE POULTRY FORMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial communities often respond more rapidly and extensively to environmental change than communities of higher organisms. Thus, characterizing shifts in the structure of native bacterial communities as a response to changes in nutrients, antimicrobials, and invading pathogen...

  13. The Rise of native advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Marius MANIC

    2015-01-01

    Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear ob...

  14. Launching Native Health Leaders: Students as Community–Campus Ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrest, Valerie; James, Rosalina; Madrid, Teresa; Fernandes, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Background Ancient teaching styles such as storytelling can help Native students to navigate the educational pipeline, and become forces for shaping health and research landscapes. Many experience isolation on campuses where these worldviews are marginalized. Objective Launching Native Health Leaders (LNHL) reduces academic isolation by creating an environment where students identify with Native values while exposing them to health and research career opportunities and interdisciplinary professional and community networks. Student experiences and the LNHL mentoring approach are described through phases of the Hero’s Journey, a universal mythic story of human struggle and transformation. Methods Undergraduates were recruited to attend health and research conferences through college and university student service programs. Tribal community representatives led group discussions focused on tribal health issues, and students explored intersections of indigenous knowledge with community-based participatory research (CBPR) and their educational journeys. Results LNHL supported more than sixty students to attend eight professional conferences since 2006 that included themes of cancer control, tribal wellness, and indigenous knowledge systems for health. Students pursuing higher degrees and community service careers participated in conference sessions, small group discussions, and reflection activities with professional and tribal community mentors. Conclusion Mainstream academic systems must include indigenous voices at all levels of leadership to shift the direction of health trends. LNHL builds capacity for community-based efforts by balancing Indigenous and academic mentoring and empowering Native students to navigate their personal journeys and create pathways to serve the needs of Indigenous peoples. Students from other marginalized groups may benefit from an LNHL mentoring approach. PMID:20364081

  15. Retaining American Indian/Alaskan Native Students in Higher Education: A Case Study of One Partnership between the Tohono O'Odham Nation and Pima Community College, Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne E.

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum developers and faculty working with American Indian students in traditional Eurocentric higher education institutional settings face many challenges. These include the development of culturally responsive, community-based programs that meet students' needs, encourage and support student persistence and retention, and integrate…

  16. Single-cell vs. bulk activity properties of coastal bacterioplankton over an annual cycle in a temperate ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    The connections between single-cell activity properties of heterotrophic planktonic bacteria and whole community metabolism are still poorly understood. Here, we show flow cytometry single-cell analysis of membrane-intact (live), high nucleic acid (HNA) content and actively respiring (CTC+) bacteria with samples collected monthly during 2006 in northern Spain coastal waters. Bulk activity was assessed by measuring 3H-Leucine incorporation and specific growth rates. Consistently, different single-cell relative abundances were found, with 60-100% for live, 30-84% for HNA and 0.2-12% for CTC+ cells. Leucine incorporation rates (2-153 pmol L(-1) h(-1)), specific growth rates (0.01-0.29 day(-1)) and the total and relative abundances of the three single-cell groups showed marked seasonal patterns. Distinct depth distributions during summer stratification and different relations with temperature, chlorophyll and bacterial biovolume suggest the existence of different controlling factors on each single-cell property. Pooled leucine incorporation rates were similarly correlated with the abundance of all physiological groups, while specific growth rates were only substantially explained by the percentage of CTC+ cells. However, the ability to reduce CTC proved notably better than the other two single-cell properties at predicting bacterial bulk rates within seasons, suggesting a tight linkage between bacterial individual respiration and biomass production at the community level.

  17. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Julia; Forey, Estelle; Lortie, Christopher J.; Lambert, Adam M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant species are correlated, and ii) to test whether seed ingestion by these worms alters the soil seed bank by evaluating the composition of seeds in casts relative to uningested soil. Sampling locations were selected based on historical land-use practices, including presence or absence of tilling, and revegetation by seed using Phalaris aquatica. Only non-native earthworm species were found, dominated by the invasive European species Aporrectodea trapezoides. Earthworm abundance was significantly higher in the grassland blocks dominated by non-native plant species, and these sites had higher carbon and moisture contents. Earthworm abundance was also positively related to increased emergence of non-native seedlings, but had no effect on that of native seedlings. Plant species richness and total seedling emergence were higher in casts than in uningested soils. This study suggests that there is a potential effect of non-native earthworms in promoting non-native and likely invasive plant species within grasslands, due to seed-plant-earthworm interactions via soil modification or to seed ingestion by earthworms and subsequent cast effects on grassland dynamics. This study supports a growing body of literature for earthworms as ecosystem engineers but highlights the relative importance of considering non-native-native interactions with the associated plant community.

  18. Arthropod assemblages on native and nonnative plant species of a coastal reserve in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Susanne K

    2010-06-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative plant species are a widespread phenomenon. Many studies have shown strong ecological impacts of plant invasions on native plant communities and ecosystem processes. Far fewer studies have examined effects on associated animal communities. From the perspective of a reserve's land management, I addressed the question of whether arthropod assemblages on two nonnative plant species of concern were impoverished compared with those assemblages associated with two predominant native plant species of that reserve. If the nonnative plant species, Conium maculatum L., and Phalaris aquatica L., supported highly depauperate arthropod assemblages compared with the native plant species, Baccharis pilularis De Candolle and Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger, this finding would provide additional support for prioritizing removal of nonnatives and restoration of natives. I assessed invertebrate assemblages at the taxonomic levels of arthropod orders, Coleoptera families, and Formicidae species, using univariate analyses to examine community attributes (richness and abundance) and multivariate techniques to assess arthropod assemblage community composition differences among plant species. Arthropod richness estimates by taxonomic level between native and nonnative vegetation showed varying results. Overall, arthropod richness of the selected nonnative plants, examined at higher taxonomic resolution, was not necessarily less diverse than two of common native plants found on the reserve, although differences were found among plant species. Impacts of certain nonnative plant species on arthropod assemblages may be more difficult to elucidate than those impacts shown on native plants and ecosystem processes.

  19. Plant Communities Suitable for Green Roofs in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gioannini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In extensive green roof settings, plant communities can be more robust than monocultures. In addition, native plants might be hardier and more ecologically sound choices than non-native plants in green roof systems. The objectives of this research were to (1 compare the performance of plant communities with that of monocultures and (2 compare the growth of natives to non-natives in a simulated green roof setting. We conducted a two-year experiment at an outdoor site in a desert environment using four plant morphological types (groundcover, forb, succulent and grass. Native plants selected were Chrysactinia mexicana, Melampodium leucanthum, Euphorbia antisyphilitica, and Nassella tenuissima, and non-natives were Delosperma nubigenum, Stachys byzantina, Sedum kamtschiaticum and Festuca glauca. Plants were assigned randomly to either monoculture or community and grown in 1 m × 1 m custom-built trays filled with 15 cm of a proprietary blend of 50/20/30 lightweight aggregate/sand/compost (by volume. Native forb, Melampodium, in community had greater coverage for four of the five measurements in the first year over native forb in monoculture and non-native forb regardless of setting. Native forb coverage was also greater than non-native forb for three of the four measurements in year 2, regardless of setting. Coverage of native grass was significantly greater than non-native grasses throughout the experiment. Coverage was also greater for eight of nine measurements for native succulent over non-natives succulent. However, non-native groundcover coverage was significantly greater than native groundcover for seven of nine measurements. On 1 November 2016, relative water content (RWC for succulents (p = 0.0424 was greatest for native Euphorbia in monoculture at 88%. Native Euphorbia also had greater RWC than non-native Sedum on 4 April 2017 (78% and 4 July 2017 (80%. However, non-native Sedum had greater root length (6548 cm, root dry weight (12.1 g

  20. Nativization Processes in L1 Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Benjamin K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the Native Esperanto of eight speakers, ranging from age 6 to 14 years. Found bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of tense/aspect system, and pronominal…

  1. Direct and indirect effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation on the bacterioplankton metabolism in high-mountain lakes from southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, C.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.; Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.

    2014-05-01

    led to higher HBP. Consequently, EOC satisfied BCD in the clear lakes, particularly in the clearest one [LC]. Our results suggest that the higher vulnerability of bacteria to the damaging effects of UVR may be particularly accentuated in the opaque lakes and further recognizes the relevance of light exposure history and biotic interactions on bacterioplankton metabolism when coping with fluctuating radiation and nutrient inputs.

  2. Sobriety and alcohol use among rural Alaska Native elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective: The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN since the study in Barrow took place in 1979. Design: We report findings regarding self-reported alcohol use included in an elder needs assessment conducted with 134 Alaska Native elders from 5 rural villages off the road system in Alaska. Data were collected in partnership between academic researchers and community members in accordance with the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research. Results: Findings showed very high rates of sobriety and low rates of alcohol use, contradicting stereotypes of widespread alcohol abuse among AN. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed. Conclusions: This research represents one step forward in mending academic–community relationships in rural Alaska to further research on alcohol use and related health disparities.

  3. Native language as an ethnic symbol Serbs in Timisoara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Mirjana P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data gathered during original research in the Serbian community of Timisoara, in 2002. and 2003, this paper discusses one of the symbols of ethnic identity, namely, the native language. The methods used in the research include questionnaires, interviews, everyday conversation and the participant-observation technique. The analysis covers various aspects and levels of knowledge, as well as the usage of Serbian language; in addition it also includes the most important features that influence the language's persistence during many centuries, as well as noted changes in a multinational environment. Namely, the Serbs in Timisoara have preserved their native, Serbian language as a second language; then-native Serbian language is constantly under the heavy influence of the Romanian language which is the dominant and official language in the area. The analysis shows that the knowledge of Serbian is much higher among the Serbs who received education in their native language, as well as among the older generation while mixed marriages with Romanians contribute to its loss. Romanian language, on the other hand, gradually becomes more and more dominant even in the traditional spheres of life where native language was once in use among family members, minority organizations and in interactions among Mends of Serbian origin. Moreover, mixed marriages and education in the native language influence the persistence of the native language. In spite of many changes in all aspects and usages, Serbian language still remains the symbol of ethnic identity among the Serbs in Timisoara: the language marks the special unity among the Serbs in relation to the surrounding majority and other ethnic groups in the city of Timisoara, and functions as a connection with the tradition and culture of the homeland.

  4. Introducing native landscape ecology to Hanford cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Nguyen, G.; Barry, B.

    1995-01-01

    Responsible management of environmental and public health risk requires a fundamental understanding of the intra-, inter-, and integral components of the hierarchical interaction dynamics within a pollution affected ecosystem. Because the ecosphere is a heterogeneous combination of many subecosystems of plant and animal species, its component interactions sustaining the complex whole are spatially mediated, and such an adaptive self-stabilizing ecomosaic often possesses long disintegration and regeneration times for the manifestation of observable consequences, quantitative assessment of its future structural and functional changes can be deceptive or plagued with irreducible uncertainty. This paper presents an holistic framework for the direct integration of native traditional environmental knowledge with the landscape ecology information system to refine and actualize the understanding of acceptable long-range risk and its collective estimation for an endangered population or community. An illustrative application of riparian zone restoration in the Hanford reach for wild salmon runs and habitat preservation is also discussed

  5. Native grass hydroseed development : establishment protocols for three native Hawaiian plants on roadside areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The biggest mistake with using native plants on Hawaiis roadways is to assume that native plants do not require : nutrient enhancement or supplemental water to establish on these sites. The establishment of native plants will : require a detailed ...

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

  7. A cross-case analysis of three Native Science Field Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augare, Helen J.; Davíd-Chavez, Dominique M.; Groenke, Frederick I.; Little Plume-Weatherwax, Melissa; Lone Fight, Lisa; Meier, Gene; Quiver-Gaddie, Helene; Returns From Scout, Elvin; Sachatello-Sawyer, Bonnie; St. Pierre, Nate; Valdez, Shelly; Wippert, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    Native Science Field Centers (NSFCs) were created to engage youth and adults in environmental science activities through the integration of traditional Native ways of knowing (understanding about the natural world based on centuries of observation including philosophy, worldview, cosmology, and belief systems of Indigenous peoples), Native languages, and Western science concepts. This paper focuses on the Blackfeet Native Science Field Center, the Lakota Native Science Field Center, and the Wind River Native Science Field Center. One of the long-term, overarching goals of these NSFCs was to stimulate the interest of Native American students in ways that encouraged them to pursue academic and career paths in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. A great deal can be learned from the experiences of the NSFCs in terms of effective educational strategies, as well as advantages and challenges in blending Native ways of knowing and Western scientific knowledge in an informal science education setting. Hopa Mountain—a Bozeman, Montana-based nonprofit—partnered with the Blackfeet Community College on the Blackfeet Reservation, Fremont County School District #21 on the Wind River Reservation, and Oglala Lakota College on the Pine Ridge Reservation to cooperatively establish the Native Science Field Centers. This paper presents a profile of each NSFC and highlights their program components and accomplishments.

  8. Are invasive plants more competitive than native conspecifics? Patterns vary with competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Feng, Yulong; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Li, Yangping; Liao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jiaolin; Chen, Yajun

    2015-10-01

    Invasive plants are sometimes considered to be more competitive than their native conspecifics, according to the prediction that the invader reallocates resources from defense to growth due to liberation of natural enemies [‘Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability’ (EICA) hypothesis]. However, the differences in competitive ability may depend on the identity of competitors. In order to test the effects of competitors, Ageratina adenophora plants from both native and invasive ranges competed directly, and competed with native residents from both invasive (China) and native (Mexico) ranges respectively. Invasive A. adenophora plants were more competitive than their conspecifics from native populations when competing with natives from China (interspecific competition), but not when competing with natives from Mexico. Invasive A. adenophora plants also showed higher competitive ability when grown in high-density monoculture communities of plants from the same population (intrapopulation competition). In contrast, invasive A. adenophora plants showed lower competitive ability when competing with plants from native populations (intraspecific competition). Our results indicated that in the invasive range A. adenophora has evolved to effectively cope with co-occurring natives and high density environments, contributing to invasion success. Here, we showed the significant effects of competitors, which should be considered carefully when testing the EICA hypothesis.

