WorldWideScience

Sample records for national tripartite price

  1. 7 CFR 760.640 - National average market price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National average market price. 760.640 Section 760.640....640 National average market price. (a) The Deputy Administrator will establish the National Average... average quality loss factors that are reflected in the market by county or part of a county. (c)...

  2. Measuring health care efficiency with a tripartite configuration under the "National" Health Insurance system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victor B.Kreng; Yang Shao-wei; Lin Chien-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Background The "National" Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan,China is a single-payer system that was introduced in 1995 to provide universal health care.It is worth noting that three stakeholders are involved in Taiwan's NHI,which can be seen as a triangular governance regime between the Bureau of "National" Health Insurance (BNHI),the insured and providers.Accordingly,this study intended to assess the efficiency of various different production processes that occur among these stakeholders in Taiwan's NHI system.Methods A two-stage relational Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model is adopted to investigate the sub-process efficiencies of the health care resources held by 23 cities and counties through stages Ⅰ or Ⅱ,where the outputs of the first stage serve the inputs of the second.The dataset was collected from the annual reports published by the Department of Health,Taiwan,China.Results Under the proposed framework,the efficiency of the whole process can be obtained from the product of productivity and allocative efficiency.Ten DMUs are efficient either in stages Ⅰ or Ⅱ,with only two DMUs being efficient with regard to both sub-processes.Conclusion The relational DEA model not only demonstrates the physical relationship between the whole process and the sub-process components,but also produces reliable outcomes in efficiency measurement among different stakeholders in Taiwan's NHI system.

  3. Tripartite composite fermion states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, G. J.; Wu, Ying-Hai; Wójs, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2013-06-01

    The Read-Rezayi wave function is one of the candidates for the fractional quantum Hall effect at filling fraction ν=2+⅗, and thereby also its hole conjugate at 2+⅖. We study a general class of tripartite composite fermion wave functions, which reduce to the Rezayi-Read ground state and quasiholes for appropriate quantum numbers, but also allow a construction of wave functions for quasiparticles and neutral excitations by analogy to the standard composite fermion theory. We present numerical evidence in finite systems that these trial wave functions capture well the low energy physics of a four-body model interaction. We also compare the tripartite composite fermion wave functions with the exact Coulomb eigenstates at 2+⅗, and find reasonably good agreement. The ground state as well as several excited states of the four-body interaction are seen to evolve adiabatically into the corresponding Coulomb states for N=15 particles. These results support the plausibility of the Read-Rezayi proposal for the 2+⅖ and 2+⅗ fractional quantum Hall effect. However, certain other proposals also remain viable, and further study of excitations and edge states will be necessary for a decisive establishment of the physical mechanism of these fractional quantum Hall states.

  4. Do national drug policies influence antiretroviral drug prices? Evidence from the Southern African Development community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Galárraga, Omar

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of low- and middle-income countries’ (LMIC) national drug policies in managing antiretroviral (ARV) pharmaceutical prices is not well understood. Though ARV drug prices have been declining in LMIC over the past decade, little research has been done on the role of their national drug policies. This study aims to (i) analyse global ARV prices from 2004 to 2013 and (ii) examine the relationship of national drug policies to ARV prices. Analysis of ARV drug prices utilized data from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization (WHO). Ten of the most common ARV drugs (first-line and second-line) were selected. National drug policies were also assessed for 12 countries in the South African Development Community (SADC), which self-reported their policies through WHO surveys. The best predictor of ARV drug price was generic status—the generic versions of 8 out of 10 ARV drugs were priced lower than branded versions. However, other factors such as transaction volume, HIV prevalence, national drug policies and PEPFAR/CHAI involvement were either not associated with ARV drug price or were not consistent predictors of price across different ARV drugs. In the context of emerging international trade agreements, which aim to strengthen patent protections internationally and potentially delay the sale of generic drugs in LMIC, this study shines a spotlight on the importance of generic drugs in controlling ARV prices. Further research is needed to understand the impact of national drug policies on ARV prices.

  5. Facets of tripartite entanglement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipankar Home

    2001-02-01

    Tripartite entangled states of systems 1, 2 and 3 involving nonorthogonal states are used to reveal two hitherto unexplored quantum effects. The first shows that kinematic entanglement between the states of 1 and 2 can affect the result of dynamical interaction between 2 and 3, though 1 and 2 may be spatially separated so that they no longer interact. The second shows that if a residual interaction persists between 1 and 2 while 2 interacts with 3 to form an entangled state, the measurement of observables of 1 can be used to determine whether 2 has interacted with 3. This effect occurs even when the measurement on 1 is made long after the residual interaction between 1 and 2 has ceased to act. Such effects resulting from interplay between unitary dynamics and kinematic entanglement have interesting implications. In particular, we discuss the significance as regards what we call the dynamic version of Einstein locality

  6. 76 FR 36176 - Pricing for National September 11 Memorial & Museum Commemorative Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for National September 11 Memorial & Museum Commemorative Medal ACTION: Notice... Commemorative Medal. Introductory pricing will be $56.95, and regular pricing, which will go into...

  7. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  8. A Peculiar Tripartite Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕霞; 於亚飞; 詹明生

    2003-01-01

    We present a scheme to prepare two-atom Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states and three-atom entangled states via cavity quantum electrodynamics, and it can be realized experimentally. Importantly, we find that in the set of tripartite entangled states prepared by our scheme there is a peculiar tripartite entangled state except the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state. The peculiar tripartite entangled states have double feature of the GHZ state (i.e. T123 > 0) and W state (i.e. the remaining reduce density matrices ρij retain entanglement according to the positive partial transformation (PPT) criterion) simultaneously. However, its entanglement properties are not completely identical either to the GHZ state or to the W state. It is interesting that for peculiar entanglement properties, the remaining reduced density matrices ρij can retain entanglement or disentanglement independently, which can be chosen freely according to our need.

  9. China : Development of National Heat Pricing and Billing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Anke Sofia; Kalkum, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Market-based reforms in China's urban centralized heating sector are essential to addressing the perpetual inefficiency of a sector built on welfare based principles. The reform of heat pricing and billing is a crucial part of overall heat reform, since it will commodity heat and thus create economic incentives to provide and use heat much more efficiently. Heat pricing and billing reform ...

  10. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP). We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  11. Electricity price as a factor of the national electric power industry sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Sanja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PE Elektroprivreda Srbije (Electric Power Industry of Serbia - PE EPS is of a strategic importance for national economy. Long-term policy of depressed electricity price has caused a number of distortions, mainly through direct impact on the operations of EPS and a number of other effects such as irrational consumption, high energy intensity, low charges, high level of technical and commercial losses, etc. Serbia still has the lowest electricity price in Europe, but regulated price model provides a certain profit level for EPS. The aim of this paper is to show the potential that the electric power industry as a branch can have if the Government provides the conditions for its sustainable operation.

  12. Structure and operation of bacterial tripartite pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Philip; Symmons, Martyn F; Hughes, Colin; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    In bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, tripartite membrane machineries, or pumps, determine the efflux of small noxious molecules, such as detergents, heavy metals, and antibiotics, and the export of large proteins including toxins. They are therefore influential in bacterial survival, particularly during infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. In these tripartite pumps an inner membrane transporter, typically an ATPase or proton antiporter, binds and translocates export or efflux substrates. In cooperation with a periplasmic adaptor protein it recruits and opens a TolC family cell exit duct, which is anchored in the outer membrane and projects across the periplasmic space between inner and outer membranes. Assembled tripartite pumps thus span the entire bacterial cell envelope. We review the atomic structures of each of the three pump components and discuss how these have allowed high-resolution views of tripartite pump assembly, operation, and possible inhibition.

  13. Tripartitions do not always discriminate phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2008-02-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of non-treelike evolutionary events, like recombination, hybridization, or lateral gene transfer. In a recent series of papers devoted to the study of reconstructibility of phylogenetic networks, Moret, Nakhleh, Warnow and collaborators introduced the so-called tripartition metric for phylogenetic networks. In this paper we show that, in fact, this tripartition metric does not satisfy the separation axiom of distances (zero distance means isomorphism, or, in a more relaxed version, zero distance means indistinguishability in some specific sense) in any of the subclasses of phylogenetic networks where it is claimed to do so. We also present a subclass of phylogenetic networks whose members can be singled out by means of their sets of tripartitions (or even clusters), and hence where the latter can be used to define a meaningful metric.

  14. Tripartite entanglement and quantum relative entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, E.F. [Centre for Quantum Computation, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom). E-mail: e.galvao@physics.ox.ac.uk; Plenio, M.B. [Optics Section, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). E-mail: m.plenio@ic.ac.uk; Virmani, S. [Optics Section, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). E-mail: s.virmani@ic.ac.uk

    2000-12-08

    We establish relations between tripartite pure state entanglement and additivity properties of the bipartite relative entropy of entanglement. Our results pertain to the asymptotic limit of local manipulations on a large number of copies of the state. We show that additivity of the relative entropy would imply that there are at least two inequivalent types of asymptotic tripartite entanglement. The methods used include the application of some useful lemmas that enable us to analytically calculate the relative entropy for some classes of bipartite states. (author)

  15. Deterministic Tripartite Controlled Remote State Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ming-huang; Nie, Yi-you

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate that a seven-qubit entangled state can be used to realize the deterministic tripartite controlled remote state preparation by performing only Pauli operations and single-qubit measurements. In our scheme, three distant senders can simultaneously and deterministically exchange their quantum state with the other senders under the control of the supervisor.

  16. Healthful Nutrition of Foods in Navajo Nation Stores: Availability and Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Jim-Martin, Sonlatsa; Piltch, Emily; Onufrak, Stephen; McNeil, Carrie; Adams, Laura; Williams, Nancy; Blanck, Heidi M; Curley, Larry

    2016-09-01

    Low availability and affordability of healthier foods in food stores on the Navajo Nation (NN) may be a community-level risk factor for the high prevalence of obesity among the Navajo people. This study assessed the availability and pricing of foods and beverages in supermarkets and convenience stores throughout the NN. Descriptive study design using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey in Stores audit tool. Supermarkets (n = 13) and convenience stores (n = 50) on NN and border-town supermarkets (n = 9). Not applicable. Availability and pricing of healthy and less-healthy foods. Descriptive and χ(2) analyses. Navajo convenience stores offered fewer healthier food options compared to Navajo supermarkets. In Navajo convenience stores, 100% whole grain products, reduced-fat cheese, lean meats, reduced-fat chips, and fat-free or light hot dogs were available in fewer stores than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p < .05). In both Navajo supermarkets and convenience stores, 100% whole wheat bread, lean cold cuts, and reduced-fat cheese were all more expensive per unit than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p < .05). According to this study, healthier foods are not as readily available in Navajo convenience stores as they are in Navajo supermarkets. Improving access to and affordability of healthier foods in reservation stores of all sizes may support healthy eating among Navajo residents. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  17. Tripartite Entanglements in Non-inertial Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Shamirzai, Mahmoud; Soltani, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement degradation caused by the Unruh effect is discussed for the tripartite GHZ or W states constructed by modes of a non-interacting quantum field viewed by one inertial observer and two uniformly accelerated observers. For fermionic states, the Unruh effect even for infinite accelerations cannot completely remove the entanglement. However, for the bosonic states, the situation is different and the entanglement vanishes asymptotically. Also, the entanglement is studied for the bipartite subsystems. While for the GHZ states all the bipartite subsystems are identically disentangled, for the W states the bipartite subsystems are somewhat entangled, though, this entanglement can be removed for appropriately accelerated observers. Interestingly, logarithmic negativity as a measure for determining the entanglement of one part of the system relative to the other two parts, is not generally the same for different parts. This means that we encounter tripartite systems where each part is differently entangled ...

  18. Tripartite assembly of RND multidrug efflux pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daury, Laetitia; Orange, François; Taveau, Jean-Christophe; Verchère, Alice; Monlezun, Laura; Gounou, Céline; Marreddy, Ravi K. R.; Picard, Martin; Broutin, Isabelle; Pos, Klaas M.; Lambert, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Tripartite multidrug efflux systems of Gram-negative bacteria are composed of an inner membrane transporter, an outer membrane channel and a periplasmic adaptor protein. They are assumed to form ducts inside the periplasm facilitating drug exit across the outer membrane. Here we present the reconstitution of native Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB-OprM and Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC tripartite Resistance Nodulation and cell Division (RND) efflux systems in a lipid nanodisc system. Single-particle analysis by electron microscopy reveals the inner and outer membrane protein components linked together via the periplasmic adaptor protein. This intrinsic ability of the native components to self-assemble also leads to the formation of a stable interspecies AcrA-MexB-TolC complex suggesting a common mechanism of tripartite assembly. Projection structures of all three complexes emphasize the role of the periplasmic adaptor protein as part of the exit duct with no physical interaction between the inner and outer membrane components.

  19. Toward a tripartite model of intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Noémie; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2012-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) refers to engaging in an activity for the pleasure inherent in the activity. The present article presents a tripartite model of IM consisting of IM to know (i.e., engaging in an activity to experience pleasure while learning and trying to understand something new), IM toward accomplishment (i.e., engaging in an activity for the pleasure experienced when attempting task mastery), and IM to experience stimulation (i.e., engaging in an activity for feelings of sensory pleasure). The tripartite model of IM posits that each type of IM can result from task, situational, and personality determinants and can lead to specific types of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this research was to test some predictions derived from this model. Across 4 studies (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 113; Study 3: N = 58; Study 4: N = 135), the 3 types of IM as well as potential determinants and consequences were assessed. Results revealed that experiencing one type of IM over the others depends in part on people's personality styles. Also, each type of IM was found to predict specific outcomes (i.e., affective states and behavioral choices). The implications of the tripartite model of IM for motivation research are discussed.

  20. Fixed-Price Subcontracting for Decontamination and Decommissioning of Small Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, M. A.; Julius, J. F. K.; McKenna, M. K.

    2002-02-26

    Abandoned facilities were decontaminated and decommissioned in preparation for final remediation of Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facilities varied in age from approximately 5 years to more than 40 years, with radiological conditions ranging from clean to highly contaminated with fission products. A fixed-price subcontract (FPSC) was awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) Management and Integration (M&I) contractor for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of these facilities. Included in the FPSC scope were the following: preparation of pre-D&D regulatory documentation; demolition of surface structures to slab; stabilization of below-grade structures; waste management and disposal; and preparation of post-D&D regulatory documentation. Using stand-off techniques to the extent possible, building structures and ancillary equipment were prepared for demolition and demolished. A fixative coating system was used in conjunction with continuous water misting to control airborne contamination. Demolition waste consisted of two major streams: clean construction and demolition waste and low-level (radioactive) waste. The debris was size-reduced and packaged, again via remote means. At all times during the D&D, personnel safety, environmental compliance, and as low as reasonably achievable exposure considerations were paramount. Upon completion of D&D activities, each site was inspected and accepted by the M&I contractor. This project is a success story for fixed-price subcontracting of D&D work under DOE's M&I arrangement.

  1. Quantum frequency doubling based on tripartite entanglement with cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Guo; Zhi-Feng, Wei; Su-Ying, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the entanglement characteristics of three harmonic modes, which are the output fields from three cavities with an input tripartite entangled state at fundamental frequency. The entanglement properties of the input beams can be maintained after their frequencies have been up-converted by the process of second harmonic generation. We have calculated the parametric dependences of the correlation spectrum on the initial squeezing factor, the pump power, the transmission coefficient, and the normalized analysis frequency of cavity. The numerical results provide references to choose proper experimental parameters for designing the experiment. The frequency conversion of the multipartite entangled state can also be applied to a quantum communication network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91430109), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20111401110004), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014011005-3).

  2. Report of the Australian Tripartite Mission on the Training of Skilled Workers in Europe; 1968-69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Tripartite Mission.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of an Australian Tripartite Mission appointed by the Minister of State for Labor and National Service to examine the methods of training skilled workers in a number of European nations from which Australia is obtaining migrant labor. The Mission summarized its findings of…

  3. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Titus SUCIU

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  4. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Titus SUCIU

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  5. Unsymmetrical Quantum Key Distribution Using Tripartite Entanglement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jin; ZHANG Zhe-Shen; ZHOU Nan-Run; PENG Jin-Ye; ZENG Gui-Hua

    2007-01-01

    An unsymmetrical quantum key distribution protocol is proposed,in which Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states are used to obtain the secret key.Except the lost qubits due to the unperfectness of the physical devices,the unsymmetrical characteristic makes all transmitted qubits useful.This leads to an excellent efficiency,which reaches 100% in an ideal case.The security is studied from the aspect of information theory.By using the correlation of the GHZ tripartite entanglement state,eavesdropping can be easily checked out,which indicates that the presented protocol is more secure.

  6. MARKET-STRUCTURE DETERMINANTS OF NATIONAL BRAND-PRIVATE LABEL PRICE DIFFERENCES OF MANUFACTURED FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, John M.; Peterson, Everett B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationships between market structure and the Lerner index of monopoly constructed from price data on processed food products sold through grocery stores. A theoretical model of a differentiated oligopoly specifies two determinants of price-cost margins: the Herfindahl-Hirschman index of seller concentration adjusted for the elasticity of demand and the industry advertising-to-sales ratio. The results indicate that the three principal determinants of price-cost margi...

  7. Prices and Price Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies price data and tries to unravel the underlying economic processes of why firms have chosen these prices. It focuses on three aspects of price setting. First, it studies whether the existence of a suggested price has a coordinating effect on the prices of firms. Second

  8. Tripartite entanglement dynamics of vibrations in triatomic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Liangjun; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-06-21

    In the present study, the dynamical behaviors of tripartite entanglement of vibrations in triatomic molecules are studied based on the Lie algebraic models of molecules. The dynamical behaviors of tripartite entanglement of the local mode molecule H2O and normal mode molecule NO2 are comparatively studied for different initial states by employing the general concurrence. Our results show that the dynamics of tripartite entanglement are relied on the dynamics of intramolecular energy distribution. The local mode molecule is more suitable to construct the tripartite entangled states. Also, the greater degree of tripartite entanglement can be obtained if the stretching vibration is first excited. These results shed new light on the understanding of quantum multipartite entanglement of vibrations in the polyatomic molecules.

  9. Proposal: Conservation of Price's Potato Bean on Sauta Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to conduct monitoring response of Price's potato bean to overstory tree removal and understory grass control at Sauta Cave NWR.

  10. Authenticating Tripartite Key Agreement Protocol with Pairings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Liu; Fang-Guo Zhang; Ke-Fei Chen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an authenticated tripartite key agreement protocol is proposed, which is an ID-based one with pairings. This protocol involves only one round. The authenticity of the protocol is assured by a special signature scheme, so that messages carrying the information of two ephemeral keys can be broadcasted authentically by an entity. Consequently, one instance of the protocol results in eight session keys for three entities. In other word, one instance of the protocol generates a session key, which is eight times longer than those obtained from traditional key agreement protocols. Security attributes of the protocol are presented, and the computational overhead and bandwidth of the broadcast messages are analyzed as well.

  11. Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

  12. Considerations on the Scottish Referendum and a Discourse on the British Conundrum: Mill, Price and the Question of Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huw Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent referendum on Scottish independence was characterised by a fail­ing on behalf of the Better Together campaign to articulate a positive vision and concep­tion of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In particular, any per­suasive notion of Britishness was notable by its absence. This paper attempts to shed light on the question of nationalism, in the British context in particular, by turning to the history of political thought, and the philosophical reflections of two British liberals, Rich­ard Price and John Stuart mill. Their ideas are set out with reference to the civic/ethnic distinction and two main claims are presented. The first is that despite Price’s emphasis on a civic patriotism and mill’s embracing of many elements of ethnic nationalism, both their accounts ultimately cohere around the centrality of a “national history”. empirical doubts about the sustainability of the civic/ethnic divide are here reflected in philosophi­cal discussions of nationalism. The second claim is that Price and mill’s account draw at­tention to the historical difficulty of constructing a persuasive British nationality whilst simultaneously suggesting the only obvious prospect for its succesful reconfiguration, namely the articulation of a genuinely British national history.

  13. Teleportation with Tripartite Entangled State via Thermal Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zheng-Yuan; YI You-Min; CAO Zhuo-Liang

    2006-01-01

    Teleportation schemes with a tripartite entangled state in cavity QED are investigated. The schemes do not need Bell state measurements and the successful probabilities reach optimality. In addition, the schemes are insensitive to both the cavity decay and the thermal field. We first consider two teleportation schemes via a tripartite GHZ state.The first one is a controlled one for an unknown single-qubit state. The second scheme is teleportation of unknown two-atom entangled state. Then we consider teleporting of single-qubit arbitrary state via a tripartite W state.

  14. Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvaro Hidalgo-Vega

    2017-01-01

    Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in SpainThe editorial addresses the current use of economic evaluation...

  15. Drugs Cheaper Than Threepenny: The Market of Extremely Low-Priced Drugs within the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Ru Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While most drug policy researches paid attention to the financial impact of expensive drugs, the market situation of low-priced drugs in a country was seldom analyzed. We used the nationally representative claims datasets to explore the status within the National Health Insurance (NHI in Taiwan. In 2007, a total of 12,443 distinct drug items had been prescribed 853,250,147 times with total expenditure of 105,216,950,198 new Taiwan dollars (NTD. Among them, 7,366 oral drug items accounted for 701,353,383 prescribed items and 68,133,988,960 NTD. Besides, 2,887 items (39.2% of oral drug items belonged to cheap drugs with the unit price ≤1 NTD (about 0.03 of US dollar. While the top one item among all oral drugs had already a market share of 5.0%, 30 items 30.3% and 107 items 50.0%, the cheap drugs with aggregate 332,893,462 prescribed items (47.5% of all prescribed oral drug items only accounted for 2,750,725,433 NTD (4.0% of expenditure for oral drugs and 2.6% of total drug expenditure. The drug market of Taiwan’s NHI was abundant in cheap drugs. The unreasonably low prices of drugs might not guarantee the quality of pharmaceutical care and the sustainability of a healthy pharmaceutical industry in the long run.

  16. Measurement of Creativity: The tripartite approach for creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi,Kiyoshi; Hirikami, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new measurement method of creativity. Based on the tripartite thinking model (TTM), this paper developed the tripartite creativity test (TCT). The TCT was generated by considering creative process in problem solving. The TCT defines creativity as the interaction of three modes of thinking: logical thinking, critical thinking, and lateral thinking. This model is apart from traditional definition of creativity that prescribes it as the skill for produci...

  17. Fairness of prices, user fee policy and willingness to pay among visitors to a national forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Young Chung; Gerard T. Kyle; James F. Petrick; James D. Absher

    2011-01-01

    Imposing user fees in Nature-Based Tourism (NBT) contexts has been a controversial issue. Based on the notions of justice and fairness, this study extended previous work examining the relationship between attitudes toward user fees and spending support. In a proposed structural model of price fairness, fee spending support, and willingness to pay (WTP), this paper...

  18. Tripartite motif 32 prevents pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijuan; Huang, Jia; Ji, Yanxiao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Pixiao; Deng, Keqiong; Jiang, Xi; Ma, Genshan; Li, Hongliang

    2016-05-01

    TRIM32 (tripartite motif 32) is widely accepted to be an E3 ligase that interacts with and eventually ubiquitylates multiple substrates. TRIM32 mutants have been associated with LGMD-2H (limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H). However, whether TRIM32 is involved in cardiac hypertrophy induced by biomechanical stresses and neurohumoral mediators remains unclear. We generated mice and isolated NRCMs (neonatal rat cardiomyocytes) that overexpressed or were deficient in TRIM32 to investigate the effect of TRIM32 on AB (aortic banding) or AngII (angiotensin II)-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiography and both pathological and molecular analyses were used to determine the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent fibrosis. Our results showed that overexpression of TRIM32 in the heart significantly alleviated the hypertrophic response induced by pressure overload, whereas TRIM32 deficiency dramatically aggravated pathological cardiac remodelling. Similar results were also found in cultured NRCMs incubated with AngII. Mechanistically, the present study suggests that TRIM32 exerts cardioprotective action by interruption of Akt- but not MAPK (mitogen-dependent protein kinase)-dependent signalling pathways. Additionally, inactivation of Akt by LY294002 offset the exacerbated hypertrophic response induced by AB in TRIM32-deficient mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that TRIM32 plays a protective role in AB-induced pathological cardiac remodelling by blocking Akt-dependent signalling. Therefore TRIM32 could be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. The downs and ups of the consumer price index in Argentina: From National Statistics to Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Lury

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available On the 5th of February 2007, the Institute of National Statistics and Census in Argentina (INDEC released a press statement, giving a percentage figure for that month’s Consumer Price Index (CPI-GBA. Since the announcement, this number and its subsequent variations have been at the centre of a national and international political, legal and technical controversy. The legitimacy of the numerical value of the percentage has been called into question by a range of actors and has been challenged by the emergence of multiple alternative indicators of inflation. We explore this methodological controversy through the lens of statactivism. We do not describe the controversy in its entirety, but, rather, enter the controversy to develop a comparison of the procedures informing the production of the CPI as a national statistic with those informing its production as a big data number. In both cases, we explore the way in which price is produced as an indicator. In doing so we draw attention to the significance of calculative infrastructures as ubiquitous, multi-layered processes of connectivity, that have the capacity to make surfaces, to draw lines and boundaries, and to enable particular economic and political activities to unfold in multiple and specific ways. We argue that the capacity to connect, to attach and detach, that is immanent to such infrastructures configures price as an indicator in particular ways, and in doing so help make what we call state space, a term which we use to draw attention to how specific configurations of connectivity in the calculative infrastructure enacts a space of possibility for statactivism

  20. Novel method to achieve price-optimized, fully nutritious, health-promoting and acceptable national food baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Robertson, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to generate a framework for the development of health-promoting, fully nutritious, socially acceptable, and affordable national food baskets to be used as an advocacy tool by governments. In addition to containing all (micro-)nutrient requirements, food bask....... Fully nutritious and health-promoting food baskets can be achieved at a relatively low price. However if these are not socially acceptable to the target population, the use of a framework using linear programming based solely on nutritional values seems limited.......Purpose: The purpose of this study was to generate a framework for the development of health-promoting, fully nutritious, socially acceptable, and affordable national food baskets to be used as an advocacy tool by governments. In addition to containing all (micro-)nutrient requirements, food...... baskets should also reflect dietary guidelines to prevent non-communicable diseases and be optimized to achieve the highest possible social acceptance. So far, integrative approaches that include all these aspects are lacking. Methods: Food composition, local availability, food prices, national...

  1. Are Fuel Price Hikes Justifiable?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China saw its third fuel price hike this year when the National Development and Reform Commission, China’s top price regulator, hiked gasoline and diesel retail prices up by 9 percent, effective on June 30. It is the second rally in a month after the country initiated a new fuel pricing scheme in May.

  2. Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Hidalgo-Vega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in SpainThe editorial addresses the current use of economic evaluation in the assessment and potential funding and reimbursement of health technologies. Cost-effectiveness ratio and the acceptability thresholds are analyzed, pointing out the limitations that the current approach has for capturing the value of new technologies. A potential shift from National Health Systems to value-based prices is discussed, with a focus on health economics outcomes where multi-criteria analyses can be a complementary tool to traditional cost-effectiveness approaches.

  3. National Health Expenditure Projections, 2015-25: Economy, Prices, And Aging Expected To Shape Spending And Enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehan, Sean P; Poisal, John A; Cuckler, Gigi A; Sisko, Andrea M; Smith, Sheila D; Madison, Andrew J; Stone, Devin A; Wolfe, Christian J; Lizonitz, Joseph M

    2016-08-01

    Health spending growth in the United States for 2015-25 is projected to average 5.8 percent-1.3 percentage points faster than growth in the gross domestic product-and to represent 20.1 percent of the total economy by 2025. As the initial impacts associated with the Affordable Care Act's coverage expansions fade, growth in health spending is expected to be influenced by changes in economic growth, faster growth in medical prices, and population aging. Projected national health spending growth, though faster than observed in the recent history, is slower than in the two decades before the recent Great Recession, in part because of trends such as increasing cost sharing in private health insurance plans and various Medicare payment update provisions. In addition, the share of total health expenditures paid for by federal, state, and local governments is projected to increase to 47 percent by 2025.

  4. Policy modes for climate change: the role of tripartite partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper provides an initial overview of the role of tripartite partnerships for climate change in the broader framework of policy options available to address the issue. First, we will position partnerships in relation to other policy modes for climate change, including emissions trading

  5. New Tripartite Nonlinear Entangled State Representation in Quantum Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Mai-Hua; MA Shan-Jun; LIU Dong-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Based on the technique of integral within an ordered product of nonlinear bosonic operators, we construct a new kind of tripartite nonlinear entangled state |α,γ>λ in 3-mode Fock space, which can make up a complete set. We also simply discuss its properties and application.

  6. On Clark-Watson's tripartite model of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, A

    1997-02-01

    Clark and Watson's tripartite model of anxiety and depression symptoms is reinterpreted using their data. It is suggested that a parsimonious view of the factor loadings is a three-factor structure of "general psychological distress," "high positive affect," and "somatic anxiety."

  7. The Gettier Illusion, the Tripartite Analysis, and the Divorce Thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, Anthony Robert

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Hetherington has defended the tripartite analysis of knowledge (Hetherington in Philos Q 48:453–469, 1998; J Philos 96:565–587, 1999; J Philos Res 26:307–324, 2001a; Good knowledge, bad knowledge, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001b). His defence has recently come under attack (Madison in

  8. Quantum Teleportation of Tripartite Arbitrary State via W State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zheng-Yuan; YI You-Min; CAO Zhuo-Liang

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of teleportation of a tripartite state via W state is suggested. The W state serves as quantum channels. Standard Bell-state measurements and Von Neumann measurements are performed. After the sender operates the measurements and informs the receiver her results, he can reconstruct the original state by the corresponding unitary transformation. The probability of the successful teleportation is also obtained.

  9. Diffusion-based recommendation with trust relations on tripartite graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximeng; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Guangquan; Xiong, Fei; Lu, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The diffusion-based recommendation approach is a vital branch in recommender systems, which successfully applies physical dynamics to make recommendations for users on bipartite or tripartite graphs. Trust links indicate users’ social relations and can provide the benefit of reducing data sparsity. However, traditional diffusion-based algorithms only consider rating links when making recommendations. In this paper, the complementarity of users’ implicit and explicit trust is exploited, and a novel resource-allocation strategy is proposed, which integrates these two kinds of trust relations on tripartite graphs. Through empirical studies on three benchmark datasets, our proposed method obtains better performance than most of the benchmark algorithms in terms of accuracy, diversity and novelty. According to the experimental results, our method is an effective and reasonable way to integrate additional features into the diffusion-based recommendation approach.

  10. Theory of genuine tripartite nonlocality of Gaussian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Piano, Samanta

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the genuine multipartite nonlocality of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For pure states, we present a simplified procedure to obtain the maximum violation of the Svetlichny inequality based on displaced parity measurements, and we analyze its interplay with genuine tripartite entanglement measured via Rényi-2 entropy. The maximum Svetlichny violation admits tight upper and lower bounds at fixed tripartite entanglement. For mixed states, no violation is possible when the purity falls below 0.86. We also explore a set of recently derived weaker inequalities for three-way nonlocality, finding violations for all tested pure states. Our results provide a strong signature for the nonclassical and nonlocal nature of Gaussian states despite their positive Wigner function, and lead to precise recipes for its experimental verification.

  11. Tripartite entangled plaquette state in a cluster magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Chen, Gang; Melko, Roger G.

    2017-08-01

    Using large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations we show that a spin-1/2 X X Z model on a two-dimensional anisotropic kagome lattice exhibits a tripartite entangled plaquette state that preserves all of the Hamiltonian symmetries. It is connected via phase boundaries to a ferromagnet and a valence-bond solid that break U (1 ) and lattice translation symmetries, respectively. We study the phase diagram of the model in detail, in particular the transitions to the tripartite entangled plaquette state, which are consistent with conventional order-disorder transitions. Our results can be interpreted as a description of the charge sector dynamics of a Hubbard model applied to the spin liquid candidate LiZn2Mo3O8 , as well as a model of strongly correlated bosonic atoms loaded onto highly tunable trimerized optical kagome lattices.

  12. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chun-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  13. Optimal values of bipartite entanglement in a tripartite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Shaon, E-mail: shaon.sahoo@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-01-23

    For a general tripartite system in some pure state, an observer possessing any two parts will see them in a mixed state. By the consequence of Hughston–Jozsa–Wootters theorem, each basis set of local measurement on the third part will correspond to a particular decomposition of the bipartite mixed state into a weighted sum of pure states. It is possible to associate an average bipartite entanglement (S{sup ¯}) with each of these decompositions. The maximum value of S{sup ¯} is called the entanglement of assistance (E{sub A}) while the minimum value is called the entanglement of formation (E{sub F}). An appropriate choice of the basis set of local measurement will correspond to an optimal value of S{sup ¯}; we find here a generic optimality condition for the choice of the basis set. In the present context, we analyze the tripartite states W and GHZ and show how they are fundamentally different. - Highlights: • We study optimal values of bipartite entanglement in a tripartite system. • Using the Hughston–Jozsa–Wootters theorem, an optimality condition is derived. • This condition will help us study mixed bipartite states using ancilla.

  14. Market News Price Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Real-time price data collected by the Boston Market News Reporter. The NOAA Fisheries' "Fishery Market News" began operations in New York City on February 14, 1938....

  15. AKRO: Standard Prices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  16. An examination of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression and its application to youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, J; Ettelson, R

    2001-09-01

    The ability to differentiate anxiety and depression has been a topic of discussion in the adult and youth literatures for several decades. The tripartite model of anxiety and depression proposed by L. A. Clark and D. Watson (1991) has helped focus the discussion. In the tripartite model, anxiety is characterized by elevated levels of physiological hyperarousal (PH), depression is characterized by low levels of positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA) or generalized emotional distress is common to both. The advent of the model led to the development of measures of tripartite constructs and subsequent validity studies. The tripartite model and resultant activity concerning the model was largely devoted to adult samples. However. those interested in anxiety and depression among youth are now incorporating the tripartite model in their work. This paper examines the current influence of the tripartite model in the youth literature, especially with regard to measuring anxiety and depression.

