WorldWideScience

Sample records for national trends survey

  1. Examining national trends in worker health with the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Sestito, John P

    2013-12-01

    To describe data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), both the annual core survey and periodic occupational health supplements (OHSs), available for examining national trends in worker health. The NHIS is an annual in-person household survey with a cross-sectional multistage clustered sample design to produce nationally representative health data. The 2010 NHIS included an OHS. Prevalence rates of various health conditions and health behaviors among workers based on multiple years of NHIS core data are available. In addition, the 2010 NHIS-OHS data provide prevalence rates of selected health conditions, work organization factors, and occupational exposures among US workers by industry and occupation. The publicly available NHIS data can be used to identify areas of concern for various industries and for benchmarking data from specific worker groups against national averages.

  2. Socio-economic status, dietary intake and 10 y trends: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Telman, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study differences in dietary intake between adults with different socioeconomic status (SES) and trends over time. Design: Cross-sectional study based on data of three Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCS-1 1987/88; DNFCS-2 1992; DNFCS-3 1997/98), obtained from a panel by a

  3. Power of tests for comparing trend curves with application to national immunization survey (NIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen

    2011-02-28

    To develop statistical tests for comparing trend curves of study outcomes between two socio-demographic strata across consecutive time points, and compare statistical power of the proposed tests under different trend curves data, three statistical tests were proposed. For large sample size with independent normal assumption among strata and across consecutive time points, the Z and Chi-square test statistics were developed, which are functions of outcome estimates and the standard errors at each of the study time points for the two strata. For small sample size with independent normal assumption, the F-test statistic was generated, which is a function of sample size of the two strata and estimated parameters across study period. If two trend curves are approximately parallel, the power of Z-test is consistently higher than that of both Chi-square and F-test. If two trend curves cross at low interaction, the power of Z-test is higher than or equal to the power of both Chi-square and F-test; however, at high interaction, the powers of Chi-square and F-test are higher than that of Z-test. The measurement of interaction of two trend curves was defined. These tests were applied to the comparison of trend curves of vaccination coverage estimates of standard vaccine series with National Immunization Survey (NIS) 2000-2007 data. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Prevalence and Trends in Domestic Violence in South Korea: Findings From National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yop; Oh, Sehun; Nam, Seok In

    2016-05-01

    To examine trends in the prevalence of domestic violence since 1997, 1 year prior to the introduction of legislative countermeasures and accompanying services in South Korea, and to analyze what socio-demographic characteristics of perpetrators contribute to spousal violence and whether there were any changes in risk factors over time. This study used two sets of nationally representative household samples: married or cohabiting couples of 1,540 from the 1999 national survey and 3,269 from the 2010 National Survey of Domestic Violence. Frequency analysis was used to measure the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), and cross-tabulation, correlation, and logistic regression analyses were used to look for socio-demographic risk factors of spousal physical violence and patterns of change over time. The frequency analysis showed that the IPV prevalence dropped by approximately 50%, from 34.1% in 1999 to 16.5% in 2010, though it was still higher than many other countries. The cross-tabulation and logistic regression analyses suggested that men with low socio-demographic characteristics were generally more violent, though this tendency did not apply to women. Instead, younger women seemed to be more violent than older women. Last, different levels of household income were associated with different levels of IPV in 2010, but no linear trend was detected. In this study, IPV prevalence trends and risk factors of two different time periods were discussed to provide implications for tackling the IPV problem. Future countermeasures must build on understanding about men with low socio-demographic status and younger women, who were more violent in marital relationships. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Hypertension in Malaysia: An Analysis of Trends From the National Surveys 1996 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Yeoh, Peng Nam; Wai, Victor Nyunt; Win, Ni Ni; Kuan, Lai Pei; Aung, Kyan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine trends in prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension in Malaysia and to assess the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia.The distribution of hypertension in Malaysia was assessed based on available data in 3 National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) and 1 large scale non-NHMS during the period of 1996 to 2011. Summary statistics was used to characterize the included surveys. Differences in prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension between any 2 surveys were expressed as ratios. To assess the independent associations between the predictors and the outcome variables, regression analyses were employed with prevalence of hypertension as an outcome variable.Overall, there was a rising trend in the prevalence of hypertension in adults ≥30 years: 32.9% (30%-35.8%) in 1996, 42.6% (37.5%-43.5%) in 2006, and 43.5% (40.4%-46.6%) in 2011. There were significant increase of 32% from 1996 to 2011 (P Malaysia improved from 1996 to 2006. A change in the control of hypertension was 13% higher in women than in men.The findings suggest that the magnitude of hypertension in Malaysia needs additional attention. Strengthening the screening for hypertension in primary health-care settings in the high-risk groups and frequent health promotion to the community to enhance individual awareness and commitment to healthy living would be of immense value.

  7. Trends in the nursing doctoral comprehensive examination process: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawn, Barbara E; Goldberg, Shari

    2012-01-01

    The doctoral comprehensive or qualifying examination (CE/QE) is a traditional rite of passage into the community of scholars for the nursing profession. This exploratory, descriptive cross-sectional study examined trends in the process, timing, and methodology of comprehensive and qualifying examinations in nursing doctoral programs in the United States. Administrators from 45 schools responded to an online survey from 27 states across the country (37% response rate). Participants reported wide variations in the process. The most common method of implementation was the written take-home test (47%), two thirds of which had a subsequent oral examination. Eleven survey respondents (24%) reported using a form of the traditional written, timed, on-site examination; however, only 4 of these also followed up with an oral defense. Nine schools (20%) moved to a requirement for a written publishable paper; three schools consider the written proposal and its defense as the CE/QE. Approximately half had changed their policy in the past 5 years. With the increase in nursing doctor of philosophy programs over the past decade, information is needed to facilitate the development of methods to achieve program outcomes. An understanding of national CE/QE trends can provide a starting point for discussion and allow innovative ideas to meet the need of individual programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Rachel Ann; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-10-01

    Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.

  9. Trends in the use of illicit substances in Thailand: Results from national household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Thaikla, Kanittha; Kanato, Manop; Perngparn, Usaneya; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2018-02-27

    Thailand borders some of the world's largest methamphetamine and opioid producing countries and trafficking routes. Thailand's 'War on Drugs' campaign was launched in 2003. This study reports trends in illicit substance use in Thailand over the period 2001-2011. National Household surveys on illicit drug use were conducted in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2011. A stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was implemented for each survey. Provinces in four regions were systematically selected using a probability proportionate to the size of the targeted population. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires on their history of substance use. The prevalence of illicit drug use within the past drastically decreased from 4.5% in 2001 to 1.0% in 2003 (P survey. Other types of illicit drugs were less commonly used in Thailand. There was a decrease in prevalence of illicit drug use within the past year between 2001 and 2003 in Thailand. Since 2003, the past year prelavence of illicit drug use has remained relatively stable. From 2001 to 2011, cannabis, kratom and yaba have remained the three most commonly reported types of illicit drugs used in Thailand. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Trends in prevalence of leisure time physical activity and inactivity: results from Australian National Health Surveys 1989 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Josephine; Chey, Tien; Burks-Young, Sarah; Engelen, Lina; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-12-01

    To examine trends in leisure time physical activity and inactivity in Australians aged 15 years or older from 1989 to 2011. We used data from six Australian National Health Surveys conducted from 1989/90 to 2011/12 in which physical activity was assessed using comparable questions. Analyses examined trends in the prevalence of sufficient physical activity (≥150 minutes/week moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and of inactivity (benefits from sufficient physical activity. Maintenance of consistent physical activity questions in future National Health Surveys will facilitate long term tracking of physical activity levels in the Australian population. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (P<.001), employed (P=.002), never married (P=.002), and had higher education (P=.002) and income (P<.001) had the highest rates of ownership. Smartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors

  12. Correlates of consumer trust in online health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinjiao

    2011-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in consumers seeking health information online. However, the quality of such information remains questionable, and the trustworthiness of online health information has become a hot topic, whereas little attention has been paid to how consumers evaluate online health information credibility. This study builds on theoretical perspectives of trust such as personal-capital-based, social-capital-based, and transfer-based, and it examines various correlates of consumer trust in online health information. The author analyzed the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data (N = 7,674). Results showed that consumer trust in online health information did not correlate with personal capital such as income, education, and health status. Social capital indicated by visiting social networking Web sites was not associated with trust in online health information either. Nevertheless, trust in online health information transferred from traditional mass media and government health agencies to the Internet, and it varied by such information features as easiness to locate and to understand. Age appeared to be a key factor in understanding the correlates of trust in online health information. Theoretical and empirical implications of the results are discussed.

  13. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-09-13

    The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the experiences of deaf people who use ASL. The final HINTS

  14. Trends in advance care planning in cancer patients: Results from a national, longitudinal survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Amol K.; Wright, Alexi A.; Nicholas, Lauren H.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Advance care planning (ACP) may prevent end-of-life (EOL) care that is non-beneficial and discordant with patient wishes. Despite long-standing recognition of the merits of ACP in oncology, it is unclear whether cancer patients’ participation in ACP has increased over time. Objective To characterize trends in durable power of attorney (DPOA) assignment, living will creation, and participation in discussions of EOL care preferences, and to explore associations between ACP subtypes and EOL treatment intensity, as reflected in EOL care decisions and terminal hospitalizations. Design Prospectively collected survey data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), including data from in-depth “exit” interviews conducted with next-of-kin surrogates following the death of an HRS participant. Trends in ACP subtypes were tested, and multivariable logistic regression models examined associations between ACP subtypes and measures of treatment intensity. Setting HRS, a nationally representative, biennial, longitudinal panel study of U.S. residents over age 50. Participants 1,985 next-of-kin surrogates of HRS participants with cancer who died between 2000 and 2012. Main Outcome and Measures Trends in the surrogate-reported frequency of DPOA assignment, living will creation, and participation in discussions of EOL care preferences, as well as associations between ACP subtypes and surrogate-reported EOL care decisions/terminal hospitalizations. Results From 2000-2012, there was an increase in DPOA assignment (52% to 74%, p=0.03), without change in use of living wills (49% to 40%, p=0.63) or EOL discussions (68% to 60%, p=0.62). Surrogates increasingly reported that patients received “all care possible” at EOL (7% to 58%, p=0.004), and rates of terminal hospitalizations were unchanged (29% to 27%, p=0.70). Both living wills and EOL discussions were associated with limiting/withholding treatment [living will: adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.51, 95% confidence

  15. Trends in Advance Care Planning in Patients With Cancer: Results From a National Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Amol K; Wright, Alexi A; Nicholas, Lauren H

    2015-08-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) may prevent end-of-life (EOL) care that is nonbeneficial and discordant with patient wishes. Despite long-standing recognition of the merits of ACP in oncology, it is unclear whether participation in ACP by patients with cancer has increased over time. To characterize trends in durable power of attorney (DPOA) assignment, living will creation, and participation in discussions of EOL care preferences and to explore associations between ACP subtypes and EOL treatment intensity as reflected in EOL care decisions and terminal hospitalizations. We analyzed prospectively collected survey data from 1985 next-of-kin surrogates of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants with cancer who died between 2000 and 2012, including data from in-depth "exit" interviews conducted with the surrogates after the participant's death. The HRS is a nationally representative, biennial, longitudinal panel study of US residents older than 50 years. Trends in ACP subtypes were tested, and multivariable logistic regression models examined for associations between ACP subtypes and measures of treatment intensity. Trends in the surrogate-reported frequency of DPOA assignment, living will creation, and participation in discussions of EOL care preferences; associations between ACP subtypes and both surrogate-reported EOL care decisions and terminal hospitalizations. From 2000 to 2012, there was an increase in DPOA assignment (52% to 74%, P = .03), without significant change in use of living wills (49% to 40%, P = .63) or EOL discussions (68% to 60%, P = .62). Surrogate reports that patients received "all care possible" at EOL increased during the period (7% to 58%, P = .004), and rates of terminal hospitalizations were unchanged (29% to 27%, P = .70). Limiting or withholding treatment was associated with living wills (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.51; 95% CI, 1.53-4.11; P EOL discussions (AOR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.53-3.14; P = .002) but not with

  16. Trends in Psychotherapy Training: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudak, Donna M.; Goldberg, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine current trends in residency training of psychiatrists. Method: The authors surveyed U.S. general-psychiatry training directors about the amount of didactic training, supervised clinical experience, and numbers of patients treated in the RRC-mandated models of psychotherapy (psychodynamic,…

  17. Cigarette smoking risk-reducing beliefs: Findings from the United States Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R; Coa, Kisha I; Nguyen, Anh B

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoking risk-reducing beliefs are ideas that certain health promoting behaviors (e.g., exercise) may mitigate the risks associated with smoking. The objective of this study was to describe smoking risk-reducing beliefs and the belief that quitting can reduce the harmful effects of smoking among the U.S. adult population and the associations between these beliefs, current smoking status, and sociodemographics. Data were from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) Cycles 3 and 4 (2013-2014; N=6862). Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine bivariate associations among the quit smoking belief, smoking risk-reducing beliefs, and covariates. Weighted ordinal logistic regression models examined the adjusted associations between smoking status and sociodemographics, with quit smoking belief and risk-reducing beliefs. Eighty-two percent of the population reported that quitting cigarette smoking can help reduce the harmful effects of smoking a lot: former smokers and individuals with higher educational attainment were more likely to endorse this belief than never smokers and those with lower educational attainment. Many people endorsed smoking risk-reducing beliefs about exercise (79.3%), fruits and vegetables (71.8%), vitamins (67.2%), and sleep (68.5%). Former smokers were less likely to subscribe to these beliefs than never smokers. Vulnerable populations who may be most at risk of smoking attributable morbidity and mortality were more likely to endorse risk-reducing beliefs. Future studies are needed to better understand how risk-reducing beliefs are formed and if modifying these beliefs may help to reduce cigarette smoking in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. 76 FR 22714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... questions with inquiries into the communication channels through which understanding is being obtained, and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment... content of the survey will focus on understanding the degree to which members of the general population...

  19. How well do regional or national Breeding Bird Survey data predict songbird population trends at an intact boreal site?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S. Machtans

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to monitor boreal songbird trends was initiated in 1998 in a relatively undisturbed and remote part of the boreal forest in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Eight years of point count data were collected over the 14 years of the study, 1998-2011. Trends were estimated for 50 bird species using generalized linear mixed-effects models, with random effects to account for temporal (repeat sampling within years and spatial (stations within stands autocorrelation and variability associated with multiple observers. We tested whether regional and national Breeding Bird Survey (BBS trends could, on average, predict trends in our study area. Significant increases in our study area outnumbered decreases by 12 species to 6, an opposite pattern compared to Alberta (6 versus 15, respectively and Canada (9 versus 20. Twenty-two species with relatively precise trend estimates (precision to detect > 30% decline in 10 years; observed SE ≤ 3.7%/year showed nonsignificant trends, similar to Alberta (24 and Canada (20. Precision-weighted trends for a sample of 19 species with both reliable trends at our site and small portions of their range covered by BBS in Canada were, on average, more negative for Alberta (1.34% per year lower and for Canada (1.15% per year lower relative to Fort Liard, though 95% credible intervals still contained zero. We suggest that part of the differences could be attributable to local resource pulses (insect outbreak. However, we also suggest that the tendency for BBS route coverage to disproportionately sample more southerly, developed areas in the boreal forest could result in BBS trends that are not representative of range-wide trends for species whose range is centred farther north.

  20. [Trends and factors associated with food insecurity in Brazil: the National Household Sample Survey, 2004, 2009, and 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Taíse Gama Dos; Silveira, Jonas Augusto Cardoso da; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Ramires, Elyssia Karine Nunes Mendonça; Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito de

    2018-03-29

    The aim of this study was to analyze trends and factors associated with food insecurity in Brazil in 2004, 2009, and 2013, using microdata from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD). Food insecurity was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Independent variables were selected from a conceptual model of determination of food insecurity, which was also used in the elaboration of multiple generalized linear models. The results show a downward trend in food insecurity prevalence from 2004 to 2013, especially for moderate and severe food insecurity, from 17% in 2004 (95%CI: 15.7-18.4) to 7.9% in 2013 (95%CI: 7.2-8.7). Despite important decreases in the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, regardless of the level of determination, the population strata with the lowest prevalence in 2004 showed the largest relative reduction. As for factors associated with moderate and severe food insecurity, they remained the same in the ten years covered by the PNAD survey, namely: the North and Northeast regions, urban areas with inadequate sanitation, household density > 2 persons per bedroom, ≤ 4 household durable consumer goods, and households headed by females, individuals insecurity dropped by half, but from the perspective of equity the advances occurred unequally and were lower in strata with greater social, economic, and demographic vulnerability.

  1. The trends in total energy, macronutrients and sodium intake among Japanese: findings from the 1995-2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Aki; Imai, Shino; Htun, Nay Chi; Okada, Emiko; Yoshita, Katsushi; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2018-06-04

    Monitoring nutritional status of the population is essential in the development and evaluation of national or local health policies. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate analysis on the trends in dietary intake of energy and macronutrients, as well as Na, in Japanese population using the data of series of cross-sectional national surveys - the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) and the National Health Nutrition Survey (NHNS) - during the period from 1995 to 2016. The NNS and NHNS participants aged 20-79 years were included in the analysis. Dietary intake was estimated using 1-d household-based dietary record. The trend in total energy intake, energy intake from macronutrients (fat and protein), Na intake and energy-adjusted Na intake were analysed using regression models adjusted to 2010 age distribution and anthropometry status. A total of 94 270 men and 107 890 women were included the analysis. Total energy intake showed a decreasing trend in both men and women. Similarly, energy intake from protein decreased, but energy intake (%) from fat increased in both sexes. Energy-adjusted Na intake showed a decreasing trend in both men and women. This study identified the decrease in total energy intake and energy intake from protein, whereas there were inverse trends in energy intake from fat among Japanese adults. Continued monitoring of trends in dietary intake will be needed, and there should be efforts to increase the accuracy of current survey procedures.

  2. The sexual behaviour of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: patterns and trends from national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Aoife M; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Plummer, Mary L; Ross, David A

    2012-07-01

    To describe the sexual and reproductive behaviour of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly 15- to 19-year-olds.  Using DHS/AIS data (2000-2010), nine indicators of adolescent behaviour and one of adult attitudes towards condom education for adolescents were described for 24 countries. Indicators were disaggregated by gender, urban/rural residency and educational status, and time trends were described. Up to 25% of 15- to 19-year-olds reported sex before age 15; this proportion shrank over time in many countries. In most countries, ≥5% of females reported marriage before age 15, and >20% had commenced childbearing. Early sexual debut and childbearing were more common among the least educated and/or rural females. Reporting of multiple sexual partnerships was more common among males than among females, but decreases over time were more common among males. Urban males and females, and females with higher education, were more likely to report multiple partnerships. Urban youth and those with higher education also reported more condom use. Adult support for condom education for 12- to 14-year-olds has increased over time to 60-65%. Many 15- to 19-year-olds are at risk of HIV/STIs and unplanned pregnancies because of multiple partnerships and insufficient condom and other contraceptive use. In many countries, trends are moving in a favourable direction. To better inform prevention programmes in this important area, we recommend routine collection of sexual and reproductive behaviour data for adolescents aged sexual behaviour within partnerships, and disaggregating data according to sociodemographic variables. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Health Information Brokers in the General Population: An Analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Mazor, Kathleen M; Agunwamba, Amenah A; Valluri, Sruthi; Wilson, Patrick M; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2016-06-03

    Health information exchanged between friends or family members can influence decision making, both for routine health questions and for serious health issues. A health information broker is a person to whom friends and family turn for advice or information on health-related topics. Characteristics and online behaviors of health information brokers have not previously been studied in a national population. The objective of this study was to examine sociodemographic characteristics, health information seeking behaviors, and other online behaviors among health information brokers. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2013-2014; n=3142) were used to compare brokers with nonbrokers. Modified Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between broker status and sociodemographics and online information seeking. Over half (54.8%) of the respondents were consulted by family or friends for advice or information on health topics (ie, they acted as health information brokers). Brokers represented 54.1% of respondents earning brokers (PR 1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.47) as were those with education past high school (PR 1.42, CI 1.22-1.65). People aged ≥75 were less likely to be brokers as compared to respondents aged 35-49 (PR 0.81, CI 0.67-0.99). Brokers used the Internet more frequently for a variety of online behaviors such as seeking health information, creating and sharing online content, and downloading health information onto a mobile device; and also reported greater confidence in obtaining health information online. More than 50% of adults who responded to this national survey, including those with low income and those born abroad, were providing health information or advice to friends and family. These individuals may prove to be effective targets for initiatives supporting patient engagement and disease management, and may also be well-positioned within their respective social networks to propagate health messages.

  4. Trends in overweight and obesity in Lebanon: evidence from two national cross-sectional surveys (1997 and 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though the obesity epidemic continues to grow in various parts of the world, recent reports have highlighted disparities in obesity trends across countries. There is little empirical evidence on the development and growth of obesity in Lebanon and other countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Acknowledging the need for effective obesity preventive measures and for accurate assessment of trends in the obesity epidemic, this study aims at examining and analyzing secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity over a 12-year period in Lebanon. Methods Based on weight and height measurements obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1997 and 2009 on subjects 6 years of age and older, BMI was calculated and the prevalence of obesity was determined based on BMI for adults and BMI z-scores for children and adolescents, according to WHO criteria. Age -and sex- adjusted odds ratios for overweight and obesity were determined, with the 1997 year as the referent category. Annual rates of change in obesity prevalence per sex and age group were also calculated. Results The study samples included a total of 2004 subjects in the 1997 survey and 3636 in the 2009 survey. Compared to 1997, mean BMI values were significantly higher in 2009 among all age and sex groups, except for 6–9 year old children. Whereas the prevalence of overweight appeared stable over the study period in both 6–19 year old subjects (20.0% vs. 21.2%) and adults aged 20 years and above (37.0% vs. 36.8%), the prevalence of obesity increased significantly (7.3% vs. 10.9% in 6–19 year olds; 17.4% vs. 28.2% in adults), with the odds of obesity being 2 times higher in 2009 compared to 1997, in both age groups (OR = 1.96, 95% CI:1.29-2.97 and OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.67-2.43, respectively). The annual rates of change in obesity prevalence ranged between +4.1% in children and adolescents and +5.2% in adults. Conclusion The study’s findings highlight an

  5. Temporal Trends and Changing Racial/ethnic Disparities in Alcohol Problems: Results from the 2000 to 2010 National Alcohol Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Mulia, Nina

    2013-09-28

    Economic conditions and drinking norms have been in considerable flux over the past 10 years. Accordingly, research is needed to evaluate both overall trends in alcohol problems during this period and whether changes within racial/ethnic groups have affected racial/ethnic disparities. We used 3 cross-sectional waves of National Alcohol Survey data (2000, 2005, and 2010) to examine a) temporal trends in alcohol dependence and consequences overall and by race/ethnicity, and b) the effects of temporal changes on racial/ethnic disparities. Analyses involved bivariate tests and multivariate negative binomial regressions testing the effects of race/ethnicity, survey year, and their interaction on problem measures. Both women and men overall showed significant increases in dependence symptoms in 2010 (vs. 2000); women also reported increases in alcohol-related consequences in 2010 (vs. 2000). (Problem rates were equivalent across 2005 and 2000.) However, increases in problems were most dramatic among Whites, and dependence symptoms actually decreased among Latinos of both genders in 2010. Consequently, the long-standing disparity in dependence between Latino and White men was substantially reduced in 2010. Post-hoc analyses suggested that changes in drinking norms at least partially drove increased problem rates among Whites. Results constitute an important contribution to the literature on racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol problems. Findings are not inconsistent with the macroeconomic literature suggesting increases in alcohol problems during economic recession, but the pattern of effects across race/ethnicity and findings regarding norms together suggest, at the least, a revised understanding of how recessions affect drinking patterns and problems.