  9. Conceptualizaciones acerca de los animales en niños de la sociedad mayoritaria y de la comunidad indígena Uitoto en Colombia Conceptualizations about animals in children from the majority society and Uitoto Colombian native community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Páramo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se orientó a identificar los vínculos que desarrollan niños de diferentes contextos culturales y regionales de Colombia (de la sociedad mayoritaria e indígena sobre los animales a través de sus constructos personales. Las clasificaciones realizadas por los niños de la sociedad mayoritaria e indígenas siguieron un sistema centrado en constructos ecológicos-científicos; aunque difieren en que los primeros siguen esquemas académicos o científicos y los indígenas fundamentan su sistema de constructos en la experiencia directa con los animales. También se observaron diferencias en la relación de temor que los animales infunden a niños y niñas, siendo las niñas quienes presentan un mayor temor, además se vio un desconocimiento generalizado de la ubicación geográfica de varias de las especies que se presentaron a los participantes del primer estudio que no está presente en la población indígena. Los hallazgos se discuten desde la Biofília y se dan recomendaciones acerca de la importancia de diseñar programas de educación ambiental, que incorporen el conocimiento y protección de la fauna, a partir de los ecosistemas en los que se encuentren ubicadas las escuelas del país, y algunas de las experiencias de las comunidades indígenas.This study was oriented to identify the bonds that children from different cultural contexts and regions from the majority Colombian society and an indigenous community from the Colombian Amazon develop toward animals through their personal constructs. Children form the majority society differ from the indigenous children in that the first group follow a conceptual structure based on ecological-scientific criteria while the indigenous sample follow their experiences with animals. There are also differences in the number of animals that girls are afraid of in comparison to boys in the first group. Children from Uitoto community were able to differentiate foreign animals easily than the

  10. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  11. Daptomycin-Vancomycin–Resistant Enterococcus faecium Native Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Hussain MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant enterococcal nosocomial invasive infections are a rising concern faced by the medical community. Not many options are available to treat these highly virulent organisms. Risk factors for developing these highly resistant organisms include prolonged hospital stay, previous antibiotic use, and immunosuppression. In this article, we report a case of daptomycin-resistant enterococcal native infective endocarditis treated with off-label use of quinupristin-dalfopristin.

  12. Immigrant-Native Substitutability: The Role of Language Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Ethan G. Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Wage evidence suggests that immigrant workers are imperfectly substitutable for native-born workers with similar education and experience. Using U.S. Censuses and recent American Community Survey data, I ask to what extent differences in language skills drive this. I find they are important. I estimate that the response of immigrants' relative wages to immigration is concentrated among immigrants with poor English skills. Similarly, immigrants who arrive at young ages, as adults, both have st...

  13. Does Habitat Restoration Increase Coexistence of Native Stream Fishes with Introduced Brown Trout: A Case Study on the Middle Provo River, Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Belk; Eric J. Billman; Craig Ellsworth; Brock R. McMillan

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of altered or degraded habitats is often a key component in the conservation plan of native aquatic species, but introduced species may influence the response of the native community to restoration. Recent habitat restoration of the middle section of the Provo River in central Utah, USA, provided an opportunity to evaluate the effect of habitat restoration on the native fish community in a system with an introduced, dominant predator—brown trout (Salmo trutta). To determine the ch...

  14. Maloclusiones en niños y adolescentes de caseríos y comunidades nativas de la Amazonía de Ucayali, Perú Malocclusions in children and adolescents from villages and native communities in the Ucayali amazon region in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arón Aliaga-Del Castillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal para evaluar la prevalencia de maloclusiones en niños y adolescentes de 2 a 18 años de edad de caseríos y comunidades nativas de la selva de Ucayali, Perú. Se evaluó la presencia de maloclusiones usando la clasificación de Angle así como alteraciones ortodónticas. Se incluyeron 201 sujetos, 106 (52,7% fueron mujeres, la mayoría (54,7% tuvieron entre 6 y 12 años. Se encontró una prevalencia de maloclusiones del 85,6%; la más prevalente según la clasificación de Angle fue la clase I (59,6%. Se evidenciaron alteraciones ortodónticas en el 67,2% de casos. Las alteraciones ortodónticas encontradas más frecuentes fueron apiñamiento dentario (28,4%, mordida cruzada anterior (17,4%, sobresalte exagerado (8,5%, sobremordida exagerada (5,0% y mordida abierta anterior (5,0%. Se evidencia una alta prevalencia de maloclusiones y alteraciones ortodónticas en las comunidades nativas evaluadas, por lo que es necesario implementar programas preventivos para mejorar la salud bucal de estas poblaciones marginadas.We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the prevalence of malocclusions in children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years of villages and native communities of the Ucayali jungle of Peru. We assessed the presence of malocclusions using Angle’s classification and orthodontic changes. We evaluated 201 individuals, 106 (52.7% were women, most of them (54.7% had between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of malocclusions was 85.6%, the most prevalent according to Angle’s classification was class I (59.6%. Orthodontic alterations were present in 67.2% of cases. The most frequent were dental crowding (28.4%, anterior crossbite (17.4%, exaggerated overjet (8.5%, excessive overbite (5.0% and anterior open bite (5.0%. We found a high prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic changes in the evaluated native communities, highlighting the need to implement preventive programs to

  15. Digital Native and Digital Immigrant Use of Scholarly Network for Doctoral Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ronald; Hassell, Deliesha

    2014-01-01

    The Doctoral Community Network (DC) is a learner driven, scholarly community designed to help online doctoral learners successfully complete their dissertation and program of study. While digital natives grew up in an environment immersed in technology, digital immigrants adapted to this environment through their ability to learn and adjust to…

  16. Native on the net indigenous and diasporic peoples in the virtual age

    CERN Document Server

    Landzelius, Kyra; Shi, Xianglin

    2004-01-01

    Exploring the influence of the Internet on the lives of indigenous and diasporic peoples, Kyra Landzelius leads a team of expert anthropologists and ethnographers who go on-site and on-line to explore how a diverse range of indigenous and transnational diasporic communities actually use the Internet. From the Taino Indians of the Caribbean, the U'wa of the Amazon rainforest, and the Tunomans and Assyrians of Iraq, to the Tingas and Zapatistas, Native on the Net is a lively and intriguing exploration of how new technologies have enabled these previously isolated peoples to reach new levels of communication and community: creating new communities online, confronting global corporations, or even challenging their own native traditions. Featuring case studies ranging from the Artic to the Australian outback, this book addresses important recurrent themes, such as the relationship between identity and place, community, traditional cultures and the nature of the 'indigenous'. Native on the Net is a unique contribut...

  17. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  18. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-11-17

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range.

  19. Digital Native and Digital Immigrant Use of Scholarly Network for Doctoral Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Berman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Doctoral Community Network (DC is a learner driven, scholarly community designed to help online doctoral learners successfully complete their dissertation and program of study. While digital natives grew up in an environment immersed in technology, digital immigrants adapted to this environment through their ability to learn and adjust to new technologies. With several thousand Doctoral Community Network users, it was not known to what extent digital immigrants had embraced the technology. A study of 988 users determined that digital immigrants used the Doctoral Community Network more often and for a larger variety of purposes than digital natives did. Specifically, digital immigrants log-on more frequently, view leadership content at higher rates, read more blogs, use more doctoral community network research resources, and send and receive more peer messages than digital natives do. This research supports existing literature that found that digital immigrants possess higher levels of social reliance than digital natives while contradicting other literature that found that digital natives tend to use the internet for social networking and blog diaries at higher rates.

  20. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  1. Encountering Complexity: Native Musics in the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Describes Native American musics, focusing on issues such as music and the experience of time, metaphor and metaphorical aspects, and spirituality and sounds from nature. Discusses Native American metaphysics and its reflection in the musics. States that an effective curriculum would provide a new receptivity to Native American musics. (CMK)

  2. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  3. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The language...

  4. Recruiting Native Journalists: The New Storytellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Candy

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to increase the number of Native American journalists, summer programs at the University of North Dakota and the University of Wisconsin give Native American high school students hands-on, culturally relevant journalism experience. The Native American Journalists Association offers college scholarships in journalism for American…

  5. South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project was a resounding success in that the primary goal of : developing commercial sources of native seed has been substantially met. By the conclusion of the project : on August 31, 2011, 20 native seed sou...

  6. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular.…

  7. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas

    2012-01-01

    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  8. Credibility of native and non-native speakers of English revisited: Do non-native listeners feel the same?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Skarnitzl, Radek

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on research stimulated by Lev-Ari and Keysar (2010) who showed that native listeners find statements delivered by foreign-accented speakers to be less true than those read by native speakers. Our objective was to replicate the study with non-native listeners to see whether this effect is also relevant in international communication contexts. The same set of statements from the original study was recorded by 6 native and 6 nonnative speakers of English. 121 non-native listen...

  9. Non-Native Plant Invasion along Elevation and Canopy Closure Gradients in a Middle Rocky Mountain Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Averett

    Full Text Available Mountain environments are currently among the ecosystems least invaded by non-native species; however, mountains are increasingly under threat of non-native plant invasion. The slow pace of exotic plant invasions in mountain ecosystems is likely due to a combination of low anthropogenic disturbances, low propagule supply, and extreme/steep environmental gradients. The importance of any one of these factors is debated and likely ecosystem dependent. We evaluated the importance of various correlates of plant invasions in the Wallowa Mountain Range of northeastern Oregon and explored whether non-native species distributions differed from native species along an elevation gradient. Vascular plant communities were sampled in summer 2012 along three mountain roads. Transects (n = 20 were evenly stratified by elevation (~70 m intervals along each road. Vascular plant species abundances and environmental parameters were measured. We used indicator species analysis to identify habitat affinities for non-native species. Plots were ordinated in species space, joint plots and non-parametric multiplicative regression were used to relate species and community variation to environmental variables. Non-native species richness decreased continuously with increasing elevation. In contrast, native species richness displayed a unimodal distribution with maximum richness occurring at mid-elevations. Species composition was strongly related to elevation and canopy openness. Overlays of trait and environmental factors onto non-metric multidimensional ordinations identified the montane-subalpine community transition and over-story canopy closure exceeding 60% as potential barriers to non-native species establishment. Unlike native species, non-native species showed little evidence for high-elevation or closed-canopy specialization. These data suggest that non-native plants currently found in the Wallowa Mountains are dependent on open canopies and disturbance for

  10. Non-Native Plant Invasion along Elevation and Canopy Closure Gradients in a Middle Rocky Mountain Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Joshua P; McCune, Bruce; Parks, Catherine G; Naylor, Bridgett J; DelCurto, Tim; Mata-González, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Mountain environments are currently among the ecosystems least invaded by non-native species; however, mountains are increasingly under threat of non-native plant invasion. The slow pace of exotic plant invasions in mountain ecosystems is likely due to a combination of low anthropogenic disturbances, low propagule supply, and extreme/steep environmental gradients. The importance of any one of these factors is debated and likely ecosystem dependent. We evaluated the importance of various correlates of plant invasions in the Wallowa Mountain Range of northeastern Oregon and explored whether non-native species distributions differed from native species along an elevation gradient. Vascular plant communities were sampled in summer 2012 along three mountain roads. Transects (n = 20) were evenly stratified by elevation (~70 m intervals) along each road. Vascular plant species abundances and environmental parameters were measured. We used indicator species analysis to identify habitat affinities for non-native species. Plots were ordinated in species space, joint plots and non-parametric multiplicative regression were used to relate species and community variation to environmental variables. Non-native species richness decreased continuously with increasing elevation. In contrast, native species richness displayed a unimodal distribution with maximum richness occurring at mid-elevations. Species composition was strongly related to elevation and canopy openness. Overlays of trait and environmental factors onto non-metric multidimensional ordinations identified the montane-subalpine community transition and over-story canopy closure exceeding 60% as potential barriers to non-native species establishment. Unlike native species, non-native species showed little evidence for high-elevation or closed-canopy specialization. These data suggest that non-native plants currently found in the Wallowa Mountains are dependent on open canopies and disturbance for establishment in low