  17. China’s Pricing Prowess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adheres to a more flexible oil pricing mechanismBy ordering a hefty 9-percent price increase in gasoline and diesel, China is lending credibility to its pledges of a more market-oriented pricing system. The decision, announced by the National Development and Reform Commission

  18. A tripartite regulation of health networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, T P; Jorgensen, N E

    1996-01-01

    With the Republicans in power, market-driven forces of managed care plans, capitated payment, and the regional networks (alliances) are likely to serve as centerpieces for improving the organization, financing, and delivery of our nation's health services. These "voluntary" alliances of health providers and health insurance underwriters foreshadow the powerful, geographically linked regional health networks that are now becoming oligopolies. As a result of these providers developing monopolistic practices, state health services commissions will be formed to regulate market share, the scope of health services, reimbursement rates, and profits. State departments of public health will continue to focus on broader community health initiatives such as access and quality. Complexities of relationships among those regulated by these responsible agencies, and the interfacing of these state health services commissions and state departments of public health and insurance, with their potentially conflicting goals and political forces, are expected.

  19. Probabilistic Remote Preparation of a Tripartite High-Dimensional Equatorial Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jin; ZHAN You-Bang

    2009-01-01

    We present a scheme for probabilistic remote preparation of a tripartite qutrit entangled state with a partial tripartite qutrit entangled state and a partial bipartite qutrit entangled state as the quantum channel.It is found that a bipartite qutrit orthogonal projective measurement, an auxiliary qutrit particle, and the corresponding unitary transformation are required.A scheme for probabilistic remote preparation of a tripartite qudit equatorial entangled state by using a partial tripartite qudit entangled state and a partial bipartite qudit entangled state as the quantum channel is also proposed.We calculate the successful total probability and the total classical communication cost required in the RSP process, respectively.

  20. Short-term differences in drug prices after implementation of the national essential medicines system: A case study in rural Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: While the NEMS zero-markup policy significantly reduced retail prices at pilot health institutions, the centralized bidding system was insufficient to lower wholesale prices. A drug price management system should be constructed to control medicine prices and a long-term price information system is needed to monitor price changes.

  1. Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys recent economic research on price discrimination, both in monopoly and oligopoly markets. Topics include static and dynamic forms of price discrimination, and both final and input markets are considered. Potential antitrust aspects of price discrimination are highlighted throughout the paper. The paper argues that the informational requirements to make accurate policy are very great, and with most forms of price discrimination a laissez-faire policy may be the best availabl...

  2. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  3. Oil Prices Take a Hike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced at the end of October that the benchmark prices of gasoline,diesel oil and aviation kerosene would be raised by 500 yuan per ton. Recently,international oil prices have been rising continuously.Crude oil futures prices traded in New York surged to$93 per barrel on October 29. However,in China,oil prices are set by the government and not by the market. The recent hike on the price of oil in China is a measure implemented,to narrow the gap between soaring global crude oil prices and domestic fuel prices.NDRC officials answered questions posed by Xinhua News Agency about recent oil price hikes.The questions and answers follow:

  4. Tripartite Therapy with Older Children: Mutuality in the Relationship of a Parent-Child Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This is the last of a series of three papers exploring the use with older children of tripartite psychotherapy--a technique of psychoanalytic psychotherapy of the parent-child relationship with both parent and child in the room together with the therapist. Tripartite psychotherapy merits more attention than it has received. It is a flexible,…

  5. An Evaluation of the Applicability of the Tripartite Constructs to Social Anxiety in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily R.; Veed, Glen J.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.; Hansen, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in relation to social phobia in a nonclinical sample of adolescents (ages 13-17). Adolescent/parent dyads participated in a semistructured interview and completed self-report measures of the tripartite constructs and social anxiety. Adolescents gave an impromptu speech, and…

  6. Application of the Tripartite Model to a Complicated Sample of Residential Youth with Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eu Gene; Ebesutani, Chad; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    The tripartite model of anxiety and depression has received strong support among child and adolescent populations. Clinical samples of children and adolescents in these studies, however, have usually been referred for treatment of anxiety and depression. This study investigated the fit of the tripartite model with a complicated sample of…

  7. Electricity Pricing Policy Should Serve Macro-Economic Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiaoping

    2005-01-01

    The National Development and Reform Commission beefed up its efforts to promote the work of electricity price reform in 2004. It took measures in aspects of easing price contradictions, tentatively implementing discriminated price and time-of-use price and issuing a policy on the linkage of coal and electricity prices and price administration. In 2005 the basic thinking of the Commission's electricity price reform is to actively advance the pilot work of price reform,carry out the reform of transmission and distribution price, enlarge the scope of pilot work of large consumer's direct purchase, simplify sales price structure and bring about the linkage of coal and electricity prices.

  8. Discussion on the Nationality of Commodity House Price%商品房价格合理性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊珊; 王安民

    2015-01-01

    Commodity house price is not only the economic issues but the well-being of the people related to the social harmony and stability. Based on the current status of the housing price now in China, this paper leads to the fact that commodity house is not only a commodity but also a kind of investment. Then it analyses the formation reasons of commodity house price bubbles. Finally, the paper puts forward some suggestions aimed at the housing price problems.%本文从我国现在商品房价格现状入手,引出商品房不仅仅是一种商品,更是一种投资品。然后分析了我国商品房价格泡沫形成的原因,最后针对存在的问题,提出了解决商品房价格问题的几点意见。

  9. Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Hidalgo-Vega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The editorial addresses the current use of economic evaluation in the assessment and potential funding and reimbursement of health technologies. Cost-effectiveness ratio and the acceptability thresholds are analyzed, pointing out the limitations that the current approach has for capturing the value of new technologies. A potential shift from National Health Systems to value-based prices is discussed, with a focus on health economics outcomes where multi-criteria analyses can be a complementary tool to traditional cost-effectiveness approaches.

  10. Nuclear shell effect and collinear tripartition of nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Nasirov, A K; Tashkhodjaev, R B

    2014-01-01

    A possibility of formation of the three reaction products having comparable masses at the spontaneous fission of $^{252}$Cf is theoretically explored. This work is aimed to study the mechanism leading to observation of the reaction products with masses $M_1=$136---140 and $M_2=$68---72 in coincidence by the FOBOS group in JINR. The same type of ternary fission decay has been observed in the reaction $^{235}$U(n$_{\\rm th}$,fff). The potential energy surface for the ternary system forming a collinear nuclear chain is calculated for the wide range of mass and charge numbers of constituent nuclei. The results of the PES for the tripartition of $^{252}$Cf(sf,fff) shows, that we have favorable dynamical conditions for the formation of fragments with mass combinations of clusters $^{68-70}$Ni with $^{130-132}$Sn and with missing cluster $^{48-52}$Ca.

  11. Literature, Society And The Writer In Tripartite Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nworah Anaso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The proactive unity of purpose between Literature, society and the writer is the main focus of this paper. Writers use Literature to address various important themes or the goings on in the society, with the purpose of edifying its virtues and condemning the vices so as to adulate the good deeds or correct the society where it goes wrong. However, this role often exposes the writer to danger and risks from vested interests. The paper nevertheless recommends both local and international actions that could be explored to enhance Literature, society and the writer’s works. It concludes with the submission that with proper political education, the society would be better placed to choose more responsible leaders so that the lots of the society would be better enhanced. In this way the tripartite unity and the full potentials of Literature and writers in society would be realized.

  12. Nuclear shell effect and collinear tripartition of nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avazbek K Nasirov; Wolfram von Oertzen; Rustam B Tashkhodjaev

    2015-08-01

    A possibility for the formation of three reaction products having comparable masses at the spontaneous fission of 252Cf is theoretically explored. This work is aimed to study the mechanism leading to the observation of the reaction products with masses $M_{1}$ = 136–140 and $M_{2}$ = 68–72 in coincidence with the FOBOS group in JINR. The same type of ternary fission decay has been observed in the 235U(nth, fff) reaction. The potential energy surface (PES) for the ternary system forming a collinear nuclear chain is calculated for a wide range of masses and charge numbers of the constituent nuclei. The results of the PES for the tripartition of 252Cf(sf, fff) allows us to establish dynamical conditions leading to the formation of fragments with mass combinations of clusters 68−70Ni with 130−132Sn and with the missing cluster 48−52Ca.

  13. A review of the tripartite model for understanding the link between anxiety and depression in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily R; Hope, Debra A

    2008-02-01

    Although research from numerous investigations indicates that there is substantial overlap in anxiety and depressive symptoms and comorbid diagnoses in youth, these constructs can be adequately differentiated. Clark and Watson [Clark, L. A. & Watson, D., (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] proposed a tripartite model to account for the symptom overlap and diagnostic comorbidity between anxiety and depression. This tripartite model posits that anxiety and depression share a common component of negative affect, but can be differentiated by low positive affect associated with depression and high physiological hyperarousal associated with anxiety. The present article reviews initial research which has supported the utility of the tripartite model for explaining the association between anxiety and depression in adult and youth samples. Following that review, more recent investigations which have called into question the applicability of the tripartite constructs for youth are presented. Finally, the paper reviews evidence suggesting that the tripartite factors may not function similarly across all anxiety and depressive disorders. This article concludes by suggesting that more research is necessary with children and adolescents in order to determine the functioning of tripartite constructs across anxiety disorders in youth.

  14. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...

  15. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  16. Importância das características na precificação de veículos nacionais Importance of characteristics in pricing national vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Brandão de Resende

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de bens de consumo é constituído por produtos heterogêneos que podem ser vistos como uma união de atributos ou características. Quantificar o valor dessas características pode auxiliar na criação de uma regra de precificação que permita, por exemplo, precificar um produto não existente, auxiliando na sua previsão de demanda. O objetivo deste trabalho é utilizar a teoria do preço hedônico para determinar empiricamente o valor e a importância relativa das características na precificação de veículos nacionais brasileiros. O modelo de previsão foi obtido utilizando-se uma função hedônica linear, cujos coeficientes foram estimados através de mínimos quadrados ordinários. Pode-se concluir que a potência é o fator de maior impacto no preço de um veículo, seguido pelo grau de luxo e marca.The market of consumer goods is consisted of heterogeneous products which can be viewed as a union of attributes or characteristics. Quantifying the value of these characteristics can help in the creation of a pricing rule, allowing, for example, pricing a product which is not available, and helping in the estimates of its demand. The purpose of this work is to use the theory of hedonic price to determine empirically the value of characteristics, as well as their relative importance, in the price of Brazilian vehicles. The model was obtained using data regarding 150 national vehicles and a linear hedonic function, which coefficients were estimated by ordinary least squares. It can be concluded that the engine power is the factor which has the greatest impact on a vehicle price, followed by the luxury level and the brand.

  17. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  18. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  19. Cross-cultural examination of the tripartite model with children: data from the Barretstown studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, G; Laurent, J; Joiner, T E; Catanzaro, S J; MacLachlan, M

    2001-10-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) were administered to a group of 240 children from European countries to determine their utility in examining the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in a cross-cultural sample. Most of the children (n = 196) had been diagnosed with a medical illness; the remainder were siblings of these youngsters (n = 44). Only slight variations were noted in items between this sample and samples from the United States. Despite these minor differences, 3 distinct scales measuring the positive affect, negative affect, and physiological hyperarousal constructs of the tripartite model were identified. These findings illustrate that the PH-PANAS-C provides a useful measure of the tripartite model in a cross-cultural sample of youth. The findings also demonstrate that the tripartite model is generalizable to a cross-cultural milieu.

  20. Measuring fragmentation of ambulatory care in a tripartite healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Yeung, Philip C

    2013-05-15

    Hong Kong has a tripartite healthcare system, where western medicine provided in both public and private sectors coexist with Chinese medicine practice. The purpose of this study is to measure fragmentation of ambulatory care experienced by the non-institutionalized population aged 15 and over in such a tripartite system, thus shed light on the ongoing primary care reform. This is a cross-sectional secondary data analysis using the Thematic Household Survey, which was conducted by the Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department during November 2009 to February 2010 to collect territory-wide health-related information. Among 18,226 individuals with two or more ambulatory visits during the past 12 months before interview, we grouped each visit into one of the three care segments-public western, private western and Chinese medicine. Two individual-level measures were used to quantify longitudinal fragmentation of care across segments over the one-year period: Most Frequent Provider Continuity Index (MFPC) and Fragmentation of Care Index (FCI). Both are analyzed for distribution and subgroup comparison. A Tobit model was used to further examine the determinants of fragmentation. More than a quarter of individuals sought care in two or all three segments, with an average MFPC of 65% and FCI of 0.528. Being older, female, married, unemployed, uninsured, or born in mainland China, with lower education, lower income, higher number of chronic conditions or poorer health were found to have experienced higher fragmentation of care. We also found that, fragmentation of care increased with the total number of ambulatory care visits and it varied significantly depending on what segment the individual chose to visit most frequently-those chose private western clinics had lower FCI, compared with those chose public western or Chinese medicine as the most frequently visited segment. Even measured at healthcare segment level, people in Hong Kong experienced modest fragmentation of

  1. 76 FR 66849 - Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (NSLA) (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) and the Child Nutrition Act... / Friday, October 28, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition... the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program and for Benefits in the Special...

  2. Differential deposition of emollients from tripartite formulation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, A; Haake, H-M; Poly, W

    2010-04-01

    To date, emollients are included in skin care formulations although not much is known about their adsorption/deposition properties and/or the interactions of the constituents within these multi-component systems. The modulation of the adsorption/deposition via the use of specific surfactant and/or emollient systems could therefore help to increase performance and sensorial benefits as well as to reduce adverse effects. In this study, the effects of various tripartite systems consisting of sodium laureth sulphate (SLES), a co-surfactant and an emollient were studied. The two different emollients tested adsorbed with varying amounts although the same surfactant/co-surfactant system was used. Interestingly, the deposition of both SLES and/or the emollient is also substantially influenced by the emollient component itself as well as by the co-surfactant used. Sensory assessments showed that although SLES has a negative effect on the skin feel, adsorbed emollients improve skin softness and smoothness. These results show that optimization of performance is possible when using a co-surfactant best suited for the emollient.

  3. Tripartite Bell inequality, random matrices and trilinear forms

    CERN Document Server

    Pisier, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    In this seminar report, we present in detail the proof of a recent result due to J. Bri\\"et and T. Vidick, improving an estimate in a 2008 paper by D. P\\'erez-Garc\\'{\\i}a, M. Wolf, C. Palazuelos, I. Villanueva, and M. Junge, estimating the growth of the deviation in the tripartite Bell inequality. The proof requires a delicate estimate of the norms of certain trilinear (or $d$-linear) forms on Hilbert space with coefficients in the second Gaussian Wiener chaos. Let $E^n_{\\vee}$ (resp. $E^n_{\\min}$) denote $ \\ell_1^n \\otimes \\ell_1^n\\otimes \\ell_1^n$ equipped with the injective (resp. minimal) tensor norm. Here $ \\ell_1^n$ is equipped with its maximal operator space structure. The Bri\\"et-Vidick method yields that the identity map $I_n$ satisfies (for some $c>0$) $\\|I_n:\\ E^n_{\\vee}\\to E^n_{\\min}\\|\\ge c n^{1/4} (\\log n)^{-3/2}.$ Let $S^n_2$ denote the (Hilbert) space of $n\\times n$-matrices equipped with the Hilbert-Schmidt norm. While a lower bound closer to $n^{1/2} $ is still open, their method produces an ...

  4. Multisetting Bell-type inequalities for detecting genuine tripartite entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Karoly F

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper, Bancal et al. put forward the concept of device-independent witnesses of genuine multipartite entanglement. These witnesses are capable of verifying genuine multipartite entanglement produced in a lab without resorting to any knowledge of the dimension of the state space or of the specific form of the measurement operators. As a by-product they found a three-party three-setting Bell inequality which enables to detect genuine tripartite entanglement in a noisy 3-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for visibilities as low as 2/3 in a device-independent way. In this paper, we generalize this inequality to an arbitrary number of settings, demonstrating a threshold visibility of 2/pi~0.6366 for number of settings going to infinity. We also present a pseudo-telepathy Bell inequality achieving the same threshold value. We argue that our device-independent witnesses are optimal in the sense that the above value cannot be beaten with three-party-correlation Bell inequalities.

  5. An ancient tripartite symbiosis of plants, ants and scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shouhei; Quek, Swee-Peck; Itioka, Takao; Inamori, Keita; Sato, Yumiko; Murase, Kaori; Itino, Takao

    2008-10-22

    In the Asian tropics, a conspicuous radiation of Macaranga plants is inhabited by obligately associated Crematogaster ants tending Coccus (Coccidae) scale insects, forming a tripartite symbiosis. Recent phylogenetic studies have shown that the plants and the ants have been codiversifying over the past 16-20 million years (Myr). The prevalence of coccoids in ant-plant mutualisms suggest that they play an important role in the evolution of ant-plant symbioses. To determine whether the scale insects were involved in the evolutionary origin of the mutualism between Macaranga and Crematogaster, we constructed a cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene phylogeny of the scale insects collected from myrmecophytic Macaranga and estimated their time of origin based on a COI molecular clock. The minimum age of the associated Coccus was estimated to be half that of the ants, at 7-9Myr, suggesting that they were latecomers in the evolutionary history of the symbiosis. Crematogaster mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages did not exhibit specificity towards Coccus mtDNA lineages, and the latter was not found to be specific towards Macaranga taxa, suggesting that patterns of associations in the scale insects are dictated by opportunity rather than by specialized adaptations to host plant traits.

  6. Electric power pricing and the National interest. Testimony of Douglas C. Bauer before the Public Service Commission of New York. Case No. 26806

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, D.C.

    1975-08-11

    The key to a national goal of energy independence is balanced and efficient growth of the electric utility industry. Energy objectives of the Federal Energy Administration (FEA) for 1985 are: (1) higher efficiency of generator fuels to increase capacity factor from 49% to 62% and load factor from 57% to 69%; (2) accelerated development of coal and nuclear generation from the present 50% to 69% of kWh output; (3) oil used in electric power generation reduced by 1 million barrels; (4) end use fuel switching from oil and natural gas to coal and nuclear energy to increase electric consumption efficiency 10%; and (5) reformed rate structures to peak load/time of day pricing. Aggressive load management and other conservation programs should improve utility financial situations and still allow a 5% sales growth while saving $48 billion in plant expansion capital. FEA will be involved in demonstration projects during the transition period. (DCK)

  7. Fair pricing, and pricing paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Swart

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The St Petersburg Paradox revolves round the determination of a fair price for playing the St Petersburg Game. According to the original formulation, the price for the game is infinite, and, therefore, paradoxical. Although the St Petersburg Paradox can be seen as concerning merely a game, Paul Samuelson (1977 calls it a “fascinating chapter in the history of ideas”, a chapter that gave rise to a considerable number of papers over more than 200 years involving fields such as probability theory and economics. In a paper in this journal, Vivian (2013 undertook a numerical investigation of the St Petersburg Game. In this paper, the central issue of the paradox is identified as that of fair (risk-neutral pricing, which is fundamental in economics and finance and involves important concepts such as no arbitrage, discounting, and risk-neutral measures. The model for the St Petersburg Game as set out in this paper is new and analytical and resolves the so-called pricing paradox by applying a discounting procedure. In this framework, it is shown that there is in fact no infinite price paradox, and simple formulas for obtaining a finite price for the game are also provided.

  8. New Round of Petroleum Products Price Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Background On December 18,2008,a new petroleum products pricing mechanism was carried out in China.According to the Procedure for the Administration of Oil Price(Trial)issued last month by National Development and Reform Commission,if the moving average price for crude oil in international market changes more than4% in 22 consecutive working days,the prices for gasoline and diesel in domestic market can be adjusted accordingly.

  9. Biologic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in a National, Privately Insured Population: Utilization, Expenditures, and Price Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzinger, Christopher B; Guo, Jeff J

    2017-02-01

    Spending on biologic drugs is a significant driver of drug expenditures for payers in private health plans. Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are some of the most effective and costly treatments in a physician's arsenal. Understanding the total annual expenditure, the average cost per prescription, and the impact of cost-sharing is important for drug benefit managers. To assess drug utilization, expenditures, out-of-pocket (OOP) cost, and price trends of biologic DMARDs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a large managed care organization. We conducted a retrospective database analysis of pharmacy claims data from January 2004 to December 2013 using the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart database, which covers 13.3 million lives. Pharmacy claims for 40,373 patients with RA were identified during the study period. In all, 9 biologic DMARDs approved for the treatment of RA, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certoizumab, golimumab, tocilizumab, anakinra, abatacept, and rituximab, and 1 nonbiologic oral, small molecule-targeted synthetic drug, tofacitinib, were included in this study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the total annual number of prescriptions, the total annual expenditures, the average annual cost per drug (a proxy of drug price), and the average OOP cost (copay plus deductible and coinsurance). All measurements were also stratified by study drugs and by insurance type. Of the 40,373 patients with RA included in the study, approximately 76% were female (mean age, 55 years at diagnosis). Approximately 77% of the patients were white, and almost 48% lived in the South or Midwest region of the United States. Approximately 62% of patients had a point of service insurance plan. Expenditures on biologic DMARDs increased from $166 million in 2004 to $243 million in 2013, and the number of prescriptions and refills increased from 59,960 in 2004 to 105,295 in 2013. Prescriptions for biologic DMARDs increased more

  10. The tripartite model of anxiety and depression: symptom structure in depressive and hypertensive patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Grant N; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Meredith, Lisa S; Camp, Patti; Hays, Ron D

    2003-04-01

    The structure of self-reported symptoms representative of the tripartite model was examined using data drawn from the Medical Outcomes Study (Tarlov et al., 1989). Participants were persons who had been diagnosed 48 months previously as suffering from either depression (N = 315) or hypertension (N = 403). Results of confirmatory factor analyses were broadly consistent with the tripartite model (L. A. Clark & Watson, 1991). Factors emerged corresponding to each of the 3 posited first-order dimensions of negative affect, positive affect, and physiologic arousal. Nonetheless, some discrepancies were found between the observed data and the hypothesized tripartite model. First, the obtained physiologic arousal factor was best viewed as reflecting nonspecific somatic distress rather than physiologic arousal. Finally, although differentiable in the strictest statistical sense, all three domains were significantly correlated (.36 to.86, absolute value). In particular, contrary to the tripartite model, positive and negative affect covaried markedly (-.81 to -.86). Findings raise issues concerning the utility of the tripartite model as a heuristic framework for enhancing understanding of individual differences in normal mood as well as mood disorders.

  11. Generation of tripartite entanglement from cascaded four-wave mixing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Zheng, Zhan; Wang, Yaxian; Jing, Jietai

    2016-10-03

    We investigate the possibility of an experimentally feasible cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) system [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)] to generate tripartite entanglement. We verify that genuine tripartite entanglement is present in this system by calculating the covariances of three output beams and then considering the violations of the inequalities of the three-mode entanglement criteria, such as two-condition criterion, single-condition criterion, optimal single-condition criterion and the positivity under partial transposition (PPT) criterion. We also consider the possibilities of the bipartite entanglement of any pair of the three output beams using the Duan-Giedke-Cirac-Zoller criterion and PPT criterion. We find that the tripartite entanglement and the bipartite entanglement for the two pairs are present in the whole gain region. The entanglement characteristics under different entanglement criteria are also considered. Our results pave the way for the realization and application of multipartite entanglement based on the cascaded FWM processes.

  12. The tripartite associations between bacteriophage, Wolbachia, and arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-05-01

    Wolbachia densities and therefore reproductive parasitism. We conclude that phage, Wolbachia, and arthropods form a tripartite symbiotic association in which all three are integral to understanding the biology of this widespread endosymbiosis. Clarifying the roles of lytic and lysogenic phage development in Wolbachia biology will effectively structure inquiries into this research topic.

  13. Study to assess the application of shadow pricing techniques to national energy resource planning. Year I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    A Dynamic Energy System Optimization Model is described that can analyze optimal allocation of exhaustible energy resources over time. It is a multi-period representation of the nation's energy supply and utilization system that incorporates cost and time elements associated with new capital facilities, the discount rate, internal selection of new energy technologies, and internal determination of primary energy resource allocation over time. Two demonstration applications of a single-period energy model are also presented. The first estimates benefit/cost ratios for Federal R and D investment in high-Btu coal-gasification technology. The second evaluates the economic impact of a sulfur dioxide emission constraint in certain end uses.

  14. Bipartite and Tripartite Entanglement in a Three-Qubit Heisenberg Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Jie; ZHU Shi-Qun

    2006-01-01

    The bipartite and tripartite entanglement in a three-qubit Heisenberg XY model with a nonuniformmagnetic field is studied. There are two or four peaks in the concurrence of the bipartite entanglement when the amplitudes of the magnetic fields are differently distributed between the three qubits. It is very interesting to note that there is no tangle of tripartite entanglement between the three qubits when the amplitudes of the magnetic fields are varied. However, the variation of the magnetic field direction can induce the tangle. The tangle is periodic about the angle between the magnetic field and the z axis of the spin.

  15. Various notions of positivity for bi-linear maps and applications to tri-partite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyung Hoon, E-mail: kyunghoon.han@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, The University of Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 445-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kye, Seung-Hyeok, E-mail: kye@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mathematics and Institute of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    We consider bi-linear analogues of s-positivity for linear maps. The dual objects of these notions can be described in terms of Schmidt ranks for tri-tensor products and Schmidt numbers for tri-partite quantum states. These tri-partite versions of Schmidt numbers cover various kinds of bi-separability, and so we may interpret witnesses for those in terms of bi-linear maps. We give concrete examples of witnesses for various kinds of three qubit entanglement.

  16. Understanding the Impact of Higher Corn Prices on Consumer Food Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-04-18

    In an effort to assess the true effects of higher corn prices, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) commissioned an analysis on the impact of increased corn prices on retail food prices. This paper summarizes key results of the study and offers additional analysis based on information from a variety of other sources.

  17. Assessing Tuition and Student Aid Strategies: Using Price-Response Measures to Simulate Pricing Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    1994-01-01

    A study used price-response measures from recent national studies to assess college and university pricing (tuition and student aid) alternatives in diverse institutional settings. It is concluded that such analyses are feasible. Analysis indicated limits to "Robin Hood" pricing patterns are predominant in private colleges. Consideration…

  18. Coordinated Oil Price Readjustment Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In March this year, the National Development and Reform Commission issued an oil price readjustment plan, including the establishment of a subsidy system for disadvantaged sections of the community and public service sectors, a price linkage mechanism for related industries, and a fiscal adjustment mechanism for oil enterprises. The recipients of the subsidies mainly include farmers, fishermen and fishing firms, state-owned forestry enterprises and urban public transportation firms.

  19. Agricultural Water Pricing: United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In summary, irrigation costs and prices are rising in most regions of the United States, due to a combination of increasing scarcity, changes in public preferences regarding water allocation among competing uses, increasing budget scrutiny in the national and state legislatures, rising energy prices, and increasing awareness of climate change and the potential implications for rainfall and the availability of surface water resources. These issues likely will continue encouraging public offici...

  20. Applying the Dufournaud econometric model to the determination of the prices dynamics impact over the national economy and over its main vulnerable sectors in connection with the Romanian national economy specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Claudia Serban

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In economics, a model represents an abstract, formal image of a phenomenon, process or economic system. It is built by symbolically reproducing the economic theory and by getting new information regarding the behavior of the objective being investigated. In economic theory there are several integrated econometric models meant to underline the interdependency between the branches of a national economy by the public utilities services, especially those connected to energy. The present article presents the first results of our efforts of building an econometric model adapted to the specificity of the Romanian economy, that would underline the impact of the prices modification for public utilities on the Romanian economy as a hole, on the competitiveness of Romanian companies and on the inflation.

  1. Availability and price of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the public and private health sectors in 2011: results from 10 nationally representative cross-sectional retail surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyer, Stephen; Shewchuk, Tanya; Tougher, Sarah; Ye, Yazoume; Mann, Andrea G; Willey, Barbara A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Taylor, Mark; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Mberu, Blessing; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Juma, Elizabeth; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Diap, Graciela; Bruxvoort, Katia; Ansong, Daniel; Hanson, Kara; Arnold, Fred; Goodman, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    To describe the state of the public and private malaria diagnostics market shortly after WHO updated its guidelines for testing all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. Ten nationally representative cross-sectional cluster surveys were conducted in 2011 among public and private health facilities, community health workers and retail outlets (pharmacies and drug shops) in nine countries (Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar surveyed separately). Eligible outlets had antimalarials in stock on the day of interview or had stocked antimalarials in the past 3 months. Three thousand four hundred and thirty-nine rapid diagnostic test (RDT) products from 39 manufacturers were audited among 12,197 outlets interviewed. Availability was typically highest in public health facilities, although availability in these facilities varied greatly across countries, from 15% in Nigeria to >90% in Madagascar and Cambodia. Private for-profit sector availability was 46% in Cambodia, 20% in Zambia, but low in other countries. Median retail prices for RDTs in the private for-profit sector ranged from $0.00 in Madagascar to $3.13 in Zambia. The reported number of RDTs used in the 7 days before the survey in public health facilities ranged from 3 (Benin) to 50 (Zambia). Eighteen months after WHO updated its case management guidelines, RDT availability remained poor in the private sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the ongoing importance of the private sector as a source of fever treatment, the goal of universal diagnosis will not be achievable under current circumstances. These results constitute national baselines against which progress in scaling-up diagnostic tests can be assessed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Tripartite Frontier: Funding the Church of the Nazarene Medical Mission, 1911- 1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsile Rachel Ndlangamandla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract

    Couched within the context of social history of medicine, this study explores the trajectory of the Church of the Nazarene medical mission from 1911, when the Nazarene missionaries experienced their first ‘surgical’ service, to 1939 when the Church of the Nazarene had established a medical unit. The absence of large- scale biomedical facilities for the Swazi gave the Nazarene Christian missionaries the impression that they had a health burden to carry. How to fund the Nazarene frontier medical mission was the question that brought the church, the state, and the Swazi together. The study purports to discuss the tripartite funding of the Nazarene biomedical mission using information obtained from the Church of the Nazarene documents and government annual reports housed in the Swaziland National Archives. The significance of this ground- breaking study lies in its ability to evince the subtle nuances of the trajectory of multiple Christian medical mission encounters through the prism of multi- sectoral funding.

     

    Encadrée dans le domaine de l'histoire sociale de la médecine, cette étude explore la trajectoire de l'Église de la mission médicale Nazaréen de 1911, quand les missionnaires nazaréens expérimentés ont entrepris leur première intervention «chirurgicale », jusqu’à 1939, année au cours de laquelle l'Église des Nazaréens a installé   une unité médicale. Les missionnaires chrétiens nazaréens estimaient qu'ils avaient un devoir médical à assurer à l’égard des Swazi qui étaient dépourvus de toutes infrastructures  biomédicales. La question de savoir comment financer la mission médicale nazaréenne outre-mer a été la principale préoccupation de cette église, de l’État et des Swazi eux-mêmes.   La présente étude examine le financement tripartite de la mission biomédicale nazaréenne, en

  3. Branding the Land Grant University: Stakeholders' Awareness and Perceptions of the Tripartite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Katie; Meyers, Courtney; Irani, Tracy; Baker, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    Several land-grant institutions have adopted a name to encompass the teaching, research, and Extension components of the university, creating a brand identity for those public services. But, in the mind of stakeholders, has the connection between the tripartite mission and the brand name been made? The study reported here sought to determine…

  4. Structure of Anxiety and Depression in Urban Youth: An Examination of the Tripartite Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sharon F.; McCreary, Beth T.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Ialongo, Nicolas S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the validity of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression (L. A. Clark & D. Watson, 1991) in a community epidemiological sample of 467 urban African American youth. Participants completed the Baltimore How I Feel (N. S. Ialongo, S. G. Kellam, & J. Poduska, 1999), a measure of anxiety and depressive…

  5. Branding the Land Grant University: Stakeholders' Awareness and Perceptions of the Tripartite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Katie; Meyers, Courtney; Irani, Tracy; Baker, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    Several land-grant institutions have adopted a name to encompass the teaching, research, and Extension components of the university, creating a brand identity for those public services. But, in the mind of stakeholders, has the connection between the tripartite mission and the brand name been made? The study reported here sought to determine…

  6. Child mortality, commodity price volatility and the resource curse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Yousef; Kellard, Neil M; Vinogradov, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    Given many developing economies depend on primary commodities, the fluctuations of commodity prices may imply significant effects for the wellbeing of children. To investigate, this paper examines the relationship between child mortality and commodity price movements as reflected by country-specific commodity terms-of-trade. Employing a panel of 69 low and lower-middle income countries over the period 1970-2010, we show that commodity terms-of-trade volatility increases child mortality in highly commodity-dependent importers suggesting a type of 'scarce' resource curse. Strikingly however, good institutions appear able to mitigate the negative impact of volatility. The paper concludes by highlighting this tripartite relationship between child mortality, volatility and good institutions and posits that an effective approach to improving child wellbeing in low to lower-middle income countries will combine hedging, import diversification and improvement of institutional quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. EFFECTIVE ANNUAL INTEREST SIGNIFIANCE ON BANKING PRODUCTS PRICE STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Lucian-Ion

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the products and services prices can be found in the reference price, that customer must compare it with the price of the last made acquisition. The price of the banking product, that includes the effective annual intrest rate (EAI, is a guide price including all the cost elements related to banking products and services. The price of the products promoted through lending activities, is affected by the exchange rate of national and foreign currency, available on the money market. The role of the banking fee is very important in the specific services and bank products price formation.

  8. Honolulu Retail Monitoring Price Data Collection (2007-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains a time series of consumer-level prices for a sample of retail markets in Honolulu between 2007-2011. Data include weekly prices for fish...

  9. food price trend analysis: lessons for strengthening food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    objective of this study was to analyse maize and rice price transmission within Tanzania domestic markets. ... layers of markets and the prices were largely controlled by fewer traders rather than marketing ..... for national and regional action.

  10. The Weird Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government faces the task of stabilizing vegetable prices to avoid steep increases and dips Fluctuations of vegetable prices in China have recently caused near panic in the domestic market.Purchase prices for farm produce are decreasing dramatically

  11. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  12. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing... advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent butterfat, component prices, and advanced pricing factors shall be as follows. The prices and pricing factors...

  13. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...

  14. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non-competitive...... (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition. As price falls volume increases and so does quality, such that overall efficiency is raised by 50%. However...

  15. A price index for biomedical research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T M; Reeb, J S

    1989-01-01

    Price changes of goods and services used in biomedical research and development have important effects on the costs of conducting research. We summarize the trends suggested by a recently constructed biomedical research and development price index, which measures the effects of price changes on the inputs to biomedical research from 1979 to 1986. The fixed-weighted index uses fiscal year 1984 National Institutes of Health expenditure patterns in developing the weights. The rate of increase shown in the price index peaked in 1981 and slowed in following years. However, in most years, the rate of increase in the price index has exceeded the rate of increase in other major price indexes, such as the consumer price index, the producer price index, and the Gross National Product fixed-weighted price index.

  16. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from management accounting aspects to show out the role of the accounting system in the short term and long term pricing and transfer pricing decisions.