  6. Current trends in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners: report of a United States national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Gina M; Sabbah, Wael; Sedgley, Christine M; Whitten, Brian

    2014-05-01

    In the United States almost 70% of root canal treatment (RCT) is performed by general dentists (GPs), yet little is known about their treatment protocols. A paper survey was mailed to 2000 United States GPs with questions about the types of endodontic cases treated, routine treatment protocols, use of newer technologies, and endodontic continuing education (CE). Completed surveys were returned by 479 respondents (24%). GPs who perform RCT (84%) reported providing anterior (99%), bicuspid (95%), and molar (62%) RCT and retreatment (18%). Rubber dam was used always (60%), usually (16%), sometimes (13%), and never (11%). Newer technologies used by GPs included digital radiography (72%), magnification (80%), electronic apex locator (70%), and nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (74%). Compared with GPs with >20 years of experience, those in practice for ≤10 years were more likely to use rubber dam (P 20 years were more likely to perform retreatments (P 5 hours of CE were more likely to use rotary instrumentation (P irrigant activation devices (P 20 years. More experienced GPs were more likely to take on complicated cases than those with fewer years of practice. There was no association between hours of CE and compliance with rubber dam usage. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The nutritional status of children in Bhutan: results from the 2008 National nutrition survey and trends over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangmo Ugyen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports on the nutritional status of Bhutanese children. The objective of this paper is to summarize results from the 2008 National Nutrition Survey and to describe progress achieved during the last two decades. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2376 children aged 6 to 59 months was conducted during November-December 2008 to provide national and regional estimates. A multi-stage cluster sampling method was applied and 40 gewogs/thromdes were selected from each region (Western, Central, Eastern. Guidelines on how to measure length/height and weight followed WHO standardized procedures. Data were analysed for consistency and validation using the software WHO Anthro and the WHO SPSS macro. Underweight, stunting, overweight, wasting and thinness were defined based on the WHO Child Growth Standards. Data from 1986-88 and 1999 national surveys were reanalysed using the WHO standards to describe trends in nutritional status. Results Nationally, 34.9% Bhutanese preschool children are stunted and 10.4% are underweight. Wasting is 4.7%, with severe wasting close to 2% in rural areas, while overweight affects 4.4% of preschool children. While underweight rates are similar across regions, wasting is substantially more prevalent in the Western region and stunting in the Eastern region. Stunting shows a steep rise during the first two years of life, as high as 40%, and levels off thereafter, while wasting is greatest among children aged 6-24 months and subsequently decreases. The prevalence of stunting fell from 60.9% in 1986-88 to 34.9% in 2008, and underweight declined from 34.0% to 10.4% during same period. The percentage of wasted children dropped from 5.2% in 1986-88 to 2.5% in 1999 but then increased to 4.7% in 2008. Conclusions There have been major improvements in the nutritional status of Bhutanese children over the past two decades, however, linear growth retardation remains a significant concern. Early

  8. Assessing Genetic Literacy Awareness and Knowledge Gaps in the US Population: Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda; Ratcliff, Chelsea L; Hesse, Bradford W; Greenberg-Worisek, Alexandra J

    2018-05-31

    Public understanding of the role of genetics in disease risk is key to appropriate disease prevention and detection. This study assessed the current extent of awareness and use of genetic testing in the US population. Additionally, the study identified characteristics of subgroups more likely to be at risk for low genetic literacy. The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey, including measures of genetic testing awareness, genetic testing applications and genetic testing usage. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated associations between sociodemographics, genetic testing awareness, and genetic testing use. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were aware of genetic tests. Testing awareness differed by age, household income, and race/ethnicity. Most participants had heard of using tests to determine personal disease risk (82.58%) or inherited disease risk in children (81.41%), but less were familiar with determining treatment (38.29%) or drug efficacy (40.76%). Among those with genetic testing awareness, actual testing uptake was low. A large portion of the general public lacks genetic testing awareness and may benefit from educational campaigns. As precision medicine expands, increasing public awareness about genetic testing applications for disease prevention and treatment will be important to support population health. This is a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Trends in Iron, Zinc, and Vitamin A Status Biomarkers Among Colombian Children: Results From 2 Nationally Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenchao; Herrán, Oscar F; Villamor, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent in countries undergoing the nutrition transition, but nationally representative data documenting their burden in children are exceedingly rare. To examine the distribution and recent trends in micronutrient status biomarkers of Colombian children. We compared the distributions of plasma ferritin, serum zinc, and vitamin A in Colombian children between 2005 and 2010 using 2 cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys overall and by categories of sociodemographic variables. Analysis for ferritin included boys and nonpregnant girls aged 1 to 17 years. Analyses for zinc and vitamin A included children aged 1 to 4 years. The mean 2010 to 2005 differences in ferritin, zinc, and vitamin A were 2.5 µg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 3.7), -34.9 µg/dL (95% CI: -39.6 to -30.2), and -11.5 µg/dL (95% CI: -12.3 to -10.7), respectively, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. These differences varied significantly by region of residence. In 2010, region of residence was a significant correlate for all 3 micronutrients. Other important correlates included age and maternal education for ferritin and body mass index-for-age Z score, maternal education, wealth index, food insecurity, and urbanicity for vitamin A. Plasma ferritin was slightly higher in 2010 than in 2005, whereas serum zinc and vitamin A were substantially lower in 2010. In the absence of obvious causal explanations, it is uncertain whether this decline represents a worsening of micronutrient status in Colombian children or an artifact due to systematic laboratory or data management errors incurred in the surveys.

  10. Twelve Million Smokers Look Online for Smoking Cessation Help Annually: Health Information National Trends Survey Data, 2005-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Amato, Michael S

    2018-04-11

    This study quantified the potential reach of Internet smoking cessation interventions to support calculations of potential population impact (reach × effectiveness). Using a nationally representative survey, we calculated the number and proportion of adult smokers that look for cessation assistance online each year. Five waves (2005, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017) of the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey were examined. The survey asked US adults whether they ever go online to use the Internet, World Wide Web, or email and had used the Internet to look for information about quitting smoking within the past 12 months. We estimated the proportion and number of (1) all US adult smokers, and (2) online US adult smokers that searched for cessation information online. Cross-year comparisons were assessed with logistic regression. The proportion of all smokers who searched online for cessation information increased over the past decade (p < .001): 16.5% in 2005 (95% CI = 13.2% to 20.4%), 20.9% in 2011 (95% CI = 15.55% to 28.0%), 25.6% in 2013 (95% CI = 19.7% to 33.0%), 23.4% in 2015 (95% CI = 16.9% to 31.0%), and 35.9% in 2017 (95% CI = 24.8% to 48.9%). Among online smokers only, approximately one third searched online for cessation information each year from 2005 through 2015. In 2017, that proportion increased to 43.7% (95% CI = 29.7% to 58.7%), when an estimated 12.4 million online smokers searched for cessation help. More than one third of all smokers turn to the Internet for help quitting each year, representing more than 12 million US adults. This research provides contemporary estimates for the reach of Internet interventions for smoking cessation. Such estimates are necessary to estimate the population impact of Internet interventions on quit rates. The research finds more than 12 million US smokers searched online for cessation information in 2017.

  11. Media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs: Findings from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Hoffman, Allison C; Zandberg, Izabella; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-09-01

    Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between media exposure and addiction beliefs. We defined media exposure by hours exposed, as well as exposure to tobacco use health effects information through media sources including social media. We categorized media sources by whether respondents actively or passively engaged with the source. A majority (60.6% to 87.3%) of respondents believed that cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are addictive. Less than half of respondents believed that electronic cigarettes or hookah/waterpipes are addictive (45.2% and 49.8%, respectively). Respondents exposed to messages about tobacco use health effects on active media channels (e.g., social media) had greater odds of believing that smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.48), hookah/waterpipe (AOR=1.69), and roll-your-own cigarettes (AOR=1.61) are addictive. Respondents exposed to tobacco use health effects messages on passive media channels (e.g., television), had greater odds of believing that cigarettes (AOR=2.76) and electronic cigarettes (AOR=2.12) are addictive. US adult exposure to information about the health effects of tobacco use was associated with addiction beliefs about tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Age, period and cohort influences on beer, wine and spirits consumption trends in the US National Alcohol Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Bond, Jason; Ye, Yu; Rehm, Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    To estimate the separate influences of age, period and cohort on the consumption of beer wine and spirits in the United States. Linear age-period-cohort models controlling for demographic change with extensive specification testing. Setting US general population 1979-2000. Monthly average of past-year consumption of beer, wine and spirits in five National Alcohol Surveys. Findings The strongest cohort effects are found for spirits; cohorts born before 1940 are found to have significantly higher consumption than those born after 1946, with especially high spirits consumption for men in the pre-1930s cohorts. Significant cohort effects are also found for beer with elevated consumption in the 1946-65 cohorts for men but in the pre-1940 cohorts for women. Significant negative effects of age are found for beer and spirits consumption, although not for wine. Significant period effects are found for men's beer and wine consumption and for women's spirits consumption. Increased educational attainment in the population over time is associated with reduced beer consumption and increased wine consumption. Changing cohort demographics are found to have significant effects on beverage-specific consumption, indicating the importance of controlling for these effects in the evaluation of alcohol policy effectiveness and the potential for substantial improvement in the forecasting of future beverage-specific consumption trends, alcohol dependence treatment demand and morbidity and mortality outcomes.

  13. Patient-provider discussion of online health information: results from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of people have turned to the Internet for health information. Little has been done beyond speculation to empirically investigate patients' discussion of online health information with health care professionals (HCPs) and patients' perception of HCPs' reactions to such discussion. The author analyzed data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to identify the characteristics of patients (a) who search for health information on the Internet, (b) who discuss the information found on the Internet with HCPs, and (c) who positively assess HCPs' reaction to the online information. Findings show that men were more likely than were women to have a conversation on online information with HCPs. It is unfortunate that patients who had trouble understanding or trusting online health information were no more likely to ask questions to or seek guidance from HCPs. Reactions of HCPs to online information were perceived as particularly negative by certain groups of patients, such as those who experienced poor health and those who had more concerns about the quality of their searched information. Results are discussed for their implications for patient empowerment and patient-HCP relationships.

  14. Physical activity in young adults: a signal detection analysis of Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2007 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F; Mayer, Deborah K; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen; Campbell, Marci K

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults are insufficiently active to achieve the health benefits of regular physical activity. Using signal detection analysis of data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, the authors examined distinct subgroups of 18-39 year-old adults who vary in their likelihood of not meeting physical activity recommendations. We randomly split the sample and conducted signal detection analysis on the exploratory half to identify subgroups and interactions among sociodemographic and health communication variables that predicted engaging in less than 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity (low physical activity). We compared rates of low physical activity among subgroups with similarly defined subgroups in the validation sample. Overall, 62% of participants did not meet physical activity recommendations. Among 8 subgroups identified, low physical activity rates ranged from 31% to 90%. Predictors of low physical activity were general health, body mass index (BMI), perceived cancer risk, health-related Internet use, and trust in information sources. The least active subgroup (90% low physical activity) included young adults in poor to good health with a BMI of 30.8 or more (obese). The most active subgroup (31% low physical activity) comprised those in very good to excellent health, who used a website to help with diet, weight, or physical activity, and had little to no trust in health information on television. Findings suggest potential intervention communication channels and can inform targeted physical activity interventions for young adults.

  15. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  16. Predictors of eHealth usage: insights on the digital divide from the Health Information National Trends Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Emily; Blake, Kelly D; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Prestin, Abby

    2014-07-16

    Recent eHealth developments have elevated the importance of assessing the extent to which technology has empowered patients and improved health, particularly among the most vulnerable populations. With noted disparities across racial and social groups in chronic health outcomes, such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes, it is essential that researchers examine any differences in the implementation, uptake, and impact of eHealth strategies across groups that bear a disproportionate burden of disease. The goal was to examine eHealth use by sociodemographic factors, such as race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), age, and sex. We drew data from National Cancer Institute's 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) (N=3959) which is publicly available online. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to assess sociodemographic predictors of eHealth use among adult Internet users (N=2358) across 3 health communication domains (health care, health information-seeking, and user-generated content/sharing). Among online adults, we saw no evidence of a digital use divide by race/ethnicity. However, there were significant differences in use by SES, particularly for health care and health information-seeking items. Patients with lower levels of education had significantly lower odds of going online to look for a health care provider (high school or less: OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33-0.76) using email or the Internet to communicate with a doctor (high school or less: OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29-0.72), tracking their personal health information online (high school or less: OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.84), using a website to help track diet, weight, and physical activity (high school or less: OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.98; some college: OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.93), or downloading health information to a mobile device (some college: OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.89). Being female was a consistent predictor of eHealth use across health care and user-generated content/sharing domains

  17. Recent trends in the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Korean adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1998 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Young Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent obesity studies have reported that the rising trend in obesity has stabilized or leveled off. Our study aimed to update estimates of the recent prevalence trend in obesity based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998–2014. Methods: A total of 66,663 subjects were included and defined as being either underweight, overweight, or obese, in accordance with a BMI of 18.5 kg/m2 or lower, 23 kg/m2 or higher, and 25 kg/m2 or higher, respectively. Results: The prevalence of underweight in KNHANES I through VI surveys was 5.4%, 6.1%, 5.8%, 6.5%, 7.6%, and 7.5%, respectively, in men (p for trend = 0.04, β = 0.003 and 4.7%, 3.3%, 3.4%, 3.3%, 2.7%, and 2.6%, respectively, in women (p for trend = 0.03, β = −0.002. Also for KNHANES I through VI, the respective prevalence of overweight/obesity was 50.3%, 57.2%, 62.5%, 62.3%, 61.4%, and 61.3% in men (p for trend<0.01, β = 0.009 and 48.3%, 50.3%, 50.0%, 47.8%, 47.0%, and 45.3% in women (p for trend<0.01, β = −0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The obesity occurrence in men was trending upward with respect to overweight/obesity and for grade 1 and 2 obesity, but not for abdominal obesity. However, the obesity trends in women were leveling off from overweight/obesity, grade 1 obesity, and abdominal obesity measures. Further studies are required with data on muscle mass and adiposity for effective obesity control policies.

  18. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  19. Trends in botanical dietary supplement use among US adults by cancer status: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Hansen, Richard A; Chou, Chiahung; Calderón, Angela I; Qian, Jingjing

    2018-03-15

    Patients with cancer may use botanical dietary supplements (BDS) in an attempt to manage the side effects of chemotherapy, yet evidence about BDS use among patients with cancer is limited. The authors examined trends in BDS use among US adults according to cancer status and patient characteristics. A serial, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2014 (n = 43,644). Self-reported cancer diagnosis history and any BDS use in the preceding 30 days were determined. The prevalence of BDS use was calculated in each cycle for respondents with and without cancer, both overall and by patient characteristics. Simple linear regression models were applied to test for trends in BDS use at a 2-sided P value < .05. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to identify the patient factors associated with BDS use. The results were weighted to represent national estimates. The prevalence of BDS use was greater among participants who had cancer compared with participants who did not have cancer, but trends remained stable during 1999 through 2014 for both groups. Trends in BDS use declined in patients with cancer who were older (P trend  = .047), had a low annual family income (P trend  = .028), and had a lower education level (P trend  = .004). Among the respondents without cancer, trends in BDS use declined in those who were middle-aged (P trend  = .025), non-Hispanic whites (P trend  = .025), those with a lower education level (P trend  = .011), and those who were not receiving prescription medication (P trend  = .036). Patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, education, and health conditions were associated with BDS use. The overall use of BDS remained stable during 1999 through 2014 for US adults with and without cancer, but it varied by individual characteristics. Cancer 2018;124:1207-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer

  20. Trends In Geoscience Professional Ethics Indicated By National Association of State Boards of Geology (ASBOG®) Surveys of The Practicing Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. W.; Warner, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    ASBOG® was founded in 1988 to facilitate cooperation and coordination among states with licensing of practicing professional geologists-currently 29 states and Puerto Rico. ASBOG® creates national exams which are used by all of the states granting licensure. Periodic surveys of the practicing profession every 5 years are used to determine the skills and knowledge needed for professional practice and are used to generate the exam blueprints. Currently questions on professional ethics are included on the national licensing exams. Thirteen professional ethics issues in the geosciences were included on the Task Analysis Surveys (TAS) in 2005, 2010 and 2015. Professional geologists rate the seriousness of and the frequency of contact with these ethics issues. Topics include such items as gift-giving, whistleblowing, plagiarism, etc. The respondents are grouped into one of three categories: practicing licensed geologists in the United States, practicing licensed geologists in Canada, and geologists employed in the academic sector. Regardless of the employment sector, the responses to the professional ethics questions were statistically very similar (r values - Seriousness - USA vs. Academic +0.81, USA vs. Canada +0.94, Academic vs. Canada +0.86: Frequency - USA vs. Academic +0.71, USA vs. Canada +0.85, Academic vs. Canada +0.72). Some differences were detected. For example, plagiarism is regarded by practitioners in the academic sector as more important than this issue among licensed practicing geologists in the United States and Canada. The professional ethics issues asked on the 2010 and 2015 surveys are identical to facilitate detection of any temporal changes in response patterns. Statistically, the responses from practicing geologists in the USA in the 2010 and 2015 surveys are nearly identical, indicating that the profession has maintained virtually the same attitudes with regard to professional ethics (Seriousness r = +0.99, Frequency r = +0.99).

  1. Intimate partner violence trends in Brazil: data from two waves of the Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Elizabeth Z; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Viana, Maria C; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Mitsuhiro, Sandro; Madruga, Clarice S

    2016-01-01

    To compare intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence rates in 2006 and 2012 in a nationally representative household sample in Brazil. The associations between IPV and substance use were also investigated. IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale-R in two waves (2006/2012) of the Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted logistic regression models were calculated. Prevalence rates of IPV victimization decreased significantly, especially among women (8.8 to 6.3%). The rates of IPV perpetration also decreased significantly (10.6 to 8.4% for the overall sample and 9.2 to 6.1% in men), as well as the rates of bidirectional violence (by individuals who were simultaneously victims and perpetrators of violence) (3.2 to 2.4% for the overall sample). Alcohol increased the likelihood of being a victim (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6) and perpetrator (OR = 2.4) of IPV. Use of illicit drugs increased up to 4.5 times the likelihood of being a perpetrator. In spite of the significant reduction in most types of IPV between 2006 and 2012, violence perpetrated by women was not significantly reduced, and the current national rates are still high. Further, this study suggests that use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs plays a major role in IPV. Prevention initiatives must take drug misuse into consideration.

  2. Intimate partner violence trends in Brazil: data from two waves of the Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Z. Ally

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare intimate partner violence (IPV prevalence rates in 2006 and 2012 in a nationally representative household sample in Brazil. The associations between IPV and substance use were also investigated. Methods: IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale-R in two waves (2006/2012 of the Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted logistic regression models were calculated. Results: Prevalence rates of IPV victimization decreased significantly, especially among women (8.8 to 6.3%. The rates of IPV perpetration also decreased significantly (10.6 to 8.4% for the overall sample and 9.2 to 6.1% in men, as well as the rates of bidirectional violence (by individuals who were simultaneously victims and perpetrators of violence (3.2 to 2.4% for the overall sample. Alcohol increased the likelihood of being a victim (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6 and perpetrator (OR = 2.4 of IPV. Use of illicit drugs increased up to 4.5 times the likelihood of being a perpetrator. Conclusions: In spite of the significant reduction in most types of IPV between 2006 and 2012, violence perpetrated by women was not significantly reduced, and the current national rates are still high. Further, this study suggests that use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs plays a major role in IPV. Prevention initiatives must take drug misuse into consideration.

  3. Trends in HIV testing and associated factors among men in South Africa: evidence from 2005, 2008 and 2012 national population-based household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusha, T; Mabaso, M; Richter, L; Desmond, C; Jooste, S; Simbayi, L

    2017-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan African countries, including South Africa, uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among men remains a major challenge. Few studies have explored HIV testing uptake among men and factors that influence their testing behaviours. This article explores trends in HIV testing uptake and associated factors among men aged 15 years and older in South Africa using national HIV population-based household surveys conducted in 2005, 2008 and 2012. A multistage cross-sectional design was used in the three nationally representative household-based surveys. P-trend Chi-squared statistic was used to analyze changes in HIV testing in relation to demographic factors, and HIV-related risk behaviours across the three surveys. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between ever testing for HIV, demographic factors and HIV-related risk behaviours. HIV testing uptake among men was 28% in 2005, 43% in 2008 and 59% in 2012. A trend was also observed in HIV testing by sociodemographic factors, but differences existed within variables. HIV testing uptake was mainly influenced by the effects of selected population characteristics. Reduced likelihood of HIV testing was significantly associated with males aged 15-24 years, Black African race group, being single and unemployed, those residing in urban informal and rural informal areas, and those men who ever had sex. The observed sociodemographic differentials suggest that an effective expansion strategy for HIV testing needs to prioritize those most unlikely to test as identified by the current findings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi; Ji, Qiuhe

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999-2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals 130-159 mg/dl) or very high (≥220 mg/dl) non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with diagnosed T2DM. Body mass index, low economic status or low educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk.

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999–2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk. PMID:28415936

  6. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Tobacco Information Seeking and Information Sources: Findings From the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Robinson, Joelle; O'Brien, Erin Keely; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2017-09-01

    This article describes sources of health information, types of tobacco information sought, and trust in sources of tobacco information among U.S. racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and Other). Cross-sectional data (N = 3,788) from a nationally representative survey, HINTS-FDA 2015, were analyzed to examine unadjusted and adjusted associations between race/ethnicity and (a) first source of health information, (b) tobacco information seeking, and (c) trust in sources of tobacco information. Adjusted associations controlled for current tobacco product use and sociodemographic variables. Findings indicated that the Internet was the most common first source of health information while health care providers were the second most common source for all racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco-related health information seeking was more prevalent than other tobacco product information seeking. Unadjusted analyses indicated that a higher proportion of Whites sought other tobacco product information compared to Asians and Pacific Islanders. Trust was rated highest for doctors while trust for health organizations was rated second highest. Asians and Pacific Islanders had higher trust in the government compared to all other groups. Blacks had higher trust in religious organizations compared to all other groups besides Hispanics. Blacks had higher trust for tobacco companies compared to Whites and Other. Many of these differences were attenuated in adjusted analyses. This research has implications for tobacco control practice and policymaking by identifying potential dissemination strategies.

  7. Trends in market share of leading cigarette brands in the USA: national survey on drug use and health 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anushree; Fix, Brian V; Delnevo, Cristine; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J

    2016-01-29

    The main objective of this study is to examine trends in market share for leading cigarette brands, both before (2002-2008) and after (2009-2013) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products.Design Data come from the annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2002 through 2013. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations, and logistic regression were employed. Data were weighted to the US population and adjusted for cigarette consumption. Our analysis is restricted to 164,343 current cigarette smokers who were at least 12 years of age or older, had smoked at least one cigarette in the 30 days prior to the survey, and reported a usual cigarette brand at the time of the survey. Over 12 years, 14 brands comprised over 77% of the cigarette market. Marlboro consistently held over 38% of the market. Newport held the second highest market share, and increased from 7.2% in 2002 to 10.9% by 2013. Market share of Pall Mall grew by over 400% (1.7% in 2002 vs 8.9% in 2013), likely aided by the 2009 Federal excise tax increase. No clear associations of changes in market share with the implementation of FDA's regulatory authority over tobacco in 2009 were noted. Tracking market share trends offers clues about brand marketing changing preferences of consumers. Rapidly growing cigarette brands should be monitored to determine if specific marketing practices or design changes are drivers, as these could represent public health concerns. Monitoring trends in cigarette market share could inform regulatory decision-making efforts related to marketing and advertising. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Trends in Health Information-Seeking Behaviour in the U.S. Foreign-Born Population Based on the Health Information National Trends Survey, 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, JungWon; Huang, Hong; Soojung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated trends in the health information-seeking behaviour of the U.S. foreign-born population over a ten-year period and examined whether health information disparities between this population and native-born citizens have decreased. Method: Data were collected from six iterations of the Health Information National…

  9. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  10. Trends in Obesity Prevalence in Adults With a History of Cancer: Results From the US National Health Interview Survey, 1997 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Shi, Zaixing; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Rundle, Andrew; Tsai, Wei Yann

    2016-09-10

    Obesity after a diagnosis of specific cancers has been associated with worse prognosis. We examined the trend in obesity prevalence among cancer survivors in the United States in the past two decades and compared trends with those of adults without a history of cancer. This was a population-based nationally representative sample of 538,969 noninstitutionalized US adults 18 to 85 years old with and without a history of cancer who participated in annual cross-sectional National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2014. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) for non-Asians and body mass index ≥ 27.5 kg/m(2) for Asians. Among 32,447 cancer survivors identified, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (n = 6,948), prostate (n = 3,984), and colorectal (n = 2,546). From 1997 to 2014, the prevalence of obesity increased from 22.4% to 31.7% in cancer survivors and from 20.9% to 29.5% in adults without a history of cancer (P for trend history of cancer compared with those without a history of cancer (all P for interaction < .001). The estimated rate of annual increase in obesity prevalence was 3.1% in female and 3.7% in male colorectal cancer survivors, 3.0% in breast cancer survivors, and 2.1% in prostate cancer survivors (all P < .001). In subgroup analyses, populations with the highest rates of increasing obesity burden were colorectal cancer survivors, breast cancer survivors, and non-Hispanic blacks. From 1997 to 2014, obesity increased more rapidly among adult cancer survivors compared with the general population. Colorectal and breast cancer survivors and non-Hispanic blacks were identified as being at the highest risk for obesity. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-04-11

    It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time. The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965-1966 and 2007-2008 (p ≤ 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007-2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007-2008 (p ≤ 0.001). US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990's. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only slightly more than half spend any time cooking on a given

  12. Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time. Results The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965–1966 and 2007–2008 (p ≤ 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007–2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007–2008 (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990’s. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only

  13. 76 FR 37356 - Submission for OMB review; comment request Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...) (OMB 0925-0538, Exp 11/30/2008). Type of Information Collection Request: Reinstatement with Change... understand vital cancer prevention messages. More importantly, this NCI survey will couple knowledge-related... assessment of cancer-related behavior. The Public Health Services Act, Sections 411 (42 U.S.C. 285a) and 412...