  11. Lead exposure among children from native communities of the Peruvian Amazon basin Exposición al plomo en niños de comunidades indígenas de la cuenca del Amazonas en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Anticona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess potential risk factors associated with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs among children in two communities from the Corrientes River basin in the Peruvian Amazon. METHODS: Children aged 0-17 years were screened for BLLs, hemoglobin levels, and anthropometric measures. Dwelling, family, and child data were collected through a parental questionnaire. Statistical analysis included descriptive and bivariate analysis. Multiple linear and logistic regressions using generalized estimating equations were also conducted to determine associated risk factors. A map of each community was drawn to examine the spatial distribution of BLLs. RESULTS: Of 208 children (88 from 23 households of the Peruanito community and 120 from 28 households of Santa Isabel, 27.4% had BLLs > 10 µg/dL. The geometric mean (± standard deviation BLL was 8.7 ± 4.0 µg/dL (range 3.0-26.8 µg/dL. In the total population, linear regression analysis indicated that age was positively associated with BLLs (P 10 µg/dL than girls (P 10 µg/dL had 45.0% higher odds of presenting BLLs > 10 µg/dL than children whose mothers had BLLs 10 µg/dL were the main risk factors for elevated BLLs. The higher risk in boys 7-17 years suggests that exposure could be related to specific activities in this group, such as fishing and hunting. Continuous monitoring of BLLs in the Corrientes River population is recommended.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los potenciales factores de riesgo asociados con niveles elevados de plomo en sangre (Pbs en niños de dos comunidades de la cuenca del río Corrientes en la Amazonia peruana. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron de manera sistemática los niveles de PbS, la concentración de hemoglobina y las medidas antropométricas en niños de 0 a 17 años. A través de un cuestionario efectuado a los padres se recopilaron datos sobre la vivienda, la familia y los niños. El análisis estadístico incluyó el análisis descriptivo y de dos variables. También se llevaron a

  12. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  13. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  14. A dinâmica institucional de uso comunitário dos produtos nativos do cerrado no município de japonvar (Minas Gerais The institutional dynamics of the community use of cerrado's native products in the municipality of Japonvar (Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemir Inácio de Azevedo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto estuda um arranjo comunitário que administra o acesso e uso do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e outros frutos nativos do cerrado por grupos sociais que combinam agricultura familiar e coleta vegetal. O local do estudo fica em Japonvar, município do norte de Minas Gerais. Fundamenta-se na teoria dos bens e recursos de uso comum de Elinor Ostrom e adota uma perspectiva analítica institucionalista. Identifica e descreve cada componente social que exerce alguma influência sobre a experiência de uso comum do pequi e que configura a moldura institucional do funcionamento deste sistema coletivo.This article examines a social arrangement that allows community access and use of the pequi (Caryocar brasiliense and other native fruit species of the Brazilian savanna (cerrado by groups that combine family farming with plant collection. The study is focused on Japonvar, a municipality located in the north of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. It is grounded of the theory of common use of goods and resources developed by Elinor Ostrom and adopts an institutionalist perspective. It identifies and describes each social component that exerts influence on the common use experience of the pequi and is an operational part of the institutional framework of this collective system.

  15. Suppression of invasive topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva by native pike Esox lucius in ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; Vanhove, Tom; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J

    2015-01-01

    1. Asian topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva has been recognized as a highly invasive cyprinid fish species in Europe that can present risk to native fish communities. 2. The present study aimed to investigate whether a native piscivorous fish, pike Esox lucius, is able to reduce the establishment success and invasiveness of topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva in shallow ponds. We performed a large scale, replicated whole-pond experiment in which ponds were spontaneously colonized by to...

  16. Modeling invasive alien plant species in river systems : Interaction with native ecosystem engineers and effects on hydro-morphodynamic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geerling, G.W.; Egger, G.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species negatively impact native plant communities by out-competing species or changing abiotic and biotic conditions in their introduced range. River systems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions, because waterways can function as invasion corridors. Understanding

  17. digital natives and digital immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardina, Bruno; Francisco, Jerónimo; Reis, Pedro; trad. Silva, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the generational gaps in school learning. Initially, we have tried to provide the framework in relation to the term digital native in order to understand the key aspects of the generation born after the advent and the global use of the Internet. They were found to be “multitasking” people, linked to technology and connectivity, as opposed to digital immigrants, born in an earlier period and seeking to adapt to the technological world. We also present some r...

  18. Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

  19. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, S.; Olsthoorn, N.; van Beuningen, C.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation

  20. Growth strategy, phylogeny and stoichiometry determine the allelopathic potential of native and non-native plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, Bart M.C.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; van Donk, Ellen; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary compounds can contribute to the success of non-native plant species if they reduce damage by native herbivores or inhibit the growth of native plant competitors. However, there is opposing evidence on whether the secondary com- pounds of non-native plant species are stronger than those of

  1. Chinese College Students' Views on Native English and Non-Native English in EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…

  2. Native birds and alien insects: spatial density dependence in songbird predation of invading oak gallwasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schönrogge

    Full Text Available Revealing the interactions between alien species and native communities is central to understanding the ecological consequences of range expansion. Much has been learned through study of the communities developing around invading herbivorous insects. Much less, however, is known about the significance of such aliens for native vertebrate predators for which invaders may represent a novel food source. We quantified spatial patterns in native bird predation of invading gall-inducing Andricus wasps associated with introduced Turkey oak (Quercus cerris at eight sites across the UK. These gallwasps are available at high density before the emergence of caterpillars that are the principle spring food of native insectivorous birds. Native birds showed positive spatial density dependence in gall attack rates at two sites in southern England, foraging most extensively on trees with highest gall densities. In a subsequent study at one of these sites, positive spatial density dependence persisted through four of five sequential week-long periods of data collection. Both patterns imply that invading galls are a significant resource for at least some native bird populations. Density dependence was strongest in southern UK bird populations that have had longest exposure to the invading gallwasps. We hypothesise that this pattern results from the time taken for native bird populations to learn how to exploit this novel resource.

  3. Plant functional traits of dominant native and invasive species in mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Standish, Rachel J; Stock, William D; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The idea that dominant invasive plant species outperform neighboring native species through higher rates of carbon assimilation and growth is supported by several analyses of global data sets. However, theory suggests that native and invasive species occurring in low-resource environments will be functionally similar, as environmental factors restrict the range of observed physiological and morphological trait values. We measured resource-use traits in native and invasive plant species across eight diverse vegetation communities distributed throughout the five mediterranean-climate regions, which are drought prone and increasingly threatened by human activities, including the introduction of exotic species. Traits differed strongly across the five regions. In regions with functional differences between native and invasive species groups, invasive species displayed traits consistent with high resource acquisition; however, these patterns were largely attributable to differences in life form. We found that species invading mediterranean-climate regions were more likely to be annual than perennial: three of the five regions were dominated by native woody species and invasive annuals. These results suggest that trait differences between native and invasive species are context dependent and will vary across vegetation communities. Native and invasive species within annual and perennial groups had similar patterns of carbon assimilation and resource use, which contradicts the widespread idea that invasive species optimize resource acquisition rather than resource conservation. .

  4. Optimal control of native predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; O'Connell, Allan F.; Kendall, William L.; Runge, Michael C.; Simons, Theodore R.; Waldstein, Arielle H.; Schulte, Shiloh A.; Converse, Sarah J.; Smith, Graham W.; Pinion, Timothy; Rikard, Michael; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2010-01-01

    We apply decision theory in a structured decision-making framework to evaluate how control of raccoons (Procyon lotor), a native predator, can promote the conservation of a declining population of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Our management objective was to maintain Oystercatcher productivity above a level deemed necessary for population recovery while minimizing raccoon removal. We evaluated several scenarios including no raccoon removal, and applied an adaptive optimization algorithm to account for parameter uncertainty. We show how adaptive optimization can be used to account for uncertainties about how raccoon control may affect Oystercatcher productivity. Adaptive management can reduce this type of uncertainty and is particularly well suited for addressing controversial management issues such as native predator control. The case study also offers several insights that may be relevant to the optimal control of other native predators. First, we found that stage-specific removal policies (e.g., yearling versus adult raccoon removals) were most efficient if the reproductive values among stage classes were very different. Second, we found that the optimal control of raccoons would result in higher Oystercatcher productivity than the minimum levels recommended for this species. Third, we found that removing more raccoons initially minimized the total number of removals necessary to meet long term management objectives. Finally, if for logistical reasons managers cannot sustain a removal program by removing a minimum number of raccoons annually, managers may run the risk of creating an ecological trap for Oystercatchers.

  5. Do native parasitic plants cause more damage to exotic invasive hosts than native non-invasive hosts? An implication for biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Song, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Field studies have shown that native, parasitic plants grow vigorously on invasive plants and can cause more damage to invasive plants than native plants. However, no empirical test has been conducted and the mechanism is still unknown. We conducted a completely randomized greenhouse experiment using 3 congeneric pairs of exotic, invasive and native, non-invasive herbaceous plant species to quantify the damage caused by parasitic plants to hosts and its correlation with the hosts' growth rate and resource use efficiency. The biomass of the parasitic plants on exotic, invasive hosts was significantly higher than on congeneric native, non-invasive hosts. Parasites caused more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to congeneric, native, non-invasive hosts. The damage caused by parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the biomass of parasitic plants. The damage of parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the relative growth rate and the resource use efficiency of its host plants. It may be the mechanism by which parasitic plants grow more vigorously on invasive hosts and cause more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to native, non-invasive hosts. These results suggest a potential biological control effect of native, parasitic plants on invasive species by reducing the dominance of invasive species in the invaded community.

  6. An error in judgement: the politics of medical care in an Indian/white community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speck, Dara Culhane

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the events following the death of an eleven-year-old native girl, recording how a small native community located in an isolated area took on the local hospital, the College of Physicians...

  7. Digital Native and Digital Immigrant Use of Scholarly Network for Doctoral Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Berman; Deliesha Hassell

    2014-01-01

    The Doctoral Community Network (DC) is a learner driven, scholarly community designed to help online doctoral learners successfully complete their dissertation and program of study. While digital natives grew up in an environment immersed in technology, digital immigrants adapted to this environment through their ability to learn and adjust to new technologies. With several thousand Doctoral Community Network users, it was not known to what extent digital immigrants had embraced the technolog...

  8. Impacts of the Nutrient Inputs from Riverine on the Dynamic and Community Structure of Fungal-like Protists in the Coastal Ocean Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y.; Wang, G.; Xie, N.

    2016-02-01

    The coastal ocean connects terrestrial (e.g., rivers and estuaries) with oceanic ecosystems and is considered as a major component of global carbon cycles and budgets. The coastal waters are featured with a high biodiversity and high primary production. Because of the excessive primary production, a large fraction of primary organic matter becomes available to consumers as detritus in the coastal waters. Bacterioplankton have long been known to play a key role in the degradation of this detritus, and export and storage of organic matter in the coastal ecosystems. However, the primary and secondary production and the carbon biogeochemical processes in the ecosystems are largely regulated by nutrient inputs from riverine and other anthropogenic activities through heterotrophic microbial communities. Thraustochytrids, commonly known as fungal-like protists, are unicellular heterotrophic protists and are recently acknowledged to play a significant role in ocean carbon cycling. Their abundance exceeds that of bacterioplankton in the most time of the year in the coastal waters of China. Also, their abundance and diversity are largely regulated by nutrients inputs from riverine and other anthropogenic activities. Our findings support that thraustochytrids are a dominant heterotrophic microbial group in the coastal waters. Evidently, thraustochytrids are an import, but neglected, component in microbial carbon biogeochemical processes of the coastal ocean.

  9. Evaluation of a health sciences internship for Latino and Native American library students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Quasem, Sanjana; Kelly, Janice E; Dutcher, Gale A

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of a graduate-level internship for Latino and Native American library science students or students who are interested in serving those populations. The authors analyzed semi-structured interviews with thirteen internship program graduates or participants. The analysis suggests that the program increased participants' interest in health sciences librarianship and led to improved career opportunities, both in health sciences libraries and other libraries with health information programming. It also highlights specific factors that are likely to contribute to the strength of career pipeline programs aiming to bring Latino and Native American students and students who are interested in serving those communities into health librarianship. Exposing graduate-level interns to a broad range of health sciences librarianship tasks, including outreach to Latino and Native American communities and formal mentorship, is likely to maximize interns' interests in both health sciences librarianship and service to these communities.

  10. Relative effects of disturbance on red imported fire ants and native ant species in a longleaf pine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuble, Katharine L.; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Carroll, C. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    and cases in which non-native species become established in intact (lacking extensive anthropogenic soil disturbance) communities and subsequently diminish the abundance and richness of native species is challenging on the basis of observation alone. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta......), an invasive species that occurs throughout much of the southeastern United States, is such an example. Rather than competitively displacing native species, fire ants may become established only in disturbed areas in which native species richness and abundance are already reduced. We used insecticide to reduce......, the abundance of native ants increased to levels comparable to those in control plots after 1 year. Our findings suggest that factors other than large reductions in ant abundance and species density (number of species per unit area) may affect the establishment of fire ants and that the response of native ants...

  11. Native Fish Sanctuary Project - Sanctuary Development Phase, 2007 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gordon A.