  17. The Effects of the Tripartite Free Trade Area: Towards a New Economic Geography in Southern, Eastern and Northern Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Mold, Andrew; Mukwaya, Rodgers

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic impact of the proposed COMESA-SADC-EAC Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) on 26 African countries. It uses the global trade analysis project (GTAP) computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and database to measure the static effects of the establishment of the TFTA on industrial production, trade flows and consumption in the tripartite region. The results indicate a significant increase in intra-regional exports as a result of tariff elimination, boosting int...

  18. An examination of the tripartite influence model of body image : does women's sexual identity make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Huxley, Caroline J.; Halliwell, Emma; Clarke, Victoria (Associate Professor in Sexuality Studies)

    2014-01-01

    According to the tripartite influence model of body image, appearance pressures from family, friends, partners, and the media lead to body dissatisfaction and restrained eating behaviours. There is strong support for this model among young, White heterosexual women. Evidence suggests that women who identified as lesbian as bisexual (LB) may be protected from sociocultural pressures around thinness, but no known research has tested the tripartite model among LB women. The current research test...

  19. A factor analytic investigation of the Tripartite model of affect in a clinical sample of young Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrave Elizabeth M; Cotton Sue M; Buckby Joe A; Killackey Eoin J; Yung Alison R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) was designed to specifically measure the Tripartite model of affect and is proposed to offer a delineation between the core components of anxiety and depression. Factor analytic data from adult clinical samples has shown mixed results; however no studies employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) have supported the predicted structure of distinct Depression, Anxiety and General Distress factors. The Tripartite model has n...

  20. Validation Study of Tripartite Model of Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents: Clinical Sample in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jae-Won; Hong, Sungdo D.; Joung, Yoo Sook; Kim, Ji-Hae

    2006-01-01

    Although the currently available literature has provided some empirical support for a tripartite model of child and adolescent anxiety and depression, one of the limitations of these studies was that they have been conducted in America, primarily with Caucasians. In order to make this model more applicable to diverse ethnic and cultural groups, this study used a tripartite model for child and adolescent anxiety and depression in Korea, using confirmatory factor analysis with logically selecte...

  1. Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Yan, Zhihui; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-04-01

    The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite entangled states of light at the frequency resonant with D1 line of Rubidium atoms are transformed into the continuous variable polarization entanglement among three bright optical beams via an optical beam splitter network. The obtained entanglement is confirmed by the extended criterion for polarization entanglement of multipartite quantized optical modes.

  2. Tunable quantum beam splitters for coherent manipulation of a solid-state tripartite qubit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Coherent control of quantum states is at the heart of implementing solid-state quantum processors and testing quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. Despite significant progress made in recent years in controlling single- and bi-partite quantum systems, coherent control of quantum wave function in multipartite systems involving artificial solid-state qubits has been hampered due to the relatively short decoherence time and lack of precise control methods. Here we report the creation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in a tripartite quantum system, which is formed by a superconducting qubit coupled to two microscopic two-level systems (TLSs). The avoided crossings in the system's energy-level spectrum due to the qubit–TLS interaction act as tunable quantum beam splitters of wave functions. Our result shows that the Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interference has great potential in precise control of the quantum states in the tripartite system. PMID:20975719

  3. Drug price regulation under consumer moral hazard. Two-part tariffs, uniform price or third-degree price discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Stefan

    2004-12-01

    Drug price differences across national markets as they exist in the EU are often justified by the concept of Ramsey prices: with fixed costs for R&D, the optimal mark-ups on marginal costs are inversely related to the price elasticity in the individual markets. This well-known result prevails if consumer moral hazard is taken into account. Contrary to the situation without moral hazard, the uniform price does not necessarily dominate discriminatory pricing in welfare terms. The two-part tariff is a better alternative as it allows governments to address moral hazard. A uniform price combined with lump-payments reflecting differences in the willingness to pay and the moral hazard in member states appears to be an attractive option for a common EU drug market.

  4. Forest insurance market participants’ game behavior in China: An analysis based on tripartite dynamic game model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In forest insurance market, there are three main participants including the insurance company, the forest farmer and the government. As different participant has different benefit object, there will be a complex and dynamic game relationship among all participants. The purpose of this paper is to make the game relationship among all participants in forest insurance market clear, and then to put forward some policy suggestions on the implementation of forest insurance from the view of game theory. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, the static game model between the insurance company and the forest farmer is set up. According to the result of static game model, it’s difficult to implement forest insurance without government. Secondly, the tripartite dynamic game model among the government, the insurance company and the forest farmer is proposed, and the equilibrium solution of tripartite dynamic game model is acquired. Finally, the behavioral characteristics of all participants are analyzed according to the equilibrium solution of tripartite dynamic game model. Findings: the government’s allowance will be an important positive factor to implement forest insurance. The loss of the insurance company, which the lower insurance premium brings, can be compensated by the allowance from the government. The more the government provides allowance, the more actively the insurance company will implement forest insurance at a low insurance premium. In this situation, the forest farmer will be more likely to purchase the forest insurance, then the scope of forest insurance implementation will expend. Originality/value: There is a complex and dynamic game relationship among all participants in forest insurance market. Based on the tripartite dynamic game model, to make the game relationship between each participant clear is conducive to the implementation of forest insurance market in China.

  5. Tri-partite complex for axonal transport drug delivery achieves pharmacological effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickson Martyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents into selected populations of CNS (Central Nervous System neurons is an extremely compelling goal. Currently, systemic methods are generally used for delivery of pain medications, anti-virals for treatment of dermatomal infections, anti-spasmodics, and neuroprotectants. Systemic side effects or undesirable effects on parts of the CNS that are not involved in the pathology limit efficacy and limit clinical utility for many classes of pharmaceuticals. Axonal transport from the periphery offers a possible selective route, but there has been little progress towards design of agents that can accomplish targeted delivery via this intraneural route. To achieve this goal, we developed a tripartite molecular construction concept involving an axonal transport facilitator molecule, a polymer linker, and a large number of drug molecules conjugated to the linker, then sought to evaluate its neurobiology and pharmacological behavior. Results We developed chemical synthesis methodologies for assembling these tripartite complexes using a variety of axonal transport facilitators including nerve growth factor, wheat germ agglutinin, and synthetic facilitators derived from phage display work. Loading of up to 100 drug molecules per complex was achieved. Conjugation methods were used that allowed the drugs to be released in active form inside the cell body after transport. Intramuscular and intradermal injection proved effective for introducing pharmacologically effective doses into selected populations of CNS neurons. Pharmacological efficacy with gabapentin in a paw withdrawal latency model revealed a ten fold increase in half life and a 300 fold decrease in necessary dose relative to systemic administration for gabapentin when the drug was delivered by axonal transport using the tripartite vehicle. Conclusion Specific targeting of selected subpopulations of CNS neurons for drug delivery by axonal

  6. On the Entangled Fractional Fourier Transform in Tripartite Entangled State Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan

    2003-01-01

    Based on the newly constructed two mutually conjugate 3-mode entangled states of continuum variablesin three-mode Fock space we introduce entangled fractional Fourier transform (EFFT) for the tripartite entangled staterepresentations, which are not a direct product of three 1-dimensional FFTs. The eigenmodes of EFFT are obtained,which is different from the usual Hermite polynomials. The EFFT of the three-mode squeezed state is derived.

  7. Introducing the Tripartite Digitization Model for Engaging with the Intangible Cultural Heritage of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Rodil, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the notion of intangible cultural heritage as a driver for smart city learning applications. To this end, we shortly explore the notion of intangible heritage before presenting the tripartite digitization model that was originally developed for indigenous cultural...... heritage but can equally be applied to the smart city context. We then discuss parts of the model making use of a specific case study aiming at re-creating places in the city....

  8. Application of Bipartite and Tripartite Entangled State Representations in Quantum Teleportation of Continuous Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hong-Chun; QI Kai-Guo

    2005-01-01

    We mostly investigate two schemes. One is to teleport a multi-mode W-type entangled coherent state using a peculiar bipartite entangled state as the quantum channel different from other proposals. Based on our formalism,teleporting multi-mode coherent state or squeezed state is also possible. Another is that the tripartite entangled state is used as the quantum channel of controlled teleportation of an arbitrary and unknown continuous variable in the case of three participators.

  9. Value-based differential pricing: efficient prices for drugs in a global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, Patricia; Towse, Adrian; Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes pharmaceutical pricing between and within countries to achieve second-best static and dynamic efficiency. We distinguish countries with and without universal insurance, because insurance undermines patients' price sensitivity, potentially leading to prices above second-best efficient levels. In countries with universal insurance, if each payer unilaterally sets an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) threshold based on its citizens' willingness-to-pay for health; manufacturers price to that ICER threshold; and payers limit reimbursement to patients for whom a drug is cost-effective at that price and ICER, then the resulting price levels and use within each country and price differentials across countries are roughly consistent with second-best static and dynamic efficiency. These value-based prices are expected to differ cross-nationally with per capita income and be broadly consistent with Ramsey optimal prices. Countries without comprehensive insurance avoid its distorting effects on prices but also lack financial protection and affordability for the poor. Improving pricing efficiency in these self-pay countries includes improving regulation and consumer information about product quality and enabling firms to price discriminate within and between countries.

  10. Tripartite entanglement dynamics in the presence of Markovian or non-Markovian environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, DaeKil

    2016-08-01

    We study on the tripartite entanglement dynamics when each party is initially entangled with other parties, but they locally interact with their own Markovian or non-Markovian environment. First we consider three GHZ-type initial states, all of which have GHZ-symmetry provided that the parameters are chosen appropriately. However, this symmetry is broken due to the effect of environment. The corresponding π -tangles, one of the tripartite entanglement measures, are analytically computed at arbitrary time. For Markovian case while the tripartite entanglement for type I exhibits an entanglement sudden death, the dynamics for the remaining cases decays normally in time with the half-life rule. For non-Markovian case the revival phenomenon of entanglement occurs after complete disappearance of entanglement. We also consider two W-type initial states. For both cases the π -tangles are analytically derived. The revival phenomenon also occurs in this case. On the analytical ground the robustness or fragility issue against the effect of environment is examined for both GHZ-type and W-type initial states.

  11. Almost-quantum correlations and their refinements in a tripartite Bell scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallins, James; Sainz, Ana Belén; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2017-02-01

    We study the set of almost-quantum correlations and their refinements in the simplest tripartite Bell scenario where each party is allowed to perform two dichotomic measurements. In contrast to its bipartite counterpart, we find that there already exist facet Bell inequalities that witness almost-quantum correlations beyond quantum theory in this simplest tripartite Bell scenario. Furthermore, we study the relation between the almost-quantum set and the hierarchy of supersets to the quantum set due to Navascués-Pironio-Acín (NPA) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010401 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.010401]. While the former lies between the first and the third level of the NPA hierarchy, we find that its second level does not contain and is not contained within the almost-quantum set. Finally, we investigate the hierarchy of refinements to the almost-quantum set due to Moroder et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 030501 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.030501], which converges to the set of quantum correlations producible by quantum states having positive partial transposition. This allows us to consider (approximations of) the "biseparable" subsets of the almost-quantum set as well as of the quantum set of correlations, and thereby gain further insights into the subtle similarities and differences between the two sets. In addition, they allow us to identify candidate Bell-like inequalities that can serve as device-independent witnesses for genuine tripartite entanglement.

  12. Thermalization of mutual and tripartite information in strongly coupled two dimensional CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, V; Copland, N; Craps, B; Galli, F

    2011-01-01

    The mutual and tripartite information between pairs and triples of disjoint regions in a quantum field theory are sensitive probes of the spread of correlations in an equilibrating system. We compute these quantities in strongly coupled 2d CFTs with a gravity dual following the homogenous deposition of energy. The injected energy is modeled in AdS space as an infalling shell, and the information shared by disjoint intervals is computed in terms of geodesic lengths in this background. For given widths and separation of the intervals, the mutual information typically starts at its vacuum value, then increases in time to reach a maximum, and then declines to the value at thermal equilibrium. A simple causality argument qualitatively explains this behavior. The tripartite information is generically non-zero and time-dependent throughout the process. This contrasts with (but does not contradict) the time-independent tripartite information one finds after a 2d quantum quench in the limit of large time and distance ...

  13. Tripartite entanglement of bosonic systems in a noninertial frame beyond the single- mode approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we generalize the entanglement of three-qbit Bosonic systems beyond the single-mode approximation when one of the observers is accelerated. For this purpose, we review the effects of acceleration on field modes and quantum states. The single-mode approximation and beyond the single-mode approximation methods are introduced. After this brief introduction, the main problem of this paper, tripartite entanglement of bosonic systems in a noninertial frame beyond the single- mode approximation is investigated. The tripartite entangled states have different classes with GHZ and W states being most important. Here, we choose &pi-tangle as a measure of tripartite entanglement. If the three parties share GHZ state, the corresponding &pi-tangle will increase by increasing acceleration for some Unruh modes. This phenomenon, increasing entanglement, has never been observed in the single-mode approximation for bosonic case. Moreover, the &pi-tangle dose not exhibit a monotonic behavior with increasing acceleration. In the infinite acceleration limit, the &pi-tangle goes to different nonzero values for distinct Unruh modes. Unlike GHZ state, the entanglement of the W state shows only monotonically increasing and decreasing behaviors with increasing acceleration. Also, the entanglement for all possible choices of Unruh modes approaches only 0.176 in the high acceleration limit. Therefore, according to the quantum entanglement, there is no distinction between the single-mode approximation and beyond the single-mode approximation methods in this limit.

  14. Disentanglement, Bell-nonlocality violation and teleportation capacity of the decaying tripartite states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ming-Liang, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com

    2012-09-15

    Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.

  15. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    -cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  16. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non...

  17. Strategic Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Alles; Srikant Datar

    1998-01-01

    Most research into cost systems has focused on their motivational implications. This paper takes a different approach, by developing a model where two oligopolistic firms strategically select their cost-based transfer prices. Duopoly models frequently assume that firms game on their choice of prices. Product prices, however, are ultimately based on the firms' transfer prices that communicate manufacturing costs to marketing departments. It is for this reason that transfer prices will have a s...

  18. The Pricing of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Malte

    2009-01-01

    The pricing of payments has received increasing attention of regulators. In many cases, regulators are concerned that consumers do not face cost based prices. They argue that without cost based prices consumers will make inefficient choices. In this paper, it is argued that both, economics of scale and the particular laws governing pricing in two-sided markets provide a case against cost based pricing.

  19. ECONOMICAL PLANS EFFECTS ON CHARCOAL PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira Rezende

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy is essential for human needs satisfaction. With the evolution of machinery, man becomes more and more dependent on the energy stocked in fossil fuels, comparatively to the primitive economy. Wood charcoal is a thermal-reducer used in Brazilian pig iron and steel industries, and its price is formed in an oligopsonic market. Over time, the charcoal prices have varied in function of endogenous and exogenous factors, needing, therefore, to be deflated so that they can be compared in two or more points in time. This work analyzed the variations of charcoal real prices, in national currency; compared and analyzed the real charcoal price in nominal and in real US Dollar and; analyzed the real prices of charcoal, comparatively to the real oil prices. The analyses were accomplished in the period from January 1975 to December 2002. The time series of charcoal prices, in domestic currency were deflated using IGP-DI, considering august, 1994=100, and charcoal prices were also converted to American dollar and deflated using CPI, considering the period 1982-84=100. It was compared, then, the real and nominal charcoal prices. It concluded that the real charcoal prices in Brazilian domestic currency, or in American dollar, presented a decreasing tendency along time. The inflationary disarray, in the 80´s and the first half of the 90 ´s, provoked a big price variation in the period; from the beginning the XXI century, charcoal prices were more influenced by the exchange rate; in the energy crisis period, charcoal prices suffered big changes that, however, did not persist along time.

  20. China Hikes Refined Products Price to Narrow Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Yanling

    2006-01-01

    @@ Rising international prices and China's increasing demand for oil, fueled by the country's fast economic growth, prompted it to hike the price of processed petroleum fuels several times in recent months. The price of gasoline, diesel and aviation kerosene jumped 500 yuan(62.4 U.S. dollars) per ton in late-May. The price increase,the second in the last two months, aims to narrow the gap between international oil prices and domestic prices, a spokesperson with the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the industry watchdog, recently told news media.

  1. Study on Mechanism for Pricing of Chinese Crudes and Recommendations on Improvement of Pricing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingfang

    2001-01-01

    @@ Crude oil is the most important basic energy in the world nowadays and is closely connected with the development of national economy, consolidation of national defense and the living standard of the people. Changes in crude price can have a decisive impact on a nation's political and economic situation. Hence the government of every country sticks great importance to control over crude oil resources and adjustment of crude price to assure the stabilization of its domestic crude oil market.

  2. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  3. Accounting Aspects of Pricing and Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  4. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    OpenAIRE

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  5. TOURISM MARKET: PRICING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual topic of our time - the development of tourism services. The development of tourism is the leading technology trend dynamics maroon economic caused social restructuring of modern society. Macroeconomic Financial Statistics conrms the minimum amplitude of cyclical uctuations in the service sector, which turns it into countercyclical tool. In the Russian Federation the economic problem of a state policy in the sphere of tourist services is defined - to having turned tourism in competitive, innovative, countercyclical, and highly protable sector of national business. In article pricing factors are dened and are dened key of them, responsible for the cost of a tourist product. This work answers such questions of travel company as: denition of optimum group, formation of a transport tariff, structure of a tourist product on the main and accompanying services and their range, ways of sale. A practical advice by calculation of expenses is given. Correlation and regression and cluster analyses acted as research tools when performing work. In article the conclusion is drawn that the main methods of marketing management of pricing in the market of tourist services are: transition to the unified technology of granting a service on the basis of ISO; intensication and integration of the sphere of production and services

  6. Pricing products: juxtaposing affordability with quality appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Choosing appropriate product prices is 1 of the most crucial steps in creating an effective contraceptive social marketing (CSM) sales campaign. The Social Marketing Forum conducted an informal survey of social marketing project managers, international contractors, and marketing consultants to determine how CSM programs cope with pricing problems and ways to circumvent some obstacles. According to Diana Altman, a family planning consultant, low prices that make products available to needy individuals are more important than the program's self sufficiency, yet if prices are too low, consumers think the products were unusable in the US and thus were dumped on local markets. Other key factors include commercial competition, spiraling inflation rates, and problems with rising prices and retailer/distributor margins. A sampling of per capita gross national products indicates the poverty level of most CSM projects' target market. Consequently, CSM projects must set low pices, regardless of program operating costs. The goal often is to increase the demand and availability for contraceptives. The fact that social marketing products must pass through retail networks to reach consumers complicates the pricing equation. To deal with the problem, India's Nirodh program gives a 25% margin to distributors/wholesalers, compared to 6% offered on most other goods. Retailers also receive a 25% margin, more than double the commercial rate. Once prices are set, increases pose hazards. Local government approval often is a prerequisite and can require lengthy negotiations. Market studies remain a valuable approach to effective pricing, according to PNA's Mallamad and other research consultants. They cite such effective research strategies as test marketing products and asking consumers how prices affect buying habits. Further, CSM projects can jump over some pricing hurdles through creative marketing. An effective pricing strategy alone cannot produce a successful CSM program. Pricing

  7. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  8. [Histological structure of tripartite mushroom bodies in ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera: Carabidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to members of the suborder Polyphaga; ground beetles have been found to possess tripartite mushroom bodies, which are poorly developed in members of basal taxa and maximally elaborated in evolutionarily advanced groups. Nevertheless, they do not reach the developmental stage, which has been previously found in particular families of beetles. It has been pointed out that anew formation of the Kenyon cells occurs during at least the first months of adult life, and inactive neuroblasts are found even in one-year-old beetles. It has been suggested that there is a relation between the Kenyon cell number and development of the centers of Kenyon cell new-formation.

  9. Robust tripartite-to-bipartite entanglement localization by weak measurements and reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chunmei; Ma, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Serafini, Alessio

    2012-08-01

    We propose a robust and efficient approach for tripartite-to-bipartite entanglement localization. By using weak measurements and quantum measurement reversal, an almost maximal entangled state shared by two parties can be generated with the assistance of the third party by local quantum operations and classical communication from a W-like state. We show that this approach works well in the presence of losses and phase diffusion. Our method provides an active way to fight against decoherence, and might help for quantum communication and distributed quantum computation.

  10. Price control and macromarketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kancir Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Price control at macro level is part of integral macro marketing strategic control system, or more precisely, part of social marketing mix control. Price impact is direct, if it is regarded in the context of needs satisfaction, and indirect, within the context of resource allocation. These two patterns of price impact define control mechanism structuring. Price control in sense of its direct impact at process of need satisfaction should comprise qualitative and quantitative level of needs satisfaction at a given price level and its structure, informational dimension of price and different disputable forms of corporate pricing policies. Control of price allocation function is based at objectives of macro marketing system management in the area of resource allocation and the role of price as allocator in contemporary market economies. Control process is founded, on one hand, at theoretical models of correlation between price and demand in different market structures, and on the other hand, at complex limits that price as allocator has, and which make whole control process even more complex because of reduction of the degree of determinism in functioning of contemporary economic systems. Control of price allocation function must be continuous and dynamic process if it is to provide for convergence with environmental changes and if it is to provide for placing control systems at micro marketing levels in the function of socially valid objectives.

  11. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    the joint eects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than...

  12. Valuation Struggles over Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    public goods into play, all the while prompting a translation of these values into a single price. Following the struggles over the pricing of wind power in the early 2000s, the study illustrates that rather than a pollution of the market sphere by that of politics, a politics of pricing can be observed...

  13. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price b

  14. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  15. Deal with price raise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The price raise in natural resources is inevitable. At present, building ceramic industry is facing the pressure brought by price raise in raw material. Marketing directors still hesitate whether the price of ceramic tiles should be raised. The crisis brought by social environment made the employees care-laden.

  16. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-11-03

    Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004-2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52,334 (SD=31,445). The average price premium and market share of smokers' dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pconsumer relationships. Thus, continued efforts should aim to regulate tobacco marketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. Methods In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004–2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. Results The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52 334 (SD=31 445). The average price premium and market share of smokers’ dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pmarketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. PMID:26534732

  18. Collinear cluster tripartition as sequential binary fission in the $^{235}$U(n$_{\\rm th}$,f) reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tashkhodjaev, R B; Scheid, W

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism leading to the formation of the observed products of the collinear cluster tripartition is carried out within the framework of the model based on the dinuclear system concept. The yield of fission products is calculated using the statistical model based on the driving potentials for the fissionable system. The minima of potential energy of the decaying system correspond to the charge numbers of the products which are produced with large probabilities in the sequential fission (partial case of the collinear cluster tripartition) of the compound nucleus. The realization of this mechanism supposes the asymmetric fission channel as the first stage of sequential mechanism. It is shown that only the use of the driving potential calculated by the binding energies with the shell correction allows us to explain the yield of the true ternary fission products. The theoretical model is applied to research collinear cluster tripartition in the reaction $^{235}$U(n$_{\\rm th}$,f). Calculations showed that in t...

  19. Versatility of continuous-variable asymmetric tripartite entanglement allows Alice and Clare to keep secrets from Bob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M. K.; Cavalcanti, E. G.

    2016-07-01

    The fully symmetric Gaussian tripartite entangled pure states will not exhibit two-mode Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. This means that any two participants cannot share quantum secrets using the security of one-sided device independent quantum key distribution (1SDI-QKD) without involving the third. They are restricted at most to standard quantum key distribution, which is less secure. Here we demonstrate an asymmetric tripartite system that can exhibit bipartite EPR steering, so that two of the participants can use 1SDI-QKD without involving the other. This is possible because the promiscuity relations of continuous-variable tripartite entanglement are different from those of discrete-variable systems. We analyze these properties for two different systems, showing that the asymmetric system exhibits practical properties not found in the symmetric one.

  20. 常用低价药品清单及其在天津市的使用情况分析%Analysis on national list of common low-price medicine and medicine sales in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明月; 吴晶

    2014-01-01

    目的::掌握国家常用低价药清单基本情况及其在天津市的使用情况,为后续政策的进一步完善提供决策参考。方法:采用《国家基本药物目录》、《国家基本医疗保险、工伤保险和生育保险药品目录》以及国家发展改革委发布的“低价药清单”、按照是否独家品种、治疗领域等分类原则,对常用低价药清单进行分析。利用天津市城镇职工基本医疗保险数据库,分析2008—2011年天津市低价药品使用情况。结果:低价药清单涵盖了西药19个治疗类别、中成药8个治疗类别。以通用名计,低价药清单与基本药物目录重合度为54.1%,全部来源于医保目录。低价药清单中独家品种41个,独家品种剂型149个。2008—2011年天津市低价西药费用占西药总费用平均比例为4.7%,低价中成药费用占中成药总费用比例为11.0%,并且均呈现逐年上涨的趋势。低价药清单中基本药物、独家品种剂型费用占比逐年增加,独家品种费用占比逐年下降。结论:低价药清单中独家品种和独家品种剂型较多,应密切关注这些品种的价格变化趋势。天津市三级医疗机构和零售药店低价药费用占比较低。建议:应尽快落实医疗机构常用短缺低价药品报告制度,推进医保总额预算制度,促进低价药品的使用,并不断提高零售药店销售低价药品积极性。%Objective:To get the basic situation of the list of low-price medicines and their sales in Tianjin to pro-vide future policy reference. Methods:The low-price medicine list was analyzed through different principles of classifica-tion including the National Essential medicine List ( NEML) , National Reimbursement medicine List ( NRML) and exclu-sive production. The study analyzed the sales status of the low-price medicines in the Tianjin from 2008 to 2011 using the Tianjin Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance

  1. Internet resource pricing models

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ke; He, Huan

    2013-01-01

    This brief guides the reader through three basic Internet resource pricing models using an Internet cost analysis. Addressing the evolution of service types, it presents several corresponding mechanisms which can ensure pricing implementation and resource allocation. The authors discuss utility optimization of network pricing methods in economics and underline two classes of pricing methods including system optimization and entities' strategic optimization. The brief closes with two examples of the newly proposed pricing strategy helping to solve the profit distribution problem brought by P2P

  2. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  3. Dutch house price fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Haffner, M.E.A.; De Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price bubble ready to burst; (2) whether house prices will decline in response to the credit crisis that started in 2007; and (3) whether it is likely that house prices will decrease as a result of reform...

  4. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  5. Energy efficieny policy and carbon pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Lisa; Moarif, Sara; Levina, Ellina; Baron, Richard

    2011-08-15

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  6. A Test of the Tripartite Model of Career Indecision of Brown and Krane for African Americans Incorporating Emotional Intelligence and Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Marie S.; Lockman, Jennifer D.; Boling, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Brown and Krane have posited a tripartite model of career indecision, which includes three higher order factors: negative affect, poor vocational identity development, and lack of career information. The purpose of this study was to examine the adequacy of their tripartite model of career indecision for African American students, considering that…

  7. Calculating proper transfer prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorkey, F.C. (Meliora Research Associates, Rochester, NY (United States)); Jarrell, G.A. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  8. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  9. Leveraging tagging and rating for recommendation: RMF meets weighted diffusion on tripartite graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Tang, Yong; Chen, Jiemin

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) have been a widely exploited approach to solving the information overload problem. However, the performance is still limited due to the extreme sparsity of the rating data. With the popularity of Web 2.0, the social tagging system provides more external information to improve recommendation accuracy. Although some existing approaches combine the matrix factorization models with the tag co-occurrence and context of tags, they neglect the issue of tag sparsity that would also result in inaccurate recommendations. Consequently, in this paper, we propose a novel hybrid collaborative filtering model named WUDiff_RMF, which improves regularized matrix factorization (RMF) model by integrating Weighted User-Diffusion-based CF algorithm(WUDiff) that obtains the information of similar users from the weighted tripartite user-item-tag graph. This model aims to capture the degree correlation of the user-item-tag tripartite network to enhance the performance of recommendation. Experiments conducted on four real-world datasets demonstrate that our approach significantly performs better than already widely used methods in the accuracy of recommendation. Moreover, results show that WUDiff_RMF can alleviate the data sparsity, especially in the circumstance that users have made few ratings and few tags.

  10. An inducible fusaric acid tripartite efflux pump contributes to the fusaric acid resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouh-Mei Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fusaric acid (5-butylpicolinic acid, a mycotoxin, is noxious to some microorganisms. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia displays an intrinsic resistance to fusaric acid. This study aims to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the intrinsic fusaric acid resistance in S. maltophilia. METHODOLOGY: A putative fusaric acid resistance-involved regulon fuaR-fuaABC was identified by the survey of the whole genome sequence of S. maltophilia K279a. The fuaABC operon was verified by reverse transcriptase-PCR. The contribution of the fuaABC operon to the antimicrobial resistance was evaluated by comparing the antimicrobials susceptibility between the wild-type strain and fuaABC knock-out mutant. The regulatory role of fuaR in the expression of the fuaABC operon was assessed by promoter transcription fusion assay. RESULTS: The fuaABC operon was inducibly expressed by fusaric acid and the inducibility was fuaR dependent. FuaR functioned as a repressor of the fuaABC operon in absence of a fusaric acid inducer and as an activator in its presence. Overexpression of the fuaABC operon contributed to the fusaric acid resistance. SIGNIFICANCE: A novel tripartite fusaric acid efflux pump, FuaABC, was identified in this study. Distinct from the formally classification, the FuaABC may constitute a new type of subfamily of the tripartite efflux pump.

  11. Anatomical relations among endophytic holoparasitic angiosperms, autotrophic host plants and mycorrhizal fungi: A novel tripartite interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Clara; Arista, Montserrat; Ortiz, Pedro L; Talavera, Salvador

    2010-05-01

    Mycorrhizae are widespread mutualistic symbioses crucial for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Not all plants associate with mycorrhizae; most parasitic plants have been suggested to be nonmycorrhizal because they have developed alternative strategies to obtain nutrients. In endophytic parasitic plants, whose vegetative bodies grow completely inside their mycorrhizal host roots, the opportunity for establishing a tripartite association seems evident, but information on these systems is lacking. In studying natural associations among the endophytic holoparasite Cytinus hypocistis, their Cistaceae host species, and associated mycorrhizal fungi, we found that mycorrhizae were associated with the hosts and the parasites, reaching high frequencies of colonization. In parasitic and host root tissues, mycorrhizal fungi spread in the parenchymatic cells by intracellular growth and formed hyphal coils and vesicles, while the cambium and the vascular tissues were never colonized. This report is the first on a tripartite association of an endophytic parasitic plant, its host, and mycorrhizae in natural conditions, representing a novel trophic interaction not previously reported within the angiosperms. Additional studies on the interactions occurring among these three players are needed because they may be crucial to our understanding of how this mutualistic-antagonistic system is functioning and evolving.

  12. Genuine Tripartite Entanglement and Nonlocality in Bose-Einstein Condensates by Collective Atomic Recoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Adesso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a system represented by a Bose-Einstein condensate interacting with a cavity field in presence of a strong off-resonant pumping laser. This system can be described by a three-mode Gaussian state, where two are the atomic modes corresponding to atoms populating upper and lower momentum sidebands and the third mode describes the scattered cavity field light. We show that, as a consequence of the collective atomic recoil instability, these modes possess a genuine tripartite entanglement that increases unboundedly with the evolution time and is larger than the bipartite entanglement in any reduced two-mode bipartition. We further show that the state of the system exhibits genuine tripartite nonlocality, which can be revealed by a robust violation of the Svetlichny inequality when performing displaced parity measurements. Our exact results are obtained by exploiting the powerful machinery of phase-space informational measures for Gaussian states, which we briefly review in the opening sections of the paper.

  13. Carbon Pricing: Design, Experiences and Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbon Pricing reflects upon and further develops the ongoing and worthwhile global debate into how to design carbon pricing, and how to utilize the financial proceeds in the best possible way for society. The world has recently witnessed a significant downward adjustment in fossil fuel prices...... the consequential outcomes of different taxation compositions as regulatory instruments. Expert contributors assess a variety of national experiences to provide an empirical insight into the use of carbon taxes, emissions trading, energy taxes and excise taxes. The overarching discussion concludes that successful...

  14. Price Drops on the Domestic Ferroalloy Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Recently,the prices of most ferroalloy productshave drawn a down curve from the sharp risingtrend of last year.The major factors that havedriven down the market prices of ferroalloyproducts are summarized as follows:The growth of national economy may slowdown.Experts predict that the growth rate ofChina’s economy will be reduced to 8.5 percentthis year from the 9.1 percent last year.The

  15. Oil Products Pricing Criterion Needs Reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On January 11th, 2007 the price of WTI (West Texas intermediate) crude oil futures dropped to the lowest point of US$51.9 per barrel since June 2005. The National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC) issued a notice on January14th, 2007 deciding to reduce the price of gasoline by RMB220 per ton to RMB4 980 per ton from the same day.

  16. Transition from monopoly pricing to competitive pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, L. [Eastern Energy Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian Government has embarked on a program to restructure the State electricity supply industry, that will be the precursor to reform throughout the whole of Australia. The Government is depending on competition to drive efficiency improvements to both generation and distribution businesses. Retail pricing will be the key determinant to a future assessment of the success or failure of these reforms. The paper examines electricity pricing before and after the restructuring from the viewpoint of a practitioner at the cutting edge of the reform process. Economic rationale is put forward why the Value Proposition will replace the Cost Recovery basis previously used in electricity pricing. It is concluded that limitations of interstate links will temper intestate competition unless innovative solution can be found. The current method of setting market prices based on a `Pool System` is only efficient if the generators bid their marginal price on a regular basis. In essence the pool replaces the `merit order` previously used to load generators and is basically a scheduling mechanism. Serious consideration needs to be given to the question whether this mechanism should be also setting the price of electricity. (author). 5 tabs.

  17. Is love of nature in the US becoming love of electronic media? 16-year downtrend in national park visits explained by watching movies, playing video games, internet use, and oil prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergams, Oliver R W; Zaradic, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    After 50 years of steady increase, per capita visits to US national parks have declined since 1988. This decline, coincident with the rise in electronic entertainment media, may represent a shift in recreation choices with broader implications for the value placed on biodiversity conservation and environmentally responsible behavior. We compared the decline in per capita visits with a set of indicators representing alternate recreation choices and constraints. The Spearman correlation analyses found this decline in NPV to be significantly negatively correlated with several electronic entertainment indicators: hours of television, (rs=-0.743, Poil prices (rs=-0.547, Poil prices explains 97.5% of this recent decline (r=0.975, multiple r2=0.950, adjusted multiple r2=0.925, SE=0.015, F=37.800, P<0.0001). We may be seeing evidence of a fundamental shift away from people's appreciation of nature (biophilia, Wilson 1984) to 'videophilia,' which we here define as "the new human tendency to focus on sedentary activities involving electronic media." Such a shift would not bode well for the future of biodiversity conservation.