  14. Youth exposure to in-vehicle second-hand smoke and their smoking behaviours: trends and associations in repeated national surveys (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George; Taylor, Steve; Edwards, Richard

    2015-03-01

    To extend the limited international evidence on youth in-vehicle second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure by examining trends in New Zealand, a country with a national smoke-free goal and indoors smoke-free environment legislation. We tracked exposure rates and explored the associations between in-vehicle SHS exposure and smoking behaviours. In-home exposure was also examined for comparative purposes. Data were collected in annual surveys of over 25 000 year 10 school students (14-15-year olds) for a 7-year period (2006-2012). Questions covered smoking behaviour, exposure to smoking and demographics. Youth SHS exposure rates in-vehicle and in-home trended down slightly over time (pvehicle in the previous week in 2012. However, marked inequalities in exposure between ethnic groups, and by school-based socioeconomic position, persisted. The strongest association with SHS exposure was parental smoking (eg, for both parents versus neither smoking in 2012: in-vehicle SHS exposure adjusted OR: 7.4; 95% CI: 6.5 to 8.4). After adjusting for seven other factors associated with initiation, logistic regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations of in-vehicle SHS exposure with susceptibility to initiation and smoking. The slow decline in SHS exposure in vehicles and the lack of progress in reducing relative inequalities is problematic. To accelerate progress, the New Zealand Government could follow the example of other jurisdictions and prohibit smoking in cars carrying children. Other major policy interventions, beside enhanced smoke-free environments, will also likely be required if New Zealand is to achieve its 2025 smoke-free nation goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Factors influencing junior doctors' choices of future specialty: trends over time and demographics based on results from UK national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    To study trends in factors influencing junior doctors' choice of future specialty. Respondents were asked whether each of 15 factors had a great deal of influence on their career choice, a little influence or no influence on it. Percentages are reported of those who specified that a factor had a great deal of influence on their career choice. UK. A total of 15,765 UK-trained doctors who graduated between 1999 and 2012. Questions about career choices and factors which may have influenced those choices, in particular comparing doctors who qualified in 2008-2012 with those who qualified in 1999-2002. Enthusiasm for and commitment to the specialty was a greater influence on career choice in the 2008-2012 qualifiers (81%) than those of 1999-2002 (64%), as was consideration of their domestic circumstances (43% compared with 20%). Prospects for promotion were less important to recent cohorts (16%) than older cohorts (21%), as were financial prospects (respectively, 10% and 14%). Domestic circumstances and working hours were considered more important, and financial prospects less important, by women than men. Inclination before medical school was rated as important by 41% of doctors who were over 30 years old, compared with 13% of doctors who were under 21, at the time of starting medical school. The increasing importance of both domestic circumstances and enthusiasm for their specialty choice in recent cohorts suggest that today's young doctors prize both work-life balance and personal fulfilment at work more highly than did their predecessors. The differences in motivations of older and younger generations of doctors, men and women, and doctors who start medical school relatively late are worthy of note. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  16. Trends in Determinants of Hypercholesterolemia among Chinese Adults between 2002 and 2012: Results from theNational Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng-Kun; Li, Hong; Man, Qing-Qing; Jia, Shan-Shan; Li, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Jian

    2017-03-15

    Hypercholesterolemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and affects a high proportion of the population. This study aimed to assess and compare the determinants of hypercholesterolemia among Chinese adults aged 18 years and above, from 2002 to 2012. The study used a stratified multistage cluster sampling method to select participants. Sociodemographic and lifestyle information was collected during face-to-face interviews. Dietary intake was calculated by 3-day, 24-h dietary records in combination with weighted edible oil and condiments. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as total cholesterol above 6.22 mmol/L (240 mg/dL) from fasting blood samples. The study included 47,701 (mean age 43.0 years) and 39,870 (mean age 51.0 years) participants in 2002 and 2010-2012 surveys respectively. The weighted prevalence of hypercholesterolemia increased from 1.6% (2.1% urban, 1.0% rural) in 2002 to 6.0% (6.4% urban, 5.1% rural) in 2012. The intake of plant-based food decreased but the intake of pork increased over the 10 years. A high intake of protein and pork, alcohol drinking and overweight/obesity were positively associated with hypercholesterolemia. Neither education nor fruit and vegetable intake were associated with hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, the burden of hypercholesterolemia increased substantially between 2002 and 2012 in China. Unhealthy lifestyle factors and change in traditional dietary pattern were positively associated with hypercholesterolemia. Further research on the role of diet in the development and prevention of hypercholesterolemia is needed.

  17. Impact of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme on the trend of catastrophic health expenditure in Chinese rural households: results from nationally representative surveys from 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Biao; Huo, Minghe; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yongjie; Fu, Rong; Liu, Meina; Meng, Qun

    2018-02-08

    To evaluate the trend of catastrophic health expenses (CHE) for inpatient care in relation to the commencement of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in rural China from 2003 to 2013, and the roles of NCMS in protecting affected households from CHE. We assessed the 10-year trend of the incidence and severity of CHE in rural households with hospitalised members using data from the Chinese National Health Services Survey. Generalised estimating equations were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI of the association between incidence rates of CHE ([Formula: see text]) and NCMS reimbursement. The incidence and severity of CHE after NCMS reimbursement both decreased and their changes increased rapidly from 2003 to 2013. After adjustment of the covariates, [Formula: see text] before reimbursement was significantly higher than that after reimbursement, and the OR (95% CI) was 1.50 (1.24 to 1.81), 1.79 (1.69 to 1.90) and 2.94 (2.77 to 3.11) in 2003, 2008 and 2013, respectively. The incidence and severity of CHE both reduced after NCMS reimbursements in each year. Excluding some confounding factors, [Formula: see text] was significantly associated with NCMS reimbursement. NCMS partly protected the rural households with hospitalised members from CHE. However, the inequalities between different income groups still existed. [Formula: see text] in rural households with hospitalised members was still rather high in 2003, 2008 and 2013 even though they were covered by NCMS. This study will provide suggestions for further reforms in China and guidance for other low-income/middle-income countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Differing trends in the association between obesity and self-reported health in Portugal and Switzerland. Data from national health surveys 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Ravasco, Paula; Paccaud, Fred

    2012-08-01

    The escalating prevalence of obesity might prompt obese subjects to consider themselves as normal, as this condition is gradually becoming as frequent as normal weight. In this study, we aimed to assess the trends in the associations between obesity and self-rated health in two countries. Data from the Portuguese (years 1995-6, 1998-6 and 2005-6) and Swiss (1992-3, 1997, 2002 and 2007) National Health Surveys were used, corresponding to more than 130,000 adults (64,793 for Portugal and 65,829 for Switzerland). Body mass index and self-rated health were derived from self-reported data. Obesity levels were higher in Portugal (17.5% in 2005-6 vs. 8.9% in 2007 in Switzerland, p Switzerland (21.8% in 2005-6 vs 3.9% in 2007, p Switzerland, the prevalence of "bad" or "very bad" rates among obese participants, increased from 6.5% in 1992-3 to 9.8% in 2007, while in Portugal it decreased from 41.3% to 32.3%. After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of stating one self's health as "bad" or "very bad" among obese relative to normal weight participants, almost doubled in Switzerland: from 1.38 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-1.87) in 1992-3 to 2.64 (95% CI: 2.14-3.26) in 2007, and similar findings were obtained after sample weighting. Conversely, no such trend was found in Portugal: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-1.48) in 1995-6 and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.37-1.70) in 2005-6. Obesity is increasing in Switzerland and Portugal. Obesity is increasingly associated with poorer self-health ratings in Switzerland but not in Portugal.

  19. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  20. Time trends in leisure time physical activity and physical fitness in elderly people: 20 year follow-up of the Spanish population national health survey (1987-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco-Garrido Pilar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate trends in leisure time physical activity and physical fitness between 1987-2006 in older Spanish people. Methods We analyzed data collected from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 1987 (n = 29,647, 1993 (n = 20,707, 1995-1997 (n = 12,800, 2001 (n = 21,058, 2003 (n = 21,650, and 2006 (n = 29,478. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included in the current study was 29,263 (1987: n = 4,958-16.7%; 1993: n = 3,751-17.8%; 1995-97: n = 2,229-17.4%; 2001: n = 4,356-20.7%; 2003: 6,134-28.3%; 2006: 7,835-26.5%. Main variables included leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness. We analyzed socio-demographic characteristics, self-rated health status, lifestyle habit and co-morbid conditions using multivariate logistic regression models. Results Women exhibited lower prevalence of leisure time physical activity and physical fitness compared to men (P Conclusions We found an increase in leisure time physical activity in the older Spanish population. Older age, married status, co-morbid conditions, obesity, and worse self-perceived health status were associated with lower activity. Identification of these factors can help to identify individuals at risk for physical inactivity.

  1. The Effect of Electronic Health Record Use and Patient-Centered Communication on Cancer Screening Behavior: An Analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totzkay, Daniel; Silk, Kami J; Sheff, Sarah E

    2017-07-01

    The present study used the 2013 Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 3185) to examine the effects of patient-centered communication (PCC) and the use of electronic health records (EHRs) on the likelihood of patients receiving a recommended screening for cancer (i.e., mammogram, PSA test). Self-determination theory, a framework of self-initiated extrinsic behaviors, was applied to test mediation models of PCC and EHR use, respectively, through patient activation. The results demonstrated that PCC and EHR use predicted cancer screening (mediated through patient activation), but only for women recommended for biannual mammograms. The aforementioned relationship was not found for men who are recommended for prostate cancer screening. PCC and EHRs do appear to facilitate a patient's ability to take care of their own health, but only under certain circumstances. It was additionally found that men were more likely to report higher degrees of physician PCC when their physicians maintained an EHR, whereas women reported no difference. Future research should examine more nuanced personality factors that affect the perception of PCC in the presence of EHRs and the relationship between men's activation and likelihood of receiving a cancer screen.

  2. Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Seok; Ju, Se-Young

    2014-12-01

    Eating-out among Korean people has become an important part of modern lifestyle due to tremendous growth of the food service industry and various social and economic changes. This study examined trends in meal patterns and meal sources while eating-out among Korean adults aged 19 years and older. Data were from the 1998-2012 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 55,718 adults aged 19 years and older. For analysis of eating-out frequency, data were categorized by source of meals and serving place. Average frequency of meals consumed away from home increased from 1998 to 2012, although it remained lower than that of meals at home. In addition, male, unmarried, employed, higher educated, and high income individuals more frequently consumed meals away from home. Moreover, sodium intake while eating-out significantly increased from 2,370 mg in 1998 to 2,935 mg in 2012. Lastly, percentage contributions of daily total protein intake, fat intake, and sodium intake from eating-out increased to more than half (53-55%) in 2012 compared with 47-48% in 1998. As eating-out has grown in popularity, greater recognition of public health and nutritional education aimed at promoting healthy food choices is needed. In addition to developing consumer education for overall healthier eating patterns, individuals who are younger, unmarried, higher educated, and males are especially at risk and require attention.

  3. Trends in urinary arsenic among the U.S. population by drinking water source: Results from the National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Barrett; Smit, Ellen; Cardenas, Andres; Hystad, Perry; Kile, Molly L

    2018-04-01

    In 2001, the United States revised the arsenic maximum contaminant level for public drinking water systems from 50µg/L to 10µg/L. This study aimed to examine temporal trends in urinary arsenic concentrations in the U.S. population from 2003 to 2014 by drinking water source among individuals aged 12 years and older who had no detectable arsenobetaine - a biomarker of arsenic exposure from seafood intake. We examined data from 6 consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2014; N=5848). Total urinary arsenic (TUA) was calculated by subtracting arsenobetaine's limit of detection and detectable arsenocholine from total arsenic. Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted using a second total urinary arsenic index (TUA2, calculated by adding arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid). We classified drinking water source using 24-h dietary questionnaire data as community supply (n=3427), well or rain cistern (n=506), and did not drink tap water (n=1060). Geometric means (GM) of survey cycles were calculated from multivariate regression models adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, BMI, income, creatinine, water source, type of water consumed, recent smoking, and consumption of seafood, rice, poultry, and juice. Compared to 2003-2004, adjusted TUA was 35.5% lower in 2013-2014 among the general U.S. Stratified analysis by smoking status indicated that the trend in lower TUA was only consistent among non-smokers. Compared to 2003-2004, lower adjusted TUA was observed in 2013-2014 among non-smoking participants who used community water supplies (1.98 vs 1.16µg/L, pwater (2.24 vs 1.53µg/L, pwater supplier and to a lesser extent those who did not drink tap water. However, the sensitivity analysis showed overall exposure stayed the same or was higher among well or rain cistern users. Finally, the greatest decrease in TUA was among participants within the highest exposure percentiles (e.g. 95th percentile had

  4. Public Awareness of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests: Findings from the 2013 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Ferrer, Rebecca; Ottenbacher, Allison; Waters, Erika A; O'Connell, Mary E; Hamilton, Jada G

    2015-12-01

    Although the availability of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing has increased in recent years, the general public's awareness of this testing is not well understood. This study examined levels of public awareness of DTC genetic testing, sources of information about testing, and psychosocial factors associated with awareness of testing in the USA. Data were obtained from the nationally representative 2013 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey. Guided by a social-cognitive conceptual framework, univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to identify factors associated with awareness of DTC genetic tests. Of 3185 participants, 35.6% were aware of DTC genetic tests, with the majority learning about these tests through radio, television, and the Internet. In the final adjusted model, participants with annual incomes of $99,999 or less had lower odds of being aware of DTC genetic testing (ORs ranging from 0.46-0.61) than did those participants with incomes of $100,000 or more. The odds of awareness of DTC genetic tests were significantly higher for those who actively seek cancer information (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.36-2.69), use the Internet (OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.05-3.13), and have high numeracy skills (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.17-2.38). It will be critical for healthcare researchers and practitioners to understand predictors and consequences of the public's awareness of DTC genetic tests, as well as how such awareness may translate into DTC genetic testing uptake, health behavior change, and ultimately disease prevention.

  5. Time trends in leisure time physical activity and physical fitness in the elderly: five-year follow-up of the Spanish National Health Survey (2006-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Pérez, Carmen; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; López-de-Andrés, Ana; Jimenez-Trujillo, Ma Isabel; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the trends in the practice of leisure time physical activity, walking up 10 steps, and walking for 1h, during the years 2006-2011, in elderly Spanish people. Observational study, retrospective analysis of Spanish National Health Surveys. We analysed data collected from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 2006 (n=30,072) and 2011 (n=21,007), through self-reported information. The number of subjects aged ≥65 years included in the current study was n=5756 in 2006 (19.14%) and n=4617 in 2011 (21.97%). We included responses from adults aged 65 years and older. The main variables included leisure-time physical activity, walking up 10 steps, and walking for 1h. We analysed socio-demographic characteristics, individuals' self-rated health status, lifestyle habits, co-morbid conditions and disability using multivariable logistic regression models. The total number of subjects was 10,373 (6076 women, 4297 men). The probability of self-reported capacity was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011 for leisure-time physical activity, walking up 10 steps, and walking for 1h for both sexes (women: OR 2.20, 95%IC 1.91-5.55; OR 2.50, 95%IC 1.99-3.14; OR 1.04, 95%IC 1.01-1.07; men: OR 2.20, 95%IC 1.91-2.55; OR 2.01, 95%IC 1.40-2.89; OR 1.05, 95%IC 1.0-1.1) respectively. Both sexes were associated with a significantly lower probability of performing leisure-time physical activity, walking up 10 steps, and walking for 1h. Additionally, those over 80 years of age, on average, showed a poor or very poor perception of their health and presented with some type of disability. A decrease in the proportion of respondents who self-reported undertaking leisure-time physical activity, walking up 10 steps, and walking for 1h was observed in the Spanish population of over 65 years between 2006 and 2011. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vital Statistics Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Provisional number of marriages and marriage rate: United States, 2000-2014 Year ...

  7. Cigarette smoking trends among U.S. working adult by industry and occupation: findings from the 2004-2012 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hendricks, Scott A; Jamal, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    To examine trends in age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults by industry and occupation during 2004-2012, and to project those prevalences and compare them to the 2020 Healthy People objective (TU-1) to reduce cigarette smoking prevalence to ≤12%. We analyzed the 2004-2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. Respondents were aged ≥18 years working in the week prior to the interview. Temporal changes in cigarette smoking prevalence were assessed using logistic regression. We used the regression model to extrapolate to the period 2013-2020. Overall, an estimated 19.0% of working adults smoked cigarettes: 22.4% in 2004 to 18.1% in 2012. The largest declines were among workers in the education services (6.5%) industry and in the life, physical, and social science (9.7%) occupations. The smallest declines were among workers in the real estate and rental and leasing (0.9%) industry and the legal (0.4%) occupations. The 2020 projected smoking prevalences in 15 of 21 industry groups and 13 of the 23 occupation groups were greater than the 2020 Healthy People goal. During 2004-2012, smoking prevalence declined in the majority of industry and occupation groups. The decline rate varied by industry and occupation groups. Projections suggest that certain groups may not reach the 2020 Healthy People goal. Consequently, smoking cessation, prevention, and intervention efforts may need to be revised and strengthened, particularly in specific occupational groups. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco [2014]. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Breast and colorectal cancer screening and sources of cancer information among older women in the United States: results from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Berkowitz, Zahava; Hawkins, Nikki A; Tangka, Florence

    2007-07-01

    The number of people in the United States aged 65 years and older is increasing. Older people have a higher risk of dying from cancer; however, recent information about breast and colorectal cancer screening rates among women aged 65 years and older and about sources of health information consulted by these women is limited. We examined data from the Health Information National Trends Survey for women aged 65 years and older who had no personal history of breast or colorectal cancer. Women whose self-reported race and ethnicity was non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, or Hispanic were included in the analysis. The overall response rate for the 2003 survey was 34.5%. Women aged 75 years and older had lower rates of recent mammography (mammogram in previous 2 years) than did women aged 65 to 74 years. In both age groups, rates were especially low for Hispanic women and women with a household income of less than $15,000 per year. Rates of recent colorectal cancer screening (fecal occult blood test in previous year or endoscopy in previous 5 years) were markedly lower for non-Hispanic black women aged 75 years and older than for other women in this age group, and for Hispanic women aged 65 to 74 years than for non-Hispanic women in this age group. Screening rates were lowest for women with an annual household income of less than $15,000, no family history of cancer, no usual health care provider, or 1 or no provider visits in the previous year. Differences were found in the groups' preferred channel for receiving health information. Women who had had a mammogram in the previous 2 years were more likely to pay attention to health information on the radio or in newspapers and magazines than were women who had not received a recent mammogram. Women who had had a recent colorectal cancer screening test were more likely to pay attention to health information in magazines or on the Internet than were those who had not. Personalized print and other publications were the

  9. Global Trends in Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2005-01-01

    Basically, the surveyors have been dealing with the same tasks for centuries. However, even if the core areas of cadastral surveying and land management are still the same, the paradigms and tools to be used must constantly be adapted to technological development as well as to the ever changing...... societal and administrative conditions. This of course imposes all kinds of challenges upon the profession and educational institutions. Furthermore, issues such as curricula development, quality assurance, continuing professional development, and mutual recognition are crucial to any professional...

  10. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Carla R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-01-01

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414

  11. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG. This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973 and adults (n = 24,809. Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1 g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01 oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02 oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02 oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%, grain mixtures (16.3%, other foods (15.8% and fruits (11.3%. For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%, other foods (14.3%, grain mixtures (12.0% and fruits (11.1%. Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC (31%, yeast breads/rolls (21% and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%. The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%, RTEC (23% and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%. Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S. population.

  12. Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Carla R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-02-09

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n=14,973) and adults (n=24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population.

  13. National Trends in Nonstatin Use and Expenditures Among the US Adult Population From 2002 to 2013: Insights From Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Joseph A; Warraich, Haider J; Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Spatz, Erica S; Desai, Nihar R; Rana, Jamal S; Virani, Salim S; Blankstein, Ron; Khera, Amit; Blaha, Michael J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Katzen, Barry T; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Krumholz, Harlan M; Nasir, Khurram

    2018-01-22

    Evidence supporting nonstatin lipid-lowering therapy in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk reduction is variable. We aim to examine nonstatin utilization and expenditures in the United States between 2002 and 2013. We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey database to estimate national trends in nonstatin use and cost (total and out-of-pocket, adjusted to 2013 US dollars using a gross domestic product deflator) among adults 40 years or older. Nonstatin users increased from 3 million (2.5%) in 2002-2003 (20.1 million prescriptions) to 8 million (5.6%) in 2012-2013 (45.8 million prescriptions). Among adults with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, nonstatin use increased from 7.5% in 2002-2003 to 13.9% in 2012-2013 after peaking at 20.3% in 2006-2007. In 2012-2013, 15.9% of high-intensity statin users also used nonstatins, versus 9.7% of low/moderate-intensity users and 3.6% of statin nonusers. Nonstatin use was significantly lower among women (odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.86), racial/ethnic minorities (odds ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.36-0.47), and the uninsured (odds ratio 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.40-0.56). Total nonstatin expenditures increased from $1.7 billion (out-of-pocket cost, $0.7 billion) in 2002-2003 to $7.9 billion (out-of-pocket cost $1.6 billion) in 2012-2013, as per-user nonstatin expenditure increased from $550 to $992. Nonstatin expenditure as a proportion of all lipid-lowering therapy expenditure increased 4-fold from 8% to 32%. Between 2002 and 2013, nonstatin use increased by 124%, resulting in a 364% increase in nonstatin-associated expenditures. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Worldwide trends of the mine surveying services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z. (Coal Science Research Institute, Tangshan (China))

    1991-08-01

    This author discusses the role of mine surveying in the present and future mining industry, and summarizes the main trends of development as follows: active training of specialists and technical experts; employment of advance surveying technology and data and image processing technology; research and development of measuring method and equipment for accurate measurement of strata movement and deformation; accurate forecasts of ground motion or earthquakes.

  15. National trends in pediatric use of anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Allen R; Zito, Julie M; Safer, Daniel J; Hundley, Sarah D

    2012-11-01

    This research study aimed to assess national trends in pediatric use of anticonvulsants for seizures and psychiatric disorders. In a cross-sectional design, data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were analyzed. Outpatient visit information for youths (ages 0-17 years) was grouped by year for 1996-1997, 2000-2001, 2004-2005, and 2008-2009. Six of the most common anticonvulsant drugs used for psychiatric conditions were examined. Psychiatric diagnoses and seizure or convulsion diagnoses were identified with ICD-9-CM codes. The primary outcome measure was percentage prevalence of visits for anticonvulsants that included a psychiatric diagnosis as a proportion of total youth visits for an anticonvulsant. Total, diagnosis-stratified, and drug-specific visits, as well as visits for concomitant anticonvulsants and psychotropics, were analyzed. As a proportion of total youth visits for anticonvulsants, visits with a psychiatric diagnosis increased 1.7 fold (panticonvulsant use significantly increased, from .33% to .68% of total youth visits in the 14-year period. There were significant increases in anticonvulsant use to treat pediatric bipolar disorder and disruptive behavior disorders. Visits noting divalproex decreased while visits noting lamotrigine increased among visits involving a psychiatric diagnosis. The concomitant use of stimulants and anticonvulsants significantly increased in visits noting a psychiatric diagnosis. Whereas anticonvulsant use for seizure disorders across the 14-year period was stable, the use of these drugs for psychiatric conditions rose to a dominant position. The growth of concomitant and off-label use to treat behavioral disorders raises questions about effectiveness and safety in community populations of youths.