    2007-01-01

    Notable progress was made in 2007 toward the development of native fish facilities in the Lower Colorado River Basin. More than a dozen facilities are, or soon will be, online to benefit native fish. When this study began in 2005 no self-supporting communities of either bonytail or razorback sucker existed. Razorback suckers were removed from Rock Tank in 1997 and the communities at High Levee Pond had been compromised by largemouth bass in 2004. This project reversed that trend with the establishment of the Davis Cove native fish community in 2005. Bonytail and razorback sucker successfully produced young in Davis Cove in 2006. Bonytail successfully produced young in Parker Dam Pond in 2007, representing the first successful sanctuary established solely for bonytail. This past year, Three Fingers Lake received 135 large razorback suckers, and Federal and State agencies have agreed to develop a cooperative management approach dedicating a portion of that lake toward grow-out and (or) the establishment of another sanctuary. Two ponds at River's Edge Golf Course in Needles, California, were renovated in June and soon will be stocked with bonytail. Similar activities are taking place at Mohave Community College, Cerbat Cliffs Golf Course, Cibola High Levee Pond, Office Cove, Emerald Canyon Golf Course, and Bulkhead Cove. Recruitment can be expected as fish become sexually mature at these facilities. Flood-plain facilities have the potential to support 6,000 adult razorback suckers and nearly 20,000 bonytail if native fish management is aggressively pursued. This sanctuary project has assisted agencies in developing 15 native fish communities by identifying specific resource objectives for those sites, listing and prioritizing research opportunities and needs, and strategizing on management approaches through the use of resource-management plans. Such documents have been developed for Davis Cove, Cibola High Levee Pond, Parker Dam Pond, and Three Fingers Lake. We

  12. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  13. Non-native Listeners’ Recognition of High-Variability Speech Using PRESTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamati, Terrin N.; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Natural variability in speech is a significant challenge to robust successful spoken word recognition. In everyday listening environments, listeners must quickly adapt and adjust to multiple sources of variability in both the signal and listening environments. High-variability speech may be particularly difficult to understand for non-native listeners, who have less experience with the second language (L2) phonological system and less detailed knowledge of sociolinguistic variation of the L2. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-variability sentences on non-native speech recognition and to explore the underlying sources of individual differences in speech recognition abilities of non-native listeners. Research Design Participants completed two sentence recognition tasks involving high-variability and low-variability sentences. They also completed a battery of behavioral tasks and self-report questionnaires designed to assess their indexical processing skills, vocabulary knowledge, and several core neurocognitive abilities. Study Sample Native speakers of Mandarin (n = 25) living in the United States recruited from the Indiana University community participated in the current study. A native comparison group consisted of scores obtained from native speakers of English (n = 21) in the Indiana University community taken from an earlier study. Data Collection and Analysis Speech recognition in high-variability listening conditions was assessed with a sentence recognition task using sentences from PRESTO (Perceptually Robust English Sentence Test Open-Set) mixed in 6-talker multitalker babble. Speech recognition in low-variability listening conditions was assessed using sentences from HINT (Hearing In Noise Test) mixed in 6-talker multitalker babble. Indexical processing skills were measured using a talker discrimination task, a gender discrimination task, and a forced-choice regional dialect categorization task. Vocabulary

  14. Are New Hampshire "natives" different? A study of New Hampshire natives and three cohorts of in-migrants to New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Robertson

    2003-01-01

    Social science research is often used by resource management agencies to "obtain a balanced view of the preferences and needs of individuals, communities, and special interest publics potentially affected by agency activities." This study explores the extent that those people who are born in New Hampshire (i.e., natives) are different from persons who moved...

  15. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  16. Resource diversity and provenance underpin spatial patterns in functional diversity across native and exotic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Verónica; Wood, Jamie R; Butler, Simon J

    2018-05-01

    Functional diversity metrics are increasingly used to augment or replace taxonomic diversity metrics to deliver more mechanistic insights into community structure and function. Metrics used to describe landscape structure and characteristics share many of the same limitations as taxonomy-based metrics, particularly their reliance on anthropogenically defined typologies with little consideration of structure, management, or function. However, the development of alternative metrics to describe landscape characteristics has been limited. Here, we extend the functional diversity framework to characterize landscapes based on the diversity of resources available across habitats present. We then examine the influence of resource diversity and provenance on the functional diversities of native and exotic avian communities in New Zealand. Invasive species are increasingly prevalent and considered a global threat to ecosystem function, but the characteristics of and interactions between sympatric native and exotic communities remain unresolved. Understanding their comparative responses to environmental change and the mechanisms underpinning them is of growing importance in predicting community dynamics and changing ecosystem function. We use (i) matrices of resource use (species) and resource availability (habitats) and (ii) occurrence data for 62 native and 25 exotic species and 19 native and 13 exotic habitats in 2015 10 × 10 km quadrats to examine the relationship between native and exotic avian and landscape functional diversity. The numbers of species in, and functional diversities of, native and exotic communities were positively related. Each community displayed evidence of environmental filtering, but it was significantly stronger for exotic species. Less environmental filtering occurred in landscapes providing a more diverse combination of resources, with resource provenance also an influential factor. Landscape functional diversity explained a greater

  17. Climate-related changes of soil characteristics affect bacterial community composition and function of high altitude and latitude lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofner, Carina; Peter, Hannes; Catalán, Núria; Drewes, Fabian; Sommaruga, Ruben; Pérez, María Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Lakes at high altitude and latitude are typically unproductive ecosystems where external factors outweigh the relative importance of in-lake processes, making them ideal sentinels of climate change. Climate change is inducing upward vegetation shifts at high altitude and latitude regions that translate into changes in the pools of soil organic matter. Upon mobilization, this allochthonous organic matter may rapidly alter the composition and function of lake bacterial communities. Here, we experimentally simulate this potential climate-change effect by exposing bacterioplankton of two lakes located above the treeline, one in the Alps and one in the subarctic region, to soil organic matter from below and above the treeline. Changes in bacterial community composition, diversity and function were followed for 72 h. In the subarctic lake, soil organic matter from below the treeline reduced bulk and taxon-specific phosphorus uptake, indicating that bacterial phosphorus limitation was alleviated compared to organic matter from above the treeline. These effects were less pronounced in the alpine lake, suggesting that soil properties (phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon availability) and water temperature further shaped the magnitude of response. The rapid bacterial succession observed in both lakes indicates that certain taxa directly benefited from soil sources. Accordingly, the substrate uptake profiles of initially rare bacteria (copiotrophs) indicated that they are one of the main actors cycling soil-derived carbon and phosphorus. Our work suggests that climate-induced changes in soil characteristics affect bacterioplankton community structure and function, and in turn, the cycling of carbon and phosphorus in high altitude and latitude aquatic ecosystems. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

  19. An invasive plant alters phenotypic selection on the vegetative growth of a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-02-01

    The ecological consequences of plant competition have frequently been tested, but the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions have gone largely unexplored. The study of species invasions can make an important contribution to this field of research by allowing us to watch ecological and evolutionary processes unfold as a novel species is integrated into a plant community. We explored the ecological and evolutionary impact of an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a closely related native congener, I. capensis and asked: (1) Does the presence of the invasive jewelweed alter the fitness of native jewelweed populations? (2) Does the invasive jewelweed affect the vegetative growth of the native congener? and (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the vegetative traits of the native congener? We used a greenhouse competition experiment, an invasive species removal field experiment, and a survey of natural populations. We show that when the invasive jewelweed is present, phenotypic selection favors native jewelweed individuals investing less in rapid upward growth and more in branching and fruiting potential through the production of nodes. This research demonstrates that invasive plants have the potential to greatly alter natural selection on native competitors. Studies investigating altered selection in invaded communities can reveal the potential evolutionary impact of invasive competitors, while deepening our understanding of the more general role of competition in driving plant evolution and permitting species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  1. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Yomba Shoshone Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamby, M.; Rusco, E.

    1991-10-01

    This report was written by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office. This office oversees the nuclear waste activities for the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility for the state of Nevada. The Yomba Shoshone Reservation socio-economic profile was the basis of this paper. It describes the life and current status of the Shoshone Indians. Population, utilities, education and social services of the Shoshone are examples of the topics which are discussed. It is intended as base-line information only. It eventually summarizes and compares data from the public opinion of the Shoshone about the high level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. (MB)

  2. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  3. Habitat Fragmentation and Native Bees: a Premature Verdict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Cane

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies directly address the consequences of habitat fragmentation for communities of pollinating insects, particularly for the key pollinator group, bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes. Bees typically live in habitats where nesting substrates and bloom are patchily distributed and spatially dissociated. Bee studies have all defined habitat fragments as remnant patches of floral hosts or forests, overlooking the nesting needs of bees. Several authors conclude that habitat fragmentation is broadly deleterious, but their own data show that some native species proliferate in sampled fragments. Other studies report greater densities and comparable diversities of native bees at flowers in some fragment size classes relative to undisrupted habitats, but find dramatic shifts in species composition. Insightful studies of habitat fragmentation and bees will consider fragmentation, alteration, and loss of nesting habitats, not just patches of forage plants, as well as the permeability of the surrounding matrix to interpatch movement. Inasmuch as the floral associations and nesting habits of bees are often attributes of species or subgenera, ecological interpretations hinge on authoritative identifications. Study designs must accommodate statistical problems associated with bee community samples, especially non-normal data and frequent zero values. The spatial scale of fragmentation must be appreciated: bees of medium body size can regularly fly 1-2 km from nest site to forage patch. Overall, evidence for prolonged persistence of substantial diversity and abundances of native bee communities in habitat fragments of modest size promises practical solutions for maintaining bee populations. Provided that reserve selection, design, and management can address the foraging and nesting needs of bees, networks of even small reserves may hold hope for sustaining considerable pollinator diversity and the ecological services pollinators provide.

  4. "The Poison That Ruined the Nation": Native American Men-Alcohol, Identity, and Traditional Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamonasa-Bennett, Arieahn

    2017-07-01

    Alcoholism and destructive drinking patterns are serious social problems in many Native American reservation and urban communities. This qualitative study of men from a single Great Lakes reservation community examined the social, cultural, and psychological aspects of their alcohol problems through their life stories. The men were in various stages of recovery and sobriety, and data collection consisted of open-ended interviews and analysis utilizing principles and techniques from grounded theory and ethnographic content analysis. Alcoholism and other serious social problems facing Native American communities need to be understood in the sociocultural and historical contexts of colonization and historical grief and trauma. This study suggests that for Native American men, there are culturally specific perspectives on alcohol that have important implications for prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse. The participants' narratives provided insight into the ways reconnecting with traditional cultural values (retraditionalization) helped them achieve sobriety. For these men, alcohol was highly symbolic of colonization as well as a protest to it. Alcohol was a means for affirming "Indian" identity and sobriety a means for reaffirming traditional tribal identity. Their narratives suggested the ways in which elements of traditional cultural values and practices facilitate healing in syncretic models and Nativized treatment. Understanding the ways in which specific Native cultural groups perceive their problems with drinking and sobriety can create more culturally congruent, culturally sensitive, and effective treatment approaches and inform future research.

  5. Aerococcus viridans Native Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerococcus viridans is an infrequent human pathogen and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported. A case involving a 69-year-old man with colon cancer and hemicolectomy 14 years previously, without recurrence, is reported. A diagnosis of native mitral valve endocarditis was established on the basis of clinical presentation, characteristic echocardiographic findings and pathological specimen examination after urgent valve replacement. A viridans endocarditis appears to be particularly virulent, requiring a surgical approach in four of 10 cases reported and death in one of nine. Given the aggressive nature of A viridans endocarditis and the variable time to diagnosis (a few days to seven months, prompt recognition of symptoms and echocardiography, in addition to blood cultures, should be performed when symptoms persist.

  6. Invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. Species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. I examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. The invasive non-native plant Casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. On Anijima in 2006 and 2009, I examined endemic land snails in the genus Ogasawarana. I compared the density of live specimens and frequency of predation scars (from black rats [Rattus rattus]) on empty shells in native vegetation and Casuarina forests. The density of land snails was greater in native vegetation than in Casuarina forests in 2006. Nevertheless, radical declines in the density of land snails occurred in native vegetation since 2006 in association with increasing predation by black rats. In contrast, abundance of Ogasawarana did not decline in the Casuarina forest, where shells with predation scars from rats were rare. As a result, the density of snails was greater in the Casuarina forest than in native vegetation. Removal of Casuarina was associated with an increased proportion of shells with predation scars from rats and a decrease in the density of Ogasawarana. The thick and dense litter of Casuarina appears to provide refugia for native land snails by protecting them from predation by rats; thus, eradication of rats should precede eradication of Casuarina. Adaptive strategies, particularly those that consider the removal order of non-native species, are crucial to minimizing the unintended effects of eradication on native species. In addition, my results suggested that in some cases a given non-native species can be used to mitigate the impacts of other non-native species on native species.

  7. Periphyton density is similar on native and non-native plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, Elisabeth M.; van Donk, E.; Bakker, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-native plants increasingly dominate the vegetation in aquatic ecosystems and thrive in eutrophic conditions. In eutrophic conditions, submerged plants risk being overgrown by epiphytic algae; however, if non-native plants are less susceptible to periphyton than natives, this would contribute to

  8. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.; Gussenhove, C.; Chen, Y.; Dediu, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  9. Germination responses of an invasive species in native and non-native ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose L. Hierro; Ozkan Eren; Liana Khetsuriani; Alecu Diaconu; Katalin Torok; Daniel Montesinos; Krikor Andonian; David Kikodze; Levan Janoian; Diego Villarreal; Maria Estanga-Mollica; Ragan M. Callaway

    2009-01-01

    Studying germination in the native and non-native range of a species can provide unique insights into processes of range expansion and adaptation; however, traits related to germination have rarely been compared between native and nonnative populations. In a series of common garden experiments, we explored whether differences in the seasonality of precipitation,...

  10. Differences in the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Native and Non-Native Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, R.; Mokhtari, K.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the differences in the reported use of reading strategies of native and non-native English speakers when reading academic materials. Participants were native English speaking and English-as-a-Second-Language college students who completed a survey of reading strategies aimed at discerning the strategies readers report using when coping…

  11. Differences in nativity, age and gender may impact health behavior and perspectives among Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sohini; Gor, Beverly; Banerjee, Deborah; Krishnan, Sunil; Dorai, V K; Jones, Lovell; Kabad, Kanchan; Naik, Lakshmi Rai; Legha, Sewa S; Pande, Mala

    2017-07-03

    Identify health perspectives among Asian Indians in greater Houston area, to guide a tailored community wide survey. Four focus groups of different ages, gender, and nativity were conducted at which participants were asked for their opinions about specific health topics. Key informant interviews were conducted with ten community leaders to validate focus group responses. Recordings from focus groups and key informant interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Diabetes, cancer, and hypertension were primary health concerns. Common themes were sedentary lifestyle and poor health literacy. Older participants were more accepting of having familial hypertension and high cholesterol. Women were more concerned about health of family members and dietary habits. Perspectives differed on eating habits, physical activity, use of Western medicine, and smoking based on nativity. Responses from key informant interviews validated focus group findings. Perspectives on health may differ among Asian Indians depending on gender, age, and nativity.