  18. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  19. Modeling the relationship between the oil price and global food prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sheng-Tung [Department of Public Finance, Feng Chia University (China); Kuo, Hsiao-I [Department of Senior Citizen Service Management, Chaoyang University of Technology (China); Chen, Chi-Chung [Department of Applied Economics, National Chung-Hsing University, Taiwan, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung (China)

    2010-08-15

    The growth of corn-based ethanol production and soybean-based bio-diesel production following the increase in the oil prices have significantly affect the world agricultural grain productions and its prices. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between the crude oil price and the global grain prices for corn, soybean, and wheat. The empirical results show that the change in each grain price is significantly influenced by the changes in the crude oil price and other grain prices during the period extending from the 3rd week in 2005 to the 20th week in 2008 which implies that grain commodities are competing with the derived demand for bio-fuels by using soybean or corn to produce ethanol or bio-diesel during the period of higher crude oil prices in these recent years. The subsidy policies in relation to the bio-fuel industries in some nations engaging in bio-fuel production should be considered to avoid the consequences resulting from high oil prices. (author)

  20. Evaluating drug prices, availability, affordability, and price components: implications for access to drugs in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ud Din Babar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO and Health Action International (HAI was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%-76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high-25%-38% and 100%-140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector. CONCLUSIONS: The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and

  1. Evaluating Drug Prices, Availability, Affordability, and Price Components: Implications for Access to Drugs in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Zaheer Ud Din; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Singh, Harpal; Bukahri, Nadeem Irfan; Creese, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components. Methods and Findings The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI) was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs) to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB) prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%–76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high—25%–38% and 100%–140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector. Conclusions The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and affordability

  2. Evaluating drug prices, availability, affordability, and price components: implications for access to drugs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Zaheer Ud Din; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Singh, Harpal; Bukahri, Nadeem Irfan; Creese, Andrew

    2007-03-27

    Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components. The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI) was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs) to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB) prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%-76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high-25%-38% and 100%-140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector. The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and affordability, promotion of generic medicines and improved availability

  3. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  4. Optimal Asset Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Turner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe an R package for determining the optimal price of an asset which is perishable in a certain sense, given the intensity of customer arrivals and a time-varying price sensitivity function which speci?es the probability that a customer will purchase an asset o?ered at a given price at a given time. The package deals with the case of customers arriving in groups, with a probability distribution for the group size being speci?ed. The methodology and software allow for both discrete and continuous pricing. The class of possible models for price sensitivity functions is very wide, and includes piecewise linear models. A mechanism for constructing piecewise linear price sensitivity functions is provided.

  5. Customizing Prices in Online Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Reinartz, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending on the value these customers attribute to a good. Underlying the concept of dynamic pricing is what marketers call price customization. Price customization is the charging of different prices to end consumers based on a discriminatory variable. Internet technology will serve as a great enabling tool for making dynamic pricing accessible to many industries.

  6. The Concept of Innovation as Perceived by Public Sector Frontline Staff--Outline of a Tripartite Empirical Model of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the innovation concept in two key welfare areas where the demands for innovation are substantial, namely vocational education and elder care. On the basis of ethnographic fieldwork and interviews on the collaboration between an educational institution and elder care services, the article develops a tripartite empirical…

  7. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, T.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Carlier, I. V. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different types of adverse events may have general or specific effects on depression and anxiety symptomatology. We examined the effects of adversities on the dimensions of the tripartite model: general distress, anhedonic depression and anxious arousal. Methods: Data were from 2615 indi

  8. Higher Education Institutions and Work-Based Learning in the UK: Employer Engagement within a Tripartite Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Tehmina N.; Eardley, Alan; Borup, Rosemary; Shah, Hanifa; Slack, Kim; Hughes, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK are increasingly engaging in work-based learning. The tripartite relationship between the HEI, the employer and the employee is viewed to be of great significance in work-based learning, not only in the initial stages of procurement of a contract, but also in designing and delivering the programme to…

  9. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, T.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Carlier, I. V. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different types of adverse events may have general or specific effects on depression and anxiety symptomatology. We examined the effects of adversities on the dimensions of the tripartite model: general distress, anhedonic depression and anxious arousal. Methods: Data were from 2615

  10. Higher Education Institutions and Work-Based Learning in the UK: Employer Engagement within a Tripartite Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Tehmina N.; Eardley, Alan; Borup, Rosemary; Shah, Hanifa; Slack, Kim; Hughes, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK are increasingly engaging in work-based learning. The tripartite relationship between the HEI, the employer and the employee is viewed to be of great significance in work-based learning, not only in the initial stages of procurement of a contract, but also in designing and delivering the programme to…

  11. Relations of the factors of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression to types of social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia A; Heimberg, Richard G; Coles, Meredith E; Gibb, Brandon E; Liebowitz, Michael R; Schneier, Franklin R

    2006-11-01

    Our primary goal was to examine the relations of the specific components of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression [Clark, L. A., Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] to two types of social anxiety (social interaction anxiety and performance anxiety) in 148 individuals with social phobia. In line with previous research, overall social anxiety was more closely related to the anhedonic depression (AD) or low positive affect factor of the tripartite model than to the physiological hyerarousal factor, controlling for general distress. However, as hypothesized, performance anxiety was more closely associated with the physiological hyerarousal factor, whereas social interaction anxiety was more closely associated with the AD or low positive affect factor. We also examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; [Watson, D., Clark, L. A. (1991). The mood and anxiety symptom questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, University of Iowa City]). Intercorrelations of the MASQ subscales were as expected, but correlations with measures of social anxiety, nonsocial anxiety, and depression provided only modest support for convergent and discriminant validity. Findings from this study provide a more detailed account of the specific components of the tripartite model that characterize the diversity of symptoms subsumed by social phobia.

  12. A Test of the Tripartite Model of Anxiety and Depression in Elementary and High School Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Heather A. K.; Mash, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of the tripartite model of emotion, which distinguishes the shared aspect of depression and anxiety, negative affect (NA), from their respective specific components of low positive affect (PA) and physiological hyperarousal (PH), was examined in 472 elementary and high school students. The relations among depression, anxiety, and…

  13. Stackelberg Network Pricing Games

    CERN Document Server

    Briest, Patrick; Krysta, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    We study a multi-player one-round game termed Stackelberg Network Pricing Game, in which a leader can set prices for a subset of $m$ priceable edges in a graph. The other edges have a fixed cost. Based on the leader's decision one or more followers optimize a polynomial-time solvable combinatorial minimization problem and choose a minimum cost solution satisfying their requirements based on the fixed costs and the leader's prices. The leader receives as revenue the total amount of prices paid by the followers for priceable edges in their solutions, and the problem is to find revenue maximizing prices. Our model extends several known pricing problems, including single-minded and unit-demand pricing, as well as Stackelberg pricing for certain follower problems like shortest path or minimum spanning tree. Our first main result is a tight analysis of a single-price algorithm for the single follower game, which provides a $(1+\\epsilon) \\log m$-approximation for any $\\epsilon >0$. This can be extended to provide a ...

  14. Relating price strategies and price-setting practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This article addresses the relationship between price strategies and price-setting practices. The first derive from a normative tradition in the pricing literature and the latter from a descriptive tradition. Price strategies are visible in the market, whereas price-setting practices are h

  15. A factor analytic investigation of the Tripartite model of affect in a clinical sample of young Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosgrave Elizabeth M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ was designed to specifically measure the Tripartite model of affect and is proposed to offer a delineation between the core components of anxiety and depression. Factor analytic data from adult clinical samples has shown mixed results; however no studies employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA have supported the predicted structure of distinct Depression, Anxiety and General Distress factors. The Tripartite model has not been validated in a clinical sample of older adolescents and young adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the validity of the Tripartite model using scale-level data from the MASQ and correlational and confirmatory factor analysis techniques. Methods 137 young people (M = 17.78, SD = 2.63 referred to a specialist mental health service for adolescents and young adults completed the MASQ and diagnostic interview. Results All MASQ scales were highly inter-correlated, with the lowest correlation between the depression- and anxiety-specific scales (r = .59. This pattern of correlations was observed for all participants rating for an Axis-I disorder but not for participants without a current disorder (r = .18. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the model fit of a number of solutions. The predicted Tripartite structure was not supported. A 2-factor model demonstrated superior model fit and parsimony compared to 1- or 3-factor models. These broad factors represented Depression and Anxiety and were highly correlated (r = .88. Conclusion The present data lend support to the notion that the Tripartite model does not adequately explain the relationship between anxiety and depression in all clinical populations. Indeed, in the present study this model was found to be inappropriate for a help-seeking community sample of older adolescents and young adults.

  16. Cauchy-Schwarz characterization of tripartite quantum correlations in an optical parametric oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Dechoum, K; Khoury, A Z; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.063843

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the three-mode correlation properties of the electromagnetic field in a optical parametric oscillator below threshold. We employ a perturbative expansion of the It\\^o equations derived from the positive-P representation of the density matrix. Using the generalized Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, we investigate the genuine quantum nature of the triple correlations between the interacting fields, since in this case continuous variable entanglement is not detected by the van Loock-Furusawa criterion [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 67}, 052315 (2003)]. Although not being a necessary condition, these triple correlations are a sufficient evidence of tripartite entanglement. Of course, our characterization of the quantum correlations is applicable to non-Gaussian states, which we show to be the case of the optical parametric oscillator below threshold, provided nonlinear quantum fluctuations are properly taken into account.

  17. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model.

  18. An examination of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in an outpatient sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, David A; Harrington, Donna; Silverman, Wendy K

    2010-07-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most common mental health problems for adolescents; understanding their etiology and course is necessary for developing effective prevention and treatment programs. The tripartite model of anxiety and depression was evaluated in a random, clinical sample of 185 adolescents, with an average age of 15.09 years (SD = 1.9), with 58.4% males (n = 108). Survey packets were mailed to participants (61% response rate). Two models were evaluated: (a) Model one fit adequately, however, modification indices and prior research and theory suggested adding paths between anxiety and depression. (b) Model two tested paths between anxiety and depression; this revised model fit the data well, suggesting a relationship from anxiety to depression. Further, physiological hyperarousal may be a distinct component for anxiety and negative affectivity may be a general risk factor for anxiety and depression in adolescents. The findings that different factors contribute to the cause of anxiety and depression have implications for practice.

  19. Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L A; Watson, D

    1991-08-01

    We review psychometric and other evidence relevant to mixed anxiety-depression. Properties of anxiety and depression measures, including the convergent and discriminant validity of self- and clinical ratings, and interrater reliability, are examined in patient and normal samples. Results suggest that anxiety and depression can be reliably and validly assessed; moreover, although these disorders share a substantial component of general affective distress, they can be differentiated on the basis of factors specific to each syndrome. We also review evidence for these specific factors, examining the influence of context and scale content on ratings, factor analytic studies, and the role of low positive affect in depression. With these data, we argue for a tripartite structure consisting of general distress, physiological hyperarousal (specific anxiety), and anhedonia (specific depression), and we propose a diagnosis of mixed anxiety-depression.

  20. Astroglial type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1): A new player in the tripartite synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira da Cruz, J F; Robin, L M; Drago, F; Marsicano, G; Metna-Laurent, M

    2016-05-26

    The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of physiological functions. In the brain, this control is mainly exerted through the type-1-cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. CB1 receptors are abundant at neuron terminals where their stimulation inhibits neurotransmitter release. However, CB1 receptors are also expressed in astrocytes and recent studies showed that astroglial cannabinoid signaling is a key element of the tripartite synapse. In this review we discuss the different mechanisms by which astroglial CB1 receptors control synaptic transmission and plasticity. The recent involvement of astroglial CB1 receptors in the effects of cannabinoids on memory highlights their key roles in cognitive processes and further indicates that astrocytes are central active elements of high-order brain functions.

  1. Tripartite states Bell-nonlocality sudden death in a spin environment with multisite interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Li-Jun; Zhang Deng-Yu; Wang Xin-wen; Zhan Xiao-Gui; Tang Shi-Qing; Gao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Tis paper demonstrates that multipartite Bell-inequality violations can be fully destroyed in a finite time in three-qubit states coupled to a general XY spin-chain with a three-site interaction environment.The Mermin-Ardehali-Belinksii-Klyshko inequality is used to detect the degree of nonlocality,as measured by the extent of their violations.The effects of system-environment couplings,the size of degrees of freedom of the environment and the strength of the three-site interaction on the Bell-inequality violations are given.The results indicate that the Bell-inequality violations of the tripartite states will be completely destroyed by decoherence under certain conditions for the GHZ state.The decoherence-free subspaces of our model are identified and the entanglement of quantum states is also discussed.

  2. Schemes for deterministic joint remote preparation of an arbitrary tripartite four-qubit entangled state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2016-10-01

    We present two schemes for the joint remote state preparation (JRSP) of an arbitrary tripartite four-qubit entangled state with complex coefficients via four and two three-qubit GHZ states as the quantum channel, respectively. In these schemes, the two senders share the original state which they wish to help the receiver remotely prepare. To complete the JRSP schemes, some novel sets of mutually orthogonal basis vectors are introduced. It is shown that, only if the two senders collaborate with each other, and perform projective measurements under a suitable measuring basis on their own qubits respectively, can the receiver reconstruct the original state by means of some appropriate unitary operations. We demonstrate, in our both schemes, the total success probability of the JRSP can reach 1. Moreover, compared with the first scheme in this paper, the advantage of the second scheme is that the entanglement resource can be reduced.

  3. Radiation protection and radiation safety: CERN and its host states to sign a tripartite agreement.

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November CERN and its Host States will sign a tripartite agreement that replaces the existing bilateral agreements in matters of radiation protection and radiation safety at CERN. It will provide, for the first time, a single forum where the three parties will discuss how maximum overall safety can best be achieved in the specific CERN context.   CERN has always maintained close collaboration with its Host States in matters of safety. “The aim of this collaboration is especially to ensure best practice in the field of radiation protection and the safe operation of CERN’s facilities”, explains Ralf Trant, Head of the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) Unit. Until today, CERN’s collaboration with its Host States was carried out under two sets of bilateral agreements: depending on which side of the French-Swiss border they were being carried out on, a different framework applied to the same activities. This approach has b...

  4. Origins and consequences of tripartite efficacy beliefs within elite athlete dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Knapp, Peter; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2008-10-01

    Drawing from Lent and Lopez's (2002) "tripartite" model of relational efficacy, the overall purpose of this study was to examine antecedents and consequences of self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) within six international-level athlete dyads. Semistructured interviews were conducted and data were content analyzed using deductive and inductive procedures. Sources of efficacy emerged in relation to perceptions regarding (i) oneself, (ii) one's partner, (iii) the dyad/relationship, and (iv) external factors. Results also revealed the emergence of a number of salient intrapersonal and interpersonal outcomes, incorporating cognitive, affective, as well as behavioral consequences. Implications for theory development and future research are considered, and applied propositions are discussed with regard to effective relationship management in elite sport.

  5. Modeling UK Natural Gas Prices when Gas Prices Periodically Decouple from the Oil Price

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    When natural gas prices are subject to periodic decoupling from oil prices, for instance due to peak-load pricing, conventional linear models of price dynamics such as the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) can lead to erroneous inferences about cointegration relationships, price adjustments and relative values. We propose the use of regime-switching models to address these issues. Our regime switching model uses price data to infer whether pricing is oil-driven (integrated) or gas-specific...

  6. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  7. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansa Jan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Reassortment of Hantaan Virus Tripartite RNA Genomes in Nature, the Republic of Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ah Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaan virus (HTNV, a negative sense tripartite RNA virus of the Family Bunyaviridae, is the most prevalent hantavirus in the Republic of Korea (ROK. It is the causative agent of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS in humans and maintained in the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, the primary zoonotic host. Clinical HFRS cases have been reported commonly in HFRS-endemic areas of Gyeonggi province. Recently, the death of a member of the ROK military from Gangwon province due to HFRS prompted an investigation of the epidemiology and distribution of hantaviruses in Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces that border the demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea.To elucidate the geographic distribution and molecular diversity of HTNV, whole genome sequences of HTNV Large (L, Medium (M, and Small (S segments were acquired from lung tissues of A. agrarius captured from 2003-2014. Consistent with the clinical incidence of HFRS established by the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC, the prevalence of HTNV in naturally infected mice in Gangwon province was lower than for Gyeonggi province. Whole genomic sequences of 34 HTNV strains were identified and a phylogenetic analysis showed geographic diversity of the virus in the limited areas. Reassortment analysis first suggested an occurrence of genetic exchange of HTNV genomes in nature, ROK.This study is the first report to demonstrate the molecular prevalence of HTNV in Gangwon province. Whole genome sequencing of HTNV showed well-supported geographic lineages and the molecular diversity in the northern region of ROK due to a natural reassortment of HTNV genomes. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of hantaviruses. Also, the full-length of HTNV tripartite genomes will provide a database for phylogeographic analysis of spatial and temporal outbreaks of hantavirus infection.

  9. Chinese Petroleum Policy Facing High Oil Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2005-01-01

    @@ China had overpaid foreign exchange US$7.24 billion (RMB60 billion yuan) for importing crude oil last year due to the rise in crude oil prices in the international market. The total operation cost for national economy in China has been increased. Some wealth created has been transferred into the hands of the crude oil suppliers.Meanwhile, the gasoline and diesel prices in China have been raised four times and twice respectively since last year resulting in a significant influence to the national economy.

  10. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  11. Oil prices and the stock prices of alternative energy companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, Irene; Sadorsky, Perry [Schulich School of Business, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Energy security issues coupled with increased concern over the natural environment are driving factors behind oil price movements. While it is widely accepted that rising oil prices are good for the financial performance of alternative energy companies, there has been relatively little statistical work done to measure just how sensitive the financial performance of alternative energy companies are to changes in oil prices. In this paper, a four variable vector autoregression model is developed and estimated in order to investigate the empirical relationship between alternative energy stock prices, technology stock prices, oil prices, and interest rates. Our results show technology stock prices and oil prices each individually Granger cause the stock prices of alternative energy companies. Simulation results show that a shock to technology stock prices has a larger impact on alternative energy stock prices than does a shock to oil prices. These results should be of use to investors, managers and policy makers. (author)

  12. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household o...

  13. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  14. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  15. Natural Gas Price Rises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As was projected in the third-quarter monetary policy implementation report published by the People's Bank of China on November 15th, 2006, the residents' consumption price index in China would reach 1.5% in 2006. Prices of consumer commodities such as water, power and natural gas would rise and the pressure of inflation would persist in the future.

  16. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  17. Essays on asset pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazliben, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation consists of three chapters that represent separate papers in the area of asset pricing. The first chapter studies investors optimal asset allocation problem in which mean reversion in stock prices is captured by explicitly modeling transitory and permanent shocks. The second chapter

  18. COSTA RICAN MEAT VALUE CHAIN DESCRIPTION: PRICE TRANSMISSION AS A TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rodríguez Lizano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Price transmission analysis is an increasing research topic, especially for price taking countries such as Costa Rica. We describe the beef supply chain and provide a numerical implementation of Vector Error Correction Model (VECM of price transmission for the meat market in order to observe the relationship between import prices of meat and their effects on national retail prices. To restore equilibrium, retail prices correct 8% of the error term monthly. Since the meat imports market of Costa Rica is complex, the analysis of others business partners as Nicaragua should be included in order to compare the influence of these in local retail prices

  19. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic.

  20. Price Formation by Bargaining and Posted Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kultti, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    We study markets with two types of agents. Sellers have an indivisible good for sale, and their reservation value is zero. Buyers are randomly matched with sellers, and they value the good at unity. Sellers may be matched with any positive number of buyers, and they may choose to determine the price

  1. Alternative Approaches to Commercial Property Price Indexes for Tokyo

    OpenAIRE

    Diewert, Erwin; SHIMIZU, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies the problems associated with the construction of price indexes for commercial properties that could be used in the System of National Accounts. Property price indexes are required for the stocks of commercial properties in the Balance Sheets of the country and related price indexes for the land and structure components of a commercial property are required in the Balance Sheet accounts of the country for the calculation of the Multifactor Productivity of the Commercial Prope...

  2. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility models%2C risk-pricing model%2C and the crew-day%2C multiple regression%2C and fuzzy-set pricing models. In conclusion%2C pricing strategies in construction are still predominantly based on a cost-based approach. More recent models try to close the gap between the models and the real life conditions of a bidder%5C%27s decision-making process. It appears that there are more problems in cost-based pricing as opposed to market-based pricing. Consequently%2C it is highly recommended that%2C alternative pricing approach such as that are closer to the proposed market-based pricing model need to be explored and developed for use in the construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pricing+strategy%2C+cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing.

  3. 7 CFR 1030.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.50 Section 1030.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  4. Cancer Drugs: An International Comparison of Postlicensing Price Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Philip; Mahmoud, Sarah; Patel, Yogin; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2017-06-01

    The cost of cancer drugs forms a rising proportion of health care budgets worldwide. A number of studies have examined international comparisons of initial cost, but there is little work on postlicensing price increases. To examine this, we compared cancer drug prices at initial sale and subsequent price inflation in the United States and United Kingdom and also reviewed relevant price control mechanisms. The 10 top-selling cancer drugs were selected, and their prices at initial launch and in 2015 were compared. Standard nondiscounted prices were obtained from the relevant annual copies of the RED BOOK and the British National Formulary. At initial marketing, prices were on average 42% higher in the United States than in the United Kingdom. After licensing in the United States, all 10 drugs had price rises averaging an overall annual 8.8% (range, 1.4% to 24.1%) increase. In comparison, in the United Kingdom, six drugs had unchanged prices, two had decreased prices, and two had modest price increases. The overall annual increase in the United Kingdom was 0.24%. Cancer drug prices are rising substantially, both at their initial marketing price and, in the United States, at postlicensing prices. In the United Kingdom, the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme, an agreement between the government and the pharmaceutical industry, controls health care costs while allowing a return on investment and funds for research. The increasing costs of cancer drugs are approaching the limits of sustainability, and a similar government-industry agreement may allow stability for both health care provision and the pharmaceutical industry in the United States.

  5. More than Rising Grain Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Junhua

    2010-01-01

    @@ According to the bulletin of the National Bureau of Statistics,the summer harvest nationwide this year was 246.2billion jin,a decline of 0.3% compared to last year.The cold spell in late spring and high temperatures afterwards are considered as the main causes for this round of rising grain prices.However,"natural disasters"are dwarfed by another worrisome picture: young and strong farming hands flooding out of the rural areas and the elderly,the weak,females and children are made the mainstay of the tilling army.

  6. A Framework for Price Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly D. Zieschang

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the primary framework associating the four principal price indices in the system of economic statistics—the Producer Price Index (PPI), the Consumer Price Index (CPI), and the Export and Import Price Indices (XPI and MPI)—with the macroeconomic value aggregates they decompose into price and volume components. The paper begins by defining the basic algebra of price indices. It then discusses the definition of the value aggregates comprising the goods and services component...

  7. Asset Pricing - A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minqiang

    2010-01-01

    I first introduce the early-stage and modern classical asset pricing and portfolio theories. These include: the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the arbitrage pricing theory (APT), the consumption capital asset pricing model (CCAPM), the intertemporal capital asset pricing model (ICAPM), and some other important modern concepts and techniques. Finally, I discuss the most recent development during the last decade and the outlook in the field of asset pricing.

  8. Tourism Equilibrium Price Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohebi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A review of the tourism history shows that tourism as an industry was virtually unknown in Malaysia until the late 1960s. Since then, it has developed and grown into a major industry, making an important contribution to the country's economy. By allocating substantial funds to the promotion of tourism and the provision of the necessary infrastructure, the government has played an important role in the impressive progress of the Malaysian tourism industry. One of the important factors which can attract tourists to Malaysia is the tourism price. Has the price of tourism decreased? To answer this question, it is necessary to obtain the equilibrium prices as well as the yearly trend for Malaysia during the sample period as it will be useful for analysis of the infrastructure situation of the tourism industry in this country. The purpose of the study is to identify equilibrium tourism price trends in Malaysian tourism market. Approach: We use hotel room as representative of tourism market. Quarterly data from 1995-2009 are used and a dynamic model of simultaneous equation is employed. Results: Based on the result during the period of 1995 until 2000, the growth rate of the equilibrium price was greater than consumer price index and producer price index. Conclusion: In the Malaysian tourism market, new infrastructure during this period had not been developed to keep pace with tourist arrivals.

  9. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  10. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  11. Six Sigma pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, ManMohan S; Sodhi, Navdeep S

    2005-05-01

    Many companies are now good at managing costs and wringing out manufacturing efficiencies. The TQM movement and the disciplines of Six Sigma have seen to that. But the discipline so often brought to the cost side of the business equation is found far less commonly on the revenue side. The authors describe how a global manufacturer of industrial equipment, which they call Acme Incorporated, recently applied Six Sigma to one major revenue related activity--the price-setting process. It seemed to Acme's executives that pricing closely resembled many manufacturing processes. So, with the help of a Six Sigma black belt from manufacturing, a manager from Acme's pricing division recruited a team to carry out the five Six Sigma steps: Define what constitutes a defect. At Acme, a defect was an item sold at an unauthorized price. Gather data and prepare it for analysis. That involved mapping out the existing pricing-agreement process. Analyze the data. The team identified the ways in which people failed to carry out or assert effective control at each stage. Recommend modifications to the existing process. The team sought to decrease the number of unapproved prices without creating an onerous approval apparatus. Create controls. This step enabled Acme to sustain and extend the improvements in its pricing procedures. As a result of the changes, Acme earned dollar 6 million in additional revenue on one product line alone in the six months following implementation--money that went straight to the bottom line. At the same time, the company removed much of the organizational friction that had long bedeviled its pricing process. Other companies can benefit from Acme's experience as they look for ways to exercise price control without alienating customers.

  12. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...... growth but the relationship is less significant. The finding that food prices in middle-income countries increased the most during the food crises is a cause for concern in light of the fact that the majority of the world's poor today live in middle-income countries....

  13. Pemilihan Model Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Rowland Bismark Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) has dominated finance theory for over thirty years; it suggests that the market beta alone is sufficient to explain stock returns. However evidence shows that the cross-section of stock returns cannot be described solely by the one-factor CAPM. Therefore, the idea is to add other factors in order to complete the beta in explaining the price movements in the stock exchange. The Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) has been proposed as the first multifactor succ...

  14. Biweight Estimate: An Instrument For Harmonizing Fuel Prices As An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biweight Estimate: An Instrument For Harmonizing Fuel Prices As An ... a tool for harmonising fuel prices in an attempt to spread the cost uniformly across the nation. ... The analysis based on this technique gives a reasonable decrease in the ...

  15. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines dynamic pricing behavior in retail gasoline markets for 19 Canadian cities over 574 weeks. I find three distinct retail pricing patterns: 1. cost-based pricing, 2. sticky pricing, and 3. steep, asymmetric retail price cycles that, while seldom documented empirically, resemble those of Maskin & Tirole[1988]. Using a Markov switching regression, I estimate the prevalence of patterns and the structural characteristics of the cycles. Retail price cycles prevail in over 40% of ...

  16. Optimisation of BACE1 inhibition of tripartite structures by modification of membrane anchors, spacers and pharmacophores - development of potential agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linning, Philipp; Haussmann, Ute; Beyer, Isaak; Weidlich, Sebastian; Schieb, Heinke; Wiltfang, Jens; Klafki, Hans-Wolfgang; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2012-10-03

    Systematic variation of membrane anchor, spacer and pharmacophore building blocks leads to an optimisation of the inhibitory effect of tripartite structures towards BACE1-induced cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP).

  17. Price Recall, Bertrand Paradox and Price Dispersion With Elastic Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the consequence of an imprecise recall of the price by the consumers in the Bertrand price competition model for a homogeneous good. It is shown that firms can exploit this weakness and charge prices above the competitive price. This markup increases for rougher recall of the pric

  18. Food Price Volatility and Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. Weather shocks and large changes in international commodity prices in the last decade have increased pressure on local food prices. This paper will review several studies that link climate variability as measured with satellite remote sensing to food price dynamics in 36 developing countries where local monthly food price data is available. The focus of the research is to understand how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in agricultural societies. Economies are vulnerable to extreme weather at multiple levels. Subsistence small holders who hold livestock and consume much of the food they produce are vulnerable to food production variability. The broader society, however, is also vulnerable to extreme weather because of the secondary effects on market functioning, resource availability, and large-scale impacts on employment in trading, trucking and wage labor that are caused by weather-related shocks. Food price variability captures many of these broad impacts and can be used to diagnose weather-related vulnerability across multiple sectors. The paper will trace these connections using market-level data and analysis. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation's World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. Econometric models and spatial analysis are used

  19. Pricing and Fee Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Defines key terms and discusses things to consider when setting fees for a continuing education program. These include (1) the organization's philosophy and mission, (2) certain key variables, (3) pricing strategy options, and (4) the test of reasonableness. (CH)

  20. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas;

    drugs, generics, and parallel imports with health care expenditures and producer revenues decreasing and co-payments increasing most for branded drugs. The reform also induced consumers to substitute from branded drugs – for which they have strong preferences – to generics and parallel imports......Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  1. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    drugs, generics, and parallel imports with health care expenditures and producer revenues decreasing and co-payments increasing most for branded drugs. The reform also induced consumers to substitute from branded drugs – for which they have strong preferences – to generics and parallel imports......Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  2. China Adjusts Natural Gas Price for Better Allocation of Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shichao

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has recently increased the wholesale prices of natural gas by around 25 percent to curb demand and better allocate resources.Natural gas benchmark prices went up by 230 yuan to 1,155 yuan per thousand cubic meters,according to the announcement made by the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC)at the end of May."It is necessary to make the adjustment,as the country's natural gas price is significantly lower than that of other fuels,"said Cap Changqing,head of NDRC's pricing department.

  3. DEMAND AND PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studying the consumer’s behavior by the ordinal approach of utility with the help of indifference curves allows us to deduce the two “movement laws of demand” in this chapter: the demand for a “normal” good is decreasing function of its price and an increasing function of income. We will use the elasticity concept to measure the intensity of the relation that is established between the demand, on the one hand, and prices or income, on the other hand: elasticity – price, direct and crossed, and elasticity – income. We can classify the goods in many categories, depending on the values that this elasticity takes. The demand elasticity can be determined depending on price and income. It reflects the proportion in which the demand for different products changes with the modification of the consumers’ income, the other factors remaining constant. The elasticity compared to the income is a demonstration of legality from the consumer’s sphere, which determines a certain hierarchy of the needs of each population category in a certain level of income. The movement of prices orients both the options and decisions of producers, namely the most useful productions and the most efficient investments, as well as the consumers’ options and decisions on the most advantageous buying of goods and services that they need. The prices appear as a “signal system” coordinating and making coherence the economic agents’ decisions – producers, consumers and population.

  4. Validation study of tripartite model of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: clinical sample in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Won; Hong, Sungdo D; Joung, Yoo Sook; Kim, Ji-Hae

    2006-12-01

    Although the currently available literature has provided some empirical support for a tripartite model of child and adolescent anxiety and depression, one of the limitations of these studies was that they have been conducted in America, primarily with Caucasians. In order to make this model more applicable to diverse ethnic and cultural groups, this study used a tripartite model for child and adolescent anxiety and depression in Korea, using confirmatory factor analysis with logically selected items from the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), as well as the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). The results indicated that the model fit of a three-factor model was superior to one- and two-factor models. In addition, the findings of discriminant analysis demonstrated that the correct classification rate with three factors of the tripartite model was superior to the classification rate achievable using CDI and RCMAS. In a departure from Clark and Watson's hypothesis, however, the correlations of three factors were significantly higher than had been expected. The results are discussed on the basis of cultural background.

  5. Metabolic paths in world economy and crude oil price

    CERN Document Server

    Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In 1983 Hamilton demonstrated the correlation between the price of oil and gross national product for the U.S. economy. A prolific literature followed exploring the potential correlation of oil prices with other important indices like inflation, industrial production, and food prices, using increasingly refined tools. Our work sheds new light on the role of oil prices in shaping the world economy by investigating the metabolic paths of value across trade between 1960 and 2010, by means of Markov Chain analysis. We show that the interdependence of countries' economies are strictly (anti)correlated to the price of oil. We observed a remarkably high correlation of 0.85, unmatched by any former study addressing the correlation between oil price and major economic indicators.

  6. Relative Prices and Inflation Stabilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    When price adjustment is sluggish, inflation is costly in terms of welfare because it distorts various kinds of relative prices. Stabilising aggregate price inflation does not necessarily minimise these costs, but stabilising a well-designed core inflation minimises the cost of relative price fluctuations and thus the cost of inflation.

  7. Equilibrium adjustment of disequilibrium prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Venniker, R.

    1994-01-01

    We consider an exchange economy in which price rigidities are present. In the short run the non-numeraire commodities have a exible price level with respect to the numeraire commodity but their relative prices are mutually fixed. In the long run prices are assumed to be completely exible. For a give

  8. Higher fuel and food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Maximiano, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Rising world prices for fuel and food represent a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique. The impacts of these price rises are analyzed using various approaches. Detailed price data show that the world price increases are being transmitted to domestic prices. Short-run net benefit ratio...... of Mozambique indicates that the fuel price shock dominates rising food prices from both macroeconomic and poverty perspectives. Again, negative impacts are larger in urban areas. The importance of agricultural production response in general and export response in particular is highlighted. Policy analysis...

  9. Astrocytic Ca2+ signals are required for the functional integrity of tripartite synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal activity alters calcium ion (Ca2+ dynamics in astrocytes, but the physiologic relevance of these changes is controversial. To examine this issue further, we generated an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the expression of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate absorbent, “IP3 sponge”, attenuates astrocytic Ca2+ signaling. Results Attenuated Ca2+ activity correlated with reduced astrocytic coverage of asymmetric synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region in these animals. The decreased astrocytic ‘protection’ of the synapses facilitated glutamate ‘spillover’, which was reflected by prolonged glutamate transporter currents in stratum radiatum astrocytes and enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons in response to burst stimulation. These mice also exhibited behavioral impairments in spatial reference memory and remote contextual fear memory, in which hippocampal circuits are involved. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IP3-mediated astrocytic Ca2+ signaling correlates with the formation of functional tripartite synapses in the hippocampus.

  10. Collinear cluster tripartition as sequential binary fission in the 235U(nth, f ) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkhodjaev, R. B.; Nasirov, A. K.; Scheid, W.