  16. National trends in anterior cervical fusion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marawar, Satyajit; Girardi, Federico P; Sama, Andrew A; Ma, Yan; Gaber-Baylis, Licia K; Besculides, Melanie C; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

    2010-07-01

    Population-based database analysis. To analyze trends in patient- and healthcare-system-related characteristics, utilization and outcomes associated with anterior cervical spine fusions. Anterior cervical decompression and spine fusion (ACDF) is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures of the spine. However, few data analyzing trends in patient- and healthcare-system-related characteristics, utilization and outcomes exist. Data from 1990 to 2004 collected in the National Hospital Discharge Survey were accessed. ACDF procedures were identified. Five-year periods of interest (POI) were created for temporal analysis and changes in the prevalence and utilization of this procedure as well as in patient- and healthcare-system-related variables were examined. The changes in the occurrence of procedure-related complications were evaluated. An estimated total of 771,932 discharges after ACDF were identified. Temporally, an almost 8-fold increase in total prevalence was accompanied by a similar increase in utilization (23/100.000 civilians/POI to 157/100.000/civilians/POI). The highest increase in utilization was observed in those > or =65 years (28-fold). Average age increased from 47.2 years to 50.5 years over time. Length of hospital stay decreased from 5.17 days to 2.38 days. Overall procedure-related complication rates decreased from 4.6% to 3.03%. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, pulmonary, and coronary artery increased over time among patients undergoing ACDF. Despite limitations inherent to secondary analysis of large databases, we identified a number of significant changes in the utilization, demographics, and outcomes associated with ACDF, which can be used to assess the effect of changes in medical care, direct health care resources, and future research. The effect of the increased prevalence of comorbidities on medical practice remains to be evaluated. Further studies are necessary to evaluate causal

  17. Survey of trends and approaches of the works related to the Information and Communication Technologies presented at the XIX National Symposium on Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes de Macêdo, Josué; Soares Pedroso, Luciano; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Teixeira de Araújo, Mauro Sérgio

    2014-04-01

    In this study, an investigation of 231 articles of the oral communication sections presented at the National Symposium on Physics Teaching (NSPT) was conducted, trying to identify those related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT), its form of organization, the involved thematic areas and the degree of teaching, allowing to compare the different perspectives and trends in this field. The conducted state of the art-study had a bibliographical character and qualitative contours involving content analysis. It was realized that the thematic area "Information technology, technology diffusion and Physics teaching", where most of the research related to ICT is concentrated, represent 11.7% of the total number of papers at the XIX NSPT, confirming a trend of research in this area. It was found, among other things, the predominance of studies where learning objects are used in Physics Education, especially in High School and University Education; the use of ICT in multidisciplinary work and that some features need to be further explored, such as thermodynamics. It was also noted an expressive amount of studies involving the use of ICT in teacher training proposals, which can contribute to the enlargement of the methodological options of teachers and meet their training needs.

  18. Trend of the risk and protective factors of chronic diseases in adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2009 e 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of major risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in school-aged children in Brazilian capitals surveyed in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey in its two editions, 2009 and 2012. METHODS: The frequencies, with Confidence Interval of 95%, of the following demographic variables were compared: food intake, body image, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence was compared in the two editions of the survey. RESULTS: The proportion of students who attend two physical education classes a week was maintained at 49% between 2009 and 2012, increasing in public schools from 50.6% (95%CI 49.8 - 51.4 to 52.5% (95%CI 49.2 - 55.7, and decreasing in private schools. There was no change in the proportion of students who watch two hours or more of television daily, about 80%. As for body image, there was no change between the two editions, and about 60% considered themselves being of normal weight. There was a reduction in the percentage of adolescents who experienced cigarettes, from 24.2% (95%CI 23.6 - 24.8 to 22.3% (95%CI 21.4 - 23.2, and the prevalence of smoking was maintained at about 6% (there was no statistical difference between 2009 and 2012. The consumption of beans, fruits, sweets and soft drinks also decreased. Frequency of drug experimentation was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.3 - 9.1 in 2009, and 9.6% (95%CI 9.0 - 10.3 in 2012, with no difference between confidence intervals, and the frequency of alcohol experimentation was maintained at about 70%; the percentage of use in the past 30 days was also maintained at around 27%. CONCLUSION: In the Brazilian capitals, the vast majority of prevalence of risk factors were kept stable in the two editions of the National Survey of School. These data generate evidence to guide the implementation of public policies to minimize the exposure of adolescents to risk factors.

  19. Time Trends of High Blood Pressure Prevalence, Awareness and Control in the Italian General Population : Surveys of the National Institute of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lonardo, Anna; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Palmieri, Luigi; Vanuzzo, Diego; Giampaoli, Simona

    2017-06-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The urgency of the problem was underlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, which recommends a 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised BP by 2020. A surveillance system represents a useful tool to monitor BP in the general population. Since 1980s, the National Institute of Health has conducted several surveys of the adult general population, measuring cardiovascular risk factors by standardized procedures and methods. To describe mean BP levels and high BP prevalence from 1978 to 2012 by sex and quinquennia of age. Data were derived from the following three studies: (i) Risk Factors and Life Expectancy (RIFLE), conducted between 1978 and 2002 in 13 Italian regions (>70,000 persons); (ii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare (OEC), conducted between 1998-2002 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons); and (iii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey (OEC/HES), conducted between 2008-2012 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons). A significant decrease in mean systolic and diastolic BP levels and prevalence of high BP from 1978 to 2012 was observed both in men and women. BP and high BP increased by age classes in all considered periods. BP awareness and control also improved. Our data suggest that BP control could be achieved by 2020, as recommended by WHO.

  20. Social Gradients and Physical Activity Trends in an Obesogenic Dietary Pattern: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; Toumpakari, Zoi; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2018-03-22

    An energy-dense, high-fat, low-fibre dietary pattern has been prospectively associated with the development of obesity in childhood but is population-specific, which limits translating the pattern into interventions. We explored the generalisability and correlates of this obesogenic dietary pattern in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) for the first time. Data came from participants ( n = 4636 children and n = 4738 adults) with 4-day food diaries in NDNS 2008-2014. Reduced rank regression was applied to 51 food groups to explain variation in energy density, fibre and fat intake. Consistency of the pattern in population subgroups (according to sex, age, occupation and income) was compared with the whole sample pattern using coefficients of congruence (COC). Pattern correlates (sociodemographic, survey year, physical activity and eating related behaviours) were explored using multiple linear regression. Food group loadings were similar to the previously identified obesogenic dietary pattern and were generalisable across all sub-groups (COC: 0.93-0.99). An obesogenic diet was associated with eating takeaways, being omnivorous, a manual household occupation and lower household income in both adults and children ( p pattern could be used to monitor the effectiveness of obesity prevention policies or develop personalised interventions.

  1. Trend and Pattern of Herb and Supplement Use in the United States: Results from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsuen Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1990s, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, including use of herbs and supplements, gained popularity in the United States. However, more recent surveys suggest that demand for herbs and supplements has stabilized. Objective. This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and changes in herb and supplement use among the US adults, using the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS. Methods. Weighted population estimates were derived from three complementary and alternative medicine supplements to the NHIS. Prevalence rates for herb and supplement use were compared, using Wald chi-square tests to measure changes between years. Results. An estimated 40.6 million US adults reported herb and supplement use in 2012. However, the rate of herb and supplement use dropped from 18.9% in 2002 to 17.9% in 2007 and 2012 (P<0.05. This decline in use was more pronounced among women, racial or ethnic minorities, and adults with low incomes. Conclusion. Herb and supplements use remains common in the USA, but adult use rates are on the decline. It is still important for health care providers to ask patients about herb and supplement use.

  2. 2012 National Immunization Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir This website is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being maintained or ... 12, 2013: Content on this page kept for historical reasons. National Immunization Survey (NIS) – Children (19-35 ...

  3. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  4. National Aquatic Resource Survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Surface water monitoring data from national aquatic surveys (lakes, streams, rivers). This dataset is associated with the following publication: Stoddard , J., J....

  5. National Survey of Family Growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) gathers information on family life, marriage and divorce, pregnancy, infertility, use of contraception, and men's and...

  6. Trends in nutrient intakes, nutritional status, and correlates of undernutrition among rural children below 5 years of age: The National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau Survey 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I I Meshram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of several national nutrition intervention programs that have been in operation since the past four decades, undernutrition continues to be an important public health problem in India. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the trends in food and nutrient intakes and nutritional status of children in India below 5 years of age. Setting and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in ten National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau states by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure. Methods: Data were collected on the household (HH socioeconomic and demographic particulars, and anthropometric measurements of the children, such as their length/height and weight, were noted. A 24-h dietary recall method was used for assessing dietary intake. Results: Intake of all the foodstuffs except pulses, vegetables, and fats and oils declined over a period of time (1975–1979 to 2011–2012 while the intake of all the micronutrients except Vitamins A and C declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition, i.e. underweight, stunting, and wasting has declined from 76%, 82%, and 27%, respectively in 1975–1979 to 42%, 44%, and 19%,respectively, in 2011–2012 among 1-5 year children. The severe form of undernutrition has also declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly (P < 0.01 higher among children of illiterate mothers, those belonging to lower socioeconomic status, and those living in nuclear families. Conclusions: The prevalence of undernutrition declined over the period despite the decrease in food and nutrient intake. However, the pace of decline was slower and it was attributed to improved health-care services coupled with control of communicable diseases and increase in the HHs income. Further efforts are needed to improve the literacy of parents, environmental and personal hygiene, along with the food security of HHs through a public

  7. Comparing the Trend of Physical Activity and Caloric Intake between Lipid-Lowering Drug Users and Nonusers among Adults with Dyslipidemia: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Young; Chekal, Lan; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Jee-Yon; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity and caloric intake trends of lipid-lowering drug users with those of non-users among Korean adults with dyslipidemia. This study was a repeated cross-sectional study with a nationally representative sample of 2,635 Korean adults with dyslipidemia based on the 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and caloric intake was estimated through 24-hour dietary recall. All statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). The changes in physical activity and caloric intake were investigated for lipid-lowering drug users and non-users using generalized linear models. The proportion of lipid-lowering drug users in the 2010-2013 survey population increased from 3.5% to 5.0% (PPhysical activity trends were tested separately for the lipid-lowering drug users and non-users, and a significant decrease was found among the drug users during the study period. Physical activity among the drug users in 2013 was 38% lower (1,357.3±382.7 metabolic equivalent [MET]; P for trend=0.002) than in 2010 (2,201.4±442.6 MET). In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between drug users and non-users in the trend of caloric intake during the same period. Physical activity significantly decreased among lipid-lowering drug users between 2010 and 2013, which was not observed among non-users. The importance of physical activity may need to be re-emphasized for lipid-lowering drug users.

  8. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - National Immunization Survey (Breastfeeding)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes breastfeeding data from the National Immunization Survey (NIS). This data is used for DNPAO's Data, Trends, and Maps database, which provides...

  9. National narcolepsy survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doherty, L.

    2010-04-01

    Narcolepsy is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and has a prevalence of 25 per 100,000. We suspect this is higher than presently seen in the Republic of Ireland. We aimed to calculate the Irish prevalence of Narcolepsy and to examine current management practices. We conducted an online survey of respiratory physicians, neurologists, paediatric neurologists, and psychiatrists with an interest in sleep disorders (73% response rate). Of this group, a total of 16 physicians managed 180 patients prior to January 2009. A clinical diagnosis alone was reached in 67 (41%) patients, the remainder by polysomnography or multiple sleep latency testing. No patients were diagnosed by cerebro-spinal fluid analysis of hypocretin levels. While 70 (42%) patients received modafanil, only 7 (4%) were treated with sodium oxybate. Even allowing for missing data it is apparent that Narcolepsy is hugely under-diagnosed in Ireland, however, current practises adhere with new international guidelines.

  10. Trends in diabetic retinopathy and related medical practices among type 2 diabetes patients: Results from the National Insurance Service Survey 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Su Jeong; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Kyung Seek; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Cheol-Young; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up; Ko, Kyung-Soo

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the temporal changes in the prevalence, screening rate, visual impairments and treatment patterns of diabetic retinopathy in the Korean population over 8 years. This was a retrospective population-based study of Korean national health insurance beneficiaries aged 30 years or older with type 2 diabetes, obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Claims database from 2006 to 2013 (n = 1,655,495 in 2006 and 2,720,777 in 2013). The annual prevalence rates of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, dilated fundus examinations, visual impairment, laser treatment and vitrectomy, as determined based on diagnostic and treatment codes, were analyzed. There was a steady increase in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, from 14.3% in 2006 to 15.9% in 2013. However, the incidence of new diabetic retinopathy cases decreased from 6.7/100 person-years in 2006 to 5.6 in 2013. Approximately 98% of patients underwent at least one dilated fundus examination during the follow-up period. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy peaked in the 60-69 years age group. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was higher in female than in male diabetes patients. The proportion of patients who underwent an annual dilated fundus examination improved from 24.3% in 2006 to 30.0% in 2013. Among patients with diabetic retinopathy, constant decreases in the proportions of those who received laser treatment (11.4% in 2006 to 6.9% in 2013) and who underwent vitrectomy (2.4% in 2006 to 1.7% in 2013) were noted. Additionally, a decreasing trend in the prevalence of visual impairment was noted among the patients with diabetic retinopathy, from 2% (4,820/237,267) in 2006 to 0.08% (3,572/431,964) in 2013. Although there was a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes in the Korean population in the past decade, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy remained stable during the study period. However, just three out of 10 patients with diabetes underwent regular annual

  11. Patterns and trends in sources of information about sex among young people in Britain: evidence from three National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanton, Clare; Jones, Kyle G; Macdowall, Wendy; Clifton, Soazig; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Datta, Jessica; Lewis, Ruth; Field, Nigel; Sonnenberg, Pam; Stevens, Amy; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Mercer, Catherine H

    2015-03-05

    To assess progress in meeting young people's sex education needs in Britain by examining the current situation and changes over the past 20 years in sources of information about sexual matters and unmet information needs. Cross-sectional probability sample surveys. British general population. 3869 men and women aged 16-24 years, interviewed 2010-2012 for the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes & Lifestyles (Natsal-3), compared with 16-24 year-olds in Natsal-1 (1990-1991; 792 men and women) and Natsal-2 (1999-2001; 2673 men and women). Reported source of information about sexual matters, unmet information needs and preferred source of additional information. Between 1990 and 2012, the proportion citing school lessons as their main source of information about sexual matters increased from 28.2% (95% CI 24.6 to 32.1) to 40.3% (95% CI 38.6 to 42.1). In 2010-2012, parents were reported as a main source by only 7.1% (95% CI 5.8 to 8.7) of men and 14.1% (95% CI 12.6 to 15.7) of women and, for women, were less commonly reported than in 1999-2001 (21.7%; 95% CI 19.6 to 24.0). Most young people reported not knowing enough when they first felt ready for sexual experience (68.1% men, 70.6% women), and this did not change substantially over time. They wanted more information about psychosexual matters (41.6% men, 46.8% women), as well as sexually transmitted infections (27.8% men, 29.8% women) and, for women, contraception (27.5%). Young people primarily wanted this information from school, parents or health professionals. Over the past 20 years, young people have increasingly identified school lessons as their main source of information about sex, although they continue to report needing more information on a broad range of topics. The findings support the expressed need for improved sex and relationships education in schools alongside greater involvement of parents and health professionals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  12. Aerial Survey Trend Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (1984-2006) - ADF&G

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during 1983–2006 in the Ketchikan, Sitka, Kodiak, and Bristol Bay areas of Alaska to estimate trends in abundance of harbor seals.

  13. National, regional, and global trends in systolic blood pressure since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 786 country-years and 5·4 million participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Finucane, Mariel M.; Lin, John K.; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Lim, Stephen S.; Riley, Leanne M.; Ezzati, Majid; Abdeen, Ziad; Agyemang, Charles; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Ali, Mohamed M.; Ambady, Ramachandran; Babu, Bontha V.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barceló, Alberto; Barreto, Sandhi; Barros, Henrique; Bautista, Leonelo E.; Bjerregaard, Peter; Björkelund, Cecilia; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Bonora, Enzo; Botana, Manuel A.; Bovet, Pascal; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Breteler, Monique M.; Broda, Grazyna; Brown, Ian J.; Bursztyn, Michael; de León, Antonio Cabrera; Casiglia, Edoardo; Castetbon, Katia; Chatterji, Somnath; Chen, Zhengming; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chua, Lily; Cífková, Renata; Cobiac, Linda J.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dankner, Rachel S.; Dong, Guang-Hui; Elliott, Paul; Erem, Cihangir; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2011-01-01

    Data for trends in blood pressure are needed to understand the effects of its dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacological determinants; set intervention priorities; and evaluate national programmes. However, few worldwide analyses of trends in blood pressure have been done. We estimated worldwide trends

  14. English-Medium Programmes at Austrian Business Faculties: A Status Quo Survey on National Trends and a Case Study on Programme Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterberger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Internationalisation processes have accelerated the implementation of English-medium programmes (EMPs) across European higher education institutions. The field of business and management studies has been particularly affected by this trend (Wachter & Maiworm 2008: 46) with numerous new EMPs introduced each year. This paper presents key…

  15. National Geodetic Survey's Airport Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), formerly part of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, has been performing Aeronautical surveys since the 1920's. NGS, in...

  16. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  17. National trends in drinking water quality violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Maura; Wu, Haowei; Lall, Upmanu

    2018-02-27

    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the United States is a growing challenge in the face of aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances. In the aftermath of the Flint lead crisis, there is an urgent need to assess the current state of US drinking water. However, no nationwide assessment has yet been conducted on trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. Efforts to reduce violations are of national concern given that, in 2015, nearly 21 million people relied on community water systems that violated health-based quality standards. In this paper, we evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act using a panel dataset of 17,900 community water systems over the period 1982-2015. We also identify vulnerability factors of communities and water systems through probit regression. Increasing time trends and violation hot spots are detected in several states, particularly in the Southwest region. Repeat violations are prevalent in locations of violation hot spots, indicating that water systems in these regions struggle with recurring issues. In terms of vulnerability factors, we find that violation incidence in rural areas is substantially higher than in urbanized areas. Meanwhile, private ownership and purchased water source are associated with compliance. These findings indicate the types of underperforming systems that might benefit from assistance in achieving consistent compliance. We discuss why certain violations might be clustered in some regions and strategies for improving national drinking water quality.

  18. National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3·0 million participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Finucane, Mariel M; Danaei, Goodarz

    2011-01-01

    Data for trends in serum cholesterol are needed to understand the effects of its dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacological determinants; set intervention priorities; and evaluate national programmes. Previous analyses of trends in serum cholesterol were limited to a few countries, with no consisten...

  19. Secular trends in regional differences in nutritional biomarkers and self-reported dietary intakes among American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2018-04-01

    To understand the contribution of regional differentials in dietary exposures to regional gradients in health, we examined 20-year trends in the association of US census region of residence with nutritional biomarkers and dietary intakes of American adults. Observational. The biomarker and 24 h dietary recall data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted during 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. The US census region was operationalized as Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Nutritional biomarker outcomes were serum folate, vitamins B6, B12, C, D and E, and carotenoids; dietary outcomes were intakes of nutrients, food groups and eating patterns. US adults, n>8000-40 000 for biomarkers and >43 000 for dietary outcomes. The interactions of survey time period and region were not significant for the examined biomarker and dietary outcomes, indicating similar secular trends among regions. The main effect of region was significant for all nutritional biomarkers except serum vitamin B6, most dietary micronutrients, food groups and eating patterns (P<0·001). The mean serum folate, vitamins B12, C and E, and all carotenoid (except lycopene) biomarker levels, and intakes of dietary fibre, vitamins A, E, C and B6, folate, K, Ca, Mg and Fe, fruits, vegetables and whole grains, were higher in the West and Northeast regions, relative to the South and Midwest regions. Overall, the regional gradients in dietary exposure, expressed objectively as biomarkers or as self-reported nutrient and food group intakes, paralleled trajectories reported for health outcomes and were remarkably persistent over time.

  20. Cross-National Comparisons of Time Trends in Overweight Inequality by Socioeconomic Status Among Women Using Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys From 37 Developing Countries, 1989–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using overweight status as a health indicator, the authors studied repeated cross-sectional data from women aged 18–49 years in 37 developing countries to assess within-country trends in overweight inequalities by SES between 1989 and 2007 (n = 405,550). Meta-regression was used to examine the associations between gross domestic product and disproportionate increases in overweight prevalence by SES, with additional testing for modification by country-level income inequality. In 27 of 37 countries, higher SES (vs. lower) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence; in the remaining 10 countries, lower SES (vs. higher) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence. Gross domestic product was positively related to faster increase in overweight prevalence among the lower wealth groups. Among countries with a higher gross domestic product, lower income inequality was associated with faster overweight growth among the poor. PMID:21300855

  1. Cross-national comparisons of time trends in overweight inequality by socioeconomic status among women using repeated cross-sectional surveys from 37 developing countries, 1989-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M

    2011-03-15

    Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using overweight status as a health indicator, the authors studied repeated cross-sectional data from women aged 18-49 years in 37 developing countries to assess within-country trends in overweight inequalities by SES between 1989 and 2007 (n=405,550). Meta-regression was used to examine the associations between gross domestic product and disproportionate increases in overweight prevalence by SES, with additional testing for modification by country-level income inequality. In 27 of 37 countries, higher SES (vs. lower) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence; in the remaining 10 countries, lower SES (vs. higher) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence. Gross domestic product was positively related to faster increase in overweight prevalence among the lower wealth groups. Among countries with a higher gross domestic product, lower income inequality was associated with faster overweight growth among the poor. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in consumption of fats and oils among Indian tribal population over a period of 30 years: Findings of National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Laxmaiah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In several randomized control trials, it was observed that the dietary fat content has a little, but a significant effect on energy consumption and body weight. The purpose of this communication was to assess fat consumption among tribals, time trends and its association with obesity and hypertension. Methods: These were community based cross-sectional studies, adopted multistage random sampling procedure. The subjects were covered from 120 randomly selected villages each from 9 states in India. Information on household socio-economic & demographic and food intakes were collected. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured by using standard equipment and procedures. Results: The mean intake of food and nutrients were assessed in 14,324, 32,023, and 41507 tribal subjects in 1985-87, 1998-99 and 2008-09, respectively. The mean consumption of visible fats was 10g/CU/day, as against requirement of 20g and increased from 7g in 1985-87 to 10g in 2008-09. The percentage of energy obtained from total fat (20.8g/day was 10% as against safe limit of 20%. The consumption of total dietary fats was increased significantly over a period of 3 decades in all the age groups, but it is less than recommended levels of ICMR. The fat intake was significantly associated with obesity and hypertension. Conclusions: Even though fat consumption was increased in all the age groups, but less than the recommended levels of ICMR. The consumption of fat was significantly associated with obesity and hypertension. There is an urgent need to create awareness among tribal population to consume adequate and quality of fats.

  3. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) is a national survey designed to meet the need for objective, reliable information about the provision and use of...

  4. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence, consumption, initiation, and cessation between 2001 and 2008 in the Netherlands. Findings from a national population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelhout Gera E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widening of socioeconomic status (SES inequalities in smoking prevalence has occurred in several Western countries from the mid 1970’s onwards. However, little is known about a widening of SES inequalities in smoking consumption, initiation and cessation. Methods Repeated cross-sectional population surveys from 2001 to 2008 (n ≈ 18,000 per year were used to examine changes in smoking prevalence, smoking consumption (number of cigarettes per day, initiation ratios (ratio of ever smokers to all respondents, and quit ratios (ratio of former smokers to ever smokers in the Netherlands. Education level and income level were used as indicators of SES and results were reported separately for men and women. Results Lower educated respondents were significantly more likely to be smokers, smoked more cigarettes per day, had higher initiation ratios, and had lower quit ratios than higher educated respondents. Income inequalities were smaller than educational inequalities and were not all significant, but were in the same direction as educational inequalities. Among women, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Among low educated women, smoking prevalence remained stable between 2001 and 2008 because both the initiation and quit ratio increased significantly. Among moderate and high educated women, smoking prevalence decreased significantly because initiation ratios remained constant, while quit ratios increased significantly. Among men, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking consumption only. Conclusions While inequalities in smoking prevalence were stable among Dutch men, they increased among women, due to widening inequalities in both smoking cessation and initiation. Both components should be addressed in equity-oriented tobacco control policies.

  5. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (NSSRN) Download makes data from the survey readily available to users in a one-stop download. The Survey has been...