  12. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Spring 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, R.

    2008-03-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community. This issue features an interview with Steven J. Morello, director of DOE's newly formed Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, and a feature on the newly installed Vestas V-47 turbine at Turtle Mountain Community College.

  13. Exploring Aesthetics: Focus on Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Natalie

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that effectively presenting another culture in the classroom is one of the most fundamental problems facing teachers using a multicultural curriculum. Discusses the role of music and the arts in Native American culture. Provides suggestions for presenting traditional Native American music in Western classrooms. (CFR)

  14. Stylistic Change in Classroom Native Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of native music in classes for Native Americans. Highlights the ways in which changes in musical style evolve and the disparities between the teaching process and the music itself. Suggests methods for successfully uniting process and product. (MK)

  15. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  16. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  17. The Native Language in Teaching Kindergarten Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of the native language as a medium of instruction is believed to be the fastest and most natural route towards developing a strong foundation in mathematics literacy (Mimaropa, In D.O.No. 74, s.2009). This study examined the effect of using the native language in the teaching of kindergarten mathematics. A total of 34 five to six year old…

  18. Native American Biographies. Multicultural Biographies Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    This book, appropriate for secondary students, includes brief biographies of 21 Native Americans of the 20th century. The biographies focus on childhood experiences, cultural heritage, and career goals. The book is divided into four units that feature Native Americans with successful careers in the fields of literature and drama; fine arts and…

  19. Hybridisation between native Oreochromis species and introduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus has been introduced throughout Africa outside its native range for aquaculture purposes. Hybridisation between escaped O. niloticus and native Oreochromis species is of concern due to potential negative effects on wild genetic resources for conservation, aquaculture and capture ...

  20. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  1. Theoretical Perspectives of How Digital Natives Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Marck Prensky, an authority on teaching and learning especially with the aid of Information and Communication Technologies, has referred to 21st century children born after 1980 as "Digital Natives". This paper reviews literature of leaders in the field to shed some light on theoretical perspectives of how Digital Natives learn and how…

  2. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  3. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  4. Non-native fishes in Florida freshwaters: a literature review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Non-native fishes have been known from freshwater ecosystems of Florida since the 1950s, and dozens of species have established self-sustaining populations. Nonetheless, no synthesis of data collected on those species in Florida has been published until now. We searched the literature for peer-reviewed publications reporting original data for 42 species of non-native fishes in Florida that are currently established, were established in the past, or are sustained by human intervention. Since the 1950s, the number of non-native fish species increased steadily at a rate of roughly six new species per decade. Studies documented (in decreasing abundance): geographic location/range expansion, life- and natural-history characteristics (e.g., diet, habitat use), ecophysiology, community composition, population structure, behaviour, aquatic-plant management, and fisheries/aquaculture. Although there is a great deal of taxonomic uncertainty and confusion associated with many taxa, very few studies focused on clarifying taxonomic ambiguities of non-native fishes in the State. Most studies were descriptive; only 15 % were manipulative. Risk assessments, population-control studies and evaluations of effects of non-native fishes were rare topics for research, although they are highly valued by natural-resource managers. Though some authors equated lack of data with lack of effects, research is needed to confirm or deny conclusions. Much more is known regarding the effects of lionfish (Pterois spp.) on native fauna, despite its much shorter establishment time. Natural-resource managers need biological and ecological information to make policy decisions regarding non-native fishes. Given the near-absence of empirical data on effects of Florida non-native fishes, and the lengthy time-frames usually needed to collect such information, we provide suggestions for data collection in a manner that may be useful in the evaluation and prediction of non-native fish effects.

  5. The new digital natives cutting the chord

    CERN Document Server

    Dingli, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    The first generation of Digital Natives (DNs) is now growing up.  However, these digital natives were rather late starters since; their exposure to computers started when they could master the mouse and the penetration of computers in educational institutions was still very low. Today, a new breed of digital natives is emerging.  This new breed includes those individuals who are being introduced from their first instances to the world of wireless devices. One year olds manage to master the intuitive touch interfaces of their tablets whilst sitting comfortably in their baby bouncers. The controller-less interfaces allow these children to interact with a machine in a way which was unconceivable below. Thus, our research investigated the paradigm shift between the different generations of digital natives. We analysed the way in which these two generations differ from each other and we explored how the world needs to change in order to harness the potential of these new digital natives.

  6. Native American Music and Curriculum: Controversies and Cultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Native American music and curricula, the differences in Western and Native American perspectives of music, the role of music in Native American life, and music as art. Considers how Native Americans live in two worlds (the preserved and lived cultures) and how Native American music should be taught. (CMK)

  7. Marital Patterns and Use of Mother Tongue at Home among Native-Born Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap

    2010-01-01

    This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within…

  8. Political Status of Native Indian Women: Contradictory Implications of Canadian State Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Jo-Anne

    1995-01-01

    Explores the ambiguous nature of Canadian Native women's political status in relation to men within the internal political processes of Indian reserve communities. Examines linkages among economic factors, domestic organization, and political process, and the disruption of Indian women's lives by state intervention (particularly federal laws…

  9. Incorporating the Culture of American Indian/Alaska Native Students into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Raphael M.; Williams, Garnet L.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted with educators and stakeholders for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students, including teachers, elementary and high school principals, tribal community leaders, and parents, to determine a global definition of culture and ways of infusing culture into curriculum to better educate AI/AN students. Focus…

  10. 78 FR 39539 - Establishing the White House Council on Native American Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... efforts to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of tribal justice systems and protect tribal communities; (d) expanding and improving lifelong educational opportunities for American Indians and Alaska... Executive Order 13592 of December 2, 2011 (Improving American Indian and Alaska Native Educational...

  11. Evaluating winter/spring seeding of a native perennial bunchgrass in the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) plant communities in the US Great Basin region are being severely impacted by increasingly frequent wildfires in association with the expansion of exotic annual grasses. Maintenance of native perennial bunchgrasses is key to controlling annual grass expansion,...

  12. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka; Jaedon P. Avey; Susan B. Trinidad; Julie A. Beans; Renee F. Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Background. American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae.Methods. This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders) surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in so...

  13. Attack of the invasive garden ant: aggression behaviour of Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) against native Lasius species in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Lommen, Suzanne T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species often dramatically change native species communities by directly and indirectly out-competing na-tive species. We studied the direct interference abilities of the invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus VAN LOON, BOOMSMA & ANDRÁSFALVY, 1990, by performing one-to-one aggression test...

  14. Water-Rights Settlements and Reclamation in Central Arizona as a Cross-Cultural Experience: A Reexamination of Native Water Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    As of December 2010, the US Congress had enacted more than twenty major community-specific Native water-rights settlements, and the state of Arizona had more of these settlements (eight) than any other US state. This unique situation has invited voluminous studies on Arizona's Native water-rights settlements. Although these studies have clarified…

  15. Southwestern Avian Community Organization in Exotic Tamarix: Current Patterns and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. A. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Tamarisk (saltcedar: Tamarix), an invasive exotic tree native to the Eastern Hemisphere, is currently the dominant plant species in most southwestern riparian ecosystems at elevations below 1500 m. Tamarisk alters abiotic conditions and the floral composition of native southwestern riparian ecosystems and, in turn, affects native southwestern animal communities....

  16. ‘Imi Hale – The Native Hawaiian Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training Network: Second-Year Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn; Ann Santos, Lorrie; Abrigo, Lehua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe ‘Imi Hale, a program developed and managed by Native Hawaiians to increase cancer awareness and research capacity among Native Hawaiians. This US subgroup of indigenous people of the Hawaiian islands has disproportionately high rates of cancer mortality and low rates of participation in health and research careers. Methods As a community-based research project, ‘Imi Hale spent its first year gathering data from Native Hawaiians about their cancer awareness and research priorities. These findings guide ‘Imi Hale’s community and scientific advisors, a community-based Institutional Review Board, Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), and staff in developing and carrying out projects that address these priority areas. Emphasis is placed on transferring skills and resources to Native Hawaiians through training, technical assistance, and mentorship. A biennial survey assesses the extent to which community-based participatory research principles are being followed. Principal Findings By the end of the second year, statewide and island-specific awareness plans were produced, and 9 funded awareness projects are supporting the development and dissemination of Hawaiian health education materials. Research accomplishments include the enrollment of 42 Native Hawaiian Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), 22 of which are involved in 14 funded research projects. The biennial evaluation survey found that 92% of our advisors felt that ‘Imi Hale was promoting scientifically rigorous research that was culturally appropriate and respectful of Native Hawaiian beliefs, and 96% felt that ‘Imi Hale was following its own principles of community-based participatory research. Conclusion ‘Imi Hale’s community-based approach to promoting cancer awareness will result in a sustainable infrastructure for reducing the cancer burden on Native Hawaiians. PMID:15352771

  17. Engaging Digital Natives through Social Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sarkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital natives account for a substantial portion of the total enrollment in higher education. This calls for significant educational reforms because traditional education systems do not cater to the needs and interests of digital natives. The most effective way that both students and instructors can benefit from this paradigm shift is to integrate technology that is appropriate to the cognitive learning patterns of the digital natives into the curriculum. This paper builds upon previous research in technology/personality theory and specifically attempts to provide examples of technology that will address the instructional needs of digital natives. Further this paper provides empirical evidence of the impact of technology integration on the learning outcomes of digital natives. In this study, the authors explored the impact of targeted technology on academic performance in three businesses courses. Three functional technologies were used by the authors to build engaging course content, efficiently manage course content, and to interact with digital native students. This study found that these technologies can assist digital natives in the learning process and lead to better academic performance.

  18. Two versions of the road back home: native cinema in the USA and Canada Two versions of the road back home: native cinema in the USA and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márgara Avebach

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Native cinema is still a new on North-American screens and working to establish the sharp differences between Western America and the “Thirld World” reality on the reservations for Native Americans remain the poorest minorities in the US and in Canada. It is also new as the space whereaboriginal people shave control of their filmic representation, showing, for one, the diversity of tribal cultures preserved and thriving. The films analysed are Powwow Highway and Medicine River, both based on novels of the same title by David Seals and Thomas King, respectively. The theme is avery dear one to Native Literature: the trip back to one´s community and the figure of the trices as mediator or guide of this return.

    Native cinema is still a new on North-American screens and working to establish the sharp differences between Western America and the “Thirld World” reality on the reservations for Native Americans remain the poorest minorities in the US and in Canada. It is also new as the space whereaboriginal people shave control of their filmic representation, showing, for one, the diversity of tribal cultures preserved and thriving. The films analysed are Powwow Highway and Medicine River, both based on novels of the same title by David Seals and Thomas King, respectively. The theme is avery dear one to Native Literature: the trip back to one´s community and the figure of the trices as mediator or guide of this return.

  19. The European Native Seed Industry: Characterization and Perspectives in Grassland Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello De Vitis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union committed to restore 15% of degraded ecosystems by 2020, and to comply with this goal, native plant material, such as seeds, is needed in large quantities. The native seed production of herbaceous species plays a critical role in supplying seed for restoration of a key ecosystem: grasslands. The objective of this work is to provide for the first time a characterization of the sector at a multi-country European level together with key information about the community of native seed users via intensive web-based research and a direct survey of industry participants. Based on more than 1300 contacts and direct surveying of more than 200 stakeholders across Europe, responses indicated that: the European native seed industry consists primarily of small to medium enterprises; responding native seed users purchase annually an average of 3600 kg of seeds with an average expenditure of €17,600; the industry (suppliers and consumers favours development of seed zones and would participate in a European network for knowledge sharing. This study provides framework principles that can guide decisions in this sector, critical for fulfilling the growing demand for native seed as a primary tool for large-scale restoration on the continent.

  20. Helminth species richness of introduced and native grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabeev, Volodimir

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative complex analyses of parasite communities of invaders across different native and introduced populations are largely lacking. The present study provides a comparative analysis of species richness of helminth parasites in native and invasive populations of grey mullets. The local species richness differed between regions and host species, but did not differ when compared with invasive and native hosts. The size of parasite assemblages of endohelminths was higher in the Mediterranean and Azov-Black Seas, while monogeneans were the most diverse in the Sea of Japan. The helminth diversity was apparently higher in the introduced population of Liza haematocheilus than that in their native habitat, but this trend could not be confirmed when the size of geographic range and sampling efforts were controlled for. The parasite species richness at the infracommunity level of the invasive host population is significantly lower compared with that of the native host populations that lends support to the enemy release hypothesis. A distribution pattern of the infracommunity richness of acquired parasites by the invasive host can be characterized as aggregated and it is random in native host populations. Heterogeneity in the host susceptibility and vulnerability to acquired helminth species was assumed to be a reason of the aggregation of species numbers in the population of the invasive host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  2. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  3. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms "Alaska Native", "children" and "oral health" were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970-2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising approaches to improve the oral and systemic health of Alaska Native

  4. Predatory functional response and prey choice identify predation differences between native/invasive and parasitised/unparasitised crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Wilcox, Ruth H; Heptonstall, Rachael E A; Griffiths, Hannah M; Mortimer, Robert J G; Christmas, Martin; Dunn, Alison M

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators may change the structure of invaded communities through predation and competition with native species. In Europe, the invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is excluding the native white clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. This study compared the predatory functional responses and prey choice of native and invasive crayfish and measured impacts of parasitism on the predatory strength of the native species. Invasive crayfish showed a higher (>10%) prey (Gammarus pulex) intake rate than (size matched) natives, reflecting a shorter (16%) prey handling time. The native crayfish also showed greater selection for crustacean prey over molluscs and bloodworm, whereas the invasive species was a more generalist predator. A. pallipes parasitised by the microsporidian parasite Thelohania contejeani showed a 30% reduction in prey intake. We suggest that this results from parasite-induced muscle damage, and this is supported by a reduced (38%) attack rate and increased (30%) prey handling time. Our results indicate that the per capita (i.e., functional response) difference between the species may contribute to success of the invader and extinction of the native species, as well as decreased biodiversity and biomass in invaded rivers. In addition, the reduced predatory strength of parasitized natives may impair their competitive abilities, facilitating exclusion by the invader.