    2011-11-01

    The mechanism leading to the formation of the observed products of the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT) is carried out within the framework of the model based on the dinuclear system concept. The yield of fission products is calculated using the statistical model based on the driving potentials for the fissionable system. The minima of potential energy of the decaying system correspond to the charge numbers of the products which are produced with large probabilities in the sequential fission (partial case of CCT) of the compound nucleus. The realization of this mechanism supposes the asymmetric fission channel as the first stage of sequential mechanism. It is shown that only the use of the driving potential calculated by the binding energies with the shell correction allows us to explain the yield of the true ternary fission products. The theoretical model is applied to research CCT in the reaction 235U( n th, f). Calculations showed that the heavy products of two fission channels of 236U*, 82Ge* + 154Nd* and 86Se* + 150Ce*, can undergo sequential fission forming the CCT products 70Ni, 74, 76Zn, 80Ge and 84Se with relatively large probabilities which can be observed in coincidence with corresponding partner nucleus. The obtained results can explain some of the observed CCT products Ni and Ge in coincidence with the Ge and Se isotopes in the experiments of the FOBOS group in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.

  11. Synchrony-desynchrony in the tripartite model of fear: Predicting treatment outcome in clinically phobic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit Allen, Kristy; Allen, Ben; Austin, Kristin E; Waldron, Jonathan C; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-08-01

    The tripartite model of fear posits that the fear response entails three loosely coupled components: subjective distress, behavioral avoidance, and physiological arousal. The concept of synchrony vs. desynchrony describes the degree to which changes in the activation of these components vary together (synchrony), independently, or inversely (both forms of desynchrony) over time. The present study assessed synchrony-desynchrony and its relationship to treatment outcome in a sample of 98 children with specific phobias both prior to and 1 week after receiving one-session treatment, a 3 h cognitive-behavioral intervention. The results suggest an overall pattern of desynchronous change whereby youth improved on behavioral avoidance and subjective distress following treatment, but their level of cardiovascular reactivity remained stable. However, we found evidence that synchronous change on the behavioral avoidance and subjective distress components was related to better treatment outcome, whereas desynchronous change on these components was related to poorer treatment outcome. These findings suggest that a fuller understanding of the three response systems and their interrelations in phobic youth may assist us in the assessment and treatment of these disorders, potentially leading to a more person-centered approach and eventually to enhanced treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decoherence and tripartite entanglement dynamics in the presence of Gaussian and non-Gaussian classical noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza; Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius; Fouokeng, Georges Collince

    2017-04-01

    We address the entanglement dynamics of a three-qubit system interacting with a classical fluctuating environment described either by a Gaussian or non-Gaussian noise in three different configurations namely: common, independent and mixed environments. Specifically, we focus on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) noise and the random telegraph noise (RTN). The qubits are prepared in a state composed of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and a W state. With the help of the tripartite negativity, we show that the entanglement evolution is not only affected by the type of system-environment coupling but also by the kind and the memory properties of the considered noise. We also compared the dynamics induced by the two kinds of noise and we find that even if both noises have a Lorentzian spectrum, the effects of the OU noise cannot be in a simple way deduced from those of the RTN and vice-versa. In addition, we show that the entanglement can be indefinitely preserved when the qubits are coupled to the environmental noise in a common environment (CE). Finally, the presence or absence of peculiar phenomena such as entanglement revivals (ER) and entanglement sudden death (ESD) is observed.

  13. The Ndc80 complex uses a tripartite attachment point to couple microtubule depolymerization to chromosome movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, John G; Miller, Stephanie A; Stukenberg, P Todd

    2011-04-15

    In kinetochores, the Ndc80 complex couples the energy in a depolymerizing microtubule to perform the work of moving chromosomes. The complex directly binds microtubules using an unstructured, positively charged N-terminal tail located on Hec1/Ndc80. Hec1/Ndc80 also contains a calponin homology domain (CHD) that increases its affinity for microtubules in vitro, yet whether it is required in cells and how the tail and CHD work together are critical unanswered questions. Human kinetochores containing Hec1/Ndc80 with point mutations in the CHD fail to align chromosomes or form productive microtubule attachments. Kinetochore architecture and spindle checkpoint protein recruitment are unaffected in these mutants, and the loss of CHD function cannot be rescued by removing Aurora B sites from the tail. The interaction between the Hec1/Ndc80 CHD and a microtubule is facilitated by positively charged amino acids on two separate regions of the CHD, and both are required for kinetochores to make stable attachments to microtubules. Chromosome congression in cells also requires positive charge on the Hec1 tail to facilitate microtubule contact. In vitro binding data suggest that charge on the tail regulates attachment by directly increasing microtubule affinity as well as driving cooperative binding of the CHD. These data argue that in vertebrates there is a tripartite attachment point facilitating the interaction between Hec1/Ndc80 and microtubules. We discuss how such a complex microtubule-binding interface may facilitate the coupling of depolymerization to chromosome movement.

  14. Dynamics of tripartite quantum entanglement and discord under a classical dephasing random telegraph noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza; Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2017-02-01

    We address the dynamics of quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord of a three-qubit system interacting with a classical pure dephasing random telegraph noise (RTN) in three different physical environmental situations (independent, mixed and common environments). Two initial entangled states of the system are examined, namely the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)- and Werner (W)-type states. The classical noise is introduced as a stochastic process affecting the energy splitting of the qubits. With the help of suitable measures of tripartite entanglement (entanglement witnesses and lower bound of concurrence) and quantum discord (global quantum discord and quantum dissension), we show that the evolution of quantum correlations is not only affected by the type of the system-environment interaction but also by the input configuration of the qubits and the memory properties of the environmental noise. Indeed, depending on the memory properties of the environmental noise and the initial state considered, we find that independent, common and mixed environments can play opposite roles in preserving quantum correlations, and that the sudden death and revival phenomena or the survival of quantum correlations may occur. On the other hand, we also show that the W-type state has strong dynamics under this noise than the GHZ-type ones.

  15. Dynamic localization of tripartite motif-containing 22 in nuclear and nucleolar bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Gayathri; Sun, Yang; Tan, Si Kee [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Lin, Valerie C.L., E-mail: cllin@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2009-05-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 22 (TRIM22) exhibits antiviral and growth inhibitory properties, but there has been no study on the localization and dynamics of the endogenous TRIM22 protein. We report here that TRIM22 is dramatically induced by progesterone in MDA-MB-231-derived ABC28 cells and T47D cells. This induction was associated with an increase in TRIM22 nuclear bodies (NB), and an even more prominent increase in nucleolar TRIM22 bodies. Distinct endogenous TRIM22 NB were also demonstrated in several other cell lines including MCF7 and HeLa cells. These TRIM22 NB resemble Cajal bodies, co-localized with these structures and co-immunoprecipitated with p80-coilin. However, IFN{gamma}-induced TRIM22 in HeLa and MCF7 cells did not form NB, implying the forms and distribution of TRIM22 are regulated by specific cellular signals. This notion is also supported by the observation that TRIM22 NB undergoes dynamic cell-cycle dependent changes in distribution such that TRIM22 NB started to form in early G0/G1 but became dispersed in the S-phase. In light of its potential antiviral and antitumor properties, the findings here provide an interesting gateway to study the relationship between the different forms and functions of TRIM22.

  16. The ABC's of Suicide Risk Assessment: Applying a Tripartite Approach to Individual Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M Harris

    Full Text Available There is considerable need for accurate suicide risk assessment for clinical, screening, and research purposes. This study applied the tripartite affect-behavior-cognition theory, the suicidal barometer model, classical test theory, and item response theory (IRT, to develop a brief self-report measure of suicide risk that is theoretically-grounded, reliable and valid. An initial survey (n = 359 employed an iterative process to an item pool, resulting in the six-item Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS. Three additional studies tested the SABCS and a highly endorsed comparison measure. Studies included two online surveys (Ns = 1007, and 713, and one prospective clinical survey (n = 72; Time 2, n = 54. Factor analyses demonstrated SABCS construct validity through unidimensionality. Internal reliability was high (α = .86-.93, split-half = .90-.94. The scale was predictive of future suicidal behaviors and suicidality (r = .68, .73, respectively, showed convergent validity, and the SABCS-4 demonstrated clinically relevant sensitivity to change. IRT analyses revealed the SABCS captured more information than the comparison measure, and better defined participants at low, moderate, and high risk. The SABCS is the first suicide risk measure to demonstrate no differential item functioning by sex, age, or ethnicity. In all comparisons, the SABCS showed incremental improvements over a highly endorsed scale through stronger predictive ability, reliability, and other properties. The SABCS is in the public domain, with this publication, and is suitable for clinical evaluations, public screening, and research.

  17. 三体Bell对角态的纠缠%Entanglement of Tripartite Bell Diagonal States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧; 张兴华

    2011-01-01

    给出了三体2(×)2(×)3Bell对角态纠缠判定的一个必要条件和3(×)3(×)3Bell对角态纠缠的充分条件,进一步研究了3(×)3(×)3Bell对角态纠缠与密度矩阵部分转置的关系以及Bell对角态负性的数学表达式.%A necessary condition of entanglement for tripartite 2 (⊕)2 (⊕)3 Bell diagonal states and a sufficient condition of entanglement for 3 (⊕)3 (⊕)3 Bell diagonal states are presented. Moreover, the relation between entanglement of 3(⊕)3(⊕)3 Bell diagonal states and partial transpose of density matrix is investigated. And an analytical expression of negative for Bell diagonal states is presented.Key words: Bell diagonal states; entanglement; density matrix Robust Estimation for Varying Coefficient Model Abstract: This paper considers robust estimation of varying coefficient models with emphasis on resistance against outliers. By combining B-splines method with taut string method, a robust estimation procedure is proposed. Based on local quadratic approximation, an iterative algorithm is introduced. Simulation study indicates that the proposed method is robust.

  18. High Drug Prices Hurt Everyone

    OpenAIRE

    Halpenny, Genevieve M.

    2016-01-01

    Turing Pharmaceuticals raised the price of Daraprim 5,500%, illustrating how the absence of competition in the sale of low-volume, low-price drugs can lead to price gouging. For patented medicines, society allows supracompetitive pricing to incentivize innovation. However, Gilead���s decision to sell Sovaldi for $84,000 per course of treatment raised the question whether society must accept any price set by the patent holder. Unfortunately, these incidents illustrate a br...

  19. Fuel Price Effects on Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    31 B. Measuring the Response to Changes in Fuel Prices across Budget Years: Long- term Price Elasticity ...Changes in Fuel Prices across Budget Years: Long-term Price Elasticity In order to determine the responsiveness of inter-year OPTEMPO to inter-year... elasticity of OPTEMPO (our readiness measure) with respect to price . 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 33 1. Army Analysis In order to avoid overlooking

  20. 7 CFR 1001.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1001.50 Section 1001.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  1. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  2. 7 CFR 1033.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1033.50 Section 1033.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  3. 7 CFR 1006.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1006.50 Section 1006.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  4. 7 CFR 1005.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1005.50 Section 1005.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  5. 7 CFR 1007.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1007.50 Section 1007.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50....

  6. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  7. 7 CFR 1437.11 - Average market price and payment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average market price and payment factors. 1437.11... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General Provisions § 1437.11 Average market price and payment factors. (a) An average... Animal-unit-days (AUD) value will be based on the national average price of corn and the...

  8. Point of Connection Transmission Pricing in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonee, S. K.; Barpanda, S. S.; Joshi, Mohit; Mishra, Nripen; Bhardwaj, Vaishally

    2013-05-01

    The National Electricity Policy (NEP) [1], issued by the Government of India, mandates transmission prices to be distance and direction sensitive and capture utilization of the network by each network user. In line with the mandate, the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) [2] has issued Sharing of Interstate Transmission Charges and Losses Regulations, 2010 [3], to introduce point of connection (PoC)-based transmission pricing methodology in India. The methodology under the above regulations introduces one of the major reforms of its kind in the Indian power sector and seeks to share the total transmission charges in proportion to respective utilization of the transmission system by different entities. In this paper, the authors have enumerated their experience gained from the implementation of PoC-based transmission pricing regime in India. Authors have also discussed various issues encountered in the process of implementation and the methodology adopted.

  9. Uncertainties Mounting, Cotton Price Becomes Volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Junfei

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the domestic market, the unre-mitting foul weather has delayed cotton picking by two weeks with downgraded quality; in the inter-national market, factors such as sus-pension of cotton export in India and disaster-affecting cotton yield in Paki-stan have led to such a market anticipa-tion that cotton stock across the world is to show another decline trend in the upcoming year. The unanimous market anticipation has resulted in a surge in cotton price during the Mid-autumn Festival: the transaction price for un-loading cotton inventories has increased by nearly RMB 3,000/ton, the price for purchasing new cotton has gone beyond RMB 25,000/ton and the cost for the imported cotton with owned quota (effect shipment after the next Spring Festival)has exceeded RMB 21,000/ton.

  10. The price level and monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Kindleberger

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Most central banks are required to or choose to stabilize a price index, largely by manipulating short term interest rates. A serious problem is which index to choose among the national income deflator, wholesale prices, the cost of living, with or eliminating highly volatile commodities such as food and energy, to produce a core index, plus others such as housing, including or without imputed rent of owner-occupied houses, or assets, whether equities or houses. No obvious and widely agreed index exists. Even if there were a clear choice, there remains a question whether a central bank should carefully consider action in order to achieve other goals: full employment, adjustment of the balance of payments, of the exchange rate, prevention of bubbles in asset prices, or recovery from financial crises. If so, the question of central bank weapons remains: monetary expansion or contraction, credit controls, for overall or for particular purposes, and moral suasion.

  11. Logistics: Price Rises Incurred by High Oil Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Zhihui

    2011-01-01

    @@ "When the oil price grows by 100%, the logistic indus-try will see a price growth of 40%, while the logistics in-dustry a price rise of 35%, which means every price increase of 5% in the oil price will bring along that of 2% in this industry." said Liu Zongsheng, General Manager of Itochu Logistics Co., Ltd., on the seminar "Focusing on the eco-nomic consequences of raising oil price, interest rate and deposit reserve ratio", which was held recently.

  12. Stochastic Speculative Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Paul A.

    1971-01-01

    Because a commodity like wheat can be carried forward from one period to the next, speculative arbitrage serves to link its prices at different points of time. Since, however, the size of the harvest depends on complicated probability processes impossible to forecast with certainty, the minimal model for understanding market behavior must involve stochastic processes. The present study, on the basis of the axiom that it is the expected rather than the known-for-certain prices which enter into all arbitrage relations and carryover decisions, determines the behavior of price as the solution to a stochastic-dynamic-programming problem. The resulting stationary time series possesses an ergodic state and normative properties like those often observed for real-world bourses. PMID:16591903

  13. Surviving the Price Hikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ Viessmann Werke, a German-based global manufacturer of heating technology products, settled down in an industrial development zone in Beijing suburb in 2001. In recent years, however, they have witnessed a price increase for land use in their development zone and nearby areas. "There will be more infrastructure construction in this area and a new exhibition center is said to be built here," says Dr. Andreas Tank, executive manager of Viessmann Werke. "We see the demand for land is increasing and newcomers must pay higher prices for land use than we paid. "Viessmann has fixed its expenditure on land use fees by signing a long-term contract with the development zone.

  14. Wireless network pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Today's wireless communications and networking practices are tightly coupled with economic considerations, to the extent that it is almost impossible to make a sound technology choice without understanding the corresponding economic implications. This book aims at providing a foundational introduction on how microeconomics, and pricing theory in particular, can help us to understand and build better wireless networks. The book can be used as lecture notes for a course in the field of network economics, or a reference book for wireless engineers and applied economists to understand how pricing

  15. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  16. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  17. Value of information and pricing new healthcare interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew R; Eckermann, Simon

    2012-06-01

    Previous application of value-of-information methods to optimal clinical trial design have predominantly taken a societal decision-making perspective, implicitly assuming that healthcare costs are covered through public expenditure and trial research is funded by government or donation-based philanthropic agencies. In this paper, we consider the interaction between interrelated perspectives of a societal decision maker (e.g. the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence [NICE] in the UK) charged with the responsibility for approving new health interventions for reimbursement and the company that holds the patent for a new intervention. We establish optimal decision making from societal and company perspectives, allowing for trade-offs between the value and cost of research and the price of the new intervention. Given the current level of evidence, there exists a maximum (threshold) price acceptable to the decision maker. Submission for approval with prices above this threshold will be refused. Given the current level of evidence and the decision maker's threshold price, there exists a minimum (threshold) price acceptable to the company. If the decision maker's threshold price exceeds the company's, then current evidence is sufficient since any price between the thresholds is acceptable to both. On the other hand, if the decision maker's threshold price is lower than the company's, then no price is acceptable to both and the company's optimal strategy is to commission additional research. The methods are illustrated using a recent example from the literature.

  18. The control of viral infection by tripartite motif proteins and cyclophilin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towers Greg J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The control of retroviral infection by antiviral factors referred to as restriction factors has become an exciting area in infectious disease research. TRIM5α has emerged as an important restriction factor impacting on retroviral replication including HIV-1 replication in primates. TRIM5α has a tripartite motif comprising RING, B-Box and coiled coil domains. The antiviral α splice variant additionally encodes a B30.2 domain which is recruited to incoming viral cores and determines antiviral specificity. TRIM5 is ubiquitinylated and rapidly turned over by the proteasome in a RING dependent way. Protecting restricted virus from degradation, by inhibiting the proteasome, rescues DNA synthesis, but not infectivity, indicating that restriction of infectivity by TRIM5α does not depend on the proteasome but the early block to DNA synthesis is likely to be mediated by rapid degradation of the restricted cores. The peptidyl prolyl isomerase enzyme cyclophilin A isomerises a peptide bond on the surface of the HIV-1 capsid and impacts on sensitivity to restriction by TRIM5α from Old World monkeys. This suggests that TRIM5α from Old World monkeys might have a preference for a particular capsid isomer and suggests a role for cyclophilin A in innate immunity in general. Whether there are more human antiviral TRIMs remains uncertain although the evidence for TRIM19's (PML antiviral properties continues to grow. A TRIM5-like molecule with broad antiviral activity in cattle suggests that TRIM mediated innate immunity might be common in mammals. Certainly the continued study of restriction of viral infectivity by antiviral host factors will remain of interest to a broad audience and impact on a variety of areas including development of animal models for infection, development of viral vectors for gene therapy and the search for novel antiviral drug targets.

  19. Small-scale indirect effects determine the outcome of a tripartite plant-disperser-granivore interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Raphaël; Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C; Cerdá, Xim

    2009-09-01

    The microhabitat in which plants grow affects the outcome of their interactions with animals, particularly non-specialist consumers. Nevertheless, as most research on this topic has dealt with either mutualists or antagonists, little is known about the indirect effects of plant microhabitats on the outcome of tripartite interactions involving plants and both mutualists (e.g. seed dispersers) and antagonists (e.g. granivores). During three consecutive years, we analysed small-scale variations in the interaction of a perennial myrmecochore, Helleborus foetidus, with its seed dispersers and consumers as a function of the intensity of plant cover. Most seeds were released during the day and were rapidly removed by ants. Nevertheless, the proportion of ant-removed seeds was higher for plants located in open microhabitats than for plants surrounded by dense vegetation and rocky cover. Ant sampling revealed that seed removers were equally abundant, irrespective of the level of cover. By contrast, a few tiny ant species that feed on the reward without transporting the seeds were more abundant in highly covered microhabitats, irrespective of hellebore diaspore availability. These "cheaters" decrease the chance of removal by removers and increase the probability of seeds remaining on the ground until night, when granivore mice Apodemus sylvaticus become active. Mice also preferred foraging in covered microhabitats, where they consumed a larger proportion of seeds. Therefore, the density of cover indirectly increased seed predation risk by attracting more seed predators and cheater ants that contribute to increase seed availability for seed predators. Our results emphasize the importance of considering the indirect effects of plant microhabitat on their dispersal success. They highlight the indirect effect of cheaters that are likely to interfere in mutualisms and may lead to their collapse unless external factors such as spatio-temporal heterogeneity in seed availability

  20. Evolution of the tripartite symbiosis between earthworms, Verminephrobacter and Flexibacter-like bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMøller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nephridial (excretory organ symbionts are widespread in lumbricid earthworms and the complexity of the nephridial symbiont communities varies greatly between earthworm species. The two most common symbionts are the well-described Verminephrobacter and less well-known Flexibacter-like bacteria. Verminephrobacter are present in almost all lumbricid earthworms, they are species-specific, vertically transmitted, and have presumably been associated with their hosts since the origin of lumbricids. Flexibacter-like symbionts have been reported from about half the investigated earthworms; they are also vertically transmitted. To investigate the evolution of this tri-partite symbiosis, phylogenies for 18 lumbricid earthworm species were constructed based on two mitochondrial genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, and compared to their symbiont phylogenies based on RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB and 16S rRNA genes.The two nephridial symbionts showed markedly different evolutionary histories with their hosts. For Verminephrobacter, clear signs of long-term host-symbiont co-evolution with rare host switching events confirmed its ancient association with lumbricid earthworms, likely dating back to their last common ancestor about 100 million years (MY ago. In contrast, phylogenies for the Flexibacter-like symbionts suggested an ability to switch to new hosts, to which they adapted and subsequently became species-specific. Putative co-speciation events were only observed with closely related host species; on that basis, this secondary symbiosis was estimated to be minimum 45 MY old. Based on the monophyletic clustering of the Flexibacter-like symbionts, the low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the nearest described species (<92% and environmental sequences (<94.2 %, and the specific habitat in the earthworm nephridia, we propose a new candidate genus for this group, Candidatus Nephrothrix.

  1. The ubiquitin ligase tripartite-motif-protein 32 is induced in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assereto, Stefania; Piccirillo, Rosanna; Baratto, Serena; Scudieri, Paolo; Fiorillo, Chiara; Massacesi, Manuela; Traverso, Monica; Galietta, Luis J; Bruno, Claudio; Minetti, Carlo; Zara, Federico; Gazzerro, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    Activation of the proteasome pathway is one of the secondary processes of cell damage, which ultimately lead to muscle degeneration and necrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In mdx mice, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib up-regulates the membrane expression of members of the dystrophin complex and reduces the inflammatory reaction. However, chronic inhibition of the 26S proteasome may be toxic, as indicated by the systemic side-effects caused by this drug. Therefore, we sought to determine the components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway that are specifically activated in human dystrophin-deficient muscles. The analysis of a cohort of patients with genetically determined DMD or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) unveiled a selective up-regulation of the ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32). The induction of TRIM32 was due to a transcriptional effect and it correlated with disease severity in BMD patients. In contrast, atrogin1 and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1), which are strongly increased in distinct types of muscular atrophy, were not affected by the DMD dystrophic process. Knock-out models showed that TRIM32 is involved in ubiquitination of muscle cytoskeletal proteins as well as of protein inhibitor of activated STAT protein gamma (Piasγ) and N-myc downstream-regulated gene, two inhibitors of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, we showed that in DMD/BMD muscle tissue, TRIM32 induction was more pronounced in regenerating myofibers rather than in necrotic muscle cells, thus pointing out a role of this protein in the regulation of human myoblast cell fate. This finding highlights TRIM32 as a possible therapeutic target to favor skeletal muscle regeneration in DMD patients.

  2. ANTESEDEN DAN KONSEKUENSI DARI PRICE SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Dharma; Asep Hermawan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the antecedents and consequents of price satisfaction. It argues that price satisfaction is composed of several dimensions (price transparency, pricequality ratio, relative price, price confidence, price reliability, and price fairness) and that companies should consider these dimensions when monitoring customer price satisfaction. Based on a theoretical discussion of the price dimensions, a questionnaire is developed that measures customer satisfact...

  3. Do Flexible Durable Goods Prices Undermine Sticky Price Models?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Barsky; Christopher L. House; Miles Kimball

    2003-01-01

    Multi-sector sticky price models have surprising implications when durable goods have flexible prices. While in actual data the production of virtually all durables exhibits strong negative responses to monetary contractions, in dynamic general equilibrium models a monetary contraction causes the output of flexibly priced durables to expand. Indeed, in the polar case in which only nondurables have sticky prices, the negative comovement of durable and nondurable production exactly offsets and ...

  4. Transmission of prices and price volatility in Australian electricity spot markets: a multivariate GARCH analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, A.; Kay-Spratley, A.; Higgs, H. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Economics and Finance

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines the transmission of spot electricity prices and price volatility among the five regional electricity markets in the Australian National Electricity Market: namely, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme and Victoria. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model is used to identify the source and magnitude of price and price volatility spillovers. The results indicate the presence of positive own mean spillovers in only a small number of markets and no mean spillovers between any of the markets. This appears to be directly related to the physical transfer limitations of the present system of regional interconnection. Nevertheless, the large number of significant own-volatility and cross-volatility spillovers in all five markets indicates the presence of strong autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity and generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity effects. This indicates that shocks in some markets will affect price volatility in others. Finally, and contrary to evidence from studies in North American electricity markets, the results also indicate that Australian electricity spot prices are stationary. (author)

  5. Transmission of prices and price volatility in Australian electricity spot markets. A multivariate GARCH analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, Andrew; Kay-Spratley, Adam; Higgs, Helen [School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane, Qld 4001 (Australia)

    2005-03-15

    This paper examines the transmission of spot electricity prices and price volatility among the five regional electricity markets in the Australian National Electricity Market: namely, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme and Victoria. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model is used to identify the source and magnitude of price and price volatility spillovers. The results indicate the presence of positive own mean spillovers in only a small number of markets and no mean spillovers between any of the markets. This appears to be directly related to the physical transfer limitations of the present system of regional interconnection. Nevertheless, the large number of significant own-volatility and cross-volatility spillovers in all five markets indicates the presence of strong autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity and generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity effects. This indicates that shocks in some markets will affect price volatility in others. Finally, and contrary to evidence from studies in North American electricity markets, the results also indicate that Australian electricity spot prices are stationary.

  6. Americans Support Price Shopping For Health Care, But Few Actually Seek Out Price Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ateev; Dean, Katie M; Sinaiko, Anna D; Sood, Neeraj

    2017-08-01

    The growing awareness of the wide variation in health care prices, increased availability of price data, and increased patient cost sharing are expected to drive patients to shop for lower-cost medical services. We conducted a nationally representative survey of 2,996 nonelderly US adults who had received medical care in the previous twelve months to assess how frequently patients are price shopping for care and the barriers they face in doing so. Only 13 percent of respondents who had some out-of-pocket spending in their last health care encounter had sought information about their expected spending before receiving care, and just 3 percent had compared costs across providers before receiving care. The low rates of price shopping do not appear to be driven by opposition to the idea: The majority of respondents believed that price shopping for care is important and did not believe that higher-cost providers were of higher quality. Common barriers to shopping included difficulty obtaining price information and a desire not to disrupt existing provider relationships. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We defi

  8. Housing price forecastability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2012-01-01

    We examine US housing price forecastability using a common factor approach based on a large panel of 122 economic time series. We …nd that a simple three-factor model generates an explanatory power of about 50% in one-quarter ahead in-sample forecasting regressions. The predictive power of the mo...

  9. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  10. Pricing Decisions: A Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Simon

    1989-01-01

    Describes a game that illustrates the effects of pricing on profit. Students compete against each other in an imaginary industry and become familiar with decision-making processes. Depicts the gameboard, how to make it, and how to use it. (GG)

  11. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We

  12. MARCH 2005 PRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Continuous cold RE market has been a headache for producers. Markup of raw materials, energy and transportation expense is a disaster in succession. Entering March, there is a trend of warm-up in the market, and some RE products have got higher prices than last year. Details are listed below.

  13. Road pricing with complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Van Dender, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    , and a highly stylised model of congestion is used. The simple analysis also ignores that real pricing schemes are only rough approximations to ideal systems and that inefficiencies in related markets potentially affect the case for congestion charges. The canonical model tends to understate the marginal...

  14. Sentiment and art prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penasse, J.N.G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesize the existence of a slow-moving fad component in art prices. Using unique panel survey data on art market participants’ confidence levels in the outlook for a set of artists, we find that sentiment indeed predicts short-term returns.

  15. Price of Terbia Soaring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Recently, price of terbia soars to RMB $2600/ nearly changing by day. It is estimated that it will climt RMB$3000/Kg or so. Rising of terbia is mainly driven following factors: 1. Reduced Raw Materials High terbium contained Longnan ore in Ganzhou completely stopped leaching, which will result in the sh

  16. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  17. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  18. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...... sig over hele verden. Nationalisme er blevet global....

  19. Higher fuel and food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Maximiano, Nelson;

    2008-01-01

    Rising world prices for fuel and food represent a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique. The impacts of these price rises are analyzed using various approaches. Detailed price data show that the world price increases are being transmitted to domestic prices. Short-run net benefit ratio...... analysis indicates that urban households and households in the southern region are more vulnerable to food price increases. Rural households, particularly in the North and Center, often benefit from being in a net seller position. Longer-term analysis using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model...... of Mozambique indicates that the fuel price shock dominates rising food prices from both macroeconomic and poverty perspectives. Again, negative impacts are larger in urban areas. The importance of agricultural production response in general and export response in particular is highlighted. Policy analysis...

  20. Price knowledge during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    Past research on consumer price knowledge has varied considerably partly due to differences in how and when price knowledge is measured.This paper applies a multi-point, multi-measure approach to reconcile differences in past price knowledge research by examining systematicrelationships between...... accessible at the store exit. These findings enable the authors to reconcile diverging results from past research,showing how consumer price knowledge evolves and suggesting that the vast majority of consumers learn about prices, whether consciously orunconsciously, during grocery shopping. Thus, when...... applying a multi-point, multi-measure approach, consumers appear to know more aboutprices than suggested by past research. Determinants of price knowledge are also examined and the results indicate that price knowledge buildsup not only because of active search but also due to accidental exposure to prices...

  1. Model Penentuan Harga ( Price ) Dinamis

    OpenAIRE

    Laili, Erna

    2012-01-01

    Information about the demand curve is not available enough practically, those sellers face some constrains to get the optimal revenue. The seller’s revenue is influenced by the dynamic pricing caused by price sensitivity and the uncertainty available marketing share. The thesis aims to create mathematical model for determining the dynamic pricing by learning both properties determination model and dynamic pricing factors. The results of the research shows that for two parameter...

  2. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  3. Developing a consumer pricing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Arthur; Tiedemann, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare providers can learn a variety of pricing lessons from the retail market: For providers, wholesale pricing--"the price to play"--alone is not enough. Once a hospital or health system chooses a market position, the provider creates an expectation that must be met-consistently. Consumer loyalty is fluid, and the price of care or service is not always the motivator for choosing one organization over another; intangibles such as location and level of customer service also drive purchasing decisions.

  4. Brand the Pricing: Critical Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Kazmi, Syed Hasnain

    2015-01-01

    Brand pricing decision models and established theories in the marketing and econometrics focus typically on assuming the symmetric competing businesses. The empirical generalities are key for strategic marketplace planning. The significance of pricing to customer store and brand choices are always regarded as a widely known truth among marketing scholars and explains consumer’s role responding to their psychological representations of price rather than price itself. Scholars have ...

  5. Higher Education Institutions and Work-Based Learning in the UK: Employer Engagement within a Tripartite Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    BASIT, Tehmina; Eardley, Alan; BORUP, Rosemary; Shah, Hanifa; Slack, Kim; Hughes, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK are increasingly engaging in work-based learning. The tripartite relationship between the HEI, the employer and the employee is viewed to be of great significance in work-based learning, not only in the initial stages of procurement of a contract, but also in designing and delivering the programme to meet the employer and employee needs, and those of the HEI, to make the programmes successful. This paper is based on one theme related to a larger ...

  6. Symptom dimensions of the SCL-90-R: a test of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, R A; Clark, D A; Ranieri, W F

    1994-06-01

    To determine the extent to which the SCL-90-R assesses general distress or specific dimensions of psychopathology, two principal components analyses were conducted based on 900 outpatients diagnosed with mixed psychiatric disorders. The first component explained 30.5% of the total variance and was interpreted as reflecting overall symptom distress. Partialling the first component out of the correlations among the symptoms in a second principal components analysis, we found four specific residual components reflecting somatic anxiety, depression, irritability, and attention problems. The results were discussed as partially supporting Clark and Watson's (1991) tripartite model of anxiety and depression.

  7. Price Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette

    not exceed the price cap whereas a selective bid cap for only the larger firms, does not guarantee this outcome. A sufficiently high bid floor always destroys pure strategy equilibria with equilibrium prices above the marginal costs, no matter whether the floor applies to all or only to relatively small......Inspired by recent regulations in the New York ICAP market we examine the effect of different price regulations on a multi-unit uniform price auction. We investigate a bid cap and a bid foor. Given suffciently high total capacities general bid caps always ensure that the market price does...

  8. Price Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette

    Inspired by recent regulations in the New York ICAP market we examine the effect of different price regulations on a multi-unit uniform price auction. We investigate a bid cap and a bid foor. Given suffciently high total capacities general bid caps always ensure that the market price does...... not exceed the price cap whereas a selective bid cap for only the larger firms, does not guarantee this outcome. A sufficiently high bid floor always destroys pure strategy equilibria with equilibrium prices above the marginal costs, no matter whether the floor applies to all or only to relatively small...

  9. Thinking strategically about electricity pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulson, D. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    This report describes an approach by which utilities can view pricing from a strategic, market-oriented perspective. It begins by reviewing pricing practices found in private industry and develops a framework for utility rate design that incorporates both customer value and cost of service. A market intelligence system for gathering data relevant to pricing decisions is also briefly outlined.

  10. The Pricing of Economics Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laband, David; Hudson, John

    2003-01-01

    Examines the pricing and other characteristics of books. Notes substantial increases in book prices between 2000 and 1985 data. Suggests a major factor is the increasing importance of foreign presses that sell books at higher prices. Indicates that discount on paperbacks appear to have been relatively stable in the two years studied. (JEH)

  11. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  12. RESTAURANT NO. 2: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'DSR', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 2 (bldg. 504 - Meyrin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase certain prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 30, 2003.

  13. RESTAURANT NO. 3: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 2, 2003.

  14. Patients' views on price shopping and price transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semigran, Hannah L; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Sinaiko, Anna D; Cowling, David; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the growth of high deductibles and price transparency initiatives, patients are being encouraged to search for prices before seeking care, yet few do so. To understand why this is the case, we interviewed individuals who were offered access to a widely used price transparency website through their employer. Qualitative interviews. We interviewed individuals enrolled in a preferred provider organization product through their health plan about their experience using the price transparency tool (if they had done so), their past medical experiences, and their opinions on shopping for care. All interviews were transcribed and manually coded using a thematic coding guide. In general, respondents expressed frustration with healthcare costs and had a positive opinion of the idea of price shopping in theory, but 2 sets of barriers limited their ability to do so in reality. The first was the salience of searching for price information. For example, respondents recognized that due to their health plan benefits design, they would not save money by switching to a lower-cost provider. Second, other factors were more important than price for respondents when choosing a provider, including quality and loyalty to current providers. We found a disconnect between respondents' enthusiasm for price shopping and their reported use of a price transparency tool to shop for care. However, many did find the tool useful for other purposes, including checking their claims history. Addressing the barriers to price shopping identified by respondents can help inform ongoing and future price transparency initiatives.