  6. National Chemistry Teacher Safety Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plohocki, Barbra A.

    This study evaluated the status of secondary school instructional chemistry laboratory safety using a survey instrument which focused on Teacher background Information, Laboratory Safety Equipment, Facility Safety, General Safety, and a Safety Content Knowledge Survey. A fifty question survey instrument based on recent research and questions developed by the researcher was mailed to 500 secondary school chemistry teachers who participated in the 1993 one-week Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Chemistry Institute conducted at Princeton University, New Jersey. The data received from 303 respondents was analyzed by t tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The level of significance for the study was set at ~\\ performance on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey and secondary school chemistry teachers who have had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training and those who have not had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training. Secondary school chemistry teachers who attended school district sponsored safety inservices did not score higher on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey than teachers who did not attend school district sponsored safety inservice sessions. The type of school district (urban, suburban, or rural) had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory safety equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. The certification area (chemistry or other type of certificate which may or may not include chemistry) of the secondary school teacher had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. Overall, this study indicated a majority of secondary school chemistry teachers were interested in attending safety workshops applicable to chemistry safety. Throughout this research project, many teachers indicated they were not adequately instructed on the collegiate level in science safety and had to rely on common sense and self-study in their future teaching careers.

  7. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Biological Effects of Toxic Contaminants in Sediments from Long Island Sound and Environs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of sediment toxicity was carried out by NOAA's National Status and Trends Program in the coastal bays that surround Long Island Sound in New York and...

  8. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the toxicity of sediments was performed by NOAA's National Status and Trends (NSandT) Program throughout the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. The objectives of...

  9. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2012-02-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  10. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2009-06-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  11. Sexual debut in Mexico: a comparison of household national surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Gayet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate calendar of sexual debut in Mexico and its trends using national representative household surveys. Materials and methods. Analysis of five birth cohorts extracted from four national population based household surveys in Mexico (National Health Survey 2000, National Survey on Demographic Dynamics 2009, National Youth Survey 2010, and National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, using as outcome the proportion of individuals that reported sexual debut before the age of 16 and before the age of 20. Results. Overall, the four analyzed surveys produce consistent results, although some differences were found. While a larger proportion among younger cohorts reported sexual debut before the age of 20, that was not the case for sexual debut before 16 years. Conclusions. While data seems to reflect a relative stable age of sexual debut in Mexico, there is a recent trend to prepone sexual initiation that highlights the need to strengthen comprehensive sexual education and the supply of sexual and reproductive health services that are accessible and friendly to adolescents thus responding to the growing demand from this age group.

  12. Health Literacy and Health-Care Engagement as Predictors of Shared Decision-Making Among Adult Information Seekers in the USA: a Secondary Data Analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Tanner, Andrea H

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between health literacy, health-care engagement, and shared decision-making (SDM). We analyzed Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (cycle 3) data for 1604 information seekers who had one or more non-emergency room health-care visits in the previous year. SDM was more than two times higher among adults who "always" versus "usually/sometimes/never" take health information to doctor visits (OR = 2.54; 95 % CI 1.19-5.43). There was a twofold increase in SDM among adults who were "completely/very confident" versus "somewhat/a little/not confident" about finding health information (OR = 2.03; 95 % CI 1.37-3.02). Differences in SDM between adults who understood health information and those who had difficulty understanding health information were not statistically significant (OR = 1.39; 95 % CI 0.93-2.07). A Healthy People 2020 goal is to increase SDM. Previous research has suggested that SDM may improve health outcomes across the continuum of care. Only about half of adults report always being involved in health-care decisions. Even more alarming is the fact that SDM has not increased from 2003 to 2013. Our findings suggest that increasing health literacy has the potential to increase health-care engagement and subsequently increase SDM. Effective intervention strategies are needed to improve health literacy and promote health-care engagement.

  13. National survey of MRSA: Ireland, 1995.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Z

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this survey was to obtain an indication of the size of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) problem in Ireland prior to introducing national MRSA control guidelines. A survey of all microbiology laboratories in Ireland was carried out over two weeks in Spring 1995. For patients from whom MRSA was isolated during the study period standard demographic and clinical data were requested and period prevalence\\/1000 discharges was calculated. All 45 microbiology laboratories surveyed responded. MRSA was isolated from 448 patients during the two-week period. The period prevalence of MRSA was 16.5\\/1000 discharges. Males aged > or = 65 had the highest rate (50\\/1000 discharges). Half of all isolates were from patients in surgical or medical wards, but 4% were from community-based sources such as GPs, nursing homes and hospices. Thirty-two percent of MRSA patients were infected rather than colonized. MRSA is clearly a significant problem in Ireland. While it is largely a hospital problem at present, the increasing trend towards day procedures and shorter hospital stay means that infection will increase in the community.

  14. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New

  15. Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    .... Another trend is toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated. Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose terrorist threats of varying kinds to U.S...

  16. Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    .... Another trend is toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated. Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose terrorist threats of varying kinds to U.S...

  17. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  18. Oncology practice trends from the national practice benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Thomas R; Towle, Elaine L

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, we made predictions on the basis of data from the National Practice Benchmark (NPB) reports from 2005 through 2010. With the new 2011 data in hand, we have revised last year's predictions and projected for the next 3 years. In addition, we make some new predictions that will be tracked in future benchmarking surveys. We also outline a conceptual framework for contemplating these data based on an ecological model of the oncology delivery system. The 2011 NPB data are consistent with last year's prediction of a decrease in the operating margins necessary to sustain a community oncology practice. With the new data in, we now predict these reductions to occur more slowly than previously forecast. We note an ease to the squeeze observed in last year's trend analysis, which will allow more time for practices to adapt their business models for survival and offer the best of these practices an opportunity to invest earnings into operations to prepare for the inevitable shift away from historic payment methodology for clinical service. This year, survey respondents reported changes in business structure, first measured in the 2010 data, indicating an increase in the percentage of respondents who believe that change is coming soon, but the majority still have confidence in the viability of their existing business structure. Although oncology practices are in for a bumpy ride, things are looking less dire this year for practices participating in our survey.

  19. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  20. Modern Surveying Techniques In National Infrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in National Development ... Modern Surveying Techniques In National Infrastructural Development: Case Study Of Roads ... Ways that Remote Sensing help to make highway construction easier were discussed.

  1. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Callinan, Sarah; Raninen, Jonas; Pennay, Amy; Dietze, Paul M

    2018-04-01

    Survey data remain a crucial means for monitoring alcohol consumption, but there has been limited work done to ensure that surveys adequately capture changes in per-capita consumption in Australia. In this study, we explore how trends in consumption from two major Australian surveys compare with an official measure of per-capita consumption between 2001 and 2014 and examine age-specific trends in drinking. Data were from five waves of the cross-sectional National Health Survey (total n = 113 279) and 12 waves of the longitudinal Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Study (average n = 12 347). Overall and age-specific estimates of annual alcohol consumption were derived and compared with official per-capita consumption and previous analyses of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey. In terms of overall consumption, both surveys broadly reflected trends in per-capita consumption, especially the decline that has been observed since 2007/2008. Age-specific trends were broadly similar, with the recent decline in consumption clearly concentrated among teenagers and young adults. The main Australian monitoring surveys remain useful monitoring tools for alcohol consumption in Australia. There is consistent evidence that the recent declines in Australian per-capita consumption have been driven by sharp falls in drinking among young people, a trend that requires further study. [Livingston M, Callinan S, Raninen J, Pennay A, Dietze PM. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Estimating trends in alligator populations from nightlight survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Cherkiss, Michael; Jeffery, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Nightlight surveys are commonly used to evaluate status and trends of crocodilian populations, but imperfect detection caused by survey- and location-specific factors makes it difficult to draw population inferences accurately from uncorrected data. We used a two-stage hierarchical model comprising population abundance and detection probability to examine recent abundance trends of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in subareas of Everglades wetlands in Florida using nightlight survey data. During 2001–2008, there were declining trends in abundance of small and/or medium sized animals in a majority of subareas, whereas abundance of large sized animals had either demonstrated an increased or unclear trend. For small and large sized class animals, estimated detection probability declined as water depth increased. Detection probability of small animals was much lower than for larger size classes. The declining trend of smaller alligators may reflect a natural population response to the fluctuating environment of Everglades wetlands under modified hydrology. It may have negative implications for the future of alligator populations in this region, particularly if habitat conditions do not favor recruitment of offspring in the near term. Our study provides a foundation to improve inferences made from nightlight surveys of other crocodilian populations.

  3. International versus national regulations: Concerns and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/No. CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br; Lauria, Dejanira [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/No. CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    The existence of a traceable relationship between national regulatory standards and international recommendations is important especially when the national regulations have to be justified and explained to the public and their representatives. Guidance on various types of radiological levels in environmental media related to public exposure has been provided by the relevant international organizations, constituting a basis for the development of national regulations. However, international standards need to be clear and based on solid technical criteria. In their preparation, consideration should be given to the implications for different countries, and the differences that exist between them, for example, in social, economic and climatic aspects.

  4. Methods of the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Resano-Pérez, Elsa; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera, Juan A; Sepúlveda-Amor, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99) is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. The NNS-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of Mexico. The last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. The study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years), and women of chi...

  5. National Status and Trends: Mussel Watch Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mussel Watch is the longest running continuous chemical contaminant monitoring program in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters and was created in response to concerns...

  6. National Status and Trends: Mussel Watch Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mussel Watch represents the longest running continuous contaminant monitoring program in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters and was created in response to concerns...

  7. Abundance, distribution and population trends of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.; Jakarasi, J.; Westhuizen, van der H.; Muvengwi, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an iconic or keystone species in many aquatic ecosystems. In order to understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of Nile crocodiles in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeastern Zimbabwe, we carried out 4 annual aerial surveys, using

  8. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics through personal household interviews. The results of NHIS provide data to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives.

  9. Forest Health Monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2015-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  10. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2017-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...

  11. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2015-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  12. Adult smoking trends in Mexico: an analysis of the Mexican National Addiction Surveys Tendencias del tabaquismo en adultos en México: análisis de las Encuestas Nacionales de Adicciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Franco-Marina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe and explain the recent trends of four smoking indicators in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparable data from four national probabilistic household surveys (1988-1992 were analyzed using statistical techniques for survey data. The analysis was restricted to persons aged 18 to 65 years. Changes in indicators compare 2002 to 1988. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of never smokers increased by 10% and increased more in men. The prevalence of daily smokers shows a 16% reduction in men and reductions are concentrated in persons 45 and older. The average number of cigarettes smoked daily shows a 31% decrease in men and no decrease in women. The prevalence of heavy smokers (one pack or more is 60% higher in women in 2002. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico does not closely follow the WHO model for the evolving tobacco epidemic. Nevertheless, the tobacco epidemic is in an advanced stage, with a decreasing prevalence in men and a rising one in women and the young. The improvement in the smoking situation was mainly due to the country’s economic stagnation during the analyzed period and to public awareness of the dangers of tobacco exposure rather than to a sound control policy on the part of the state.OBJETIVO: Describir y explicar las tendencias recientes de cuatro indicadores de tabaquismo en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizan datos comparables de las cuatro Encuestas Nacionales de Adicciones (1988-1992 mediante técnicas estadísticas adecuadas para datos muestrales. En el análisis se incluye a personas entre 18 y 65 años de edad. Los cambios en indicadores comparan 2002 con respecto a 1988. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia en ambos sexos de nunca fumadores aumentó 10% pero dicho aumento ocurrió solo en hombres. La prevalencia de fumadores diarios se redujo un 16% en hombres y en ambos sexos las reducciones más importantes ocurrieron en las personas de 45 y más años. El promedio de cigarrillos diarios se redujo en 31% en hombres

  13. National Survey Report of Photovoltaic Power Applications in France 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaijk, Paul; Mehl, Celine; Carrere, Tristan

    2017-06-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Program is to promote and facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of PV power systems. Task 1 activities support the broader PVPS objectives: to contribute to cost reduction of PV power applications, to increase awareness of the potential and value of PV power systems, to foster the removal of both technical and non-technical barriers and to enhance technology co-operation. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual 'Trends in photovoltaic applications' report. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. This document is France National Survey Report for the year 2016. Information from this document will be used as input to IEA's annual Trends in photovoltaic applications report

  14. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as of...

  15. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  16. Geodetic Control Points - National Geodetic Survey Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This data contains a set of geodetic control stations maintained by the National Geodetic Survey. Each geodetic control station in this dataset has either a precise...

  17. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 4,864 social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as...

  18. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as of...

  19. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 6,520 social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as...

  20. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) is designed to collect data on the utilization and provision of ambulatory care services in hospital...

  1. Appalachian National Scenic Trail pilot survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Zarnoch; Michael Bowker; Ken Cordell; Matt Owens; Gary T. Green; Allison Ginn

    2011-01-01

    Visitation statistics on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) are important for management and Federal Government reporting purposes. However, no survey methodology has been developed to obtain accurate trailwide estimates over linear trails that traverse many hundreds of back-country miles. This research develops a stratified random survey design which utilizes...

  2. NATIONAL EMPLOYER HEALTH INSURANCE SURVEY (NEHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...

  3. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed ...

  4. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in France 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaijk, Paul; Durand, Yvonnick

    2015-06-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Program is to promote and facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of PV power systems. Task 1 activities support the broader PVPS objectives: to contribute to cost reduction of PV power applications, to increase awareness of the potential and value of PV power systems, to foster the removal of both technical and non-technical barriers and to enhance technology co-operation. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual Trends in photovoltaic applications report. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. The PVPS web site www.iea-pvps.org also plays an important role in disseminating information arising from the program, including national information. This document is the French National Survey Report on photovoltaics for the year 2014

  5. National Survey Report of Photovoltaic Power Applications in France 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaijk, Paul; Durand, Yvonnick

    2016-06-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Program is to promote and facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of PV power systems. Task 1 activities support the broader PVPS objectives: to contribute to cost reduction of PV power applications, to increase awareness of the potential and value of PV power systems, to foster the removal of both technical and non-technical barriers and to enhance technology co-operation. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual report Trends in Photovoltaic Applications. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. The PVPS web site www.iea-pvps.org also plays an important role in disseminating information arising from the program, including national information. This document is the French National Survey Report on photovoltaics for the year 2015

  6. Trends in lipid profiles and descriptive characteristics of U.S. adults with and without diabetes and cholesterol-lowering medication use-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Carla I; Gregg, Edward; Gillespie, Cathleen; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2018-01-01

    With a cholesterol-lowering focus for diabetic adults and in the age of polypharmacy, it is important to understand how lipid profile levels differ among those with and without diabetes. Investigate the means, differences, and trends in lipid profile measures [TC, total cholesterol; LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein; HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein; and TG, triglycerides] among US adults by diabetes status and cholesterol-lowering medication. Population number and proportion of adults aged ≥21 years with diabetes and taking cholesterol-lowering medication were estimated using data on 10,384 participants from NHANES 2003-2012. Age-standardized means, trends, and differences in lipid profile measures were estimated by diabetes status and cholesterol medication use. For trends and differences, linear regression analysis were used adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Among diabetic adults, 52% were taking cholesterol-lowering medication compared to the 14% taking cholesterol-lowering medication without diabetes. Although diabetic adults had significantly lower TC and LDL-c levels than non-diabetic adults [% difference (95% confidence interval): TC = -5.2% (-6.8 --3.5), LDL-c = -8.0% (-10.4 --5.5)], the percent difference was greater among adults taking cholesterol medication [TC = -8.0% (-10.3 --5.7); LDL-c = -13.7% (-17.1 --10.2)] than adults not taking cholesterol medication [TC = -3.5% (-5.2 --1.6); LDL-c = -4.3% (-7.1 --1.5)] (interaction p-value: TC = <0.001; LDL-c = <0.001). From 2003-2012, mean TC and HDL-c significantly decreased among diabetic adults taking cholesterol medication [% difference per survey cycle (p-value for linear trend): TC = -2.3% (0.003) and HDL-c = -2.3% (0.033)]. Mean TC, HDL-c, and LDL-c levels did not significantly change from 2003 to 2012 in non-diabetic adults taking cholesterol medication or for adults not taking cholesterol medications. Diabetic adults were more likely to have lower lipid levels, except for triglyceride

  7. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    As part of the work of the IEA PVPS programme, annual surveys of photovoltaic (PV) power applications and markets are carried out in the participating countries. The objective of the series of annual Trends reports is to present and interpret developments in both the PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market and the changing applications for these products within that market. These trends are analyzed in the context of the business, policy and non-technical environment in the reporting countries. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-}0 %. Data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. This report presents the results of the 10th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and production in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2004 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2004. (au)

  8. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    As part of the work of the IEA PVPS programme, annual surveys of photovoltaic (PV) power applications and markets are carried out in the reporting countries. The objective of the series of annual Trends reports is to present and interpret developments in both the PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market and the changing applications for these products within that market. These trends are analyzed in the context of the business, policy and non-technical environment in the reporting countries. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ±10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices varies depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. This report presents the results of the 15th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and production in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2009 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2009.

  9. National natality and fetal mortality surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    A project is described in which the Epidemiologic Studies Branch, DBE, is cooperating with the National Center for Health Statistics in a National Natality Survey and a National Fetal Mortality Survey of a sample of live births and of late fetal deaths (28 or more weeks gestation) in 1979. Questionnaires will be sent to a sample of mothers who had a live born infant or late fetal death in 1979, to hospitals in which the deliveries took place, to attending physicians, and all other possible sources of health care. The survey will provide quantitative information regarding use of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, including ultrasound, during pregnancy and possible associations between radiation and late fetal mortality. Specifically the study will provide information on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers and complications of pregnancy, labor, and delivery. The physical condition of the infant at birth is also included. This is one of many health surveys conducted routinely by the NCHS under the National Health Survey program

  10. The 2017 ACR Workforce Survey: Management Trends and Strategic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay A; Bluth, Edward I

    2018-03-01

    The 2017 ACR Workforce Survey included questions for group leaders about management trends and areas in which they need more help from the ACR. Respondents identified point of care ultrasound as the area in which they need the most help. Most respondents gave positive or neutral answers regarding their role in the management of radiology allied health professionals and radiology information technology, and most believed their role and influence in decision making in the organization were not decreasing. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 370 country-years and 2·7 million participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Finucane, Mariel M; Lu, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Data for trends in glycaemia and diabetes prevalence are needed to understand the effects of diet and lifestyle within populations, assess the performance of interventions, and plan health services. No consistent and comparable global analysis of trends has been done. We estimated trends and thei...

  12. Trends in youth internet victimization: findings from three youth internet safety surveys 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa M; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the trends in youth reports of unwanted online sexual solicitation, harassment, and exposure to pornography over time. The study was based on three separate cross-sectional national telephone surveys of approximately 1,500 youth Internet users, aged 10 through 17 years. Data were collected in 2000, 2005, and 2010. Nine percent of youth reported an unwanted sexual solicitation in 2010. This continued the decline in unwanted sexual solicitations that occurred between 2000 (19%) and 2005 (13%), resulting in a total 50% decrease between 2000 and 2010. Twenty-three percent of youth reported an unwanted exposure to pornography, a decline from 34% in 2005, following an increase between 2000 and 2005 (25% to 34%). However, marking the only trend to show an increase over the past 5 years, 11% of youth reported an online harassment experience, which was an increase from 9% in 2005, and 6% in 2000. Some differences in these trends were noted for subgroups of youth across age, gender, and race. The trends in unwanted experiences online over the past decade identified by three Youth Internet Safety Surveys may contradict impressions that the general population, professionals, and the media have about what is happening. Trends provide evidence for some optimism that protective adaptations to the online environment have been successful; however, online harassment appears to be increasing for youth, particularly girls, and may require additional mobilization. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. National survey of residential magnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karipidis, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    The release of the Doll report in the UK, and its reported association between prolonged exposures to higher levels of power frequency magnetic fields and a small risk of leukaemia in children, has heightened community concerns. This disquiet among the general public has prompted the possibility of a national survey of residential magnetic field exposures to be implemented. Measurement methodologies were reviewed by the author and long-term measurements made by a logger placed in the living room for a 24-hour period were chosen as a surrogate measurement for the evaluation of exposure. An international comparison of similar surveys is presented, showing great deficiency, with the exception of Schuz et al and the UKCCS, in the number of homes surveyed. Factors influencing the selection of residences in the survey sample are elucidated and a range of sample sizes is presented with varying precision and confidence levels. Finally a feasible sample of 1,000 homes is chosen and a cost estimate is calculated with extra options for the measurement of the child's bedroom, a schools' survey and child personal exposure measurements included in the outlay. The purpose of the proposed national survey is to determine the proportion of Australian homes that are exposed to fields greater than 0.4 μT and the influence of proximity to powerlines as a cause. The study would also enable an interstate and international comparison of exposures to be made. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  14. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    As part of the PVPS programme, annual surveys of photovoltaics (PV) power applications and markets in the 20 participating countries are carried out. The objective of the survey reports is to present and interpret trends in both PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market, and changing applications for these products within that market. These trends are analyzed in the context of the business, policy and non-technical environment in the reporting countries. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. This report presents the results of the sixth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 2000 and analyses trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2000. (author)

  15. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    As part of the PVPS programme, annual surveys of photovoltaics (PV) power applications and markets in the 20 participating countries are carried out. The objective of the survey reports is to present and interpret trends in both PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market, and changing applications for these products within that market. These trends are analyzed in the context of the business, policy and non-technical environment in the reporting countries. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. This report presents the results of the sixth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 2000 and analyses trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2000. (author)

  16. What Are Probability Surveys used by the National Aquatic Resource Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  17. Post-harmonised European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Sobrino Vázquez, Natalia

    Look-up tables are collected and analysed for 12 European National Travel Surveys (NTS) in a harmonized way covering the age group 13-84 year. Travel behaviour measured as kilometres, time use and trips per traveller is compared. Trips per traveller are very similar over the countries whereas...... of walking trips rather similar with a higher level of cycling in the Netherlands, more public transport in Switzerland, and more air traffic in Sweden. Normally kilometres per respondent / inhabitant is used for national planning purpose and this is very affected by the share of mobile travellers...

  18. National Trends in the Utilization of Emergency Medical Services for Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Tataris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The emergency medical services (EMS system plays a crucial role in the chain of survival for acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke. While regional studies have shown underutilization of the 911 system for these time-sensitive conditions, national trends have not been studied. Our objective was to describe the national prevalence of EMS use for AMI and stroke, examine trends over a six-year period, and identify patient factors that may contribute to utilization. Methods: Using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-ED (NHAMCS dataset from 2003-2009, we looked at patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI or stroke who arrived to the emergency department (ED by ambulance. We used a survey-weighted χ2 test for trend and logistic regression analysis. Results: In the study, there were 442 actual AMI patients and 220 (49.8% presented via EMS. There were 1,324 actual stroke patients and 666 (50.3% presented via EMS. There was no significant change in EMS usage for AMI or stroke over the six-year period. Factors independently associated with EMS use for AMI and stroke included age (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.12-1.31, Non-Hispanic black race (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.16-2.29, and nursing home residence (OR 11.50; 95% CI 6.19-21.36. Conclusion: In a nationally representative sample of ED visits from 20003-2009, there were no trends of increasing EMS use for AMI and stroke. Efforts to improve access to care could focus on patient groups that underutilize the EMS system for such conditions. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  19. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2015, with trends from 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Jassir, Fiorella Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    ) met the inclusion criteria, a 90% increase from 2009 estimates. The estimated average global SBR in 2015 was 18·4 per 1000 births, down from 24·7 in 2000 (25·5% reduction). In 2015, an estimated 2·6 million (uncertainty range 2·4-3·0 million) babies were stillborn, giving a 19% decline in numbers...... estimate SBRs and numbers for 195 countries, including trends from 2000 to 2015. METHODS: We collated SBR data meeting prespecified inclusion criteria from national routine or registration systems, nationally representative surveys, and other data sources identified through a systematic review, web...

  20. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella

    2016-01-01

    In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health...