  5. Language of Science as a Bridge to Native American Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N.; Kingfisher, J.; Treuer, A.; Grant, G.; Ciotti, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the Western tradition, words and vocabulary encapsulate much of how knowledge enters the public discourse, and is passed from one generation to the next. Much of Native American knowledge is passed along in an oral tradition. Chants and ceremonies contain context and long-baseline data on the environment (geology, climate, and astronomy) that may even surpasses the lifespan of a single individual. For Native American students and researchers, the concept of ‘modern research and science education’ may be wrapped up into the conundrum of assimilation and loss of cultural identification and traditional way of life. That conundrum is also associated with the lack of language and vocabulary with which to discuss 'modern research.' Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language - and need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. One strategy for making science education relevant to Native American learners is identifying appropriate terms that cross the cultural divide. More than just words and vocabulary, the thought processes and word/concept relationships can be quite different in the native cultures. The U.S. Rosetta Project has worked to identify words associated with Western 'STEM' concepts in three Native American communities: Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA’s contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone, inspiration for the mission’s name, is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. Steps taken so far include identification and presentation of online astronomy, geology, and physical science vocabulary terms in the native language, identification of teachers and classrooms - often in

  6. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  7. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13 C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13 C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13 C-NMR investigations

  8. Distinct responses of bacterial communities to agricultural and urban impacts in temperate southern African estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcher, G. F.; Froneman, P. W.; Meiklejohn, I.; Dorrington, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, estuaries are regarded as amongst the most ecologically threatened ecosystems and are increasingly being impacted by urban development, agricultural activities and reduced freshwater inflow. In this study, we examined the influence of different human activities on the diversity and structure of bacterial communities in the water column and sediment in three distinct, temperate permanently open estuarine systems within the same geographic region of southern Africa. The Kariega system is freshwater-deprived and is considered to be relatively pristine; the Kowie estuary is marine-dominated and impacted by urban development, while the Sundays system is fresh-water dominated and impacted by agricultural activity in its catchment. The bacterial communities in all three systems comprise predominantly heterotrophic species belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla with little overlap between bacterioplankton and benthic bacterial communities at the species level. There was overlap between the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the Kowie and Kariega, both marine-influenced estuaries. However, lower species richness in the Kowie, likely reflects the impact of human settlements along the estuary. The dominant OTUs in the Sundays River system were distinct from those of the Kariega and Kowie estuaries with an overall decrease in species richness and evenness. This study provides an important snapshot into the microbial population structures of permanently open temperate estuarine systems and the influence of anthropogenic impacts on bacterial diversity and community structure.

  9. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  10. Music and Culture Areas of Native California

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This paper sketches the principal music and culture areas of native California and identifies general characteristics that distinguish the region in the overall sphere of Native American music. Rather than provide notations or detailed analyses I describe the music according to a set of general parameters that I have found useful in previous comparative research. The following elements are considered: (1) vocal quality or timbre; (2) presence of words or vocables, text-setting, and repetition...

  11. Plant compartment and biogeography affect microbiome composition in cultivated and native Agave species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Desgarennes, Damaris; Fonseca-Garcia, Citlali; Gross, Stephen; Clingenpeel, Scott; Woyke, Tanja; North, Gretchen; Visel, Axel; Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Tringe, Susannah G

    2016-01-01

    Desert plants are hypothesized to survive the environmental stress inherent to these regions in part thanks to symbioses with microorganisms, and yet these microbial species, the communities they form, and the forces that influence them are poorly understood. Here we report the first comprehensive investigation of the microbial communities associated with species of Agave, which are native to semiarid and arid regions of Central and North America and are emerging as biofuel feedstocks. We examined prokaryotic and fungal communities in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, leaf and root endosphere, as well as proximal and distal soil samples from cultivated and native agaves, through Illumina amplicon sequencing. Phylogenetic profiling revealed that the composition of prokaryotic communities was primarily determined by the plant compartment, whereas the composition of fungal communities was mainly influenced by the biogeography of the host species. Cultivated A. tequilana exhibited lower levels of prokaryotic diversity compared with native agaves, although no differences in microbial diversity were found in the endosphere. Agaves shared core prokaryotic and fungal taxa known to promote plant growth and confer tolerance to abiotic stress, which suggests common principles underpinning Agave-microbe interactions. No claim to US Government works. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. NativeProtector: Protecting Android Applications by Isolating and Intercepting Third-Party Native Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Hong , Yu-Yang; Wang , Yu-Ping; Yin , Jie

    2016-01-01

    Part 9: Software Security; International audience; An increasing number of Android developers are incorporating third-party native libraries in their applications for code reuse, CPU-intensive tasks and other purposes. However current Android security mechanism can not regulate the native code in applications well. Many approaches have been proposed to enforce security of Android applications, but few of them involve security of the native libraries in Android applications.In this paper, we p...

  13. Diversity and biomass of native macrophytes are negatively related to dominance of an invasive Poaceae in Brazilian sub-tropical streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Gonçalves Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides exacerbated exploitation, pollution, flow alteration and habitats degradation, freshwater biodiversity is also threatened by biological invasions. This paper addresses how native aquatic macrophyte communities are affected by the non-native species Urochloa arrecta, a current successful invader in Brazilian freshwater systems. We compared the native macrophytes colonizing patches dominated and non-dominated by this invader species. We surveyed eight streams in Northwest Paraná State (Brazil. In each stream, we recorded native macrophytes' richness and biomass in sites where U. arrecta was dominant and in sites where it was not dominant or absent. No native species were found in seven, out of the eight investigated sites where U. arrecta was dominant. Thus, we found higher native species richness, Shannon index and native biomass values in sites without dominance of U. arrecta than in sites dominated by this invader. Although difficult to conclude about causes of such differences, we infer that the elevated biomass production by this grass might be the primary reason for alterations in invaded environments and for the consequent impacts on macrophytes' native communities. However, biotic resistance offered by native richer sites could be an alternative explanation for our results. To mitigate potential impacts and to prevent future environmental perturbations, we propose mechanical removal of the invasive species and maintenance or restoration of riparian vegetation, for freshwater ecosystems have vital importance for the maintenance of ecological services and biodiversity and should be preserved.

  14. Apology Strategy in English By Native Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezia Kemala Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.

  15. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare ePatterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  16. Institutional innovation in less than ideal conditions: Management of commons by an Alaska Native village corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixie Dayo

    2009-09-01

    innovative solutions that overcome formal institutional shortfalls. We draw on the experiences of Native corporations in several regions of Alaska, with a focus on Bean Ridge Corporation (BRC, the village corporation which owns lands in and around the community of Manley Hot Springs, Alaska. Programs to distribute corporate earnings, address trespassing, and maintain cultural traditions are described.

  17. Non-random co-occurrence of native and exotic plant species in Mediterranean grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, José M.; Martín-Forés, Irene; Acosta-Gallo, Belén; del Pozo, Alejandro; Ovalle, Carlos; Sánchez-Jardón, Laura; Castro, Isabel; Casado, Miguel A.

    2016-11-01

    Invasion by exotic species in Mediterranean grasslands has determined assembly patterns of native and introduced species, knowledge of which provides information on the ecological processes underlying these novel communities. We considered grasslands from Spain and Chile. For each country we considered the whole grassland community and we split species into two subsets: in Chile, species were classified as natives or colonizers (i.e. exotics); in Spain, species were classified as exclusives (present in Spain but not in Chile) or colonizers (Spanish natives and exotics into Chile). We used null models and co-occurrence indices calculated in each country for each one of 15 sites distributed along a precipitation gradient and subjected to similar silvopastoral exploitation. We compared values of species co-occurrence between countries and between species subsets (natives/colonizers in Chile; exclusives/colonizers in Spain) within each country and we characterised them according to climatic variables. We hypothesized that: a) the different coexistence time of the species in both regions should give rise to communities presenting a spatial pattern further from random in Spain than in Chile, b) the co-occurrence patterns in the grasslands are affected by mesoclimatic factors in both regions. The patterns of co-occurrence are similar in Spain and Chile, mostly showing a spatial pattern more segregated than expected by random. The colonizer species are more segregated in Spain than in Chile, possibly determined by the longer residence time of the species in the source area than in the invaded one. The segregation of species in Chile is related to water availability, being species less segregated in habitat with greater water deficit; in Spain no relationship with climatic variables was found. After an invasion process, our results suggest that the possible process of alteration of the original Chilean communities has not prevented the assembly between the native and

  18. Do species differ in their ability to coexist with the dominant alien Lupinus polyphyllus? A comparison between two distinct invaded ranges and a native range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hejda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The community-level impacts of invasive plants are likely to vary depending on the character of native species of the target communities and their ability to thrive within the stands of the dominant alien invader. Therefore, I examined the response of native species richness to the cover of the dominant alien Lupinus polyphyllus in two distinct invaded ranges: Czech Republic (Central Europe and New Zealand. I compared the relation between native species richness and the cover of the dominant alien L. polyphyllus with that in its native range, Pacific Northwest, USA.In the native range, I found no response of native species richness to the cover of L. polyphyllus. In the Czech Republic (central Europe, the richness of native species related to it negativelly, but the relation was only marginally significant. Contrary to that, the richness of species native to New Zealand related to the cover of L. polyphyllus strongly negatively and the negative relation was significantly stronger than that of species native to Europe.Of the two invaded ranges, species native to New Zealand have been documented to be much more vulnerable to the conditions associated with the invasion and dominance of L. polyphyllus, compared to species native to central Europe. This principle has been shown both across these two invaded ranges and in New Zealand, where the aliens of european origin successfully coexist with the dominant invasive alien L. polyphyllus. Similarly, species in the native range of L. polyphyllus showed no relation to its cover, indicating their ability to thrive even in dense stands of this dominant species.

  19. Promoting Optimal Native Outcomes (PONO) by Understanding Women's Stress Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okihiro, May; Duke, Lisa; Goebert, Deborah; Ampolos, Lauren; Camacho, Casandra; Shanahan, Natasha; Hishinuma, Earl; Kaholokula, J Keawe

    2017-04-01

    A growing body of evidence links stress with mental illness and chronic disease. Existing scales of women's stress fail to capture the daily stressors of low-income, rural women. We explored the psychosocial stressors of local women residing in a rural Hawaii community with a large Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population. We recruited women, aged 18-35 years, at a community health center. We convened four focus groups to elicit information about women's stress. We identified key themes from the focus group data to generate questions that target concerns raised by participants. These were corroborated by additional focus groups. Thirty-six women participated in the study. Seven stressor themes emerged: intimate relationships-limited partner assistance, gender stereotype; family and home life-feeling like an outsider, lack of respect; childrearing-quality and affordable childcare, conflicting discipline styles; time for self-never-ending duties, being too tired to relax; neighborhood environment-safety concerns, not feeling part of the community; workplace-workload and transportation obstacles; and finances-making ends meet and arguments about money. Women in this study articulated a broad range of daily stressors. Sociocultural factors leading to feeling like an outsider within their own family, intercultural marriage conflicts, and perceptions of community discrimination are not included in other published scales. Our focus group investigations thus provided critical knowledge for developing a community-relevant scale. This is a prerequisite for developing and testing innovative intervention strategies designed to reduce stress in this population. We believe that reducing stress is necessary to mitigate the negative effects of stressors on physical and mental health among women in this rural community.

  20. 45 CFR 670.20 - Designation of native birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native birds. 670.20 Section 670.20... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.20 Designation of native birds. The following are designated native birds: Albatross Black-browed—Diomedea...

  1. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.19 Designation of native mammals. The following are designated native mammals: Pinnipeds: Crabeater seal—Lobodon...