  15. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends. Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections, 2015 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-25

    This presentation, based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV pricing trends in the United States focusing on the installed price of PV systems. It also attempts to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices. This PowerPoint is the fourth edition from this series.

  16. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections. 2014 Edition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; James, T.; Weaver, S.; Darghouth, N.; Fu, R.; Davidson, C.; Booth, S.; Wiser, R.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation, based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV pricing trends in the United States focusing on the installed price of PV systems. It also attempts to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices. This PowerPoint is the third edition from this series.

  17. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yfantopoulos, John

    2008-02-01

    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  18. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1 aphid peak number (APN in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (2 The production of alatae (PA was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (3 The BYDV disease incidence (DIC on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID on Tam200(13G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4 Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.

  19. Collinear cluster tri-partition: Kinematics constraints and stability of collinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmvall, P.; Köster, U.; Heinz, A.; Nilsson, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A new mode of nuclear fission has been proposed by the FOBOS Collaboration, called collinear cluster tri-partition (CCT), and suggests that three heavy fission fragments can be emitted perfectly collinearly in low-energy fission. This claim is based on indirect observations via missing-energy events using the 2 v 2 E method. This proposed CCT seems to be an extraordinary new aspect of nuclear fission. It is surprising that CCT escaped observation for so long given the relatively high reported yield of roughly 0.5 % relative to binary fission. These claims call for an independent verification with a different experimental technique. Purpose: Verification experiments based on direct observation of CCT fragments with fission-fragment spectrometers require guidance with respect to the allowed kinetic-energy range, which we present in this paper. Furthermore, we discuss corresponding model calculations which, if CCT is found in such verification experiments, could indicate how the breakups proceed. Since CCT refers to collinear emission, we also study the intrinsic stability of collinearity. Methods: Three different decay models are used that together span the timescales of three-body fission. These models are used to calculate the possible kinetic-energy ranges of CCT fragments by varying fragment mass splits, excitation energies, neutron multiplicities, and scission-point configurations. Calculations are presented for the systems 235U(nth,f ) and 252Cf(s f ) , and the fission fragments previously reported for CCT; namely, isotopes of the elements Ni, Si, Ca, and Sn. In addition, we use semiclassical trajectory calculations with a Monte Carlo method to study the intrinsic stability of collinearity. Results: CCT has a high net Q value but, in a sequential decay, the intermediate steps are energetically and geometrically unfavorable or even forbidden. Moreover, perfect collinearity is extremely unstable, and broken by the slightest perturbation. Conclusions

  20. Energy Price Reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Market-based reform of energy prices is the most effective approach to enhancing energy efficiency. The policies of energy conservation and enhancing energy efficiency in the 1 lth Five-year Plan period (2006-2010) work directly to set up a series of reform measures related to energy pricing by market mechanism. Energy price reform will deeply influence China's industrial interest pattern, and its development in the next five years and even 10 or 20 years.This paper analyzes the significance, timing, present status and problems related to energy price reform, and discusses the goal, principle and measures of coal, electricity, oil and gas price reform separately.

  1. Industrial Pricing: Theory and Managerial Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. Noble; Gruca, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    We organize the existing theoretical pricing research into a new two-level framework for industrial goods pricing. The first level consists of four pricing situations: New Product, Competitive, Product Line, and Cost-based. The second level consists of the pricing strategies appropriate for a given situation. For example, within the new product pricing situation, there are three alternative pricing strategies: Skim, Penetration, and Experience Curve pricing. There are a total of ten pricing s...

  2. An empirical analysis of gasoline price convergence for 20 OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.

    2003-07-01

    Two decades have passed now since the oil price shocks of the 1970s and since then energy prices have - apart from short periods of price instability - evolved relatively smoothly in the industrialized countries. Energy taxes in many countries differ markedly thereby causing differences in final energy prices, but as similar tax levels are becoming more common, e.g. in the European Union, convergence concerning energy prices might be expected to appear. In the present paper national gasoline price data covering the time period since the 1970s for a sample of OECD countries are used in order to test for this often addressed topic of convergence. The empirical part of the paper applies different time series based tests of convergence, where gasoline prices exhibit convergence for most OECD-Europe countries in the case where US$ is used for measurement of the energy prices indicating a convergence or tax harmonization process is taking place for these countries. (au)

  3. Use of Local Dynamic Electricity Prices for Indirect Control of DER Power Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2013-01-01

    The regulation capability that may be provided by the individual small-scale distributed energy resources (DER power units) may be insignificant. However, the aggregated response from a large number of DER power units can be significant and thereby provide valuable system services to the power...... wind power, solar power, flexible load and electrical storage. The local power price generation is based on the actual Nord Pool DK2 Spot prices on hourly basis as the quasi-stationary global electricity price, and the local SYSLAB's power exchange with the national grid as basis for the dynamic price...... electricity prices for indirect control of active power. The local, dynamic electricity prices are realised as dynamic adjustments of the quasi-stationary global power price. The aims of the dynamic price adjustments are to prevent overloading of the grid, to reduce the grid power losses and to regulate...

  4. Real Estate Price Bubble and Its Impact in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tupėnaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of the real estate price bubble in the Baltic States. The definition of the real estate price bubble is discussed, the main reasons as well as bubble influencing fundamental and irrational factors and price bubble burst sequences to national economics are analysed. Based on the research model and developed by the authors, the practical research of the real estate market in the Baltic States was performed.Trends towards the real estate prices were researched and the influence of fundamental and irrational factors on the growth of the real estate prices was discussed. Research results proved the existence of the price bubble in the Baltic States real estate market during the period from 2004 to 2006. The influence of the real estate price bubble burst on the national economy of the Baltic States is discussed at the end of this article. Article in Lithuanian

  5. Albania Residential Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Koprencka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The real estate market is complex and influenced by too many factors. Real Estate market in Albania has experienced a boom after the 1990. We have inherited from the communist system a very poor market of housing. The number of dwellings in 1990 in Albania was 219 dwellings per 1000 inhabitants and the useful floor space was 5 m² per person, but in Bulgaria number of dwellings per 1,000 people varies 465 and in Romania average useful floor space per person was 37 sq. The data used in this study are derived from the database of the World Bank, the Institute of Statistics, reports of Bank of Albania also from information provided individually on the ground and different sources. In this study is analyzed the relationship that exists between economic growth, remittances and the price of dwellings in Albania. The dependent variable is the average price of housing in major cities of Albania. Independent variables in the model are GDP per capita and the remittances. The Econometric model is a Linear Regress equation and the period are the years from 1998 to 2013. The model used is the statistical program EViews 6.0. Unfortunately the information let the desired, so we do not have an official detailed information on prices of Albanian real estate market. In Albania few researchers have been studying real estate market in Albania.

  6. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Bao, Yanjun

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers.

  7. Price setting in turbulent times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursdóttir, Ásgerdur; Vignisdóttir, Karen Á.

    . A second contribution to the literature is our analysis of the nexus between price setting and exchange rate movements, a topic that has attracted surprisingly limited attention in this survey-based literature. A novel aspect of our approach is to base our analysis on a categorisation of firms...... in the domestic market by their direct exposure to exchange rate movements captured by imported input costs as a share of total p duction costs. More exposed firms are found to be more likely to use state-dependent pricing, to adjust their prices in response to exchange rate changes, and to rely on increasing...... prices rather than decreasing costs to restore profit margins after an exchange rate depreciation. They also review their prices more often but nevertheless, surprisingly, have the same price change frequency as the median firm. On the other hand, price review frequency declines and time...

  8. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  9. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  10. Increase of Electricity Price Likely to Drive Industry of Aluminum Westward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On December 1, China’s National Development and Reform Commission announced to increase retail electricity price and on-grid electricity price nationwide. The increase targets electricity for non-residential use. According to relevant documents of National Development

  11. Disruption of dopaminergic transmission remodels tripartite synapse morphology and astrocytic calcium activity within substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Anthony; Boisseau, Sylvie; Buisson, Alain; Savasta, Marc; Albrieux, Mireille

    2015-04-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia circuitry particularly sensitive to pathological dopamine depletion. Indeed, hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders characteristic of Parkinson's disease. The neuronal processing of basal ganglia dysfunction is well understood but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has rarely been considered. We thus investigated the influence of the disruption of dopaminergic transmission on plastic changes at tripartite glutamatergic synapses in the rat SNr and on astrocyte calcium activity. In 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, we observed structural plastic changes of tripartite glutamatergic synapses and perisynaptic astrocytic processes. These findings suggest that subthalamonigral synapses undergo morphological changes that accompany the pathophysiological processes of Parkinson's disease. The pharmacological blockade of dopaminergic transmission (with sulpiride and SCH-23390) increased astrocyte calcium excitability, synchrony and gap junction coupling within the SNr, suggesting a functional adaptation of astrocytes to dopamine transmission disruption in this output nucleus. This hyperactivity is partly reversed by subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation which has emerged as an efficient symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease. Therefore, our results demonstrate structural and functional reshaping of neuronal and glial elements highlighting a functional plasticity of neuroglial interactions when dopamine transmission is disrupted.

  12. Wheat Prices, Bread Consumption and Health in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Leat, Philip M.K.; Toma, Luiza; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The relative recent rise in food prices has increased concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has revived interest in food price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical forms of cereals use in the UK. Moreover, nutritionists recommend the consu...

  13. How have hospitals faced the pricing issues of the 1990's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleimenhagen, A; Naidu, G M; Pillari, G D

    1994-01-01

    National health care expenditures are rising rapidly, bringing on a health care financing crisis. For this reason, it is useful to see how hospitals are facing the price issues of the 1990's. This study examines the price strategies hospitals follow and analyzes their observations on price sensitivity and payer mix. The results clearly show that hospitals have not given much attention to the pricing variable. The study suggests that marketing and finance will have to work closely together in developing future pricing strategies.

  14. Pricing for finished products of the enterprise: accounting and analytical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Pravdyuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The pricing policy chosen by the enterprise in respect of goods and finished products of own production, has a decisive influence on the formation of financial results. In modern economic conditions we need to strengthen managerial decisions on the choice and carrying out price policy and a means of solving this problem is accounting. To determine the boundaries and competence of decision-making we analyzed the regulation of these terms and processes, as well as the dynamics of the stocks across sectors of the economy, the consumer price index, producer price index, the price index of realization of industrial products. Widely used data analytical reviews of the national Bank of Ukraine, enterprises' expectations regarding efficiency, the analysis of financial market indicators, etc. Established that the provision of information management pricing of goods shall conform to the requirements of the economy, by deepening complexity of accounting, to ensure the needs of consumers. According to the study substantiates the basics of accounting and analytical aspect of the pricing policy for finished products businesses. In the study of pricing policies in respect of goods in accounting and analytical aspect, we have established the following. The existing normative-legal acts and definitions of researchers on economic and accounting analysis of the concept give a sufficiently wide interpretation, which depends on the orientation and activity of the enterprise. Factors and points of influence on the efficiency of the pricing policy are: information support of process of pricing assessment of pricing factors, establish the objectives of price policy, assessment of customer demand, cost analysis, competition analysis, selecting a pricing method that measures the price adjustment, the evaluation price risk. The economic impact of the market environment is the most significant to the pricing policy of agricultural enterprises, which revealed the analysis

  15. Option Pricing when the Regime-Switching Risk is Priced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tak Kuen Siu; Hailiang Yang

    2009-01-01

    We study the pricing of an option when the price dynamic of the underlying risky asset is governed by a Markov-modulated geometric Brownian motion. We suppose that the drift and volatility of the underlying risky asset are modulated by an observable continuous-time, finite-state Markov chain. We develop a twostage pricing model which can price both the diffusion risk and the regime-switching risk based on the Esscher transform and the minimization of the maximum entropy between an equivalent martingale measure and the real-world probability measure over different states. Numerical experiments are conducted and their results reveal that the impact of pricing regime-switching risk on the option prices is significant.

  16. Pricing Strategy versus Heterogeneous Shopping Behavior under Market Price Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the ubiquitous problem of a seller competing in a market of a product with dispersed prices and having limited information about both his competitors’ prices and the shopping behavior of his potential customers. Given the distribution of market prices, the distribution of consumers’ shopping behavior, and the seller’s cost as inputs, we find the computational solution for the pricing strategy that maximizes his expected profits. We analyze the seller’s solution with respect to different exogenous perturbations of parametric and functional inputs. For that purpose, we produce synthetic price data using the family of Generalized Error Distributions that includes normal and quasiuniform distributions as particular cases, and we also generate consumers’ shopping data from different behavioral assumptions. Our analysis shows that, beyond price mean and dispersion, the shape of the price distribution plays a significant role in the seller’s pricing solution. We focus on the seller’s response to an increasing diversity in consumers’ shopping behavior. We show that increasing heterogeneity in the shopping distribution typically lowers seller’s prices and expected profits.

  17. Strategic pricing: hitting the mark with pricing strategies. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, L; Manning, M

    1988-01-01

    Efforts by government and business to reduce healthcare expenditures by fostering competition and reducing utilization have combined to redefine the basic economic structure of the healthcare delivery system. Increased competition among providers has prompted an increased awareness of strategic pricing as a means of achieving institutional goals and objectives. In this article, the first in a three-part series on strategic pricing, the authors examine some of the key theoretical considerations related to pricing strategies for healthcare providers. Future articles will examine practical applications as they relate to package pricing, discounting, per diem systems, and capitation arrangements.

  18. Effects of coal prices on merchandise prices in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhihua; Zhou Meihua; Liu Yan

    2011-01-01

    Coal is the principal form of energy used in China.Hence,coal price variations are expected to have some influence on merchandise prices.Monthly data from January,2002,to October,2010,were used to construct a varying-parameter state space model,and an error correction model,to estimate the influence of coal prices on Chinese merchandise prices.The time lag and the dynamic relationship were determined from the data.A long term equilibrium relationship between coal price and the PPI,and the CPI,can be observed.The long term influence of coal price fluctuations on the PPI is 0.263%.The corresponding value for the CPI is 0.157%.The PPI shows an influence from coal price change in the first period of observation:by eight periods the influence is obvious,after which it diminishes.The effect of coal price change on the CPI is rather weak and has no long term memory.Analysis of variance shows a similar situation.The elasticity coefficient of coal prices on the CPI,or the PPI,fluctuates over the 2002-2004 period.From 2002 to 2007 the influence elasticity on the CPI declined and subsequently levelled off after 2009.

  19. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    The field of quantitative finance has been criticized in the mainstream media lately and been accused of being one of the causes of the financial crisis. Convenient as this explanation may be, my belief is that a part of the solution to the crisis is to use more (and not less) sophisticated....... With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...

  20. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance....... Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...

  1. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    . Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...... of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance...

  2. Endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    van Damme, E.E.C.; Hurkens, S.

    1998-01-01

    We consider a linear price setting duopoly game with di®erentiated products and determine endogenously which of the players will lead and which will follow. While the follower role is most attractive for each firm, we show that waiting is more risky for the low cost firm so that, consequently, risk dominance considerations, as in Harsanyi and Selten (1988), allow the conclusion that only the high cost firm will choose to wait. Hence, the low cost firm will emerge as the end...

  3. Prices versus Quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank

    Weitzman (2002) studies the regulation of a fishery characterised by constant marginal harvest costs and shows that price regulation performs better than quantity regulation when the regulator is uncertain about the biological reproduction function (ecological uncertainty). Here, we initially...... uncertainty. We find that the gain from eliminating compliance uncertainty may be up to 5% of gross profit while the gain from eliminating ecological uncertainty is minimal. Under landing fee regulation, the entire gain from eliminating both types of uncertainty is captured, even if the regulator’s stock...

  4. Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum

    2004-01-01

    This contribution reports on the considerable effort made recently towards extending and applying well-established timed automata technology to optimal scheduling and planning problems. The effort of the authors in this direction has to a large extent been carried out as part of the European proj...... projects VHS [22] and AMETIST [17] and are available in the recently released UPPAAL CORA [12], a variant of the real-time verification tool UPPAAL [20,5] specialized for cost-optimal reachability for the extended model of priced timed automata....

  5. Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan, Osman

    This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost

  6. The short-term impact of Ontario's generic pricing reforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Law

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canadians pay amongst the highest generic drug prices in the world. In July 2010, the province of Ontario enacted a policy that halved reimbursement for generic drugs from the public drug plan, and substantially lowered prices for private purchases. We quantified the impact of this policy on overall generic drug expenditures in the province, and projected the impact in other provinces had they mimicked this pricing change. METHODS: We used quarterly prescription generic drug dispensing data from the IMS-Brogan CompuScript Audit. We used the price per unit in both the pre- and post-policy period and two economics price indexes to estimate the expenditure reduction in Ontario. Further, we used the post-policy Ontario prices to estimate the potential reduction in other provinces. RESULTS: We estimate that total expenditure on generic drugs in Ontario during the second half of 2010 was between $181 and $194 million below what would be expected if prices had remained at pre-policy level. Over half of the reduction in spending was due to savings on just 10 generic ingredients. If other provinces had matched Ontario's prices, their expenditures over during the latter half of 2010 would have been $445 million lower. DISCUSSION: We found that if Ontario's pricing scheme were adopted nationally, overall spending on generic drugs in Canada would drop at least $1.28 billion annually--a 5% decrease in total prescription drug expenditure. Other provinces should seriously consider both changes to their generic drug prices and the use of more competitive bulk purchasing policies.

  7. A Multiperiod Equilibrium Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsuk Kwak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium pricing model in a dynamic multiperiod stochastic framework with uncertain income. There are one tradable risky asset (stock/commodity, one nontradable underlying (temperature, and also a contingent claim (weather derivative written on the tradable risky asset and the nontradable underlying in the market. The price of the contingent claim is priced in equilibrium by optimal strategies of representative agent and market clearing condition. The risk preferences are of exponential type with a stochastic coefficient of risk aversion. Both subgame perfect strategy and naive strategy are considered and the corresponding equilibrium prices are derived. From the numerical result we examine how the equilibrium prices vary in response to changes in model parameters and highlight the importance of our equilibrium pricing principle.

  8. Price and consumption of tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Puneet Saxena; Hardayal Meena; Daya Krishan Mangal

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jai...

  9. Cost minimization and asset pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Chambers; John Quiggin

    2005-01-01

    A cost-based approach to asset-pricing equilibrium relationships is developed. A cost function induces a stochastic discount factor (pricing kernel) that is a function of random output, prices, and capital stockt. By eliminating opportunities for arbitrage between financial markets and the production technology, firms minimize the current cost of future consumption. The first-order conditions for this cost minimization problem generate the stochastic discount factor. The cost-based approach i...

  10. Essays in Empirical Asset Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    This thesis consists of three essays investigating financial and real estate markets and identifying a relationship between them. A 2008 financial crises provides a perfect example of sizeable interactions between US housing market and equity prices, where a negative shock to house prices trigger...... a word-wide recession. Therefore, understanding forces driving investors behaviour and preferences, which in turn affect asset prices in both equity and housing market are of great interest....

  11. RESTAURANT NO. 3 : PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 3, 2002. Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

  12. Testing Monotonicity of Pricing Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeev, Roman

    2007-01-01

    In this master thesis a mechanism to test mononicity of empirical pricing kernels (EPK) is presented. By testing monotonicity of pricing kernel we can determine whether utility function is concave or not. Strictly decreasing pricing kernel corresponds to concave utility function while non-decreasing EPK means that utility function contains some non-concave regions. Risk averse behavior is usually described by concave utility function and considered to be a cornerstone of classical behavioral ...

  13. Essays in Empirical Asset Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    This thesis consists of three essays investigating financial and real estate markets and identifying a relationship between them. A 2008 financial crises provides a perfect example of sizeable interactions between US housing market and equity prices, where a negative shock to house prices triggered...... a word-wide recession. Therefore, understanding forces driving investors behaviour and preferences, which in turn affect asset prices in both equity and housing market are of great interest....

  14. Corn prices and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, W.

    1979-09-01

    Corn has attracted the most attention as a feedstock for alcohol production. The economics are computed on the basis of fixed costs for labor, taxes, depreciation, heat, and enzymes. Changes in feedstock prices are shown to determine whether corn is used for energy or protein as cattle feed. Comparisons of gasoline refined from imported oil and gasohol are made for a range of prices per bushel and oil prices per barrel. (DCK)

  15. Crystal structures of OprN and OprJ, outer membrane factors of multidrug tripartite efflux pumps of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonehara, Ryo; Yamashita, Eiki; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes tripartite efflux pumps that extrude functionally and structurally dissimilar antibiotics from the bacterial cell. MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, MexEF-OprN, and MexXY-OprM are the main tripartite efflux pumps responsible for multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa. The outer membrane factors OprN, OprJ, and OprM are essential components of functional tripartite efflux pumps. To elucidate the structural basis of multidrug resistance, we determined the crystal structures of OprN and OprJ. These structures revealed several features, including tri-acylation of the N-terminal cysteine, a small pore in the β-barrel domain, and a tightly sealed gate in the α-barrel domain. Despite the overall similarity of OprN, OprJ, and OprM, a comparison of their structures and electrostatic distributions revealed subtle differences at the periplasmic end of the α-barrel domain. These results suggested that the overall structures of these outer membrane factors are specifically optimized for particular tripartite efflux pumps. Proteins 2016; 84:759-769. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. From tariffs to prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, D. Eduardo Martin [Endesa, Principe de Vergara 187, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    It looks like that all over the World things are changing. Many countries, Spain among them, where electricity regulations were usual, are changing their regulatory mainframe. Since January 1, 1998, electricity production is a deregulated activity in Spain. There has to be open market competition. Prices that are very important for the time coming, have to cover the production cost plus some profits in order to maintain the company profitability. This cultural change applies to all our production facilities, including nuclear power plants. Taking into account this new situation and the nuclear competitiveness, it is important for all of us to understand this issue. As it is well known, nuclear energy is capital intensive, that means it has to compete as base load units due to their low operating costs and their large capital ones. For that reason it is important to reduce as much as possible the operating and maintenance cost as well as the fuel one, which will allow nuclear plants to compete in marginal costs with others units. Nuclear energy, in Spain, is not going to fix the pool price but it has to recover some depreciation through it, the remaining being recovered by the recognition of an important part of the stranded cost. (author)

  17. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  19. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...

  20. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Price setting in turbulent times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursdóttir, Ásgerdur; Vignisdóttir, Karen Á.

    -dependent pricing increases as domestic labour costs rise relative to total production costs. The results provide important insight into inflation dynamics due to an interaction between high and asymmetric exchange rate pass-through and price indexation. This interaction causes an exchange rate depreciation...... in the domestic market by their direct exposure to exchange rate movements captured by imported input costs as a share of total p duction costs. More exposed firms are found to be more likely to use state-dependent pricing, to adjust their prices in response to exchange rate changes, and to rely on increasing...

  2. Price transparency for medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V; Burns, Lawton R

    2008-01-01

    Hospital buyers of medical devices contract with manufacturers with market power that sell differentiated products. The medical staff strongly influences hospitals' choice of devices. Sellers have sought to limit disclosure of transaction prices. Policy-makers have proposed legislation mandating disclosure, in the interest of greater transparency. We discuss why a manufacturer might charge different prices to different hospitals, the role that secrecy plays, and the consequences of secrecy versus disclosure. We argue that hospital-physician relationships are key to understanding what manufacturers gain from price discrimination. Price disclosure can catalyze a restructuring of those relationships, which, in turn, can improve hospital bargaining.

  3. Artificial Shortages and Strategic Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We consider a monopolist who manipulates the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods. The approach is to develop an intertemporal model of pricing strategy for a monopolist. Approach: The postulated pricing strategy creates an incentive for producers to reduce current supply and raise current prices and sacrifice current profits in order to increase future profits. The main problem is to explain the precise mathematical conditions under which the pricing strategy will be chosen by a monopolist. Results: We derive the optimal pricing strategy to argue that the monopolist has an incentive to adopt simple market manipulation that calls forth a close examination of issues concerning deregulation. Conclusion: The paper examines two possible strategies for a typical monopolist-strategic pricing vis-a-vis a myopic pricing. The intuition is that the monopolist can manipulate the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods.

  4. Prices of RE Products Soaring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Prices of light rare earth products in Baotou rose on the full scale in July. Price of lanthana reached RMB 12,000 - 13,000/t, that of ceria RMB 12,000/t, praseodymia RMB 70,000 - 72,000/t, Pr-Nd oxides RMB 52,000/t, neodymia RMB 65,000/t. Despite the high price of Pr-Nd oxides and neodymia, no goods are available at hand. Price rising is attributed to enforcement of environmental protection policy and heightening project suspending of Baogang tailings dam. RE separation enterprises along Yellow River have ...

  5. Price Strategies in Banking Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cetina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available All organizations must settle a price for the services they offer. The price for services is an important element of the marketing mix, being an important income source for the organization. The settlement of a correct price, both for the market and the competition, is a significant element for the sector of financial - banking services. Another important factor to take into consideration is the fact that the banks do not settle only the prices for individual services, but also coordinate their prices for service packages. As the competition in the financial - banking services has intensified, the settlement of correct prices has become an essential element for the marketing strategy. Nevertheless it is important to remind that the price is not a central element. There are other significant grounds, the price being only one of the elements of the marketing mix. Although in Romania many customers may be sensitive in present to the price, as the competition will increase, the quality of the services will become more important to the customers, and the demand will be complex.

  6. Modeling the Effect of Oil Price on Global Fertilizer Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of crude oil price on global fertilizer prices in both the mean and volatility. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and alternative volatility models, including the

  7. Consumer food choices: the role of price and pricing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Waterlander, Wilma E; de Mul, Anika

    2011-12-01

    To study differences in the role of price and value in food choice between low-income and higher-income consumers and to study the perception of consumers about pricing strategies that are of relevance during grocery shopping. A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured, written questionnaires. Food choice motives as well as price perceptions and opinion on pricing strategies were measured. The study was carried out in point-of-purchase settings, i.e. supermarkets, fast-food restaurants and sports canteens. Adults (n 159) visiting a point-of-purchase setting were included. Price is an important factor in food choice, especially for low-income consumers. Low-income consumers were significantly more conscious of value and price than higher-income consumers. The most attractive strategies, according to the consumers, were discounting healthy food more often and applying a lower VAT (Value Added Tax) rate on healthy food. Low-income consumers differ in their preferences for pricing strategies. Since price is more important for low-income consumers we recommend mainly focusing on their preferences and needs.

  8. Assistive technology pricing in Australia: is it efficient and equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Michael P; Verikios, George

    2017-02-06

    Objective To examine available systematically collected evidence regarding prices for assistive technology (AT; e.g. disability aids and equipment) in Australia with other comparable countries. Issues of appropriate AT pricing are coming to the fore as a consequence of efforts to move to consumer-centric purchasing decisions with the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and also in the recent aged care reforms.Methods We identified and present three sets of AT price comparisons. Two comparisons were based solely on the lowest prices advertised on the internet, and one comparison examined recommended retail prices. Variables essential to ensuring accurate comparisons, as well as significant supply-chain issues were also examined and considered in the analyses.Results The first internet-only price comparison found that overall AT prices were 38% higher in Australia compared to other countries, but did not factor in shipping and other related costs that are essential to include given that most AT is imported. The second internet-only price comparison found that overall Australian prices were 24% lower when shipping and related costs were included. The recommended retail price comparisons found that Australian prices were between 14% and 27% lower. Prices for internet-only retailers (those with no bricks-and-mortar presence) are consistently lower for all products than those sold by retailers with actual shop-fronts. Further, there is no evidence of suppliers earning supranormal profits in Australia.Conclusions The results indicate that AT prices in Australia are efficient and equitable, with no significant indicators of market failure which would require government intervention. Efforts to reduce prices through the excessive use of large-scale government procurement programs are likely to reduce diversity and innovation in AT and raise AT prices over time. Open markets and competition with centralised tracking of purchases and providers to minimise possible

  9. Overexpression of feline tripartite motif-containing 25 interferes with the late stage of feline leukemia virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, Ryota; Oguma, Keisuke; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2015-06-02

    Tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) regulates various cellular processes through E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of TRIM25 is induced by type I interferon and that TRIM25 is involved in the host cellular innate immune response against retroviral infection. Although retroviral infection is prevalent in domestic cats, the roles of feline TRIM25 in the immune response against these viral infections are poorly understood. Because feline TRIM25 is expected to modulate the infection of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), we investigated its effects on early- and late-stage FeLV replication. This study revealed that ectopic expression of feline TRIM25 in HEK293T cells reduced viral protein levels leading to the inhibition of FeLV release. Our findings show that feline TRIM25 has a potent antiviral activity and implicate an antiviral mechanism whereby feline TRIM25 interferes with late-stage FeLV replication.

  10. [Cross-cultural adaptation: translation and Portuguese language content validation of the Tripartite Influence Scale for body dissatisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Maria Aparecida; Scagliusi, Fernanda; Queiroz, Gisele Kawamura de Oliveira; Hearst, Norman; Cordás, Táki Athanássios

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Tripartite Influence Scale to the Portuguese language and evaluate its content validity and internal consistency. Six steps included: (1) translation; (2) back-translation; (3) technique revision and semantic evaluation; (4) conduct validation by professional experts (judges); (5) assessment of comprehensibility by the target population, using a verbal rating scale; and (6) evaluation of the internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 43 questions were translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. The final version consisted of 39 items, with content validity for three constructs (media, family, and friends), clarity and easy understanding, and good internal agreement (Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.80). The instrument was successfully translated and adapted to Portuguese and showed good content validity, verbal comprehensibility, and internal consistency. Further analysis of external validity, equivalence of measurement, and reproducibility are necessary.

  11. Pricing effects on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  12. Considerations regarding price in oligopolistic structured markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economists report price rigidity in markets with oligopolistic structures, while explaining the phenomenon. If an oligopolistic firm raises prices, other prices will remain stable in oligopolistic firms, so we will see a significant decrease in sales volume in the firm which increased prices. To avoid this situation an oligopolistic company will not initiate price increases. If oligopolistic firms lower prices, other oligopolistic firms will reduce prices promptly and the result will be that of lower volume of sales - will sell the same physical volume of goods but at a lower price. To avoid this situation, the company will not initiate oligopolistic price decreases.

  13. Power law cross-correlations between price change and volume change of Indian stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Rashid; Mohammed Salim, M.

    2017-05-01

    We study multifractal long-range correlations and cross-correlations of daily price change and volume change of 50 stocks that comprise Nifty index of National Stock Exchange, Mumbai, using MF-DFA and MF-DCCA methods. We find that the time series of price change are uncorrelated, whereas anti-persistent long-range multifractal correlations are found in volume change series. We also find antipersistent long-range multifractal cross-correlations between the time series of price change and volume change. As multifractality is a signature of complexity, we estimate complexity parameters of the time series of price change, volume change, and cross-correlated price-volume change by fitting the fourth-degree polynomials to their multifractal spectra. Our results indicate that the time series of price change display high complexity, whereas the time series of volume change and cross-correlated price-volume change display low complexity.

  14. Economic impacts of a transition to higher oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, Jr, R. G.; Carhart, S. C.; Marcuse, W.

    1978-06-01

    Economic impacts of sharply higher oil and gas prices in the eighties are estimated using a combination of optimization and input-output models. A 1985 Base Case is compared with a High Case in which crude oil and crude natural gas are, respectively, 2.1 and 1.4 times as expensive as in the Base Case. Impacts examined include delivered energy prices and demands, resource consumption, emission levels and costs, aggregate and compositional changes in gross national product, balance of payments, output, employment, and sectoral prices. Methodology is developed for linking models in both quantity and price space for energy service--specific fuel demands. A set of energy demand elasticities is derived which is consistent between alternative 1985 cases and between the 1985 cases and an historical year (1967). A framework and methodology are also presented for allocating portions of the DOE Conservation budget according to broad policy objectives and allocation rules.

  15. Is College Pricing Power Pro-Cyclical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altringer, Levi; Summers, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We define pricing power as a college's ability to increase its net tuition revenue by raising its sticker-price for tuition. The greater is the positive effect of sticker-price increases on net tuition revenue, the greater is the pricing power. We gauge variation in the pricing power of private, non-profit baccalaureate colleges by estimating this…

  16. Airport Pricing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  17. The Nominal Share Price Puzzle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William C. Weld; Roni Michaely; Richard H. Thaler; Shlomo Benartzi

    2009-01-01

    ... investigate in this paper is whether vestigial norms and customs affect corporate decision making. Consider the following fact: The average nominal price for a share of stock on the New York Stock exchange has remained roughly constant (about $35) since the Great Depression. The mechanism that has allowed share prices to remain remarkably con...

  18. Asset prices and monetary policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Issing, Otmar

    2009-01-01

    ... the opposite. For central banks the relation between monetary policy and asset prices has gained new interest and the dominant view has come under critique. The Consensus View There is a broad consensus around the world that central banks should maintain price stability--keeping inflation low and stable. This objective is reflected in the mandate given to the ce...

  19. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  20. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  1. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  2. Option price and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  3. Organic Chemicals Remain High Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Phenol In early April 2007, China's phenol price remained bullish, and with the restart of phenol/acetone units in Sinopec Beijing Yanhua Petrochemical being ahead of schedule, there were few trading actions in the market, and the price of phenol dropped considerably afterwards.

  4. Price as indicator for quality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper examines the relation between price differences and quality differences in an oligopoly model with intra-industry trade, where goods are horizontally as well as vertically differentiated. The analysis demonstrates that the ratio of prices is not linked to the ratio of qualities in any ...

  5. Energies prices; Prix des energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-15

    This document offers a synthesis of the tariffs and the energies prices in august 2005 in Paris, compared with the years 2003 and 2004. This sectoral presentation (transports, houses, industry) provides thus statistics on the prices of fuels, heating, propane, coal, wood fuels, electric power and gas. (A.L.B.)

  6. The true Price of Chocolate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Chocoloney, T.

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate prices generally do not incorporate many of the environmental and social externalities, costs which are incurred as the main ingredients such as cocoa and sugar move from farms, to factories to consumers. Nor do prices reflect the benefits of non-conventional production and alternative mod

  7. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  8. Strammere retningslinjer om transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2015-01-01

    Transfer pricing vedrører prisfastsættelsen på transaktioner, der foregår mellem koncernforbundne selskaber og er fortsat et tema, der nyder stort fokus hos både multinationale koncerner og skattemyndigheder. For den multinationale koncern er transfer pricing i høj grad en aktivitet, der består i...