  1. Survey of current trends in DNA synthesis core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, K M; Fox, J W; Gunthorpe, M; Lilley, K S; Yeung, A

    1999-12-01

    The Nucleic Acids Research Group of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) last surveyed DNA synthesis core facilities in April 1995. Because of the introduction of new technologies and dramatic changes in the market, we sought to update survey information and to determine how academic facilities responded to the challenge presented by commercial counterparts. The online survey was opened in January 1999 by notifying members and subscribers to the ABRF electronic discussion group. The survey consisted of five parts: general facility information, oligonucleotide production profile, oligonucleotide charges, synthesis protocols, and trends in DNA synthesis (including individual comments). All submitted data were anonymously coded. Respondents from DNA synthesis facilities were primarily from the academic category and were established between 1984 and 1991. Typically, a facility provides additional services such as DNA sequencing and has upgraded to electronic ordering. There is stability in staffing profiles for these facilities in that the total number of employees is relatively unchanged, the tenure for staff averages 5.9 years, and experience is extensive. On average, academic facilities annually produce approximately 1/16 the number of oligonucleotides produced by the average commercial facilities, but all facilities report an increase in demand. Charges for standard oligonucleotides from academic facilities are relatively higher than from commercial companies; however, the opposite is true for modified phosphoramidites. Subsidized facilities charge less than nonsubsidized facilities. Synthesis protocols and reagents are standard across the categories. Most facilities offer typical modifications such as biotinylation. Despite the competition by large commercial facilities that have reduced costs dramatically, academic facilities remain a stable entity. Academic facilities enhance the quality of service by focusing on nonstandard

  2. [National epidemiological survey on childhood obesity, 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zong-yi

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the 3rd national survey on childhood obesity was conducted not only to understand the present status and trends of childhood obesity in China since the last survey conducted 10 years ago, but also to reveal the health status of preschool children at nutrition transit period and to evaluate the efficacy and sensitivity of cited reference population, criteria and cut-off point of body mass index (BMI), adiposity rebound age, waist/hip ratio and other parameters relevant to the diagnosis of obesity made by the national task force on childhood obesity of China (NTFCOC). A total of 84,766 children aged 0 - 7 years were recruited in the survey by the random cluster sampling which represented a 1, 414, 220 children's population from 11 cities covered north, central, south and west regions of China. The criteria of screening overweight/obesity was more than 1 Z-score/2 Z-score of the medium of reference value of weight for height made by WHO. Length-height/weight for all subjects and waist/hip/thigh circumference and blood pressure data for children 3 - 6 years of age were measured. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, overweight-obesity ratio, adiposity rebound age and BMI were calculated. The enumeration and measurement data were statistically managed by chi-square test and T-test, respectively using SPSS version 12.0 and the significance level was 0.05. (1) The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 7.2% and 19.8% for all; 8.9% and 22.2% for boys, and 5.3% and 17.0% for girls, respectively, which is 3.6/4.7 times higher than that of 1996 respectively, the annual increase rate of obesity and overweight was in average 156% and 52%, respectively. The distribution pattern of prevalence of overweight and obesity in geographic areas and gender was that the northern regions had higher prevalence than the west and the central regions and the prevalence in boys was higher than in girls. The obesity/overweight ratio (OOR) was still at a high risk level. (2

  3. National Trends of Antiparkinsonism Treatment in Taiwan: 2004–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Ming Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several guidelines for Parkinson’s disease (PD management were recently updated. We examined temporal trends for antiparkinsonism drugs in Taiwan. Methods. Antiparkinsonism prescriptions, including levodopa, ergot/nonergot dopamine agonists (DAs, amantadine, selegiline, entacapone, and anticholinergics, were identified in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2004 to 2011. Time trend analyses were estimated assuming Poisson distribution. Results. A total of 19,302 PD patients in 2004 and 41,606 PD patients in 2011 were analyzed. Antiparkinsonism prescriptions increased significantly from 187,137 in 2004 to 414,587 in 2011. Levodopa monotherapy or combination therapy was the mainstay. Levodopa monotherapy comprised 37.4% of prescriptions in 2004 and 44.2% in 2011, with an annual increase rate of 18.14%. There was a substantially increasing trend of DA prescriptions, which were higher in younger-aged patients (<60 years than in older-aged group (p=0.0006. Among combination therapy, DA combined with levodopa or other antiparkinsonism medications became the main combinations for younger-aged patients after 2009. After 2005, the proportion of ergot DA usage markedly decreased and PD patients using nonergot DA increased. Conclusions. Levodopa was the major treatment from 2004 to 2011. There was a steeply increased trend of DA use, especially in younger-aged patients. Nonergot agents comprised the major DA group after 2005.

  4. Validation of Twitter opinion trends with national polling aggregates: Hillary Clinton vs Donald Trump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Alexandre; Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A

    2018-06-06

    Measuring and forecasting opinion trends from real-time social media is a long-standing goal of big-data analytics. Despite the large amount of work addressing this question, there has been no clear validation of online social media opinion trend with traditional surveys. Here we develop a method to infer the opinion of Twitter users by using a combination of statistical physics of complex networks and machine learning based on hashtags co-occurrence to build an in-domain training set of the order of a million tweets. We validate our method in the context of 2016 US Presidential Election by comparing the Twitter opinion trend with the New York Times National Polling Average, representing an aggregate of hundreds of independent traditional polls. The Twitter opinion trend follows the aggregated NYT polls with remarkable accuracy. We investigate the dynamics of the social network formed by the interactions among millions of Twitter supporters and infer the support of each user to the presidential candidates. Our analytics unleash the power of Twitter to uncover social trends from elections, brands to political movements, and at a fraction of the cost of traditional surveys.

  5. National Trends in the Prevalence and Treatment of Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Olfson, Mark; Han, Beth

    2016-12-01

    This study examined national trends in 12-month prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDEs) in adolescents and young adults overall and in different sociodemographic groups, as well as trends in depression treatment between 2005 and 2014. Data were drawn from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health for 2005 to 2014, which are annual cross-sectional surveys of the US general population. Participants included 172 495 adolescents aged 12 to 17 and 178 755 adults aged 18 to 25. Time trends in 12-month prevalence of MDEs were examined overall and in different subgroups, as were time trends in the use of treatment services. The 12-month prevalence of MDEs increased from 8.7% in 2005 to 11.3% in 2014 in adolescents and from 8.8% to 9.6% in young adults (both P age range of 12 to 20 years. The trends remained significant after adjustment for substance use disorders and sociodemographic factors. Mental health care contacts overall did not change over time; however, the use of specialty mental health providers increased in adolescents and young adults, and the use of prescription medications and inpatient hospitalizations increased in adolescents. The prevalence of depression in adolescents and young adults has increased in recent years. In the context of little change in mental health treatments, trends in prevalence translate into a growing number of young people with untreated depression. The findings call for renewed efforts to expand service capacity to best meet the mental health care needs of this age group. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Emerging trends in peer review—a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard; Rocha da Silva, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    “Classical peer review” has been subject to intense criticism for slowing down the publication process, bias against specific categories of paper and author, unreliability, inability to detect errors and fraud, unethical practices, and the lack of recognition for unpaid reviewers. This paper surveys innovative forms of peer review that attempt to address these issues. Based on an initial literature review, we construct a sample of 82 channels of scientific communication covering all forms of review identified by the survey, and analyze the review mechanisms used by each channel. We identify two major trends: the rapidly expanding role of preprint servers (e.g., ArXiv) that dispense with traditional peer review altogether, and the growth of “non-selective review,” focusing on papers' scientific quality rather than their perceived importance and novelty. Other potentially important developments include forms of “open review,” which remove reviewer anonymity, and interactive review, as well as new mechanisms for post-publication review and out-of-channel reader commentary, especially critical commentary targeting high profile papers. One of the strongest findings of the survey is the persistence of major differences between the peer review processes used by different disciplines. None of these differences is likely to disappear in the foreseeable future. The most likely scenario for the coming years is thus continued diversification, in which different review mechanisms serve different author, reader, and publisher needs. Relatively little is known about the impact of these innovations on the problems they address. These are important questions for future quantitative research. PMID:26074753

  7. 78 FR 14549 - National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ...] National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey AGENCY... National Contact Center customer evaluation surveys. In this request, the previously approved surveys have... several months. These temporary surveys will allow the National Contact Center to compare its customer...

  8. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    This report presents the results of the ninth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2003 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2003. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  9. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This report presents the results of the eighth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2002 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2002. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  10. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This report presents the results of the eighth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2002 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2002. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ± 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  11. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    This report presents the results of the 14{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and production in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2008 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2008. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to{+-}10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices varies depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  12. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    This report presents the results of the 13 th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2007 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2007. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ± 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  13. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    This report presents the results of the 11 th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2005 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2005. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ± 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  14. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    This report presents the results of the 11{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2005 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2005. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  15. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of the 12 th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2006 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2006. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ± 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  16. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    This report presents the results of the 13{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2007 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2007. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  17. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-15

    This report presents the results of the 12{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2006 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2006. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  18. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This report presents the results of the 14 th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and production in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2008 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2008. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to±10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices varies depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  19. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    This report presents the results of the ninth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2003 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2003. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ± 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  20. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-15

    As part of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme, annual surveys of PV power applications and markets in the 20 participating countries are carried out. The objective of the survey reports is to present and interpret trends in both PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market, as well as changing applications within that market, in the context of business situations, policies and relevant non-technical factors in the reporting countries. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. This report presents the results of the fifth International Survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 1999 and analyses trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 1999. (author)

  1. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    As part of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme, annual surveys of PV power applications and markets in the 20 participating countries are carried out. The objective of the survey reports is to present and interpret trends in both PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market, as well as changing applications within that market, in the context of business situations, policies and relevant non-technical factors in the reporting countries. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. This report presents the results of the fifth International Survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 1999 and analyses trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 1999. (author)

  2. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  4. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  5. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  6. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  7. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  8. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...

  9. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  10. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  11. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  12. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  13. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  14. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  15. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  18. Arterial ligation versus embolization in epistaxis management: Counterintuitive national trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Michael J; Chung, Sei Y; Guinand, Luis A; Govindan, Aparna; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-05-01

    Arterial ligation and embolization are treatment modalities indicated in severe and refractory epistaxis. The purpose of this study was to examine temporal trends and compare outcomes in treatment of hospitalized epistaxis patients with ligation or embolization. This retrospective cohort analysis utilized the 2008 to 2013 National Inpatient Sample to identify patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of epistaxis, and an associated procedure code for ligation or embolization. A total of 1,813 cases met the inclusion criteria, with 57.1% undergoing ligation. During the study period, treatment with ligation has trended downward, whereas treatment with embolization has remained constant. Overall, ligated patients were older (64.1 vs. 62.4 years; P = 0.027) and had higher rates of congestive heart failure (15.1% vs. 9.8%; P = 0.001). No significant differences in rates of chronic pulmonary disease, coagulopathy, liver disease, or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia were observed between cohorts. No differences were observed in rates of blood transfusion, stroke, blindness, or in-hospital mortality; however, ligated patients had lower rates of intubation/tracheostomy (2.8% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.009). Ligated patients also experienced shorter hospital stays (3.6 vs. 4.0 days; P = 0.014) and incurred lower hospital charges ($33,029 vs. $69,304; P < 0.001). Compared to embolization, ligation is associated with significantly decreased hospital charges and shorter hospital stay, without an increase in complication rates. Counterintuitively, ligation appears to be trending downward nationally in its use relative to embolization. 2C Laryngoscope, 127:1017-1020, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Counterfeits and imitations of Viagra and Cialis tablets: trends and risks to public health - A survey of the analyses carried out at the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the time period 2000 - 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok-Tip L; Vogelpoel H; Vredenbregt MJ; Barends DM; Kaste D de; KCF

    2005-01-01

    During the last years de Dutch market has been flooded with falsifications of Viagra. and Cialis.. Both products are used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. This report is about the trend of these falsifications during the years 2000 - 2004. The risks of these products to public health are

  20. Ten-year survey of program directors: trends, challenges, and mentoring in prosthodontics. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Deborah M; Kinnunen, Taru; Chang, Brian M; Wright, Robert F

    2011-10-01

    This study consisted of two parts. Part 1 was a survey of US program directors, and Part 2 reports on the survey findings distributed to the deans of US dental schools. Both surveys evaluated observations of trends in prosthodontic education. The first survey (2005) of program directors and deans was published in 2007. This second survey was conducted in 2009. The 2009 survey provided 10-year data on trends in prosthodontics as reported by program directors. A national e-mail survey of 46 program directors was used to collect enrollment data for years 1 to 3 of prosthodontics training for US and international dental school graduates, the total number of applicants and applications considered, and the trends over time of applicants to prosthodontics for US dental school graduates and for international graduates. In addition, the program directors were asked to rank 13 key factors that may have contributed to any changes in the prosthodontic applicant pool. Program directors were also asked for information on student financial incentives and whether their programs were state or federally funded, and whether their sponsoring institution was a dental school. Of the 46 program directors, 40 responded, for an 87% response rate. Respondents reported that 66% of their enrollees were graduates of US dental schools. Between 2000 and 2009 the applicant pool in prosthodontics nearly doubled, with 50% of the program directors reporting an increase in US-trained applicants, 42.5% reporting no change, and only 7.5% reporting a decrease. Using the Spearman correlation for the 10-year survey, there was a positive, statistically significant correlation that society's demand for a higher level of training and credentialing and interest in prosthodontics among dental students contributed to an increase in the number of US dental graduates applying to prosthodontic programs. Only four programs offered no financial packages to offset tuition. The remaining 36 respondents reported some

  1. Temporal trends in dancing among adults between 1994 and 2012: The Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Amy Jo; Hiller, Claire E; Pappas, Evangelos; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity are established, however, increasing population physical activity levels remains a challenge. Participating in activities that are enjoyable and multidimensional, such as dancing, are associated with better adherence. However, the extent to which the general population participates in dancing and its temporal trends has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate temporal trends and patterns and correlates of dance participation in England from 1994 to 2012 using a series of large nationally representative surveys. We used data from the Health Survey for England 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2012 to examine dance temporal trends. Temporal trends data were age-standardized and correlates of dance participation were examined for males and females over each study year. Changes in population prevalence of dance participation were determined using multiple logistical regression with 1997 as the reference year. Of all survey participants (n=98,178) 7.8% (95%CI: 7.63-7.96) reported dance participation. There was a marked steady decrease over time, with the steepest decline from 2003 onwards. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for dance participation were 0.51 for males (95%CI 0.408-0.630, p<0.001) and 0.69 for females (95%CI: 0.598-0.973, p<0.001) in 2012 compared to 1997. Dance participation in adults in England has decreased markedly over time. This study suggests that dance is not being adequately utilized as a health enhancing physical activity, and therefore further research and resources should be dedicated to supporting dance in the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. National indoor radon survey in Filipino homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Cruz, Fe M.; Garcia, Teofilo Y.; Palad, Lorna Jean H.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C.; Duran, Emerenciana B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first national survey of indoor radon concentrations in different types of Filipino houses throughout the Philippines. Measurements were carried out using 2,626 CR-39 alpha track detectors that were deployed in selected houses for a period of six months. Results of analyses showed that indoor radon concentration in Filipino houses ranged from 1.4 to 57.6 Bq/m 3 with a mean value of 21.4 ± 9.2 Bq/m 3 . This leads to an estimated annual average effective dose equivalent of 0.4 mSv. There are slight differences in the mean concentrations of radon in different types of houses, which ranged from 19.4 to 25.3 Bq/m 3 . Highest mean radon concentrations were observed in houses made of concrete with a mean radon value of 25.3 ± 10.1 Bq/m 3 . Radon concentrations in the houses surveyed were below the action limits of 200 Bq/m 3 set by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and do not pose any hazard to the health of the occupants. (author)

  3. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wartella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.

  4. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This report presents the results of the seventh international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 2001 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2001. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. (author)

  5. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-15

    This report presents the results of the seventh international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 2001 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2001. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. (author)

  6. Gender in clinical neuropsychology: practice survey trends and comparisons outside the specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Jerry J; Lee, Catherine; Guidotti Breting, Leslie M; Benson, Laura M

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes gender-related trends within clinical neuropsychology, based primarily on recurrent practice surveys within the specialty and, to a lesser extent, job-related information from medical specialties and the general U.S. labor market. Chronological and cross-sectional analyses of professional practice survey data from 2005, 2010, and 2015 relevant to gender. As is common with survey data, descriptive analysis and independent samples t-tests were conducted. Longitudinal data allowed for examination of gender trends, as well as observations of change and stability of factors associated with gender, over time. Women have become dominant in number in clinical neuropsychology, and also comprise a vast majority of practitioners entering the specialty. Gender differences are noted in professional identity, work status, work settings, types of career satisfaction, and retirement expectations. Women are more likely to identify work environment and personal/family obstacles to aspects of career satisfaction. A gender pay gap was found at all time points and is not narrowing. As is true nationally, multiple factors appear related to the gender pay gap in clinical neuropsychology. Women in neuropsychology are now dominant in number, and their presence is strongly associated with specific practice patterns, such as greater institutional employment, less involvement in forensic practice, and strong involvement in pediatric practice, which may be maintaining the sizeable gender pay gap in neuropsychology. As the proportion of women neuropsychologists continues to increase, flexible work hours, and alternative means of remuneration may be needed to offset current disproportionate family-related responsibilities.

  7. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1995 customer satisfaction survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a national Customer Satisfaction Survey in response to the requirements of the National Performance Review and Executive Order 12862. An independent research organization, Schulman,...

  8. Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-04-01

    Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake.

  9. Time trends for injuries and illness, and their relation to performance in the National Basketball Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlog, Leslie; Buhler, Craig F; Pollack, Harvey; Hopkins, Paul N; Burgess, Paul R

    2015-05-01

    To survey injury/illness in the National Basketball Association over a 25-year period and examine the relationship of injury/illness to team performance. A retrospective correlational design. Trends were examined in reported numbers of players injured/ill during a season and games missed due to injury/illness from seasons ending in 1986 through 2005. This period was compared to years 2006-2010, when NBA teams were allowed to increase the total number of players on the team from 12 to 15. There was a highly significant trend (pBasketball Association up until the expansion of team size in 2006. Following 2006, team expansion was positively associated with decreased injury/illness rates. The latter finding suggests the importance of maintaining a healthy roster with respect to winning outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: national youth fitness survey plan, operations, and analysis, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrud, Lori; Chiappa, Michele M; Burt, Vicki L; Gahche, Jaime; Zipf, George; Johnson, Clifford L; Dohrmann, Sylvia M

    2014-04-01

    In October 2008, the federal government issued its first-ever Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans to provide science-based guidance on the types and amounts of physical activity that provide substantial health benefits for Americans (1). Guidelines for children and adolescents recommend 60 minutes or more of aerobic, muscle-strengthening, or bone-strengthening physical activity daily (1). While the number of children in the United States who meet the recommendations in the Physical Activity Guidelines is unknown, the percentage that is physically active in the United States may be declining. No recent national data exist on the fitness levels of children and adolescents. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's (NHANES) National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) was conducted in 2012 and collected data on physical activity and fitness levels for U.S. children and adolescents aged 3-15 years. The objective of NNYFS was to provide national-level estimates of the physical activity and fitness levels of children, based on interview and physical examination data. Results from the survey are intended to contribute to the development of policies and programs to improve youth fitness nationally. The data also may be used in the development of national reference standards for measures of fitness and physical activity. Methods The NNYFS survey design used the design for NHANES, which is a multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized resident population of the United States. NNYFS consisted of a household interview and a physical activity and fitness examination in a mobile examination center. A total of 1,640 children and adolescents aged 3-15 were interviewed, and 1,576 were examined. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  11. Work site stress management: national survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, J E

    1989-12-01

    The National Survey of Work Site Health Promotion Activities established baseline data on the frequency of nine types of health promotion activity at private work sites with more than 50 employees in the United States. Stress management activities were provided at 26.6% of work sites. Types of activities at those work sites with some stress management activity included group counseling (58.5%), individual counseling (39.3%), follow-up counseling (25.9%), special events (11.5%), providing information about stress (80.7%), providing a place to relax (64.8%), and making organizational changes to reduce employee stress (81.2%). Frequency of activities varied by industry type and by region of the country. Incidence of most types of activities did not increase as work site size increased, although the likelihood of having any of these activities did increase with work site size. Stress management activities were more likely to be present at work sites with a medical staff or health educator. An increase in output, productivity, or quality was the most frequently cited benefit (46.5%). Negative effects were reported at 2.6% of the work sites. Other health promotion activities found at the work sites surveyed included smoking cessation (61.8%), treatment and control of high blood pressure (36.7%), and weight control (34.7%). Employee Assistance Programs were responsible for stress management at 62% of the work sites with an Employee Assistance Program.

  12. Dietary trends and management of hyperphosphatemia among patients with chronic kidney disease: an international survey of renal care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouque, Denis; Cruz Casal, Maria; Lindley, Elizabeth; Rogers, Susan; Pancířová, Jitka; Kernc, Jennifer; Copley, J Brian

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to review the opinions and experiences of renal care professionals to examine dietary trends among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and problems associated with the clinical management of hyperphosphatemia. This was an online survey comprising open and closed questions requesting information on patient dietary trends and the clinical management of hyperphosphatemia. The study was conducted in 4 European countries (the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Participants were 84 renal care professionals. This was an online survey. Responder-reported experiences and perceptions of patient dietary trends and hyperphosphatemia management were assessed. Most survey responders (56%) observed an increase in the consumption of processed convenience food, 48% noticed an increase in the consumption of foods rich in phosphorus-containing additives, and 60% believed that there has been a trend of increasing patient awareness of the phosphorus content of food. Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) were most likely to experience difficulties in following advice on dietary phosphorus restriction (38% of responders estimated that 25-50% of their patients experienced difficulties, and 29% estimated that 51-75% experienced difficulties). Maintaining protein intake and restricting dietary phosphorus were perceived as being equally important by at least half of responders for predialysis patients (56%) and for those undergoing peritoneal dialysis and HD (54% and 50%, respectively). There were international variations in dietary trends and hyperphosphatemia management. Although most responders have observed a trend of increasing awareness of the phosphorus content of food among patients with CKD, the survey results indicate that many patients continue to experience difficulties when attempting to restrict dietary phosphorus. The survey responses reflect the global trend of increasing consumption of processed convenience foods and

  13. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Pakistan: National Trends and Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez Bhatti, Abu Bakar; Dar, Faisal Saud; Waheed, Anum; Shafique, Kashif; Sultan, Faisal; Shah, Najmul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second amongst all causes of cancer deaths globally. It is on a rise in Pakistan and might represent the most common cancer in adult males. Pakistan contributes significantly to global burden of hepatitis C, which is a known risk factor for HCC, and has one of the highest prevalence rates (>3%) in the world. In the absence of a national cancer registry and screening programs, prevalence of hepatitis and HCC only represents estimates of the real magnitude of this problem. In this review, we present various aspects of HCC in Pakistan, comparing and contrasting it with the global trends in cancer care. There is a general lack of awareness regarding risk factors of HCC in Pakistani population and prevalence of hepatitis C has increased. In addition, less common risk factors are also on a rise. Majority of patients present with advanced HCC and are not eligible for definitive treatment. We have attempted to highlight issues that have a significant bearing on HCC outcome in Pakistan. A set of strategies have been put forth that can potentially help reduce incidence and improve HCC outcome on national level. PMID:26955390

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Pakistan: National Trends and Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Hafeez Bhatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC ranks second amongst all causes of cancer deaths globally. It is on a rise in Pakistan and might represent the most common cancer in adult males. Pakistan contributes significantly to global burden of hepatitis C, which is a known risk factor for HCC, and has one of the highest prevalence rates (>3% in the world. In the absence of a national cancer registry and screening programs, prevalence of hepatitis and HCC only represents estimates of the real magnitude of this problem. In this review, we present various aspects of HCC in Pakistan, comparing and contrasting it with the global trends in cancer care. There is a general lack of awareness regarding risk factors of HCC in Pakistani population and prevalence of hepatitis C has increased. In addition, less common risk factors are also on a rise. Majority of patients present with advanced HCC and are not eligible for definitive treatment. We have attempted to highlight issues that have a significant bearing on HCC outcome in Pakistan. A set of strategies have been put forth that can potentially help reduce incidence and improve HCC outcome on national level.

  15. Wildland fire, risk, and recovery: results of a national survey with regional and racial perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; Siew Hoon Lim; H. Ken Cordell; Gary T. Green; Sandra Rideout-Hanzak; Cassandra Y. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    We used a national household survey to examine knowledge, attitudes, and preferences pertaining to wildland fire. First, we present nationwide results and trends. Then, we examine opinions across region and race. Despite some regional variation, respondents are fairly consistent in their beliefs about assuming personal responsibility for living in fire-prone areas and...

  16. Secular trends in menarcheal age in India-evidence from the Indian human development survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pathak

    Full Text Available Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified.We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15-49 years in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey.The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77 in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85 among women born prior to 1955-1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67 among women born during late 1985-1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955-1964 (95% CI: 14.89-15.11 to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63-12.56 during 1985-1989.The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women.

  17. National trends in ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescribing for skin and soft-tissue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Adam L; Chambers, Henry F; Maselli, Judith H; Gonzales, Ralph

    2008-07-28

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has emerged as a common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in the United States. It is unknown whether this development has affected the national rate of visits to primary care practices and emergency departments (EDs) and whether changes in antibiotic prescribing have occurred. We examined visits by patients with SSTIs to physician offices, hospital outpatient departments, and EDs using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 1997 to 2005. We estimated annual visit rates for all SSTIs and a subset classified as abscess/cellulitis. For abscess/cellulitis visits, we examined trends in characteristics of patients and clinical settings and in antibiotic prescribing. Overall rate of visits for SSTIs increased from 32.1 to 48.1 visits per 1000 population (50%; P = .003 for trend), reaching 14.2 million by 2005. More than 95% of this change was attributable to visits for abscess/cellulitis, which increased from 17.3 to 32.5 visits per 1000 population (88% increase; P trend). The largest relative increases occurred in EDs (especially in high safety-net-status EDs and in the South), among black patients, and among patients younger than 18 years. Use of antibiotics recommended for CA-MRSA increased from 7% to 28% of visits (P < .001) during the study period. Independent predictors of treatment with these antibiotics included being younger than 45 years, living in the South, and an ED setting. The incidence of SSTIs has rapidly increased nationwide in the CA-MRSA era and appears to disproportionately affect certain populations. Although physicians are beginning to modify antibiotic prescribing practices, opportunities for improvement exist, targeting physicians caring for patients who are at high risk.