  2. Do Native Insects and Associated Fungi Limit Non-Native Woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, Survival in a Newly Invaded Environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Haavik

    Full Text Available Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae is an introduced pest of pines (Pinus spp. in several countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Although S. noctilio is established in North America (first discovered in 2004, it has not been a destructive pest there so far, where forest communities more closely resemble those in its native Eurasian range—where it is not a pest. To investigate the influence of the existing community of associated insects (competitors + natural enemies and fungi (vectored by insects on S. noctilio survival in North America, we examined stage-specific mortality factors and their relative importance, generating life tables drawn from experimentally-manipulated and natural cohorts of Sirex spp. (mostly S. noctilio, but some native S. nigricornis F.. For both natural and experimentally-manipulated cohorts, factors which acted during the earliest Sirex life stages, most likely tree resistance and/or competition among fungal associates, were paramount in dictating woodwasp survival. Experimentally-manipulated life tables revealed that protection from the community of associates resulted in a significantly, and substantially larger (>15x S. noctilio F1 generation than exposure to it. Seventy percent of generation mortality in the exposed cohort was due to tree resistance or unknown causes early in larval development, which could have included competition among other bark- or wood-inhabiting insects and/or their fungal associates. Only 46% of generation mortality in the protected cohort was due to tree resistance and/or unknown causes. Parasitoids, particularly endoparasitoids (Ibalia spp., showed limited ability to control S. noctilio, and reduced the experimentally-established cohort by only 11%, and natural cohorts an average of 3.4%. The relative importance of tree resistance vs. competition with bark- and wood-borers in reducing S. noctilio survival remains unclear. Tree resistance and/or competition likely contribute more

  3. Immigrants' Pathways to Outpatient Mental Health: Are there Differences with the Native Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramaglia, Carla; Gambaro, Eleonora; Rossi, Annalisa; Toso, Alessandra; Feggi, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Carlo Ignazio; Castignoli, Giorgio; Mainini, Piera; Tarricone, Ilaria; Torre, Eugenio; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    A poor use of mental health services has been described in immigrants. We compared the sociodemographic, clinical and treatment features of immigrants and natives attending a Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC). 191 immigrants and 191 randomly selected natives applying to the Borgomanero CMHC between 1 January 2003 and 31 August 2013 were compared. Our sample consisted mainly of the so-called "economic" immigrant. Adjustment disorders and reaction to stress were the most frequent diagnoses; in most cases symptoms onset occurred after migration. Although treatment features overlapped in the two groups (duration, number of contacts), immigrants showed a higher frequency of treatment dropout. While it is necessary to improve access to mental health services for immigrants, for the "economic" immigrant it may be more important to focus on establishing a therapeutic relationship that can be experienced as reliable and trustworthy. The finding of similar pathways to access the CMHC in natives and immigrants is encouraging.

  4. Functional differences between native and alien species: a global-scale comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordonez Gloria, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    1. A prevalent question in the study of plant invasions has been whether or not invasions can be explained on the basis of traits. Despite many attempts, a synthetic view of multi-trait differences between alien and native species is not yet available.2. We compiled a database of three ecologically...... important traits (specific leaf area, typical maximum canopy height, individual seed mass) for 4473 species sampled over 95 communities (3784 species measured in their native range, 689 species in their introduced range, 207 in both ranges).3. Considering each trait separately, co-occurring native and alien...... species significantly differed in their traits. These differences, although modest, were expressed in a combined 15% higher specific leaf area, 16% lower canopy height and 26% smaller seeds.4. Using three novel multi-trait metrics of functional diversity, aliens showed significantly smaller trait ranges...

  5. Two versions of the road back home: native cinema in the USA and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márgara Avebach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Native cinema is still a new on North-American screens and working to establish the sharp differences between Western America and the “Thirld World” reality on the reservations for Native Americans remain the poorest minorities in the US and in Canada. It is also new as the space whereaboriginal people shave control of their filmic representation, showing, for one, the diversity of tribal cultures preserved and thriving. The films analysed are Powwow Highway and Medicine River, both based on novels of the same title by David Seals and Thomas King, respectively. The theme is avery dear one to Native Literature: the trip back to one´s community and the figure of the trices as mediator or guide of this return.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of plankton communities coupled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we studied the influence of the physical-chemical and biological factors (bacterioplankton and phytoplankton abundances) for zooplankton dynamics in a Sidi Saâd reservoir in Centre of Tunisia. The samplings were carried out in spring, summer, autumn and winter (2005 to 2006) in the deepest station (surface ...

  7. Native American Indian Successes in Natural Resources, Science and Engineering: PreK through Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have recognized the critical need in understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the growth of Native people in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) professions. The presentation will highlight: 1) current philosophies on building a STEM Native workforce; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native professionals, their research and tribal applicability; and 4) forwarding thinking for creating sustainable environmental and social infrastructures for all people. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T) and Humboldt State University (HSU) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. SDSM&T has set record numbers for graduating Native students in science and engineering. SDSM&T had 27 graduates in five years (2000-2005) and hosted more than 1000+ Native students for programs and activities. Humboldt State University is the only university in the CSU system with a program focusing specifically on Natives in natural resources, science and engineering as well as a Native American Studies degree. Both universities have designed programs to meet current needs and address challenging issues in Earth, Wind, Fire and Water. The programs are funded through NASA, NSF, NIH and

  8. Impact of non-native terrestrial mammals on the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Strong

    Full Text Available The island of Newfoundland is unique because it has as many non-native terrestrial mammals as native ones. The impacts of non-native species on native flora and fauna can be profound and invasive species have been identified as one of the primary drivers of species extinction. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a non-native species assemblage on community and ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature to build the first terrestrial mammal food web for the island of Newfoundland and then used network analyses to investigate how the timing of introductions and trophic position of non-native species has affected the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web in Newfoundland. The first non-native mammals (house mouse and brown rat became established in Newfoundland with human settlement in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Coyotes and southern red-backed voles are the most recent mammals to establish themselves on the island in 1985 and 1998, respectively. The fraction of intermediate species increased with the addition of non-native mammals over time whereas the fraction of basal and top species declined over time. This increase in intermediate species mediated by non-native species arrivals led to an overall increase in the terrestrial mammal food web connectance and generality (i.e. mean number of prey per predator. This diverse prey base and sources of carrion may have facilitated the natural establishment of coyotes on the island. Also, there is some evidence that the introduction of non-native prey species such as the southern red-backed vole has contributed to the recovery of the threatened American marten. Long-term monitoring of the food web is required to understand and predict the impacts of the diverse novel interactions that are developing in the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland.

  9. Predation by crustaceans on native and non-native Baltic clams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ejdung, G.; Flach, E.; Byrén, L.; Hummel, H.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of crustacean predators on native/non-native Macoma balthica bivalves in aquarium experiments. North Sea M. balthica (NS Macoma) were recently observed in the southern Baltic Sea. They differ genetically and in terms of morphology, behaviour and evolutionary history from Baltic

  10. When the Native Is Also a Non-Native: "Retrodicting" the Complexity of Language Teacher Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The impact of native (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) identities on second or foreign language teachers' cognition and practices in the classroom has mainly been investigated in ESL/EFL contexts. Using complexity theory as a framework, this case study attempts to fill the gap in the literature by presenting a foreign language teacher in the…

  11. Reanalysis and semantic persistence in native and non-native garden-path recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gunnar; Felser, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    We report the results from an eye-movement monitoring study investigating how native and non-native speakers of English process temporarily ambiguous sentences such as While the gentleman was eating the burgers were still being reheated in the microwave, in which an initially plausible direct-object analysis is first ruled out by a syntactic disambiguation (were) and also later on by semantic information (being reheated). Both participant groups showed garden-path effects at the syntactic disambiguation, with native speakers showing significantly stronger effects of ambiguity than non-native speakers in later eye-movement measures but equally strong effects in first-pass reading times. Ambiguity effects at the semantic disambiguation and in participants' end-of-trial responses revealed that for both participant groups, the incorrect direct-object analysis was frequently maintained beyond the syntactic disambiguation. The non-native group showed weaker reanalysis effects at the syntactic disambiguation and was more likely to misinterpret the experimental sentences than the native group. Our results suggest that native language (L1) and non-native language (L2) parsing are similar with regard to sensitivity to syntactic and semantic error signals, but different with regard to processes of reanalysis.

  12. 75 FR 33589 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... toward the page limit. Use a font that is either 12 point or larger, and no smaller than 10 pitch.... If a tie remains after applying the tie-breaker mechanism above, priority will be given in the case... Strengthening Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian-Serving Institutions programs: a. The percentage change, over...

  13. Defining "Native Speaker" in Multilingual Settings: English as a Native Language in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen Edwards, Jette G.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines how and why speakers of English from multilingual contexts in Asia are identifying as native speakers of English. Eighteen participants from different contexts in Asia, including Singapore, Malaysia, India, Taiwan, and The Philippines, who self-identified as native speakers of English participated in hour-long interviews…

  14. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native species invasions across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analy...

  15. Alaska Native Languages: Past, Present, and Future. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Michael E.

    Three papers (1978-80) written for the non-linguistic public about Alaska Native languages are combined here. The first is an introduction to the prehistory, history, present status, and future prospects of all Alaska Native languages, both Eskimo-Aleut and Athabaskan Indian. The second and third, presented as appendixes to the first, deal in…

  16. Understanding Utah's Native Plant Market: Coordinating Public and Private Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Virginia Harding

    2003-01-01

    Changes in Lone Peak Conservation Nursery customer profiles cause state nursery leaders to question what their products are being used for and how trends in native plant use are changing the market for Utah native plants. The Utah native plant market is changing as interest in native plants is expanding to meet new conservation objectives, oftentimes in urban settings. This newer demand for native plants appears to be motivated by current changes in urban conservation behavior, continued popu...

  17. Systemic and intensifying drought induces collapse and replacement of native fishes: a time-series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhi, A.; Olden, J. D.; Sabo, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In the American Southwest, hydrologic drought has become a new normal as a result of increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources and increased aridity associated with global warming. Although drought has often been touted to threaten freshwater biodiversity, connecting drought to extinction risk of highly-imperiled faunas remains a challenge. Here we combine time-series methods from signal processing and econometrics to analyze a spatially comprehensive and long-term dataset to link discharge variation and community abundance of fish across the American Southwest. This novel time series framework identifies ongoing trends in daily discharge anomalies across the Southwest, quantifies the effect of the historical hydrologic drivers on fish community abundance, and allows us to simulate species trajectories and range-wide risk of decline (quasiextinction) under scenarios of future climate. Spectral anomalies are declining over the last 30 years in at least a quarter of the stream gaging stations across the American Southwest and these anomalies are robust predictors of historical abundance of native and non-native fishes. Quasiextinction probabilities are high (>50 %) for nearly ¾ of the native species across several large river basins in the same region; and the negative trend in annual anomalies increases quasiextinction risk for native but reduces this risk for non-native fishes. These findings suggest that ongoing drought is causing range-wide collapse and replacement of native fish faunas, and that this homogenization of western fish faunas will continue given the prevailing negative trend in discharge anomalies. Additionally, this combination of methods can be applied elsewhere as long as environmental and biological long-term time-series data are available. Collectively, these methods allow identifying the link between hydroclimatic forcing and ecological responses and thus may help anticipating the potential impacts of ongoing and future hydrologic

  18. The bacterial community composition of the surface microlayer in a high mountain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörtnagl, Paul; Pérez, Maria Teresa; Zeder, Michael; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2010-09-01

    The existence of bacterioneuston in aquatic ecosystems is well established, but little is known about its composition and dynamics, particularly in lakes. The bacterioneuston underlies extreme conditions at the air-water boundary, which may influence its dynamics in a different way compared with the bacterioplankton. In this study, we assessed quantitative changes in major bacterial groups of the surface microlayer (SML) (upper 900 microm) and the underlying water (ULW) (0.2-0.5 m depth) of an alpine lake during two consecutive ice-free seasons. Analysis of the bacterial community composition was done using catalyzed reporter deposition FISH with oligonucleotide probes. In addition, several physicochemical parameters were measured to characterize these two water layers. Dissolved organic carbon was consistently enriched in the SML and the dissolved organic matter pool presented clear signals of photodegradation and photobleaching. The water temperature was generally colder in the SML than in the subsurface. The bacterial community of the SML and the ULW was dominated by Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The bacterial community composition was associated with different combinations of physicochemical factors in these two layers, but temporal changes showed similar trends in both layers over the two seasons. Our results identify the SML of alpine lakes as a microhabitat where specific bacterial members such as of Betaproteobacteria seem to be efficient colonizers.

  19. Differences in aggression, activity and boldness between native and introduced populations of an invasive crayfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, L.M.; Sih, A.; Bauer, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressiveness, along with foraging voracity and boldness, are key behavioral mechanisms underlying the competitive displacement and invasion success of exotic species. However, do aggressiveness, voracity and boldness of the invader depend on the presence of an ecologically similar native competitor in the invaded community? We conducted four behavioral assays to compare aggression, foraging voracity, threat response and boldness to forage under predation risk of multiple populations of exotic signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus across its native and invaded range with and without a native congener, the Shasta crayfish P. fortis. We predicted that signal crayfish from the invaded range and sympatric with a native congener (IRS) should be more aggressive to outcompete a close competitor than populations from the native range (NR) or invaded range and allopatric to a native congener (IRA). Furthermore, we predicted that IRS populations of signal crayfish should be more voracious, but less bold to forage under predation risk since native predators and prey likely possess appropriate behavioral responses to the invader. Contrary to our predictions, results indicated that IRA signal crayfish were more aggressive towards conspecifics and more voracious and active foragers, yet also bolder to forage under predation risk in comparison to NR and IRS populations, which did not differ in behavior. Higher aggression/voracity/ boldness was positively correlated with prey consumption rates, and hence potential impacts on prey. We suggest that the positive correlations between aggression/voracity/boldness are the result of an overall aggression syndrome. Results of stream surveys indicated that IRA streams have significantly lower prey biomass than in IRS streams, which may drive invading signal crayfish to be more aggressive/voracious/bold to acquire resources to establish a population. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. Decoding speech perception by native and non-native speakers using single-trial electrophysiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Brandmeyer

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. Multivariate pattern classification methods were applied to single-trial EEG data collected during speech perception by native and non-native speakers. Two principal questions were asked: 1 Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2 Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants. Classifier performance showed strong relationships with traditional event-related potential measures and behavioral responses. The results of the cross-participant analysis indicated an overall increase in average classifier performance when trained on data from all participants (native and non-native. A second cross-participant classifier trained only on data from native speakers led to an overall improvement in performance for native speakers, but a reduction in performance for non-native speakers. We also found that the native language of a given participant could be decoded on the basis of EEG data with accuracy above 80%. These results indicate that electrophysiological responses underlying speech perception can be decoded at the single-trial level, and that decoding performance systematically reflects graded changes in the responses related to the phonological status of the stimuli. This approach could be used in extensions of the BCI paradigm to support perceptual learning during second language acquisition.