  9. Pricing Films, Filmstrips and Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1984-01-01

    Examines pricing practices of major producers of educational materials: Weston Woods, Listening Library, Random House Educational Media, Live Oak Media, S&S Communications Group, Phoenix/BFA, Benchmark, and Churchill Films. Royalties, production and manufacturing costs, list prices, recoveries to producers, and marketing are noted. (EJS)

  10. CONSTRUCTING MECHANISMS OF FOOD PRICE FORMATION AND MONITORING APPLICABLE TO CHINA'S NATIONAL CONDITIONS AND FOOD CONDITIONS%构建适合国情和粮情的粮价形成和监管机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋廷明

    2012-01-01

    在分析粮食既是商品又是公益性产品的特点、粮价形成和实现的主要影响因素基础上,提出构建新型粮食价格监管机制的框架设想:坚持通过市场形成粮价、政府和市场共担粮食价值补偿、健全政府粮食储备、加大涉农补贴和投入、开拓国际粮源、强化粮价监管。%The paper analyses the features of food as both commodities and public products and the major factors influencing grain price formation and realization,based on which advances the idea of constructing a new framework of food price monitoring mechanism: the formation of grain prices by market forces,the government and market sharing food value compensation,improving grain reserves of the government,increased agriculture subsidies and investment,exploring the international grain resources,strengthening grain regulation.

  11. Spatial behavior of prices in the Russian Federation in 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vladimirovna Stupnikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of economic development and specifics of the spatial position of regions implies that the regional markets in the country are characterized by varying degrees and trends of price dynamics. The multidirectional and disproportionate changes in the prices in the regional markets, in turn, show that integration in the national market is poor. The work presents the results of research into the spatial behavior of prices in the Russian Federation in 2003–2012, carried out mainly using the descriptive analysis of consumer prices based on the identification of the measures of dispersion of price indicators – standard deviation and the range of variation. The analysis of consumer price indices dynamics shows that the year 2008 is a period of greatest price growth, and also proves that the prices for services and foodstuffs are subject to the highest fluctuations. The analysis of the prices for the fixed set of goods and services shows that consumer prices in the Russian Federation subjects during the analyzed period changed unevenly; however, beginning from 2009 there is a positive trend of reducing fluctuations in their growth rates. The assessment of the spatial dynamics of consumer prices in Russia in 2003–2012 reveals the regions that deviate from the general trend of price behavior to the greatest extent. Judging by the results of the assessment, the greatest differences in prices were observed in the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD. Another important fact is as follows: the high volatility of food prices was observed not only in the remote regions, but also in the neighboring subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District; it allows us to assume that the integration of the food market of the border regions of the district at the national level is poor

  12. Pricing and price strategies on the example of real business project

    OpenAIRE

    Eichlerová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis aims to define processes and strategies in pricing as the one of the marketing mix tools, to appraise the customer segmentation as inseparable tool for finding profitable price and to prove its meaning and applicability at the real business project. First chapter is dealing with the definition of price and micro-economical perspective on price and price determination. It observes, what influences the price and price perception. It represents the price as a component of marketing to...

  13. Ethical aspect price decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers, whose irreverence does not entail any juridical sanctions, rather its application is sanctioned by the self - awareness. The acception and stability of the ethical aspect price decision making are determined by the characteristic of selected marketing environment.

  14. Spatial Data Web Services Pricing Model Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Colak, S.; Cankurt, I.; Bakıcı, S.

    2013-08-01

    most important law with related NSDI is the establishment of General Directorate of Geographic Information System under the Ministry of Environment and Urbanism. due to; to do or to have do works and activities with related to the establishment of National Geographic Information Systems (NGIS), usage of NGIS and improvements of NGIS. Outputs of these projects are served to not only public administration but also to Turkish society. Today for example, TAKBIS data (cadastre services) are shared more than 50 institutions by Web services, Tusaga-Aktif system has more than 3800 users who are having real-time GPS data correction, Orthophoto WMS services has been started for two years as a charge of free. Today there is great discussion about data pricing among the institutions. Some of them think that the pricing is storage of the data. Some of them think that the pricing is value of data itself. There is no certain rule about pricing. On this paper firstly, pricing of data storage and later on spatial data pricing models in different countries are investigated to improve institutional understanding in Turkey.

  15. a Spatial Analysis on Gis-Hedonic Pricing Model on the Influence of Public Open Space and House Price in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainora, A. M.; Norzailawati, M. N.; Tuminah, P.

    2016-06-01

    Presently, it is noticeable that there is a significant influence of public open space about house price, especially in many developed nations. Literature suggests the relationship between the two aspects give impact on the housing market, however not many studies undertaken in Malaysia. Thus, this research was initiated to analyse the relationship of open space and house price via the techniques of GIS-Hedonic Pricing Model. In this regards, the GIS tool indicates the pattern of the relationship between open space and house price spatially. Meanwhile, Hedonic Pricing Model demonstrates the index of the selected criteria in determining the housing price. This research is a perceptual study of 200 respondents who were the house owners of double-storey terrace houses in four townships, namely Bandar Baru Bangi, Taman Melawati, Subang Jaya and Shah Alam, in Klang Valley. The key research question is whether the relationship between open space and house price exists and the nature of its pattern and intensity. The findings indicate that there is a positive correlation between open space and house price. Correlation analysis reveals that a weak relationship (rs research has achieved its research aims and thus, offers the value added in applying the GIS-Hedonic pricing model in analysing the influence of open space to the house price in the form of spatially and textually.

  16. World oil prices, precious metal prices and macroeconomy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur; Sari, Ramazan [Middle East Technical University, Department of Business Administration, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Hammoudeh, Shawkat [Drexel University, LeBow College of Business, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hacihasanoglu, Erk [Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    We examine the long- and short-run transmissions of information between the world oil price, Turkish interest rate, Turkish lira-US dollar exchange rate, and domestic spot gold and silver price. We find that the world oil price has no predictive power of the precious metal prices, the interest rate or the exchange rate market in Turkey. The results also show that the Turkish spot precious metals, exchange rate and bond markets do not also provide information that would help improve the forecasts of world oil prices in the long run. The findings suggest that domestic gold is also considered a safe haven in Turkey during devaluation of the Turkish lira, as it is globally. It is interesting to note that there does not seem to be any significant influence of developments in the world oil markets on Turkish markets in the short run either. However, transitory positive initial impacts of innovations in oil prices on gold and silver markets are observed. The short-run price transmissions between the world oil market and the Turkish precious metal markets have implications for policy makers in emerging markets and both local and global investors in the precious metals market and the oil market. (author)

  17. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... value and, in an investigation, prices used as the basis for export price or constructed export price as...

  18. Agricultural commodity prices and oil prices: mutual causation

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The world market price of many commodities including US corn (maize) peaked sharply in 2008. The US Energy Policy Act (2005) led to a rapid rise in demand for corn ethanol as a partial substitute for gasoline in the USA. In this paper we report analysis of weekly prices of corn, wheat, sugar and crude oil, together with monthly series derived from those and other weekly prices, for two consecutive seven year periods: 1999-2005 and 2006-2012. We find strong evidence of cointegration between pr...

  19. CNOOC Revenue Gains Dramatically on Rising Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    CNOOC Ltd., the listed arm of China National Offshore Corporation (CNOOC), the largest offshore oil and gas producer in China, produced a total of 80.9 million barrels of oil equivalent in the third quarter in 2011, down 9.1 percent from the same period last year as it shut the country's largest offshore oil field after an oil spill off China's northern coast. However, the company posted a 23.7 percent gain in third-quarter revenue from a year earlier as it benefited from rising oil and gas prices,

  20. Pricing General Insurance in a Competitive Market

    OpenAIRE

    Burcã Ana-Maria; Bãtrînca Ghiorghe

    2012-01-01

    In insurance industry, the lack of a proper pricing policy will generate suboptimal results. The price has to be competitive and actuarially adequate in order to reflect the dimension of risk. In a competitive market, the pricing policy of insurance companies acquires the capacities of a dynamic process. In this pricing war, the insurance company must analyze each component of pricing. Insurance companies use various statistical methods to set prices, taking in consideration the interaction b...

  1. How Do Companies Use the Price Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚男; 赵翠玲

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 .Introduction With the development of the globalization, companies face many challenges.Pricing strategy is a part of their marketing efforts.Price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenues; all other elements re present cost.So pricing and price competition is the number-one problem facing many marketing executives.To select an initial price, companies should using pricing

  2. Commodity Price Volatility: Causes, Effects and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mugera, Harriet Kasidi

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural commodities experienced substantial increases in prices over the most recent decade with major surges in both 2007-08 and again in 2010-11. These price movements coincided with sharp rises in energy prices, in particular crude oil. Sharp increases in agricultural prices were not uncommon, but it is the short period between the recent two price surges that has drawn concerns and raised questions. What were the causes of the increase in world agricultural prices and what are the pr...

  3. Water Demand Under Alternative Price Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Olmstead; W. Michael Hanemann; Robert N. Stavins

    2007-01-01

    We estimate the price elasticity of water demand with household-level data, structurally modeling the piecewise-linear budget constraints imposed by increasing-block pricing. We develop a mathematical expression for the unconditional price elasticity of demand under increasing-block prices and compare conditional and unconditional elasticities analytically and empirically. We test the hypothesis that price elasticity may depend on price structure, beyond technical differences in elasticity co...

  4. Water Demand Under Alternative Price Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Olmstead; W. Michael Hanemann; Robert N. Stavins

    2007-01-01

    We estimate the price elasticity of water demand with household-level data, structurally modeling the piecewise-linear budget constraints imposed by increasing-block pricing. We develop a mathematical expression for the unconditional price elasticity of demand under increasing-block prices and compare conditional and unconditional elasticities analytically and empirically. We test the hypothesis that price elasticity may depend on price structure, beyond technical differences in elasticity co...

  5. International Menu Costs and Price Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Schoenle

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze how the pricing behavior of firms systematically differs across domes- tic and export markets in terms of frequency, timing and size of price changes. First, I contrast domestic and export pricing decisions for the same products showing that (i) domestic producer prices change approximately twice as often as export producer prices, (ii) the probability of syn- chronized price adjustment across markets is 21% for upwards adjustments and 14% for downwards adjustments, (...

  6. 资产价格、国债、货币供应量与通货膨胀间的动态联系——基于C—VECM模型的经验分析%The Dynamic Relationship between Asset Price, National Debt, Money Supply and Inflation —— Based on C -VECM Model Empirical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌美琦; 周茂华; 段岩燕

    2011-01-01

    Inflation is getting more and more prominent in China while the socialist market economy is experiencing fast development. To verify the main influence factors on inflation, the author empirically analyzes the dynamic relationship between the three variables of asset price, national debt, money supply and inflation, combining with a large number of related researches both at home and abroad as well as using the C / VECM model. Consequently, it shows that asset price and money supply exert an obvious and positive influence on inflation whereas national debt in a short term has no obvious impact on inflation.%在我国社会主义市场经济飞速发展的同时,通货膨胀现象日益凸显。为验证通货膨胀的主要影响因素,笔者结合大量国内、外相关研究,运用C-VECM模型构建并经验分析了资产价格、国债、货币供应量3个变量与通货膨胀间的动态联系。经验分析结果表明:资产价格和货币供应量对通货膨胀的影响正向且显著,而国债在短期内对通货膨胀并无显著影响。

  7. Antimicrobial price variation: Conundrum of medical profession!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rataboli P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoeconomics plays a pivotal role in clinical practice. High medicine prices can adversely affect a patient′s finances and compliance. The Indian pharmaceutical industry has become a cornucopia of medicines with wide variation in prices for the same medicine marketed under different brand names. Price list of available antimicrobial brands was procured from a commercial drug directory. Average price of widely prescribed oral antimicrobials was found and price variation between different brands was calculated. The variation in medicine prices was found to be from 95% lower to more than 350% higher than the average price. Implications of price variation in clinical practice are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

  8. Garment Prices Drop in July CPI and PPI Pace of Decline May Be Easing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Data China’s consumer price index (CPI), a main gauge of inflation, dipped 1.8 percent in July from a year earlier to 98.2, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) announced on Aug. 11. Of which, the price of garment

  9. Pricing hospital care: Global budgets and marginal pricing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-08-01

    The Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) is adding financial incentives to increase the volume of surgeries provided by hospitals using a marginal pricing approach. The objective of this study is to calculate marginal costs of surgeries based on assumptions regarding hospitals' availability of labor and equipment. This study is based on observational clinical, administrative and financial data generated by hospitals. Hospital inpatient and outpatient discharge summaries from the province are linked with detailed activity-based costing information, stratified by assigned case mix categorizations. To reflect a range of operating constraints governing hospitals' ability to increase their volume of surgeries, a number of scenarios are proposed. Under these scenarios, estimated marginal costs are calculated and compared to prices being offered as incentives to hospitals. Existing data can be used to support alternative strategies for pricing hospital care. Prices for inpatient surgeries do not generate positive margins under a range of operating scenarios. Hip and knee surgeries generate surpluses for hospitals even under the most costly labor conditions and are expected to generate additional volume. In health systems that wish to fine-tune financial incentives, setting prices that create incentives for additional volume should reflect knowledge of hospitals' underlying cost structures. Possible implications of mis-pricing include no response to the incentives or uneven increases in supply. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Access to paediatric essential medicines: a survey of prices, availability, affordability and price components in Shaanxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prices and availability of paediatric essential medicines in Shaanxi Province, China. METHODS: Price and availability data for 28 paediatric essential medicines were collected from 60 public hospitals and 60 retail pharmacies in six areas of Shaanxi Province using a standardised methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International, during November to December 2012. Affordability was measured as the number of days' wages required for the lowest-paid unskilled government worker to purchase standard treatments for common conditions. Data on medicine price components were collected from hospitals, wholesalers and distributors to obtain price mark-ups. FINDINGS: The mean availabilities of originator brands (OBs and lowest-priced generics (LPGs were 10.8% and 27.3% in the public hospitals and 11.9% and 20.6% in the private pharmacies. The public procurement and retail prices were 2.25 and 2.59 times the international reference prices (IRPs for three OBs, and 0.52 and 0.93 times for 20 LPGs. In the private sector, the final prices for OBs and LPGs were 3.89 and 1.25 times their IRPs. The final price in the private sector was 2.7% lower than in the public sector for OBs, and 14.1% higher for LPGs. Generally, standard treatments cost less than 1 day's wages in both sectors. Distribution mark-ups applied to brand salbutamol in Xi'an was 65.5%, and up to 185.3% for generic. Cumulative mark-ups for LPGs in Ankang were also high, from 33% to 50%. The manufacturer's selling price is the largest contributor to the final price in both areas. CONCLUSIONS: The government should approve a list of national paediatric essential medicines. The availability, price and affordability of these should be improved in both public hospitals and private pharmacies to enable children to obtain effective treatment. Measures should be taken to improve the efficiency of the centralised medicine purchasing system.

  11. Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Steel Price Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, John F.; Corathers, Lisa A.; Edelstein, Daniel L.; Fenton, Michael D.; Kuck, Peter H.; Magyar, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary This report contains the 55 slide images from a presentation made by the author at the meeting of the Metal Powder Industries Federation held in Denver, CO, on May 15, 2007. The Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) invited the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to speak at their annual meeting about the price drivers for chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and steel. These metals are of interest to MPIF because the prices of these raw materials used by their industry were at historically high levels. Because the USGS closely monitors, yet neither buys nor sells, metal commodities, it is an unbiased source of metal price information and analysis. The authors used information about these and other metals collected and published by the USGS (U.S. production, trade, stocks, and prices) and about consumption and stocks internationally by country from industry organizations that publish such information, because metal markets are influenced by activities and events over the entire globe. By seeking a common cause for common behavior among the various metal commodities, the authors found that major price drivers on metal commodities were inflation, major international events such as wars and recessions, and major national events such as the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 and economic growth in China, which started with the open door policy in the 1970s but did not have significant market impact until starting in the 1990s. Metal commodity prices also responded to commodity-specific events.

  12. Food price volatility and hunger alleviation – can Cannes work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajkowicz Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have seen global food prices rise and become more volatile. Price surges in 2008 and 2011 held devastating consequences for hundreds of millions of people and negatively impacted many more. Today one billion people are hungry. The issue is a high priority for many international agencies and national governments. At the Cannes Summit in November 2011, the G20 leaders agreed to implement five objectives aiming to mitigate food price volatility and protect vulnerable persons. To succeed, the global community must now translate these high level policy objectives into practical actions. In this paper, we describe challenges and unresolved dilemmas before the global community in implementing these five objectives. The paper describes recent food price volatility trends and an evaluation of possible causes. Special attention is given to climate change and water scarcity, which have the potential to impact food prices to a much greater extent in coming decades. We conclude the world needs an improved knowledge base and new analytical capabilities, developed in parallel with the implementation of practical policy actions, to manage food price volatility and reduce hunger and malnutrition. This requires major innovations and paradigm shifts by the global community.

  13. Dynamic Price Dispersion of Storable Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I provide an analytical model for the rationale behind supermarket pricing patterns characterized by long-term high prices and temporary price reductions. Based on the understanding that temporary price reductions serve the role of price discrimination between consumers with different...... search costs and willingness to wait, I construct a dynamic model of oligopoly retailers selling a homogeneous storable good. The model takes into account consumer heterogeneity with respect to search cost, inventory cost, and store loyalty. I demonstrate that the high-price-low-price pattern is rational...... for storable goods. In a Markov-perfect equilibrium, agents’ actions depend on consumer inventory, and purchase decisions are characterized by a critical price. The equilibrium price series consists of one-time price reductions and several consecutive periods in which all retailers offer the regular price...

  14. Dynamic Price Dispersion of Storable Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I provide an analytical model for the rationale behind supermarket pricing patterns characterized by long-term high prices and temporary price reductions. The model is based on the understanding that temporary price reductions serve the role of price discrimination between consumers...... with different search costs and willingness to wait. I demonstrate that the high-price-low-price pattern is rational for storable goods. In a Markov-perfect equilibrium, agents’ actions depend on consumer inventory, and purchase decisions are characterized by a critical price. The equilibrium price series...... consists of one-time price reductions and several consecutive periods in which all retailers offer the regular price. The model predicts that competition is the hardest when consumer inventories are zero, and that at high inventory levels the probability of holding a sale is low....

  15. The Consumer Price Index and Salary Negotiations. Research Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Carolyn S.

    1975-01-01

    This report discusses use of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) to compute cost-of-living adjustments for wages and salaries in general and teachers' salaries in particular. A number of tables and graphs compare average annual salary increases for Connecticut teachers in 1967-74 with annual increases in the national CPI, the Boston area CPI, the New…

  16. Oil Price Likely to Spur Chinese Industry Restructuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Concern over surging oil prices could mean the restructuring and upgrading of China's industries,according to a United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) official, who made those remarks in Changchun, the capital of Northeastern China's Jinlin Province, in early September, when the 4th Northeast Asia Investment and Trade Exno was held.

  17. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  18. Effects of rising food prices on household food security on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... ... 44 million people into poverty.3 It was found in the South African National Health and ... annual inflation rate in January 2013 was 5.4%. This rate was ... In addition, rising food prices made high quality food scarce for poorer.

  19. Which price index for Eurozone index-linked bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Index-linked bonds (ILBs) constitute a small but growing segment of the eurozone bond market. Issuers of index-linked bonds face a choice between linking to either a eurozone or a national price index. This paper examines this choice both theoretically and empirically and ends up with the following

  20. Price of Gas Fuels Tough Choices for Adjuncts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasgreen, Allie

    2008-01-01

    The cost of gasoline has made the art of juggling two or more teaching jobs at different institutions all the more difficult for many adjunct faculty members, as continuing price hikes at the nation's gasoline stations cut into salaries that often do not cover living expenses to begin with. These new pressures are particularly evident in…

  1. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  2. Poverty, Policy and Price Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    This thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in which different aspects of the relationship between international commodity markets and domestic food markets are explored. What motivates the analysis is the recent surge in international commodity prices and the controversy over the poverty...... domestic goods. Households prefer the traded good which they substitute towards as their incomes increase, thus exposing themselves to world market price swings. Price transmission from international to domestic markets therefore increases with per capita income but also with income inequality. Model...... using a Bayesian simulation methodology. Three main findings emerge from the analysis. Firstly, it seems that domestic rather than global or regional shocks are the main drivers of domestic food prices in all regions. Secondly, global factors have gained importance since 2005. Food inflation...

  3. European attitudes to water pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    2016-01-01

    Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence......, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions....... Within an extensive spatial dataset constructed for the purpose, we estimate the effect of individual information levels and affordability concerns on the attitude towards environmental water pricing. Information about water problems is found to have a significant and positive effect on attitudes...

  4. Dynamic pricing of a resource

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Dawsari, Monther Abdullah

    2013-06-04

    A method of dynamic pricing of a resource is presented. For example, the method includes determining a set of anticipated demands for one or more users to acquire the resource according to uncertainty of the one or more users in preferring one or more certain time periods of a plurality of time periods for acquiring the resource. Prices for the resource differ between at least two of the plurality of time periods. Each anticipated demand of the set is associated with a different one of the plurality of time periods. The method further includes setting prices for the resource during each of the plurality of time periods according to the determined set of anticipated demands. The determining of the set of anticipated demands and/or the setting of prices are implemented as instruction code executed on a processor device.

  5. Prices of Resins Changed Differently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Polyethylene In early August 2007, due to the low operating rate in downstream plants, the demand was slack, and the offer price of LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene) decrease with few trading actions.

  6. Price Theory and Money Coupled: some Remarks on the Ayres-Martinás Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Gilanyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of economic science is to explain the Wealth of Nations. This tradition implies on the one hand, that wealth must be evaluated i.e.: economic science must elaborate a price theory; on the other hand, money should be integrated in economic theories because prices are expressed in monetary terms. Mainstream economic theory succeeds in price determination (with some limits but fails on money integration, while non-mainstream monetary models succeed on money integration but fail on price determination. In this paper I argue that the Ayres-Martinás theoretical framework is a promising tentative to cope with this challenge of economic science.

  7. Changes in Retail Prices of Prescription Dermatologic Drugs From 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Miranda E; Rosenberg, Steven P

    2016-02-01

    Physicians from many specialties as well as primary care prescribe dermatologic medications; as insurance formularies become increasingly restrictive and more patients are covered with high-deductible insurance plans, many patients are forced to pay high retail prices to obtain their medications. To determine the changes in the prices of commonly prescribed dermatologic medications since 2009 and to identify trends in price increases for different classes of drugs. Four national chain pharmacies received surveys requesting price data on commonly prescribed dermatologic drugs in 2009, 2011, 2014, and 2015. The initial survey requested information on 72 brand-name drugs. Subsequent surveys increased to eventually include 120 additional brand-name drugs and their generic alternatives when available. Owing to the frequency of prescription, diseases treated, or unusual price increases, 19 brand-name drugs surveyed in all 4 years were selected for final price trend analysis, which was conducted from August 1 to 15, 2015. Retail prices of topical and systemic drugs for the treatment of various dermatologic conditions. Prices of surveyed brand-name drugs increased rapidly between 2009 and 2015. Of the 19 brand-name drugs analyzed, the retail prices of 7 drugs more than quadrupled during the study period. Among these 19 drugs, the mean price increase was 401% during the 6-year survey period, with the majority of the price increases occurring after 2011. Prices of topical antineoplastic drugs had the greatest mean absolute and percentage increase ($10,926.58 [1240%]). Prices of drugs in the antiinfective class had the smallest mean absolute increase ($333.99); prices of psoriasis medications had the smallest mean percentage increase (180%). Prices of acne and rosacea medications increased a mean of 195%, and prices of topical corticosteroids increased a mean of 290% during the study period. Selected generic drugs surveyed in 2011 and 2014 also increased a mean of 279% during

  8. Petroleum price; Prix du petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice, J

    2001-07-01

    The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

  9. Price as indicator for quality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper examines the relation between price differences and quality differences in an oligopoly model with intra-industry trade, where goods are horizontally as well as vertically differentiated. The analysis demonstrates that the ratio of prices is not linked to the ratio of qualities in any...... simple way. The paper therefore questions the procedure of using unit value differences between exported and imported goods as criteria for disentangling intra-industry trade in a vertical and a horizontal part....

  10. A Brief Analysis on Main Characters of Two Short Stories-“Hands”and“Adven-ture”in Winesburg, Ohio from Freud’s Tripartite Personality Structure Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘豆

    2014-01-01

    Sherwood Anderson’s masterpiece Winesburg, Ohio is often considered to be the first real modern American novel.“Hands”and“Adventure”are two representative stories of this novel. In this article, the author tries to do a brief analysis on the protagonists of the two stories by using the tripartite personality structure theory of Freud, aiming to get a deeper interpretation and the profound connotation of the stories.

  11. Developmental Hypothyroxinemia and Hypothyroidism Reduce Parallel Fiber-Purkinje Cell Synapses in Rat Offspring by Downregulation of Neurexin1/Cbln1/GluD2 Tripartite Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Song, Binbin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Iodine is a significant micronutrient. Iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism during developmental period can cause cerebellar dysfunction. However, mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, the present research aims to study effects of developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild ID and hypothyroidism caused by severe ID or methimazole (MMZ) on parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses in filial cerebellum. Maternal hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism models were established in Wistar rats using ID diet and deionized water supplemented with different concentrations of potassium iodide or MMZ water. Birth weight and cerebellum weight were measured. We also examined PF-PC synapses using immunofluorescence, and western blot analysis was conducted to investigate the activity of Neurexin1/cerebellin1 (Cbln1)/glutamate receptor d2 (GluD2) tripartite complex. Our results showed that hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism decreased birth weight and cerebellum weight and reduced the PF-PC synapses on postnatal day (PN) 14 and PN21. Accordingly, the mean intensity of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT1) and Calbindin immunofluorescence was reduced in mild ID, severe ID, and MMZ groups. Moreover, maternal hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism reduced expression of Neurexin1/Cbln1/GluD2 tripartite complex. Our study supports the hypothesis that developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism reduce PF-PC synapses, which may be attributed to the downregulation of Neurexin1/Cbln1/GluD2 tripartite complex.

  12. A SPATIAL ANALYSIS ON GIS-HEDONIC PRICING MODEL ON THE INFLUENCE OF PUBLIC OPEN SPACE AND HOUSE PRICE IN KLANG VALLEY, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zainora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently, it is noticeable that there is a significant influence of public open space about house price, especially in many developed nations. Literature suggests the relationship between the two aspects give impact on the housing market, however not many studies undertaken in Malaysia. Thus, this research was initiated to analyse the relationship of open space and house price via the techniques of GIS-Hedonic Pricing Model. In this regards, the GIS tool indicates the pattern of the relationship between open space and house price spatially. Meanwhile, Hedonic Pricing Model demonstrates the index of the selected criteria in determining the housing price. This research is a perceptual study of 200 respondents who were the house owners of double-storey terrace houses in four townships, namely Bandar Baru Bangi, Taman Melawati, Subang Jaya and Shah Alam, in Klang Valley. The key research question is whether the relationship between open space and house price exists and the nature of its pattern and intensity. The findings indicate that there is a positive correlation between open space and house price. Correlation analysis reveals that a weak relationship (rs < 0.1 established between the variable of open space and house price (rs = 0.91, N = 200, p = 0.2. Consequently, the rate of house price change is rather small. In overall, this research has achieved its research aims and thus, offers the value added in applying the GIS-Hedonic pricing model in analysing the influence of open space to the house price in the form of spatially and textually.

  13. Hospital prices and market structure in the hospital and insurance industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Asako S; Vogt, William B; Gaynor, Martin

    2010-10-01

    There has been substantial consolidation among health insurers and hospitals, recently, raising questions about the effects of this consolidation on the exercise of market power. We analyze the relationship between insurer and hospital market concentration and the prices of hospital services. We use a national US dataset containing transaction prices for health care services for over 11 million privately insured Americans. Using three years of panel data, we estimate how insurer and hospital market concentration are related to hospital prices, while controlling for unobserved market effects. We find that increases in insurance market concentration are significantly associated with decreases in hospital prices, whereas increases in hospital concentration are non-significantly associated with increases in prices. A hypothetical merger between two of five equally sized insurers is estimated to decrease hospital prices by 6.7%.

  14. Examining the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Michael James

    Estimating the consumer demand response to changes in the price of gasoline has important implications regarding fuel tax policies and environmental concerns. There are reasons to believe that the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand fluctuates due to changing structural and behavioral factors. In this paper I estimate the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand in two time periods, from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2010. This study utilizes data at both the national and state levels to produce estimates. The short-run price elasticities range from -0.034 to -0.047 during 2001 to 2006, compared to -0.058 to -0.077 in the 2007 to 2010 period. This paper also examines whether there are regional differences in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand in the United States. However, there appears to only be modest variation in price elasticity values across regions.

  15. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  16. Academic Library Responses to Journal Price Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Jean Walstrom; Talaga, James

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the nature and extent of discriminatory pricing by journal publishers, and reports on a survey of academic libraries that was conducted to assess the effectiveness of strategies used by libraries to mitigate the effects of high journal prices and price discrimination, i.e., higher prices for both institutions and foreign subscribers.…

  17. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under arb...

  18. 48 CFR 215.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 215.402... OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.402 Pricing policy. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.402 when conducting cost or price analysis,...

  19. 48 CFR 15.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 15.402... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.402 Pricing policy. Contracting... certified cost or pricing data when required by 15.403-4, along with data other than certified cost...

  20. 10 CFR 218.12 - Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pricing. 218.12 Section 218.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.12 Pricing. The price for oil subject to a supply order issued pursuant to this subpart shall be based on the price...

  1. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S... for which the FEHB Program premiums for the contract term will be less than the threshold at FAR 15...

  2. Two tier pricing system recommendation and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-06-01

    In both the U.S. and the world today the most critical price system problem is the spectacular crude price set by the OPEC monopoly. In the U.S. this $10.00 plus price currently sets the price of 60% of our crude petroleum input. Therefore, the most powerful method available to reduce U.S. crude input price inflation is to reduce the OPEC monopoly price by at least $2 or 20%. At this price, it would supposedly approximate the long run cost of such energy. The situation is reviewed and recommendations and a summary are provided.

  3. Dynamic pricing models for electronic business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Narahari; C V L Raju; K Ravikumar; Sourabh Shah

    2005-04-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending upon the value these customers attribute to a product or service. Today’s digital economy is ready for dynamic pricing; however recent research has shown that the prices will have to be adjusted in fairly sophisticated ways, based on sound mathematical models, to derive the benefits of dynamic pricing. This article attempts to survey different models that have been used in dynamic pricing. We first motivate dynamic pricing and present underlying concepts, with several examples, and explain conditions under which dynamic pricing is likely to succeed. We then bring out the role of models in computing dynamic prices. The models surveyed include inventory-based models, data-driven models, auctions, and machine learning. We present a detailed example of an e-business market to show the use of reinforcement learning in dynamic pricing.

  4. Analysis on the Comparison of Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; LI; Jianmin; SHI

    2013-01-01

    In 2010,the garlic,bean and ginger became more expensive than ever,which made some people’s life harder.In response to such phenomena,the retail price and wholesale price at the producers’ end,the retail price and wholesale price at distributors’ end,and consumption related data(disposable income,consumption expenditure,fresh vegetables amount from 2004 to 2011 were compared and analyzed in this paper.Results showed that the average price(selling price,wholesale price and retail price) of five kinds of vegetables generally rose.There was certain differences in the price change range.Since 2004,especially in 2009 the vegetable prices had been so high that it had influenced the life of low income families in China.

  5. An electricity price model with consideration to load and gas price effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄民翔; 陶小虎; 韩祯祥

    2003-01-01

    Some characteristics of the electricity load and prices are studied, and the relationship between electricity prices and gas (fuel) prices is analyzed in this paper. Because electricity prices are strongly dependent on load and gas prices, the authors constructed a model for electricity prices based on the effects of these two factors; and used the Geometric Mean Reversion Brownian Motion (GMRBM) model to describe the electricity load process, and a Geometric Brownian Motion(GBM) model to describe the gas prices; deduced the price stochastic process model based on the above load model and gas price model. This paper also presents methods for parameters estimation, and proposes some methods to solve the model.

  6. The tripartite model of fear in children with specific phobias: assessing concordance and discordance using the behavioral approach test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas; Allen, Ben; Benoit, Kristy; Cowart, Maria

    2011-08-01

    Lang's tripartite model posits that three main components characterize a fear response: physiological arousal, cognitive (subjective) distress, and behavioral avoidance. These components may occur in tandem with one another (concordance) or they may vary independently (discordance). The behavioral approach test (BAT) has been used to simultaneously examine the three components of the fear response. In the present study, 73 clinic-referred children and adolescents with a specific phobia participated in a phobia-specific BAT. Results revealed an overall pattern of concordance: correlation analyses revealed the three indices were significantly related to one another in the predicted directions. However, considerable variation was noted such that some children were concordant across the response components while others were not. More specifically, based on levels of physiological arousal and subjective distress, two concordant groups (high arousal-high distress, low arousal-low distress) and one discordant (high arousal-low distress or low arousal-high distress) group of youth were identified. These concordant and discordant groups were then compared on the percentage of behavioral steps completed on the BAT. Analyses revealed that the low arousal-low distress group completed a significantly greater percentage of steps than the high arousal-high distress group, and a marginally greater percentage of steps than the discordant group. Potential group differences associated with age, gender, phobia severity, and phobia type were also explored and no significant differences were detected. Implications for theory and treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of culture on tripartite self-concept development in adolescence: a comparison between Han and Uyghur cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdukeram, Ziwida; Mamat, Marhaba; Luo, Wei; Wu, Yanhong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the development of cultural variability in interdependent self-construal by comparing the differences in the tripartite self-concept of adolescent samples from the Han and Uyghur cultures. Participants (460 males, 522 females; M age = 16.3 yr., SD = 4.8) in the sub-phases of pre-, early-, mid-, late- and post-adolescence were asked to completed the revised Twenty Statements Test, and the items generated by the participants were coded into private, relational, and collective self-statements. The private self-statements were further differentiated by personal and social orientation, and the relational self-statements were further coded into family and friend focus. The relational aspect of an individual's self, or personal relationship, became increasingly important with age in the Han cultural groups, whereas the collective aspect of an individual's self, or social identity, became increasingly important with age in the Uyghur cultural groups. These findings seem to show the development of differences between relational and collective interdependent self-construals. Furthermore, these findings emphasize the need for further research into the development of within-cultural differences in self-construal.