  18. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Pathology, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to determine the current status of and to detect any long-term trends in the environmental quality of U.S. nearshore waters, NOAA initiated the National...

  19. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program Sites (1986 to present) Compiled from NOAA's National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains sample collection location information for the National Status and Trends, Bioeffects Assessment Project. The Bioeffects Assessment Sites data...

  20. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry Data, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends (NS&T) Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry data file reports the trace concentrations of a suite of chemical contaminants in...

  1. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Sites, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set reports information regarding the nominal sampling locations for the National Status and Trends Benthic Surveillance Project sites. One record is...

  2. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry Data, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends (NSandT) Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry data file reports the trace concentrations of a suite of chemical contaminants in...

  3. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project DNA-Xenobiotic Adducts Data, 1991, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to determine the current status of and to detect any long-term trends in the environmental quality of U.S. nearshore waters, NOAA initiated the National...

  4. Global Survey on Future Trends in Human Spaceflight: the Implications for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtuna, O.; Garneau, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the much-publicized first ever space tourist flight, of Dennis Tito, and the announcement of the second space tourist flight to take place in April 2002, it is clear that an alternative motivation for human spaceflight has emerged. Human spaceflight is no longer only about meeting the priorities of national governments and space agencies, but is also about the tangible possibility of ordinary people seeing the Earth from a previously exclusive vantage point. It is imperative that major space players look beyond the existing human spaceflight rationale to identify some of the major driving forces behind space tourism, including the evolving market potential and developments in enabling technologies. In order to determine the influence of these forces on the future of commercial human spaceflight, the responses of a Futuraspace survey on future trends in human spaceflight are analyzed and presented. The motivation of this study is to identify sought-after space destinations, explore the expected trends in enabling technologies, and understand the future role of emerging space players. The survey will reflect the opinions of respondents from around the world including North America, Europe (including Russia) and Asia. The profiles of targeted respondents from space industry, government and academia are high-level executives/managers, senior researchers, as well as former and current astronauts. The survey instrument is a questionnaire which is validated by a pilot study. The sampling method is non-probabilistic, targeting as many space experts as possible who fit our intended respondent profile. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis methods are implemented to investigate both global and regional perceptions of future commercial trends in human spaceflight. This study is not intended to be a formal market study of the potential viability of the space tourism market. Instead, the focus is on the future trends of human spaceflight, by drawing on the

  5. Mourning dove population trend estimates from Call-Count and North American Breeding Bird Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Dolton, D.D.; Droege, S.

    1994-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) Callcount Survey and the North American Breeding Bird Survey provide information on population trends of mourning doves throughout the continental United States. Because surveys are an integral part of the development of hunting regulations, a need exists to determine which survey provides precise information. We estimated population trends from 1966 to 1988 by state and dove management unit, and assessed the relative efficiency of each survey. Estimates of population trend differ (P lt 0.05) between surveys in 11 of 48 states; 9 of 11 states with divergent results occur in the Eastern Management Unit. Differences were probably a consequence of smaller sample sizes in the Callcount Survey. The Breeding Bird Survey generally provided trend estimates with smaller variances than did the Callcount Survey. Although the Callcount Survey probably provides more withinroute accuracy because of survey methods and timing, the Breeding Bird Survey has a larger sample size of survey routes and greater consistency of coverage in the Eastern Unit.

  6. Emergency radiology in Canada: a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreggiani, W.C.; Nicolaou, S.; Lyburn, I.D.; Harris, A.C.; Buckley, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    To document the existing radiology services available to emergency physicians in hospitals across Canada and to preview future trends and needs. Questionnaires (n = 130) regarding the type, availability and satisfaction with radiology services were distributed to radiologists and emergency physicians at 65 hospitals across Canada. Fifty-three (41%) questionnaires were returned, and 45 (35%) completed questionnaires from 35 hospitals were used for analysis (24 from radiologists and 21 from emergency physicians). Plain radiographs were available in all hospitals at all times. Ultrasonography, intravenous pyleograms and computed tomography (CT) were available in all departments during normal working hours; after hours, CT was unavailable in 1 hospital and ultrasonography was unavailable in 2. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) was routinely performed for blunt abdominal trauma in 6 centres, and 10 centres had teleradiology services. Regarding the quality of emergency service, 7 of 45 responded 'poor,' 4 'average,' 14 'good,' and 17 of 45 rated service 'excellent.' Interestingly, most radiologists answered 'good' or 'excellent,' and most of the 'poor' responses came from emergency physicians. Regarding staff coverage after 5 pm, 34 hospitals provided CT services, 20 had ultrasonography staff available, and there was radiology nursing coverage in 14 hospitals. Clinical details on requisitions were generally rated 'adequate' or 'poor.' Although most radiograph reports were available within 48 hours, some took longer. Hot-seat reporting was available in 11 centres. During normal working hours, radiologists were the first to read films in 5 of 35 hospitals. After hours, emergency physicians were the first to read films in all hospitals, but only 14 hospitals indicated they were 'formally' trained to do so. This survey documents the strengths and weaknesses of the radiology services available to emergency physicians. The perceptions of emergency physicians

  7. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    The 2015 National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (NSDDAB) is the third in a series of telephone surveys on distracted driving providing data to help further the understanding of driving behavior and to contribute to the developm...

  9. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  10. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  11. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is an annual survey designed to collect statistical information on the numbers and characteristics of all known...

  12. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  13. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  14. National Youth Survey US: Wave V (NYS-1980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the fifth wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this collection. The first wave of this survey was conducted in 1976, the second wave in...

  15. National Youth Survey US: Wave IV (NYS-1979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the fourth wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection. The first wave of this survey was conducted in 1976, the second...

  16. The Epidemiology of Social Isolation: National Health & Aging Trends Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudjoe, Thomas K M; Roth, David L; Szanton, Sarah L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Boyd, Cynthia M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2018-03-26

    Social isolation among older adults is an important but under-recognized risk for poor health outcomes. Methods are needed to identify subgroups of older adults at risk for social isolation. We constructed a typology of social isolation using data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and estimated the prevalence and correlates of social isolation among community-dwelling older adults. The typology was formed from four domains: living arrangement, core discussion network size, religious attendance, and social participation. In 2011, 24% of self-responding, community-dwelling older adults (65+ years), approximately 7.7 million people, were characterized as socially isolated, including 1.3 million (4%) who were characterized as severely socially isolated. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression indicated that being unmarried, male, having low education, and low income were all independently associated with social isolation. Black and Hispanic older adults had lower odds of social isolation compared to White older adults, after adjusting for covariates. Social isolation is an important and potentially modifiable risk that affects a significant proportion of the older adult population.

  17. COPD in Taiwan: a National Epidemiology Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng SL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Lung Cheng,1,2 Ming-Cheng Chan,3 Chin-Chou Wang,4 Ching-Hsiung Lin,5 Hao-Chien Wang,6 Jeng-Yuan Hsu,3 Liang-Wen Hang,7,8 Chee-Jen Chang,9 Diahn-Warng Perng,10,* Chong-Jen Yu6,* On behalf of the Taiwan COPD Consortium 1Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li City, Taoyuan County, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 5Division of Chest Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, Changhua County, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 7Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sleep Medicine Center, China Medical University Hospital, 8Department of Respiratory Therapy, College of Health Care, China Medical University, Taichung, 9Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Guishan Township, Taoyuan County, 10Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: To determine the prevalence of COPD in Taiwan and to document the disease characteristics and associated risk factors.Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional national survey of adults older than 40 years in Taiwan. Respiratory health screening questions identified subjects with diagnosed COPD or whose reported symptoms also fulfilled an epidemiological case definition; these were eligible to complete the survey, which also included indices of symptom severity and disability and questions on comorbidities, medical treatments, smoking habits, and occupations potentially harmful to respiratory health. Subjects with diagnosed COPD were subdivided by smoking status. Subjects who fulfilled the case definition

  18. Journal Articles Applying National Aquatic Resource Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) data are being used and applied above and beyond the regional and national assessments. This page includes a list of recent journal articles that reference NARS data.

  19. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : 1997 customer satisfaction survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-13

    In 1995, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted its first Customer Satisfaction Survey in response to the requirements of the National Performance Review and Executive Order 12862. An independent research organization, S...

  20. Results of a national survey on nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, A.R.; Gatica, N.A.; Melis, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina carried out a compilation of data on radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine procedures. Its aim was to get information on the radiopharmaceuticals that are used in different procedures and the activity administered to the patient, to assess the radiation exposure of the population and to contribute to a global survey of medical radiation usage and exposures conducted by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), by sending information of the country. The data compiled were analysed, and for the most frequent procedures, the mean activity administered, the standard deviation, the distribution of the number of procedures for different age groups, sex and radiopharmaceuticals were assessed. The radiation exposure for children and adults was estimated. For the main diagnostic examinations, the results of the survey were compared with specific values published in the Basic Safety Standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Safety Series No. 115, 1996). As a conclusion, it may be point out the importance of continuing with the compilation of this kind of information in order to identify emerging trends on the use of nuclear medicine procedures in Argentina and the activity of radiopharmaceuticals administered to the patients. (author) [es

  1. Regional elevator survey : grain transportation & industry trends for Great Plains elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    One potential means for gaining insight into the current state of the elevator industry, : and into expectations for future trends, is through a survey. The objective of this study is to profile the transportation and industry characteristics of the ...

  2. National Time Trends in Bullying among Adolescents in the Czech Republic from 1994 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarková, Mária; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2017-07-01

    Bullying in school is a public health concern which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in bullying behaviour among school-aged children in the Czech Republic. Data were obtained from cross-sectional self-report surveys in the years 1994-2014 as a part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) from a representative sample of 11-, 13-, and 15-year olds. The highest proportion of children who bullied others (20-47%) occurred during the years 1994 and 1998. The logistic regression models showed significant decreasing trends in bullying others and also in being bullied, regardless of age and gender. The decreasing trend in bullying may be the consequence of a preventive policy in the Czech Republic, but also a change in the understanding of the concept of bullying in society. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  3. The 1998 DoD Recruiter Survey: Profiles and Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Condon, K

    2000-01-01

    .... The survey results clearly validated the challenge of recruiting in 1998. Overall, military recruiters were more experienced, more likely to want to stay in recruiting and more likely to be working long hours than in 1996...

  4. National health interview surveys in Europe: an overview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupkens, C.L.H.; Berg, J. van den; Zee, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the value of national health interview surveys for national and international research and policy activities, this paper examines the existence and content of recent and future health interview surveys in the 15 member states of the European Union (EU), Norway, Iceland and

  5. National Trends in Pediatricians' Practices and Attitudes About Breastfeeding: 1995 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman-Winter, Lori; Szucs, Kinga; Milano, Aubri; Gottschlich, Elizabeth; Sisk, Blake; Schanler, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has affirmed breastfeeding as the preferred method of infant feeding; however, there has been little systematic examination of how pediatricians' recommendations, affiliated hospitals' policies, counseling practices, and attitudes toward breastfeeding have shifted over the past 2 decades. These trends were examined from 1995 to 2014. Data are from the Periodic Survey (PS) of Fellows, a nationally representative survey of AAP members. PS #30 (1995; response rate = 72%; N = 832), PS #57 (2004; response rate = 55%; N = 675), and PS #89 (2014; response rate = 51%; N = 620) collected demographics, patient and practice characteristics, and detailed responses on pediatricians' recommendations, affiliated hospitals' policies, counseling practices, and attitudes toward breastfeeding. By using bivariate statistics and logistic regression models, the analysis investigated changes over time with predicted values (PVs). From 1995 to 2014, more pediatricians reported their affiliated hospitals applied for "baby-friendly" designation (PV = 12% in 1995, PV = 56% in 2014; P breastfeeding (65% to 76% [ P breastfeeding (PV = 70% in 1995, PV = 57% in 2014; P breastfeeding problems ( P AAP policy from 1995 to 2014; however, their attitudes about the likelihood of breastfeeding success have worsened. These 2 divergent trends indicate that even as breastfeeding rates continue to rise, continued efforts to enhance pediatricians' training and attitudes about breastfeeding are necessary. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. National Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime across the United States that generates significant economic impacts to both local economies and to the nation. In...

  7. National Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime across the United States that generates significant economic impacts to both local economies and to the nation. In...

  8. National Trends in the Epidemiology of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A National Cancer Data Base Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoughi, Sahar A; Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Blackmon, Shanda H

    2018-02-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains an aggressive malignancy that is difficult to cure. However, the treatment paradigm of MPM has evolved, and the national practice patterns are unknown. This study examined the national trends in the epidemiology, national treatment patterns, and survival of patients with this disease. We identified all patients (n = 19,134) with MPM from the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2013. We analyzed patient, tumor characteristics, and treatment patterns using descriptive statistics and used Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate survival stratified by the type of therapy administered. Four histologic subtypes were represented in the National Cancer Data Base, these included sarcomatoid (n = 2,355 [12.3%]), epithelioid (n = 6,858 [35.8%]), biphasic (n = 13,617 [11%]), and not otherwise specified (n = 8,560 [44.7%]). Across all subtypes, the prevalence of mesothelioma was highest among white men. Sarcomatoid had the worst survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.2; p Data Base. Although survival remains poor, multimodality therapy with surgical resection is associated with the best survival for MPM. Further research is needed to improve survival and overall patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s wetlands. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the publi...

  10. Documentation of the Danish National Travel Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hjalmar

    The basic aim of TU is to survey the transport behaviour of Danes residing in Denmark. The survey is managed by DTU Transport on behalf of a group of Danish authorities and organisa-tions. Thus, we focus on the needs arising from this group: • A stable, continuous, operational, reliable, easy-to-...

  11. Mercury in the nation's streams - Levels, trends, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Chasar, Lia C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2014-01-01

    conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the late 1990s, while also drawing on scientific literature and datasets from other sources. Previous national mercury assessments by other agencies have focused largely on lakes. Although numerous studies of mercury in streams have been conducted at local and regional scales, recent USGS studies provide the most comprehensive, multimedia assessment of streams across the United States, and yield insights about the importance of watershed characteristics relative to mercury inputs. Information from other environments (lakes, wetlands, soil, atmosphere, glacial ice) also is summarized to help understand how mercury varies in space and time.

  12. Analysis of National Trends in Admissions for Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sean B; Geske, Jeffrey B; Kathuria, Parul; Cuttica, Michael; Schimmel, Daniel R; Courtney, D Mark; Waterer, Grant W; Wunderink, Richard G

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) remains a significant cause of hospital admission and health-care costs. Estimates of PE incidence came from the 1990s, and data are limited to describe trends in hospital admissions for PE over the past decade. We analyzed Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 1993 to 2012 to identify patients admitted with PE. We included admissions with International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, codes listing PE as the principal diagnosis as well as admissions with PE listed secondary to principal diagnoses of respiratory failure or DVT. Massive PE was defined by mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or nonseptic shock. Outcomes included hospital lengths of stay, adjusted charges, and all-cause hospital mortality. Linear regression was used to analyze changes over time. Admissions for PE increased from 23 per 100,000 in 1993 to 65 per 100,000 in 2012 (P < .001). The percent of admissions meeting criteria for massive PE decreased (5.3% to 4.4%, P = .002), but the absolute number of admissions for massive PE increased (from 1.5 to 2.8 per 100,000, P < .001). Median length of stay decreased from 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 6-11) to 4 (IQR, 3-6) days (P < .001). Adjusted hospital charges increased from $16,475 (IQR, $10,748-$26,211) in 1993 to $25,728 (IQR, $15,505-$44,493) in 2012 (P < .001). All-cause hospital mortality decreased from 7.1% to 3.2% (P < .001), but population-adjusted deaths during admission for PE increased from 1.6 to 2.1 per 100,000 (P < .001). Total admissions and hospital charges for PE have increased over the past two decades. However, the population-adjusted admission rate has increased disproportionately to the incidence of patients with severe PE. We hypothesize that these findings reflect a concerning national movement toward more admissions of less severe PE. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The role of international comparison in surveying divorce trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh-szombathy, L

    1982-04-01

    In this study, the main survey methods and approaches to analyzing data on divorce in different countries are described. Some problems concerning the international comparability of divorce statistics are examined, and the value of international comparative studies for identifying common factors affecting divorce is stressed. (summary in ENG, RUS)

  14. Current Trends in Communication Graduate Degrees: Survey of Communications, Advertising, PR, and IMC Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Keith A.; Coolsen, Michael K.; Wilkerson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 61 master's degree advertising programs reveals significant trends in program titles, curriculum design, course delivery, and students served. The results provide insight for current and planned master's degree programs as research predicts a continued increase in demand for master's education over the next decade. Survey results are…

  15. Trends in Pap test practices and results: An 11-year review of the annual ACHA Pap Test and STI Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman-Mueller, Heather P; Oswalt, Sara B

    2017-10-01

    To conduct a trend analysis of Pap test practices, Pap test results and related women's services and guidelines of college health centers. College health centers who participated in the annual ACHA Pap Test and STI (sexually transmitted infection) Survey years 2004-2014 (n ranged from 127 to 181 depending on year). Descriptive analyses are presented with ANOVAs (Analysis of Variance) and chi-square tests calculated to examine trends over time. The number of Pap tests significantly decreased over time; however, the percentage of normal and HSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) results did not vary. Availability of conventional cytology slides and cryotherapy were significantly associated with year. Over time, college health centers' guidelines related to initiation of Pap testing evolved to consistently conform to national recommendations for cervical screening. The results indicate most college health centers are following the current national guidelines regarding Pap testing for young adult women.

  16. Survey on present status and trend of parallel programming environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemiya, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Kenji; Honma, Ichiro; Ohta, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Takuji; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Koide, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Masayuki.

    1997-03-01

    This report intends to provide useful information on software tools for parallel programming through the survey on parallel programming environments of the following six parallel computers, Fujitsu VPP300/500, NEC SX-4, Hitachi SR2201, Cray T94, IBM SP, and Intel Paragon, all of which are installed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), moreover, the present status of R and D's on parallel softwares of parallel languages, compilers, debuggers, performance evaluation tools, and integrated tools is reported. This survey has been made as a part of our project of developing a basic software for parallel programming environment, which is designed on the concept of STA (Seamless Thinking Aid to programmers). (author)

  17. National health interview surveys in Europe: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupkens, C L; van den Berg, J; van der Zee, J

    1999-05-01

    In order to study the value of national health interview surveys for national and international research and policy activities, this paper examines the existence and content of recent and future health interview surveys in the 15 member states of the European Union (EU), Norway, Iceland and Switzerland. National health interview surveys are performed in most countries, but not in Greece (only regional surveys), Luxembourg, Ireland and Iceland (only multi-purpose surveys). The health interview surveys in the other 14 countries provide regular data on the main health topics. Of the 14 health topics that are examined in this inventory seven are measured in all countries. Questions on health status (e.g. self-assessed health, long-term physical disability, and height and weight) and medical consumption (e.g. consultations with the general practitioner, GP) are often included. Lifestyle topics are less often included, except smoking habits, information about which is sought in all countries. Topics like diet and drugs/narcotics are more often included in special surveys than in general health interview surveys. Despite differences in the content, frequency and methodology of national health interview surveys in different countries, these surveys are a valuable source of information on the health of Europeans.

  18. Media Outlook 2016: A Survey of UK Media Trends and Firm Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, John James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to understand the changing nature of the UK media environment, emerging trends and the management practices of media executives. This is the fourth year that the survey has run, and already we are seeing immense changes in the way media firms are adapting to a changing competitive landscape. This year, the focus of the survey has been on assessing media firm capabilities and the ability to adapt media strategy, business models and capabilities to new industry dynamic...

  19. Trends in proliferation: a survey of recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Manoj

    1995-01-01

    It would be a truism to say that the trends in the area of proliferation display positive and negative aspects. On the one hand, the steps being taken by the nuclear haves appear to be designed to maintain their nuclear hegemony forever; on the other, there are indications such as the support being extended to the proposed conventions for the ending of nuclear tests and the production of fissile material for weapons that the nuclear weapons states also realize that the problem cannot be solved unless they also participate in the process and accept non-discriminatory restraints. However, it is much too early to predict which way the situation will develop. (author). 34 refs

  20. Measuring and exposures from National Media Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    2000-01-01

    Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media ...... surveys themselves that might invalidate or give unreliable measures, both when measuring a single exposure and accumulated exposures. Four media types will be discussed: TV, radio, print and the internet.......Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media...

  1. The National Eutrophication Survey: lake characteristics and historical nutrient concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stachelek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical ecological surveys serve as a baseline and provide context for contemporary research, yet many of these records are not preserved in a way that ensures their long-term usability. The National Eutrophication Survey (NES database is currently only available as scans of the original reports (PDF files with no embedded character information. This limits its searchability, machine readability, and the ability of current and future scientists to systematically evaluate its contents. The NES data were collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency between 1972 and 1975 as part of an effort to investigate eutrophication in freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Although several studies have manually transcribed small portions of the database in support of specific studies, there have been no systematic attempts to transcribe and preserve the database in its entirety. Here we use a combination of automated optical character recognition and manual quality assurance procedures to make these data available for analysis. The performance of the optical character recognition protocol was found to be linked to variation in the quality (clarity of the original documents. For each of the four archival scanned reports, our quality assurance protocol found an error rate between 5.9 and 17 %. The goal of our approach was to strike a balance between efficiency and data quality by combining entry of data by hand with digital transcription technologies. The finished database contains information on the physical characteristics, hydrology, and water quality of about 800 lakes in the contiguous US (Stachelek et al.(2017, https://doi.org/10.5063/F1639MVD. Ultimately, this database could be combined with more recent studies to generate meta-analyses of water quality trends and spatial variation across the continental US.

  2. Diet in Saudi Arabia: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Afshin, Ashkan; Daoud, Farah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-04-01

    No recent original studies on the pattern of diet are available for Saudi Arabia at the national level. The present study was performed to describe the consumption of foods and beverages by Saudi adults. The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) was conducted in 2013. Data were collected through interviews and anthropometric measurements were done. A diet history questionnaire was used to determine the amount of consumption for eighteen food or beverage items in a typical week. The study was a household survey in all thirteen administrative regions of Saudi Arabia. Participants were 10 735 individuals aged 15 years or older. Mean daily consumption was 70·9 (se 1·3) g for fruits, 111·1 (se 2·0) g for vegetables, 11·6 (se 0·3) g for dark fish, 13·8 (se 0·3) g for other fish, 44·2 (se 0·7) g for red meat, 4·8 (se 0·2) g for processed meat, 10·9 (se 0·3) g for nuts, 219·4 (se 5·1) ml for milk and 115·5 (se 2·6) ml for sugar-sweetened beverages. Dietary guideline recommendations were met by only 5·2 % of individuals for fruits, 7·5 % for vegetables, 31·4 % for nuts and 44·7 % for fish. The consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages was high in young adults. Only a small percentage of the Saudi population met the dietary recommendations. Programmes to improve dietary behaviours are urgently needed to reduce the current and future burden of disease. The promotion of healthy diets should target both the general population and specific high-risk groups. Regular assessments of dietary status are needed to monitor trends and inform interventions.

  3. The National Eutrophication Survey: lake characteristics and historical nutrient concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelek, Joseph; Ford, Chanse; Kincaid, Dustin; King, Katelyn; Miller, Heather; Nagelkirk, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Historical ecological surveys serve as a baseline and provide context for contemporary research, yet many of these records are not preserved in a way that ensures their long-term usability. The National Eutrophication Survey (NES) database is currently only available as scans of the original reports (PDF files) with no embedded character information. This limits its searchability, machine readability, and the ability of current and future scientists to systematically evaluate its contents. The NES data were collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency between 1972 and 1975 as part of an effort to investigate eutrophication in freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Although several studies have manually transcribed small portions of the database in support of specific studies, there have been no systematic attempts to transcribe and preserve the database in its entirety. Here we use a combination of automated optical character recognition and manual quality assurance procedures to make these data available for analysis. The performance of the optical character recognition protocol was found to be linked to variation in the quality (clarity) of the original documents. For each of the four archival scanned reports, our quality assurance protocol found an error rate between 5.9 and 17 %. The goal of our approach was to strike a balance between efficiency and data quality by combining entry of data by hand with digital transcription technologies. The finished database contains information on the physical characteristics, hydrology, and water quality of about 800 lakes in the contiguous US (Stachelek et al.(2017), https://doi.org/10.5063/F1639MVD). Ultimately, this database could be combined with more recent studies to generate meta-analyses of water quality trends and spatial variation across the continental US.