  1. Linking Native and Invader Traits Explains Native Spider Population Responses to Plant Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N Smith

    Full Text Available Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe stems to determine if native spiders' web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion plots compared to controls. Additionally, irregular web-spiders on simulated invasion plots built webs that were 4.4 times larger and 5.0 times more likely to capture prey, leading to >2-fold increases in recruitment. Orb-weavers showed no differences in web size or prey captures between treatments. Web-spider responses to simulated invasion mimicked patterns following natural invasions, confirming that C. stoebe's architecture is likely the primary attribute driving native spider responses to these invasions. Differences in spider responses were attributable to differences in web construction behaviors relative to historic web substrate constraints. Orb-weavers in this system constructed webs between multiple plants, so they were limited by the overall quantity of native substrates but not by the architecture of individual native plant species. Irregular web-spiders built their webs within individual plants and were greatly constrained by the diminutive architecture of native plant substrates, so they were limited both by quantity and quality of native substrates. Evaluating native species traits in the context of invader-driven change can explain invasion outcomes and help to identify factors limiting native populations.

  2. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov E Burlakova

    Full Text Available Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011-2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990 s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  3. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlakova, Lyubov E; Tulumello, Brianne L; Karatayev, Alexander Y; Krebs, Robert A; Schloesser, Donald W; Paterson, Wendy L; Griffith, Traci A; Scott, Mariah W; Crail, Todd; Zanatta, David T

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011-2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990 s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  4. Influence of top-down and bottom-up manipulations on the R-BT065 subcluster of Betaproteobacteria, an abundant group in bacterioplankton of a freshwater reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Horňák, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Mašín, Michal; Nedoma, Jiří; Gasol, J. M. .; Schauer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 5 (2005), s. 2381-2390 ISSN 0099-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0003 Grant - others:CSIC(ES) DGICYT REN2001-2120/MAR; EU(XE) EVK3-CT-2002-00078; Austrian Science Foundation(AT) P15655 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : reservoir * top-down and bottom-up control * microbial food webs * bacterivory * bacterial community composition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.818, year: 2005

  5. Facilitation and interference of seedling establishment by a native legume before and after wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Erin; Chambers, Jeanne C

    2012-01-01

    In semi-arid ecosystems, heterogeneous resources can lead to variable seedling recruitment. Existing vegetation can influence seedling establishment by modifying the resource and physical environment. We asked how a native legume, Lupinus argenteus, modifies microenvironments in unburned and burned sagebrush steppe, and if L. argenteus presence facilitates seedling establishment of native species and the non-native annual grass, Bromus tectorum. Field treatments examined mechanisms by which L. argenteus likely influences establishment: (1) live L. argenteus; (2) dead L. argenteus; (3) no L. argenteus; (4) no L. argenteus with L. argenteus litter; (5) no L. argenteus with inert litter; and (6) mock L. argenteus. Response variables included soil nitrogen, moisture, temperature, solar radiation, and seedling establishment of the natives Elymus multisetus and Eriogonum umbellatum, and non-native B. tectorum. In both unburned and burned communities, there was higher spring soil moisture, increased shade and reduced maximum temperatures under L. argenteus canopies. Adult L. argenteus resulted in greater amounts of soil nitrogen (N) only in burned sagebrush steppe, but L. argenteus litter increased soil N under both unburned and burned conditions. Although L. argenteus negatively affected emergence and survival of B. tectorum overall, its presence increased B. tectorum biomass and reproduction in unburned plots. However, L. argenteus had positive facilitative effects on size and survival of E. multisetus in both unburned and burned plots. Our study indicates that L. argenteus can facilitate seedling establishment in semi-arid systems, but net effects depend on the species examined, traits measured, and level of abiotic stress.

  6. Cartographies of the Voice: Storying the Land as Survivance in Native American Oral Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Native places are made, named, and reconstructed after colonization through storytelling. Storying the land is a process whereby the land is invested with the moral and spiritual perspectives specific to Native American communities. As seen in the oral traditions and written literature of Native American storytellers and authors, the voices of indigenous people retrace and remap cartographies for the land after colonization through storytelling. This article shows that the Americas were storied by Native American communities long before colonial contact beginning in the fifteenth century and demonstrates how the land continues to be storied in the present as a method of decolonization and cultural survivance. The article examines manifestations of the oral tradition in multiple forms, including poetry, interviews, fiction, photography, and film, to demonstrate that the land itself, through storytelling, becomes a repository of the oral tradition. The article investigates oral narratives from precontact and postcolonial time periods and across numerous nations and geographical regions in the Americas, including stories from the Mayan Popol Vuh; Algonkian; Western Apache; Hopi; Haudenosaunee/Iroquois; and Laguna Pueblo stories; and the contemporary poetry and fiction of Joy Harjo (Mvskoke/Creek Nation and Leslie Marmon Silko (Laguna Pueblo.

  7. Tendencies of Inner Surveillance in Democratic India Challenges of Establishing Native Ethnographer's Identity Among Indian Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum "Ruhi" Khan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how the native ethnographer's position within his/her com-munity becomes problematized during fieldwork conditions defined by fear of state surveillance forces. It focuses on the way state's vigilance activities create new barriers for establishing of native ethnographer's authority by challenging the ethnographer's privileged access to his/her research community based on trust and cultural/religious affiliations. The apprehensions for personal safety experienced by the informants unsettle the distinctions between native and non-native ethno-graphy. The paper argues that if anthropology is to progress as a meaningful so-cial and cultural critique then it must elaborate the ethnographer's experiences of navigating the shifting grounds as insider and outsider. It proposes a "thick de-scription" of the way reticence and distrust of the informants is overcome. The aim is to create scholarship that counters political and social injustices by making explicit voids and gaps and by gleaning a wealth of information in silences.

  8. Techno-anthropology and the digital natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The ethnographic field guide was a short-lived genre in the annals of anthropology. In this chapter I experimentally attempt to revive it. The original guides provided the ethnographer with a set of practical pointers on how to organise fieldwork, set up camp, maintain relations, and negotiate ac...... of digital natives, and that maintaining relations with these natives presents a challenge of its own. I argue that these challenges must be taken seriously, and that techno-anthropology could be ideally suited to do just that....

  9. Bacterial community transcription patterns during a marine phytoplankton bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinta-Kanto, Johanna M; Sun, Shulei; Sharma, Shalabh; Kiene, Ronald P; Moran, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Bacterioplankton consume a large proportion of photosynthetically fixed carbon in the ocean and control its biogeochemical fate. We used an experimental metatranscriptomics approach to compare bacterial activities that route energy and nutrients during a phytoplankton bloom compared with non-bloom conditions. mRNAs were sequenced from duplicate bloom and control microcosms 1 day after a phytoplankton biomass peak, and transcript copies per litre of seawater were calculated using an internal mRNA standard. Transcriptome analysis revealed a potential novel mechanism for enhanced efficiency during carbon-limited growth, mediated through membrane-bound pyrophosphatases [V-type H(+)-translocating; hppA]; bloom bacterioplankton participated less in this metabolic energy scavenging than non-bloom bacterioplankton, with possible implications for differences in growth yields on organic substrates. Bloom bacterioplankton transcribed more copies of genes predicted to increase cell surface adhesiveness, mediated by changes in bacterial signalling molecules related to biofilm formation and motility; these may be important in microbial aggregate formation. Bloom bacterioplankton also transcribed more copies of genes for organic acid utilization, suggesting an increased importance of this compound class in the bioreactive organic matter released during phytoplankton blooms. Transcription patterns were surprisingly faithful within a taxon regardless of treatment, suggesting that phylogeny broadly predicts the ecological roles of bacterial groups across 'boom' and 'bust' environmental backgrounds. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Faster N Release, but Not C Loss, From Leaf Litter of Invasives Compared to Native Species in Mediterranean Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Incerti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant invasions can have relevant impacts on biogeochemical cycles, whose extent, in Mediterranean ecosystems, have not yet been systematically assessed comparing litter carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics between invasive plants and native communities. We carried out a 1-year litterbag experiment in 4 different plant communities (grassland, sand dune, riparian and mixed forests on 8 invasives and 24 autochthonous plant species, used as control. Plant litter was characterized for mass loss, N release, proximate lignin and litter chemistry by 13C CPMAS NMR. Native and invasive species showed significant differences in litter chemical traits, with invaders generally showing higher N concentration and lower lignin/N ratio. Mass loss data revealed no consistent differences between native and invasive species, although some woody and vine invaders showed exceptionally high decomposition rate. In contrast, N release rate from litter was faster for invasive plants compared to native species. N concentration, lignin content and relative abundance of methoxyl and N-alkyl C region from 13C CPMAS NMR spectra were the parameters that better explained mass loss and N mineralization rates. Our findings demonstrate that during litter decomposition invasive species litter has no different decomposition rates but greater N release rate compared to natives. Accordingly, invasives are expected to affect N cycle in Mediterranean plant communities, possibly promoting a shift of plant assemblages.

  11. Hemisphericity and information processing in North American Native (Ojibwa) and non-native adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L L; Allen, J D; Williams, N H

    1994-04-01

    Thirty-two male and female adolescents of native ancestry (Ojibwa) and 32 controls were tested using (1) four WISC-R subtests and (2) two dichotic listening tasks which employed a focused-attention paradigm for processing consonant-vowel combinations (CVs) and musical melodies. On the WISC-R, natives scored higher than controls on Block Design and Picture Completion subtests but lower on Vocabulary and Similarities subtests. On laterality measures more native males showed a left ear advantage on the CV task and the melody task. For CVs the left ear advantage was due to native males' lower right ear (i.e., left hemisphere) involvement. For melodies, the laterality index pointed to less left hemisphere involvement for native males, however, the raw scores showed that natives were performing lower overall. The findings are consistent with culturally-based strategy differences, possibly linked to "hemisphericity," but additional clarifying research regarding the cause and extent of such differences is warranted. Thus, implications for education are premature but a focus on teaching "left hemisphere type" strategies to all individuals not utilizing such skills, including many native males, may prove beneficial.

  12. Effects of mining-associated lead and zinc soil contamination on native floristic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckhoff, Matthew A; Stroh, Esther D; Grabner, Keith W

    2013-04-15

    We assessed the quality of plant communities across a range of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) soil concentrations at a variety of sites associated with Pb mining in southeast Missouri, USA. In a novel application, two standard floristic quality measures, Mean Coefficient of Conservatism (Mean C) and Floristic Quality Index (FQI), were examined in relation to concentrations of Pb and Zn, soil nutrients, and other soil characteristics. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and Regression Tree Analyses identified soil Pb and Zn concentrations as primary explanatory variables for plant community composition and indicated negative relationships between soil metals concentrations and both Mean C and FQI. Univariate regression also demonstrated significant negative relationships between metals concentrations and floristic quality. The negative effects of metals in native soils with otherwise relatively undisturbed conditions indicate that elevated soil metals concentrations adversely affect native floristic quality where no other human disturbance is evident. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Jurisprudence, Peyote and the Native American Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Paul E.; Scholes, Jennifer

    1986-01-01

    Examines federal and state governments' attempts to suppress peyote use in Indian rituals as historically Christian-inspired. Focuses on questions of morality versus criminal law. Explains history and development of Native American Church of North America. Examines nine contemporary peyote trials. Concludes larger questions of tribal sovereignty…

  14. Native American Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Andrea

    1995-01-01

    Provides suggestions for a literature-based approach when integrating Native American culture into the middle school curriculum. Recommends resources in the following subjects: language arts, mathematics, physical education, health, home and career skills, technology, art, music, and second language. (AEF)

  15. Educating Native Students: Inspiring Future Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiffany

    2003-01-01

    A 7-week summer program for college-bound American Indian students prepares them for college and trains them to become leaders. Through role playing a fictitious Native tribe, students encounter realistic dilemmas similar to those facing tribal governments and realize that tribal leaders' decisions involve many social and political issues…

  16. Native American Media Needs: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerman, Laurell E.; And Others

    Twenty five urban centers, 70 Indian tribes, and 60 public television stations responded to questionnaires in an attempt to collect information useful to the process of making programmatic decisions about future goals and activities of the Native American Public Broadcasting Consortium (NAPBC). The Tribal and Urban Center questionnaires were…

  17. Conserving biodiversity on native rangelands: Symposium proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Greg L. Schenbeck; James T. O' Rourke

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings are the result of a symposium, "Conserving biodiversity on native rangelands" held on August 17, 1995 in Fort Robinson State Park, NE. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum to discuss how elements of rangeland biodiversity are being conserved today. We asked, "How resilient and sustainable are rangeland systems to the...

  18. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  19. 75 FR 13297 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... for 118.47 acres, located southeast of the Native village of Hughes, Alaska. Notice of the decision...: The Bureau of Land Management by phone at 907-271-5960, or by e-mail at ak[email protected]ak.blm.gov...

  20. Native Americans With Diabetes PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.