  8. Balanced Tripartite Entanglement, the Alternating Group A4 and the Lie Algebra $sl(3,C) \\oplus u(1)$

    CERN Document Server

    Planat, Michel; Saniga, Metod

    2009-01-01

    We discuss three important classes of three-qubit entangled states and their encoding into quantum gates, finite groups and Lie algebras. States of the GHZ and W-type correspond to pure tripartite and bipartite entanglement, respectively. We introduce another generic class B of three-qubit states, that have balanced entanglement over two and three parties. We show how to realize the largest cristallographic group $W(E_8)$ in terms of three-qubit gates (with real entries) encoding states of type GHZ or W [M. Planat, {\\it Clifford group dipoles and the enactment of Weyl/Coxeter group $W(E_8)$ by entangling gates}, Preprint 0904.3691 (quant-ph)]. Then, we describe a peculiar "condensation" of $W(E_8)$ into the four-letter alternating group $A_4$, obtained from a chain of maximal subgroups. Group $A_4$ is realized from two B-type generators and found to correspond to the Lie algebra $sl(3,\\mathbb{C})\\oplus u(1)$. Possible applications of our findings to particle physics and the structure of genetic code are also ...

  9. 变系数模型的稳健估计%Entanglement of Tripartite Bell Diagonal States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵培信; 薛留根

    2011-01-01

    为了研究变系数模型的稳健估计问题,结合B-样条方法和taut string方法得到了一个稳健估计过程;结合局部二次逼近方法,给出了一个迭代算法.数据模拟结果表明所得估计是稳健的.%A necessary condition of entanglement for tripartite 2 (⊕)2 (⊕)3 Bell diagonal states and a sufficient condition of entanglement for 3 (⊕)3 (⊕)3 Bell diagonal states are presented. Moreover, the relation between entanglement of 3(⊕)3(⊕)3 Bell diagonal states and partial transpose of density matrix is investigated. And an analytical expression of negative for Bell diagonal states is presented.Key words: Bell diagonal states; entanglement; density matrix Robust Estimation for Varying Coefficient Model Abstract: This paper considers robust estimation of varying coefficient models with emphasis on resistance against outliers. By combining B-splines method with taut string method, a robust estimation procedure is proposed. Based on local quadratic approximation, an iterative algorithm is introduced. Simulation study indicates that the proposed method is robust.

  10. Impact of Oil Price Fluctuation on China's Petroleum Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Based on the sampling survey on the countries with population exceeding 100 million people, China ranks ninth among the 10 large population countries for the national security of natural resources and environment, only ahead of Japan. What is worse, the population growth and promotion of living standard exert greater pressure on the currently weak natural resources and environment. The recent upward trend of oil price has caused concerns from the society. People may ask whether the current oil price fluctuation will affect China's petroleum security.

  11. Environmental Pricing: Studies in Policy Choices and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas of current practice that must be addressed. Empirical studies of policy strategies are discussed to illustrate the extent to which current climate change policy is integrated against the proposed successful policy combinations that are presented in this insightful book. Environmental pricing......Environmental taxes can be efficient tools for successful environmental policy. Their use, however, has been limited in many countries. This thoughtful book explores the scope of environmental pricing and examines a variety of national experiences in environmental policy integration, to identify...

  12. Measuring the quality of the producer price index

    OpenAIRE

    John Morris; Tegwen Green

    2007-01-01

    Presents initial ONS estimates of standard errors for two growth rate measures of the gross sector output PPI.The calculation of standard errors for the output producer price index (PPI) has been investigated with the aim of measuring the quality of the growth rates of the published price indices. This article presents, for the first time, Office for National Statistics? (ONS) estimates of the standard errors for month-on-month and 12-month growth rates of the gross sector output PPI. It prov...

  13. Measuring Price Changes: A Study of the Price Indexes. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William H.; Cullison, William E.

    This three-part monograph examines the major price indexes used to measure the intensity of inflation. The first part discusses the recent behavior of prices as measured by the Consumer Price Index (commodities, goods, and services), the Producer Price Index (wholesale prices of crude materials, intermediate materials, supplies, components, and…

  14. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  15. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  16. Oil price shocks and stock market activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, P. [Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Results from a vector autoregression show that oil prices and oil price volatility both play important roles in affecting real stock returns. There is evidence that oil price dynamics have changed. After 1986, oil price movements explain a larger fraction of the forecast error variance in real stock returns than do interest rates. There is also evidence that oil price volatility shocks have asymmetric effects on the economy. 29 refs.

  17. Illustrations of Price Discrimination in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Rascher; Andrew, Schwarz

    2010-01-01

    Price discrimination of this nature, focused on differing degrees of quality, bundled goods, volume discounts, and other forms of second-degree price discrimination, is commonplace in MLB. Indeed, it is safe to say that every single MLB ticket is sold under some form of price discrimination. As teams grow increasingly sophisticated in their pricing strategies, price discrimination is becoming more precise, more wide-spread, and more profitable, while at the same time providing for more oppo...

  18. Endogenous average cost based access pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Pal, Debashis

    2006-01-01

    We consider an industry where a downstream competitor requires access to an upstream facility controlled by a vertically integrated and regulated incumbent. The literature on access pricing assumes the access price to be exogenously fixed ex-ante. We analyze an endogenous average cost based access pricing rule, where both firms realize the interdependence among their quantities and the regulated access price. Endogenous access pricing neutralizes the artificial cost advantag...

  19. Sticky Price Models and Durable Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Barsky; Christopher L. House; Miles Kimball

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that there are striking implications that stem from including durable goods in otherwise conventional sticky price models. The behavior of these models depends heavily on whether durable goods are present and whether these goods have sticky prices. If long-lived durables have sticky prices, then even small durables sectors can cause the model to behave as though most prices were sticky. Conversely, if durable goods prices are flexible then the model exhibits unwelcome behavio...

  20. Marketing aspects of consumer price perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiligiannis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on two theoretical approaches from the marketing literature: first, the degree to which consumers tend to associate a higher product price with a higher quality (price-perceived quality relationship) and second, the assumption that odd prices (prices set just below the nearest round figure) generate higher than expected demand at that level. The thesis concludes that there seems to exist an overall positive weak correlation between product price and perceived quality, whic...

  1. A Reconsideration of Full-Cost Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Nubbemeyer, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    The wide use of full-cost pricing techniques remains an explanandum in both economics and management accounting theory. This work surveys and develops possible theoretical explanations of this industrial pricing behaviour and analyses some of its implications. By recognition of the widespread use of imperfect cost-plus pricing heuristics, observable pricing behaviour, as well as empirical market-level phenomena, can be explained. Furthermore, methodological aspects of marginalist price the...

  2. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  3. Price Impact and Survival of Irrational Traders

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid Kogan; Stephan Ross; Jiang Wang; Mark Westerfield

    2004-01-01

    Milton Friedman argued that irrational traders will consistently lose money, won’t survive and, therefore, cannot influence long run equilibrium asset prices. Since his work, survival and price impact have been assumed to be the same. In this paper, we demonstrate that survival and price impact are two independent concepts. The price impact of irrational traders does not rely on their long-run survival and they can have a significant impact on asset prices even when their wealth becomes negli...

  4. Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    portion of price change that is unexplainable by other means. In previous work with aircraft, Harmon et al. (2014) found that cost progress curves...same time, we noticed that year-over-year price growth for most vehicle systems seemed higher than could be accounted for by simple inflation...quality growth terms attribute some of the observed price growth to that, leaving less unexplained price growth to be accounted for by the price index

  5. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Lars; Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...... education and income are, however, more responsive to the price. Also, essential drugs that prevent deterioration in health and prolong life have lower associated average price sensitivity....

  6. Impact of European pharmaceutical price regulation on generic price competition: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Although economic theory indicates that it should not be necessary to intervene in the generic drug market through price regulation, most EU countries intervene in this market, both by regulating the maximum sale price of generics (price cap) and by setting the maximum reimbursement rate, especially by means of reference pricing systems. We analyse current knowledge of the impact of direct price-cap regulation of generic drugs and the implementation of systems regulating the reimbursement rate, particularly through reference pricing and similar tools, on dynamic price competition between generic competitors in Europe. A literature search was carried out in the EconLit and PubMed databases, and on Google Scholar. The search included papers published in English or Spanish between January 2000 and July 2009. Inclusion criteria included that studies had to present empirical results of a quantitative nature for EU countries of the impact of price capping and/or regulation of the reimbursement rate (reference pricing or similar systems) on price dynamics, corresponding to pharmacy sales, in the generic drug market. The available evidence indicates that price-cap regulation leads to a levelling off of generic prices at a higher level than would occur in the absence of this regulation. Reference pricing systems cause an obvious and almost compulsory reduction in the consumer price of all pharmaceuticals subject to this system, to a varying degree in different countries and periods, the reduction being greater for originator-branded drugs than for generics. In several countries with a reference pricing system, it was observed that generics with a consumer price lower than the reference price do not undergo price reductions until the reference price is reduced, even when there are other lower-priced generics on the market (absence of price competition below the reference price). Beyond the price reduction forced by the price-cap and/or reference pricing regulation itself

  7. Price Discrimination with Asymmetric Firms: The Case of the U.S. Carbonated Soft Drinks Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Shen, Shu

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between price discrimination and vertical product differentiation, using National Brands and Private Labels in the Carbonated Soft Drink market as a case study. We decompose prices difference into quantity dis- count and cost difference across packagings and recover marginal cost by a structural demand model of consumer preference and firm behavior. Our results suggest that in the carbonated soft drinks market, both national brands and private labels o...

  8. Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in 36 developing and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A; Ewen, M; Ross-Degnan, D; Ball, D; Laing, R

    2009-01-17

    WHO and Health Action International (HAI) have developed a standardised method for surveying medicine prices, availability, affordability, and price components in low-income and middle-income countries. Here, we present a secondary analysis of medicine availability in 45 national and subnational surveys done using the WHO/HAI methodology. Data from 45 WHO/HAI surveys in 36 countries were adjusted for inflation or deflation and purchasing power parity. International reference prices from open international procurements for generic products were used as comparators. Results are presented for 15 medicines included in at least 80% of surveys and four individual medicines. Average public sector availability of generic medicines ranged from 29.4% to 54.4% across WHO regions. Median government procurement prices for 15 generic medicines were 1.11 times corresponding international reference prices, although purchasing efficiency ranged from 0.09 to 5.37 times international reference prices. Low procurement prices did not always translate into low patient prices. Private sector patients paid 9-25 times international reference prices for lowest-priced generic products and over 20 times international reference prices for originator products across WHO regions. Treatments for acute and chronic illness were largely unaffordable in many countries. In the private sector, wholesale mark-ups ranged from 2% to 380%, whereas retail mark-ups ranged from 10% to 552%. In countries where value added tax was applied to medicines, the amount charged varied from 4% to 15%. Overall, public and private sector prices for originator and generic medicines were substantially higher than would be expected if purchasing and distribution were efficient and mark-ups were reasonable. Policy options such as promoting generic medicines and alternative financing mechanisms are needed to increase availability, reduce prices, and improve affordability.

  9. Capture market share, raise prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  10. 收入和价格对农户消费需求的影响——基于全国农村住户调查的实证分析%THE EFFECTS OF INCOME AND PRICE TO RURAL HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION——THE EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL RURAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉梅; 王东杰; 吴建寨; 喻闻; 李志强

    2013-01-01

    China rural households' life consumption and food demand are analyzed by using national household survey data of 2009 with the sample of 6199, which is about 10% of the total survey. The two stages method of ELES-AIDS is adopted. The demand elasticity of income and price are estimated to quantify the effects of income and price, and the rising of food price is simulated to analyze its impacts to food consumption. The results show that the consumption of rural households is rising to a new stage. Rural households will improve their life quality and increase more expenditure on residence, culture and education, entertainment, transportation and medical care, and pursue diversity food consumption, such as meat, vegetable, and fruits. Price is still a very important factor to rural household consumption. The rapid rising food price will have an impact on the structure of food consumption, i.e, grain and vegetable will be increased, while, meat, egg, milk, and aquatic product will be decreased. Shopping basket and price stabilization are still substantial to ensure rural households consumption.%利用2009年6199户全国农村住户调查数据(占总样本量的10%),运用ELES-AIDS模型,估算农户的生活消费和食物消费的需求收入弹性和需求价格弹性,分析农户的消费需求特征,收入和价格对农户消费需求的影响,并模拟分析食品价格上涨对食物消费需求的影响.研究表明:农村居民生活消费水平进入到一个新阶段,收入提高后,农民注重提高生活质量,重点增加居住、文化教育娱乐、交通通讯和医疗保健的支出;在食物消费方面更加追求多样化,食物消费结构进一步优化,特别是对肉类、蔬菜和水果的消费需求将增长较快.价格仍然是影响农户消费的重要因素,食物价格的过快上涨,会对农户的食物消费结构调整产生一定的负面影响,即增加粮食、蔬菜等基本食物消费,而相应减少肉、蛋、奶和

  11. How Much Carbon Pricing is in Countries' Own Interests? The Critical Role of Co-Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Ian; Veung, Chandara; Heine, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This paper calculates, for the top twenty emitting countries, how much pricing of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is in their own national interests due to domestic co-benefits. On average, nationally efficient prices are substantial, $57.5 per ton of CO2 (for year 2010), reflecting primarily health co-benefits from reduced air pollution at coal plants and, in some cases, reductions in automobile externalities (net of fuel taxes/subsidies). Pricing co-benefits reduces CO2 emissions from the to...

  12. Model documentation: Electricity market module, electricity finance and pricing submodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the model, describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. The EFP is a regulatory accounting model that projects electricity prices. The model first solves for revenue requirements by building up a rate base, calculating a return on rate base, and adding the allowed expenses. Average revenues (prices) are calculated based on assumptions regarding regulator lag and customer cost allocation methods. The model then solves for the internal cash flow and analyzes the need for external financing to meet necessary capital expenditures. Finally, the EFP builds up the financial statements. The EFP is used in conjunction with the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Inputs to the EFP include the forecast generating capacity expansion plans, operating costs, regulator environment, and financial data. The outputs include forecasts of income statements, balance sheets, revenue requirements, and electricity prices.

  13. Response of the Polish Wheat Prices to the Worlds Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMULCZUK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural commodities prices play crucial role both in farmers income determination and in price relationship establishment for the whole economy. Among the factors influencing the wheat prices, crude oil prices are considered as one of the most important. The aim of this paper was to assess the character of linkage between world crude oil prices and Polish wheat prices. Results of the research confirm the existence of such linkage although the nature and the strength of this relationship changes over time. However, the long-run relationships between the crude oil and Polish wheat prices were not proven. Moreover, growing impact of crude oil prices on Polish wheat prices over time was not detected. The results suggest that exchange rates may strongly influence wheat prices. This in turn may weaken response of Polish wheat prices in relation to world crude oil prices.

  14. Studying the Effects of Negative and Positive Perceptions of Price on Price Mavenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vazifedoost

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of price mavens, little empirical research exists on understanding its theoretical and marketing drivers; especially in different cultural contexts Buyers in Iran often communicate positive and negative purchasing experiences through Word-of-Mouth (WOM, which creates special problems and opportunities for marketers. Price mavenism, which is associated with price-information searching and price-sharing behavior, is often considered as negative dimension of price. The purpose of this study, however, is to propose price mavenism as an outcome variable arising from both positive perceptions of price (prestige sensitivity and negative perceptions (price and value consciousness. For this purpose structured questionnaire was developed to collect data and totaling 206 questionnaires of Iranian consumers were analyzed. The conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling. This study found that prestige sensitivity, price consciousness and value consciousness shaped price mavenism among the Iranians, supporting the idea that price mavenism arises from both positive and negative perceptions of price.

  15. Poverty, Policy and Price Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    This thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in which different aspects of the relationship between international commodity markets and domestic food markets are explored. What motivates the analysis is the recent surge in international commodity prices and the controversy over the poverty...... using a Bayesian simulation methodology. Three main findings emerge from the analysis. Firstly, it seems that domestic rather than global or regional shocks are the main drivers of domestic food prices in all regions. Secondly, global factors have gained importance since 2005. Food inflation...... on the international commodity markets. The fourth paper argues that subsidy programmes can have a destabilizing effect on a country’s inflation in times of surging commodity prices if these lead to chronic public deficits. In the empirical analysis we compare the recent inflation experiences of Egypt, which has...

  16. Analysis of Cryptocurrencies Price Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lansky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrencies are a type of digital currencies based on cryptography principles. Cryptocurrencies are a unique combination of three characteristics: they provide anonymity, they are independent of central authority and they provide protection from double spending attack. The aim of this paper is to capture trends in the area of significant cryptocurrencies price developments and to explain their causes. The current research in this area is exclusively limited to an analysis of the price developments of the most important Bitcoin cryptocurrency; our research is the first to focus on other cryptocurrencies too. The economic perspective on cryptocurrencies is based on IT knowledge regarding the principles of their functioning. We have created a database of prices of 1278 cryptocurrencies from 2013 to 2016. This database is publicly available. To analyse the data, SQL query language was used.

  17. Understanding Price Formation in Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Toshihisa; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Ihara, Satoru

    The electricity price will influence the future growth and mix of generation capacity that will in turn influence the future electricity price, and therefore, it is important to understand how electricity price is formed as well as its short-term and long-term impacts on the economy. This paper describes evaluation of PJM day-ahead market bidding data and comparison of various electricity markets in terms of the market clearing price and volatility. The objective is to find critical factors and mechanisms determining the movements of electricity price. It was found that speculation by a small number of bidders can cause price spikes, that a Nash equilibrium may exist during a delayed response of the electricity price to a decline of the fuel price, and that the hydro generation with storage capability effectively stabilizes the electricity price.

  18. Biofuel and Food-Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes key findings of alternative lines of research on the relationship between food and fuel markets, and identifies gaps between two bodies of literature: one that investigates the relationship between food and fuel prices, and another that investigates the impact of the introduction of biofuels on commodity-food prices. The former body of literature suggests that biofuel prices do not affect food-commodity prices, but the latter suggests it does. We try to explain this gap, and then show that although biofuel was an important contributor to the recent food-price inflation of 2001–2008, its effect on food-commodity prices declined after the recession of 2008/09. We also show that the introduction of cross-price elasticity is important when explaining soybean price, but less so when explaining corn prices.

  19. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We investigate price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs, using drug purchase records for the entire Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression kink design. The results suggest so...... price responsiveness with corresponding price elasticities ranging from −0.2 to −0.7. Individuals with chronic disease and especially individuals above the age of 65 respond less to the price of drugs.......We investigate price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs, using drug purchase records for the entire Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression kink design. The results suggest some...

  20. Prediction of future asset prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Ng Yew; Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei

    2014-12-01

    This paper attempts to incorporate trading volumes as an additional predictor for predicting asset prices. Denoting r(t) as the vector consisting of the time-t values of the trading volume and price of a given asset, we model the time-(t+1) asset price to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1), ....., r(t-1+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a (2l+1)-dimensional power-normal distribution. A prediction interval based on the 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution is then obtained. By examining the average lengths of the prediction intervals found by using the composite indices of the Malaysia stock market for the period 2008 to 2013, we found that the value 2 appears to be a good choice for l. With the omission of the trading volume in the vector r(t), the corresponding prediction interval exhibits a slightly longer average length, showing that it might be desirable to keep trading volume as a predictor. From the above conditional distribution, the probability that the time-(t+1) asset price will be larger than the time-t asset price is next computed. When the probability differs from 0 (or 1) by less than 0.03, the observed time-(t+1) increase in price tends to be negative (or positive). Thus the above probability has a good potential of being used as a market indicator in technical analysis.

  1. Local Staple Food Price Indices in the Age of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    In many poor, food insecure regions, agriculture is a primary source of income and farmers are reliant both on their own production and on purchasing food in the market to feed their families. Large local food price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation and may be the consequence of weather-related food production declines, Dr can simply be the result of price transmission from the international commodity market. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets far from the places where the chronically food insecure live. A much better understanding of how local staple food prices in isolated regions such as West Africa that grow most of the food they eat to better understand the impact of global commodity market transformations on sensitive communities at the margin. This information will also enable improved strategies for these farmers who are extraordinarily sensitive to climate change impacts on agricultural growing conditions.

  2. Styring af international transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuther, Peter; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2011-01-01

    Nærværende artikel introducerer international transfer pricing, dels som et skatteretligt fænomen og dels som et værktøj til planlægning og økonomisk styring af koncernforbundne selskaber i en multinational virksomhed (MNV). Med udgangspunkt i en case-analyse af MNV’en gives der et konkret eksempel...... international transfer pricing i betragtning, når økonomiske styringssystemer i en MNV skal anvendes til planlægning og opfølgning....

  3. Styring af international transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuther, Peter; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2011-01-01

    Nærværende artikel introducerer international transfer pricing, dels som et skatteretligt fænomen og dels som et værktøj til planlægning og økonomisk styring af koncernforbundne selskaber i en multinational virksomhed (MNV). Med udgangspunkt i en case-analyse af MNV’en gives der et konkret eksempel...... international transfer pricing i betragtning, når økonomiske styringssystemer i en MNV skal anvendes til planlægning og opfølgning....

  4. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...... and the urgency of the sale also affect the average discount: Discounts are larger when house prices contract, in thin markets where demand is lower, and when the sale is more likely to be a fire sale because of financial or liquidity constraints. Late fire sales are more likely when the house price...... forced sales lead to fire sale discounts....

  5. Smart Pricing: Linking Pricing Decisions with Operational Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fleischmann (Moritz); J.M. Hall (Joseph); D.F. Pyke (David)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe past decade has seen a virtual explosion of information about customers and their preferences. This information potentially allows companies to increase their revenues, in particular since modern technology enables price changes to be effected at minimal cost. At the same time, compa

  6. Smart Pricing: Linking Pricing Decisions with Operational Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fleischmann (Moritz); J.M. Hall (Joseph); D.F. Pyke (David)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe past decade has seen a virtual explosion of information about customers and their preferences. This information potentially allows companies to increase their revenues, in particular since modern technology enables price changes to be effected at minimal cost. At the same time, compa

  7. Essays on pricing dynamics, price dispersion, and nested logit modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinda, Jeremy Alan

    The body of this dissertation comprises three standalone essays, presented in three respective chapters. Chapter One explores the possibility that local market power contributes to the asymmetric relationship observed between wholesale costs and retail prices in gasoline markets. I exploit an original data set of weekly gas station prices in Southern California from September 2002 to May 2003, and take advantage of highly detailed station and local market-level characteristics to determine the extent to which spatial differentiation influences price-response asymmetry. I find that brand identity, proximity to rival stations, bundling and advertising, operation type, and local market features and demographics each influence a station's predicted asymmetric relationship between prices and wholesale costs. Chapter Two extends the existing literature on the effect of market structure on price dispersion in airline fares by modeling the effect at the disaggregate ticket level. Whereas past studies rely on aggregate measures of price dispersion such as the Gini coefficient or the standard deviation of fares, this paper estimates the entire empirical distribution of airline fares and documents how the shape of the distribution is determined by market structure. Specifically, I find that monopoly markets favor a wider distribution of fares with more mass in the tails while duopoly and competitive markets exhibit a tighter fare distribution. These findings indicate that the dispersion of airline fares may result from the efforts of airlines to practice second-degree price discrimination. Chapter Three adopts a Bayesian approach to the problem of tree structure specification in nested logit modelling, which requires a heavy computational burden in calculating marginal likelihoods. I compare two different techniques for estimating marginal likelihoods: (1) the Laplace approximation, and (2) reversible jump MCMC. I apply the techniques to both a simulated and a travel mode

  8. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or almost 20% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals about 125. Through these programs, more than 40 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2004 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  9. Periodicals Price Survey 2002: Doing the Digital Flip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orsdel, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Presents the annual periodicals price study. Highlights include average prices; cost histories; cost projections for future budgeting; electronic journal issues; flip pricing, defined as online access at the core of pricing negotiations; various pricing models; purchasing print at deeply discounted prices; and current trends in pricing and in the…

  10. Spatial price dynamics: From complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. L.; Bi, J. T.; Sun, H. J.

    2008-10-01

    The spatial price problem means that if the supply price plus the transportation cost is less than the demand price, there exists a trade. Thus, after an amount of exchange, the demand price will decrease. This process is continuous until an equilibrium state is obtained. However, how the trade network structure affects this process has received little attention. In this paper, we give a evolving model to describe the levels of spatial price on different complex network structures. The simulation results show that the network with shorter path length is sensitive to the variation of prices.

  11. Application Service Program (ASP Price Elasticities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jaeweon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the price elasticities for off-line industry are well documented in academic field, the report of price elasticities for on-line to a given brand or industry in practice have beenrelatively rare. The researcher aims to try to full this gap by applying a price response function to Home Trading System’s on-line transaction data for the first time in Korean securities market. The different price elasticities among seven brands were found from -0.819 to -1.811. These results suggested that marketers should understand the price elasticity of their own HTS, before making a price decision.

  12. [Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol in Ecuador, based on household data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Estimate price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol in Ecuador using cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Urban and Rural Household Income and Expenditures (ENIGHUR is the acronym in Spanish) 2011-2012. ENIGHUR 2011-2012 data were used with Deaton's (1, 2) methodology to estimate price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol with expenditure and quantity information. Household socioeconomic variables were also included. Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes is -0.87, meaning that a 10% price increase could lead to an 8.7% decrease in consumption. Results for cross-price elasticities of alcohol on cigarette demand are negative, as expected, indicating that they are complementary goods; however, the results are not statistically significant. Furthermore, it was found that price elasticity of demand for alcohol is -0.44, meaning that a 10% increase in the price of alcohol would produce a 4.4% decrease in consumption. A policy of price increases, for example, with a tax increase, applied to both cigarettes and alcohol, could have a positive effect on public health through reductions in consumption of both goods. However, this measure would not be sufficient to bridge gaps in prevalence measures and health outcomes between sex and other population groups, given the observed difference in the sensitivity of consumption to price variations.

  13. Implementing differential pricing for essential medicines via country-specific bilateral negotiated discounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Ebenezer Kwabena

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that limited access to essential medicines undermines efforts at improving the health and economic well-being of low-income populations. This has spurred on a number of solutions, including differential pricing based on the economics of price discrimination. A desirable feature of differential pricing is its potential ability to reconcile static and dynamic efficiency concerns. There are, however, various shades of differential pricing and this paper aims to evaluate their consistency with economic theory. Starting with the report of the workshop on 'Differential Pricing and Financing of Essential Drugs' held by secretariats of the World Trade Organization and WHO in Hosbjor, Norway, in 2001, this paper takes issue with how differential pricing has been defined as a tool for improving access to essential drug benefits. The paper notes that inadequate attention has been given to policies and institutional arrangements for creating, expressing and maintaining 'truly' price-elastic demands in low-income nations and for segmenting markets. In addition, considerations of equity and solidarity have distracted policy advocates from balancing conflicting, yet well intended, views and general rules. The paper argues why differential pricing should be implemented via country-specific bilateral negotiated discounts. It maintains that it is feasible to muster an environment conducive to profitable differential pricing whilst satisfying general rules and concerns about self-reliance, transparency, accountability, equity and solidarity.

  14. Response of Root Properties to Tripartite Symbiosis between Lucerne (Medicago sativa L., Rhizobia and Mycorrhiza Under Dry Organic Farming Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Ardakani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It is generally considered that root turnover is a major contributor to organic matter and mineral nutrient cycles in organic managed agroecosystems. Approach: This study designed to investigate whether microbial activity could affect on root properties of Lucerne in an organically managed field under dry weather conditions. The trial was laid out as a factorial experiment in the fields of the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna- Austria at Raasdorf in 2007. The experimental factors of Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium meliloti and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM including Glomus etunicatum, G. intraradices and G. claroideum and irrigation levels were tested. Results: Results showed that increasing water deficit affected root dry weigh, specific root mass and root length significantly at 1% level and co-inoculation of rhizobium and mycorrhiza with irrigation increased all root parameters. Datas of variance analysis for mycorrhizal colonization showed that main effect of using mycorrhiza had significant effects on root parameters at 5 and 1% probability level at first and second harvest, respectively. Results of mean comparisons by Duncans Multiple Range Test showed that mycorrhizal colonization was higher in the inoculated treatments by rhizobium, mycorrhiza and irrigated plots in both harvests. Double interaction of mycorrhiza and irrigation was higher in both harvests (37.05 and 65.73%, respectively. Conclusion: It can be suggested that the tripartite symbiosis of Rhizobium, AM and Lucerne can improve the performance of Lucerne in organic farming and under dry conditions. Such traits could be incorporated into breeding programs to improve drought tolerance especially in organic fields.

  15. An exploration of tripartite collaboration in developing a strategic approach to the facilitation of practice learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Pauline; Jones, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    Pre-registration nurse education in United Kingdom has to be delivered within a complex system. Theoretical components are delivered by a Higher Education Institution and the practice components, facilitated and assessed by clinical practitioners within a health service provider institution. The previous decade witnessed a gradual divorce between these two institutions, leading to a confidence and competence deficit in the newly qualified practitioner. The new national agenda for pre-registration nursing was set out in the fitness for practice document, [UKCC, London, 1999]. It required a refocus on the practice aspects of nurse education. It identified the need to strengthen the links between higher education providers and service providers to ensure the delivery of a seamless curriculum. The report recommended closer collaborative working to bridge the theory-practice gap and develop nurses that were competent and fit for purpose at the end of the course. Several pilot sites were identified throughout the country to deliver the new practice focussed curriculum; The University of Wolverhampton was one of these. The focus of this paper will identify the multifaceted developments that facilitate effective practice learning for students, which have been achieved through partnership working and will include the following areas; creation of new practice support roles, communication systems, modes of learning (technology supported learning, problem based learning, experiential learning and simulation), the learning environment, learning opportunities and resources. It is clear that practice learning has many influences, which can either enhance or undermine the student's ability to assimilate knowledge and experience into personal, professional practice. We acknowledge that there are still many areas to be developed and anticipate that these will be informed by the findings of research currently being undertaken within the University and NHS service providers.

  16. The Impact of Price on Chemical Fertilizer Demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John K.Dagsvik

    2012-01-01

    Since 1998,the national policies on chemical fertilizer in China have been concentrated in limiting price plus subsidizing,abolishing agricultural tax,giving direct subsidies to farmers,and other aspects.In order to analyze the impact of national policies on the consumption of chemical fertilizer,this article selects the consumption of chemical fertilizer per unit,chemical fertilizer price index and farmers’net income in different provinces during the period 1998-2007 as variables,to conduct regression analysis of chemical fertilizer expenditure function,and calculate the price elasticity and income elasticity of chemical fertilizer demand in different provinces over the decade based on the regression results.The results show that at present the basic consumption of chemical fertilizer for agricultural development in China is 0.35 t/hm 2 ,and the consumption of chemical fertilizer is excessive in some provinces;the chemical fertilizer market has not been really established,and the price has little impact on demand.This indicates that the chemical fertilizer is essential for agricultural economic development,and it increases along with the increase of farmers’income; the intervention of the national policy in chemical fertilizer price is a fundamental reason for the rising demand for chemical fertilizer.This also to some extent indicates that the policy effect of merely using environmental taxes to change farmers’consumption of chemical fertilizer is limited;there is a need to transform the existing policies purely promoting agricultural economic development,toward giving different subsidies in accordance with whether the farmers’fertilization pattern is beneficial to the environment.

  17. Essays on price dynamics and consumer search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew Stephen

    It has been documented that retail gasoline prices respond more quickly to increases in wholesale price than to decreases. However, there is very little theoretical or empirical evidence identifying the market characteristics responsible for this behavior. Chapter 2 presents a new theoretical model of asymmetric adjustment that empirically matches observed retail gasoline price behavior better than previously suggested explanations. I develop a "reference price" consumer search model that assumes consumers' expectations of prices are based on prices observed during previous purchases. The model predicts that consumers search less when prices are falling. This reduced search results in higher profit margins and therefore causes a slower price response to cost decreases than to cost increases. Chapter 3 discusses the robustness of some of the important assumptions of the reference price search model, and describes the effects of altering these assumptions. Chapter 4 develops testable implications that distinguish my model from two alternative explanations of asymmetric adjustment. The first is a model in which firms temporarily collude using past prices as a focal price. The second theory suggests that increases in wholesale cost volatility reduce consumer search behavior. Using a panel of gas station prices, I estimate the response pattern of prices to a change in costs. Estimates are consistent with the predictions of the reference price search model and contradict the previously suggested explanations of asymmetric price adjustment. Chapter 5 examines the empirical fact that price response varies depending on the current level of profit margins. This fact is contrasted with the common empirical observation that response differs based on the direction of the change in cost. I go on to document that this relationship between price response and margins is observed in gasoline markets across the country.

  18. International drug price comparisons: quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Márcio; O'Brodovich, Ryan; Krahn, Murray; Einarson, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively summarize results (i.e., prices and affordability) reported from international drug price comparison studies and assess their methodological quality. A systematic search of the most relevant databases-Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), and Scopus, from their inception to May 2009-was conducted to identify original research comparing international drug prices. International drug price information was extracted and recorded from accepted papers. Affordability was reported as drug prices adjusted for income. Study quality was assessed using six criteria: use of similar countries, use of a representative sample of drugs, selection of specific types of prices, identification of drug packaging, different weights on price indices, and the type of currency conversion used. Of the 1 828 studies identified, 21 were included. Only one study adequately addressed all quality issues. A large variation in study quality was observed due to the many methods used to conduct the drug price comparisons, such as different indices, economic parameters, price types, basket of drugs, and more. Thus, the quality of published studies was considered poor. Results varied across studies, but generally, higher income countries had higher drug prices. However, after adjusting drug prices for affordability, higher income countries had more affordable prices than lower income countries. Differences between drug prices and affordability in different countries were found. Low income countries reported less affordability of drugs, leaving room for potential problems with drug access, and consequently, a negative impact on health. The quality of the literature on this topic needs improvement.

  19. House Prices and Public Debt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads; Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    By using the 2002 case of fraud in the Danish municipality Farum by then mayor Peter Brixtofte as an exogenous shock to public debt of 1 billion DKK, I estimate the effect of public debt on house prices. I find that the average home ownership lost about 570,000 DKK or as much as 29% of the averag...

  20. Prices and heterogeneous search costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luis Moraga-Gonzalez, Jose; Sandor, Zsolt; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    2017-01-01

    We study price formation in a model of consumer search for differentiated products in which consumers have heterogeneous search costs. We provide conditions under which a pure-strategy symmetric Nash equilibrium exists and is unique. Search costs affect two margins-the intensive search margin (or se