  4. Broad survey of radioactive waste transports and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    This survey reviews Radioactive Waste (RW) transports in different countries, giving the origins, amounts, distances and modes of transport for the different RW categories currently moved. It appears that: present transport experience concerns mainly Low and Medium level Wastes (LMW) and Spent nuclear Fuel (SF); RW transports are implemented in compliance with IAEA recommendations which proved particularly helpful to gain public acceptance; the bulk of LMW is transported as Low Specific Activity (LSA) materials (i.e. with packaging requirements just equivalent to those needed for their disposal) and SF as well as liquid RW are transported in 'type B' packagings which withstand severe accident conditions; records indicate that transport worker irradiation is kept much below allowable limits and that accidents during RW transports did not cause significant release of activity to environment; and the cost of RW transports including insurances, is small compared to that of RW processing and disposal. Therefore, one may comment that RW movements are by no means slowed down by transport problems and just follow the demand which in some countries may be delayed by reasons linked to RW disposal strategy or its public acceptance. This survey presents also an assessment of RW transports until the end of this century

  5. Assessing the magnitude and trends in hospital acquired infections in Canadian hospitals through sequential point prevalence surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Taylor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare acquired infections (HAI are an important public health problem in developed countries, but comprehensive data on trends over time are lacking. Prevalence surveys have been used as a surrogate for incidence studies and can be readily repeated. Methods The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program conducted prevalence surveys in 2002 and 2009 in a large network of major Canadian acute care hospitals. NHSN definitions of HAI were used. Use of isolation precautions on the survey day was documented. Results In 2009, 9,953 acute care inpatients were surveyed; 1,234 infections (124/1000 were found, compared to 111/1000 in 2002, (p < 0.0001. There was increased prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI and Clostridium difficile, offset by decreases in pneumonia and bloodstream infection. Use of isolation precautions increased from 77 to 148 per 1000 patients (p < 0.0001, attributable to increased use of contact precautions in patients infected or colonized with antimicrobial resistant organisms. Conclusion Between 2002 and 2009 HAI prevalence increased by 11.7 % in a network of major Canadian hospitals due to increases in Clostridium difficile and urinary tract infection. The use of isolation precautions increased by 92.2 % attributable to increased contact isolation. National prevalence surveys are useful tools to assess evolving trends in HAI.

  6. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  7. National Geochemical Survey Locations and Results for Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with other state and federal agencies, industry, and academia, is conducting a National Geochemical...

  8. National Youth Survey US: Wave II (NYS-1977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the second wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection. The first wave was conducted in 1976. Youths were interviewed in...

  9. National Youth Survey US: Wave I (NYS-1976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains parent and youth data for the National Youth Survey. Youths and one of their parents or legal guardians were interviewed in early 1977 about...

  10. National Youth Survey US: Wave VII (NYS-1987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the seventh wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this collection. This research project, designed to gain a better understanding of both...

  11. National Youth Survey US: Wave VI (NYS-1983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the sixth wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this collection. This research project, which was designed to gain a better understanding...

  12. National Youth Survey US: Wave III (NYS-1978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the third wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection, which includes data for youth interviewed in 1979 about events and...

  13. Trends of Acute Poisoning Cases Occurring at the Kenyatta National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of poisoned patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) over the period between January 2002 and June 2003 was carried out. KNH is a national referral and university teaching hospital and patients are admitted from all parts of Kenya. The results of the study are therefore expected to mirror ...

  14. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Romero-Martínez; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Lucia Cuevas-Nasu; Ignacio Méndez Gómez-Humarán; Elsa Berenice Gaona-Pineda; Luz María Gómez-Acosta; Juan Ángel Rivera-Dommarco; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organizat...

  15. An analysis of socio-demographic patterns in child malnutrition trends using Ghana demographic and health survey data in the period 1993-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amugsi, Dickson A; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Lartey, Anna

    2013-10-16

    A small but growing body of research indicates that progress in reducing child malnutrition is substantially uneven from place to place, even down to the district level within countries. Yet child malnutrition prevalence and trend estimates available for public health planning are mostly available only at the level of global regions and/or at country level. To support carefully targeted intervention to reduce child malnutrition, public health planners and policy-makers require access to more refined prevalence data and trend analyses than are presently available. Responding to this need in Ghana, this report presents trends in child malnutrition prevalence in socio-demographic groups within the country's geographic regions. The study uses the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS) data. The GDHS are nationally representative cross-sectional surveys that have been carried out in many developing countries. These surveys constitute one of the richest sources of information currently available to examine time trends in child malnutrition. Data from four surveys were used for the analysis: 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008. The results show statistically significant declining trends at the national level for stunting (F (1, 7204) = 7.89, p ≤ .005), underweight (F (1, 7441) = 44.87, p ≤ .001) and wasting (F (1, 7130) = 6.19, p ≤ .013). However, analyses of the sex-specific trends revealed that the declining trends in stunting and wasting were significant among males but not among females. In contrast to the national trend, there were significantly increasing trends in stunting for males (F (1, 2004) = 3.92, p ≤ .048) and females (F (1, 2004) = 4.34, p ≤ .037) whose mothers had higher than primary education, while the trends decreased significantly for males and females whose mothers had no education. At the national level in Ghana, child malnutrition is significantly declining. However, the aggregate national trend masks important deviations in certain socio

  16. An analysis of socio-demographic patterns in child malnutrition trends using Ghana demographic and health survey data in the period 1993–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A small but growing body of research indicates that progress in reducing child malnutrition is substantially uneven from place to place, even down to the district level within countries. Yet child malnutrition prevalence and trend estimates available for public health planning are mostly available only at the level of global regions and/or at country level. To support carefully targeted intervention to reduce child malnutrition, public health planners and policy-makers require access to more refined prevalence data and trend analyses than are presently available. Responding to this need in Ghana, this report presents trends in child malnutrition prevalence in socio-demographic groups within the country’s geographic regions. Methods The study uses the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS) data. The GDHS are nationally representative cross-sectional surveys that have been carried out in many developing countries. These surveys constitute one of the richest sources of information currently available to examine time trends in child malnutrition. Data from four surveys were used for the analysis: 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008. Results The results show statistically significant declining trends at the national level for stunting (F (1, 7204) = 7.89, p ≤ .005), underweight (F (1, 7441) = 44.87, p ≤ .001) and wasting (F (1, 7130) = 6.19, p ≤ .013). However, analyses of the sex-specific trends revealed that the declining trends in stunting and wasting were significant among males but not among females. In contrast to the national trend, there were significantly increasing trends in stunting for males (F (1, 2004) = 3.92, p ≤ .048) and females (F (1, 2004) = 4.34, p ≤ .037) whose mothers had higher than primary education, while the trends decreased significantly for males and females whose mothers had no education. Conclusions At the national level in Ghana, child malnutrition is significantly declining

  17. Trends in self-reported arterial hypertension in Brazilian adults: an analysis of data from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey, 1998-2008 Tendência temporal de hipertensão arterial autorreferida em adultos: uma análise da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios, 1998-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Correa Muniz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the time trend in self-reported arterial hypertension from 1998 to 2008 in individuals older than 20 years in Brazil. Data were analyzed on prevalence of hypertension from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD for the years 1998, 2003, and 2008. The analysis considered the sampling complexity and included 203,419, 238,591, and 257,816 individuals in the years 1998, 2003, and 2008, respectively. The time trend in hypertension was analyzed by sex, family income, geographic regions of Brazil, and area of residence (urban versus rural, and the prevalence rates were adjusted for age. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 12.5% in 1998, 13% in 2003, and 13.9% in 2008, with an annual increase of 1.07%. The highest increases occurred in the Southeast Region (1.41%, in men (1.82%, and in urban areas (1.15%. The study showed a rise in the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in all income brackets and with increasing age. Knowledge of the prevalence of hypertension is essential for backing activities to prevent and control the problem, especially among the more vulnerable subgroups.O estudo avaliou a tendência temporal de hipertensão arterial autorreferida no período de 1998 a 2008, em indivíduos acima de 20 anos, no Brasil. Foram analisados os dados de prevalência de hipertensão da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD de 1998, 2003 e 2008. A análise considerou a complexidade amostral e incluiu 203.419, 238.591 e 257.816 indivíduos nos anos de 1998, 2003 e 2008, respectivamente. A tendência de hipertensão foi descrita por sexo, renda domiciliar, macrorregiões do Brasil e zona de residência, e as prevalências foram ajustadas por idade. A prevalência de hipertensão foi de 12,5% em 1998, 13% em 2003 e 13,9% em 2008, com incremento anual de 1,07%. Maior aumento anual ocorreu na Região Sudeste (1,41%, entre homens (1,82% e na zona urbana (1,15%. Observou-se crescimento nas prevalências de

  18. Men in Midwifery: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Adriane Ellis, Simon; McFarlane, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Midwifery in the United States suffers from a lack of diversity. More than 91% of midwives are white, and more than 98% are women. Little research has explored the experiences of midwives who are men or transgender. Invitation to an Internet survey was sent to the membership of the American College of Nurse-Midwives. Thirty-one participants who identified as men or transgender completed the survey, which included quantitative and open-ended questions about the impact of gender on education and practice. Data analysis of qualitative responses used qualitative description methodology to identify common themes. Four themes described participating men's experiences of education and practice of midwifery. Challenges included feeling singled out as different and being excluded. Supportive factors came from the social support of family, friends, colleagues, and patients, as well as from taking pride in one's work as a midwife. Midwives who identify as transgender described the challenges of others' confusion about their gender, having to hide their true gender identity, and struggling with the resulting loneliness. This survey highlights the challenges faced by midwives who are men or transgender in education and practice. Midwifery values of respect and acceptance for all women and families need to be applied internally to all members of the profession. This will support increased diversity and openness in midwifery. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  19. Comparison of NIS and NHIS/NIPRCS vaccination coverage estimates. National Immunization Survey. National Health Interview Survey/National Immunization Provider Record Check Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D L; Ezzati-Rice, T M; Stokley, S; Zhao, Z

    2001-05-01

    The National Immunization Survey (NIS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) produce national coverage estimates for children aged 19 months to 35 months. The NIS is a cost-effective, random-digit-dialing telephone survey that produces national and state-level vaccination coverage estimates. The National Immunization Provider Record Check Study (NIPRCS) is conducted in conjunction with the annual NHIS, which is a face-to-face household survey. As the NIS is a telephone survey, potential coverage bias exists as the survey excludes children living in nontelephone households. To assess the validity of estimates of vaccine coverage from the NIS, we compared 1995 and 1996 NIS national estimates with results from the NHIS/NIPRCS for the same years. Both the NIS and the NHIS/NIPRCS produce similar results. The NHIS/NIPRCS supports the findings of the NIS.

  20. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E; Hunter, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25,000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. A total of 10,246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It holds significant potential to help answer previously unaddressed questions in public health

  1. CHINA'S INTERNATIONAL TOURISM UNDER ECONOMIC TRANSITION: NATIONAL TRENDS AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen); Guo, Rong; Wang, Qingbin

    2003-01-01

    China's Tourism industry, especially international tourism, has expanded rapidly since its market-oriented economic reform started in 1978. There has been limited information regarding the trends and regional disparities. This paper examines the national trends of China's international tourism since 1982 and analyzes the changes in regional disparities since 1995. While the trend analysis suggests that China's international tourism is likely to keep growing at a significant rate, the analysis...

  2. Survey of operating experience from LERs to identify aging trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a study using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Nuclear Operations Analysis Center computer files of operating experience reports [licensee event reports (LERs), abnormal occurrences, etc.] are summarized in this study, specific time-related degradation mechanisms are identified as possible causes of a reportable occurrence. Data collected on domestic commercial nuclear power plants covering 1969 to 1982 yielded over 5800 events attributable to possible age related failures. Of these events, 2795 were attributable to instrument drift and are addressed separately in the report. The remaining events (3098) were reviewed, and data were collected for each event, which identified the specific system, component, and subpart: the information included the age-related mechanism, severity of the failure, and method of detection of the failure. About two-thirds of the failures were judged to be degraded, with one-third listed as catastrophic

  3. Swiss teleradiology survey: present situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienemann, Bernhard; Hodler, Juerg; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Luetolf, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a survey about the present situation including the usage pattern, technical characteristics and the anticipated future of teleradiology in Switzerland. An internet-based questionnaire was made available to all members of the Swiss Society of Radiology. Questions concerning current teleradiology usage, the type of transmitted modalities, the technology employed, security, billing issues and the anticipated future of teleradiology were addressed. One hundred and two (22.67%) of 450 radiologists responded to the survey. Of the total, 41.2% (42) were teleradiology users, 35.3% (36) planned to use teleradiology in the near future and 24.5% (25) did not use or plan to use teleradiology. The mean number of examinations transmitted per month was 198 (range 1-2,000) and the mean distance was 33 km (range 1,250 km). An emergency service was considered the most important purpose (mean score 6.90; minimum 1, maximum 10) for the use of teleradiology, followed by image distribution (mean 6.74) and expert consultation (mean 6.61). The most commonly transmitted modality was computed tomography (mean 8.80), followed by conventional X-rays (8.40) and magnetic resonance imaging (8.32). The most commonly transmitted format was Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) (66.7%), followed by bitmap/Joint Photographic Experts Group (jpg) (38.1%), using the DICOM send/receive protocol (52.4%), followed by the hypertext transfer protocol (26.2%) and e-mail (21.4%). For security a secure connection (54.8%) followed by encryption (14.3%) and anonymization (9.5%) was used. For the future, image distribution was rated the most important aspect of teleradiology (7.88), followed by emergency (7.22) and expert consultation (6.53). Development of legal regulations is considered most important (8.17), followed by data security guidelines (8.15). Most radiologists believe that insurance companies should pay for the costs of teleradiology (37

  4. Results From the 2014 National Wilderness Manager Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Ghimire; Ken Cordell; Alan Watson; Chad Dawson; Gary T. Green

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of managers was developed to support interagency wilderness strategic planning. The focus was on major challenges, perceived needs for science and training, and accomplishments of 1995 Strategic Plan objectives. The survey was administered to managers at the four federal agencies with wilderness management responsibilities: the Bureau of Land...

  5. Teaching Psychiatry Residents to Teach: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…

  6. Outdoor recreation in American life: a national assessment of demand and supply trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Carter Betz; J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Shela H. Mou; John C. Bergstrom; R. Jeff Teasley; Michael A. Tarrant; John Loomis

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor Recreation in American Life is the United States' only ongoing, comprehensive assessment of the trends, current situation, and likely future of outdoor recreation demand and supply. New and different aspects of national demand, resemblances to the past, and trends in the supply of outdoor recreation opportunities, both from the private and public sectors,...

  7. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), conducted June 15 through 26, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with ANL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ANL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S ampersand A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S ampersand A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the S ampersand A results will be incorporated into the Argonne National Laboratory Environmental Survey findings for inclusion in the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 75 refs., 24 figs., 60 tabs

  8. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), conducted June 15 through 26, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with ANL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ANL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the Argonne National Laboratory Environmental Survey findings for inclusion in the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 75 refs., 24 figs., 60 tabs.

  9. National Status and Trends: Mussel Watch Program - Resurrection Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to the growing concerns among Native communities about the safety of subsistence shellfish, this project assessed the health risks associated with...

  10. National Status and Trends: Guanica, Puerto Rico Contaminants Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project assesses chemical contaminant status in sediment and coral tissues (Porites astroides) collected in and around Guanica Bay, Puerto Rico in 2009....

  11. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Massachusetts Bay Summary Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. The purpose was to define the extent and magnitude of contamination and biological effects...

  12. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Kachemak Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Kachemak Bay system in...

  13. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  14. National Status and Trends: Vieques, Puerto Rico Tissue Contaminants Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worldwide coral reef ecosystems are being threatened by a range of human activities. Sedimentation, overfishing, global climate change, ship groundings, pathogens...

  15. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Sabine Lake, Texas Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The toxicity of sediments in Sabine Lake, Texas, and adjoining Intracoastal Waterway canals was determined as part of bioeffects assessment studies managed by NOAA's...

  16. Workforce and Salary Survey Trends: Opportunities and Challenges for the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed

  17. Workforce and Salary Survey Trends: Opportunities and Challenges for the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Michael D., E-mail: mdmill03@exchange.louisville.edu

    2015-07-01

    The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed.

  18. Self-reported physical activity among blacks: estimates from national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Taylor, Wendell C; Heath, Gregory W; Macera, Caroline A

    2007-11-01

    National surveillance data provide population-level estimates of physical activity participation, but generally do not include detailed subgroup analyses, which could provide a better understanding of physical activity among subgroups. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of self-reported regular physical activity among black adults using data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n=19,189), the 2004 National Health Interview Survey (n=4263), and the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=3407). Analyses were conducted between January and March 2006. Datasets were analyzed separately to estimate the proportion of black adults meeting national physical activity recommendations overall and stratified by gender and other demographic subgroups. The proportion of black adults reporting regular PA ranged from 24% to 36%. Regular physical activity was highest among men; younger age groups; highest education and income groups; those who were employed and married; overweight, but not obese, men; and normal-weight women. This pattern was consistent across surveys. The observed physical activity patterns were consistent with national trends. The data suggest that older black adults and those with low education and income levels are at greatest risk for inactive lifestyles and may require additional attention in efforts to increase physical activity in black adults. The variability across datasets reinforces the need for objective measures in national surveys.

  19. The Jamaica asthma and allergies national prevalence survey: rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Nancy C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a significant public health problem in the Caribbean. Prevalence surveys using standardized measures of asthma provide valid prevalence estimates to facilitate regional and international comparisons and monitoring of trends. This paper describes methods used in the Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey, challenges associated with this survey and strategies used to overcome these challenges. Methods/Design An island wide, cross-sectional, community-based survey of asthma, asthma symptoms and allergies was done among adults and children using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey Questionnaire for adults and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 2, 163 adults aged 18 years and older and 2, 017 children aged 2-17 years for the survey. The Kish selection table was used to select one adult and one child per household. Data analysis accounted for sampling design and prevalence estimates were weighted to produce national estimates. Discussion The Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey is the first population- based survey in the Caribbean to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergies both in adults and children using standardized methods. With response rates exceeding 80% in both groups, this approach facilitated cost-effective gathering of high quality asthma prevalence data that will facilitate international and regional comparison and monitoring of asthma prevalence trends. Another unique feature of this study was the partnership with the Ministry of Health in Jamaica, which ensured the collection of data relevant for decision-making to facilitate the uptake of research evidence. The findings of this study will provide important data on the burden of asthma and allergies in Jamaica and contribute to evidence-informed planning of comprehensive asthma management and education programs.

  20. Problem neurology residents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabby, David S; Majeed, Muhammed H; Schwartzman, Robert J

    2011-06-14

    Problem residents are found across most medical specialties at a prevalence of about 10%. This study was designed to explore the prevalence and causes of problem neurology residents and to compare neurology programs' responses and outcomes. Directors of 126 US neurology residency programs were sent an electronic survey. We collected data on demographics, first and all "identifiers" of problem residents, and year of training in which the problem was found. We asked about observable signs, etiology, and who performed remediation. We asked what resources were used and what outcomes occurred. Ninety-five program directors completed surveys (75% response rate). Almost all neurology programs have problem residents (81%). Age, sex, marital status, being a US native, or attending a US medical school had no effect on problem status. Being a parent carried a lower likelihood of problems (32%). Most commonly the problem is acted on during the first year of training. Faculty members without defined educational roles were the most frequent first identifiers. Program directors were the most common remediators. The most common remediation techniques were increasing supervision and assigning a faculty mentor. Graduate medical education office and psychiatric or psychological counseling services were most often used. Eleven percent of problem residents required a program for impaired physicians and 14% required a leave of absence. Sixteen percent were dismissed from their programs. The prevalence of problem residents in neurology is similar to other disciplines, and various resources are available to remediate them.

  1. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), conducted September 14 through 25, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Fermilab. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Fermilab, and interviews with site personnel. 110 refs., 26 figs., 41 tabs

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), conducted September 14 through 25, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Fermilab. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Fermilab, and interviews with site personnel. 110 refs., 26 figs., 41 tabs.

  3. Vertigo and stroke: a national database survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huon, Leh-Kiong; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Fang, Te-Yung; Chuang, Li-Ju; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the association between vertigo and stroke in Taiwan using the Bureau of National Health Insurance research database. Information on adult patients with an index vertigo attack in 2006 was retrieved from Bureau of National Health Insurance research database. All patients with specific diagnostic codes for vertigo were included. Occurrence of stroke during a 1-year follow-up period was identified. Risk factors for stroke were examined. Using χ test, t test, and a multilevel logistic regression model, patients with vertigo were categorized into stroke and nonstroke groups for comparative analyses. An age- and sex- matched control cohort was prepared for comparison. Patients with vertigo (n = 527,807) (mean age, 55.1 yr) accounted for 3.1% of the general Taiwanese adult population. The prevalence of stroke among vertigo patients of 0.5% (mean age, 67.8 yr) was slightly higher than that of the control group (0.3%; mean age, 72.3 yr; p vertigo had higher prevalence of comorbid conditions (p diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, or atrial fibrillation had a higher prevalence of stroke (p vertigo had higher chance to develop stroke than the control group. Some strokes may initially manifest as peripheral vertigo, and some central vertigo may eventually evolve into a stroke. Middle aged male, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and atrial fibrillation are risk factors for subsequent stroke in vertigo patients.

  4. Race and fall risk: data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel Q; Huang, Jin; Varadhan, Ravi; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    the objective of this study was to explore whether race-based difference in fall risk may be mediated by environmental and physical performance risk factors. using data from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of 7,609 community-dwelling participants in the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), we evaluated whether racial differences in fall risk may be explained by physical performance level (measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery), mobility disability, physical activity level and likelihood of living alone. Multivariate Poisson regression and mediation models were used in analyses. in whites and blacks, the annual incidence of 'any fall' was 33.8 and 27.1%, respectively, and the annual incidence of 'recurrent falls' was 15.5 and 12.3%, respectively. Compared with whites, blacks had relative risks of 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6-0.8) and 0.6 (0.5-0.8) for sustaining any fall and recurrent falls, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Blacks had poorer performance on the SPPB (P risk factors collectively acted as suppressors and none of these factors accounted for the racial differences in fall risk observed. relative to whites, blacks were at 30 and 40% decreased risk of sustaining any fall and recurrent falls, respectively. This difference in risk remains unexplained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. National trends in prayer use as a coping mechanism for depression: changes from 2002 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholtz, Amy B; Sambamthoori, Usha

    2013-12-01

    To analyze national trends in the use of prayer among individuals with depression, we adopted a cross-sectional design with data from the adult Alternative Medicine supplement of the National Health Interview Survey 2002 and 2007. Prayer use and depression were combined into 4 categories: (a) prayed in the past 12 months and depressed; (b) prayed in the past 12 months and not depressed; (c) never prayed but depressed; and (d) never prayed and not depressed. Chi-square tests and multinomial logistic regressions were performed to analyze group differences. All analyses were adjusted for the complex sample design and conducted in SAS-callable SUDAAN. Use of prayer for depression was steady at 6.9 % across time; however, general prayer increased significantly between 2002 and 2007 (40.2 vs. 45.7). Women, aged 50-64, unmarried, with high school education were more likely to use prayer while depressed compared to those who were neither depressed nor prayed. Lifestyle behaviors (e.g. alcohol, smoking, exercise) were also associated with prayer use and depression. Prayer use for depression remained steady with unique relationships occurring among those who smoke, use alcohol, and have irregular exercise. Individuals' use of prayer as a potential complementary treatment for depression suggests that it is critical for mental and physical health treatment providers to be aware of the use of prayer as a coping resource.

  6. Secondary Data Analysis of National Surveys in Japan Toward Improving Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu

    2016-01-01

    Secondary data analysis of national health surveys of the general population is a standard methodology for health metrics and evaluation; it is used to monitor trends in population health over time and benchmark the performance of health systems. In Japan, the government has established electronic databases of individual records from national surveys of the population’s health. However, the number of publications based on these datasets is small considering the scale and coverage of the surveys. There appear to be two major obstacles to the secondary use of Japanese national health survey data: strict data access control under the Statistics Act and an inadequate interdisciplinary research environment for resolving methodological difficulties encountered when dealing with secondary data. The usefulness of secondary analysis of survey data is evident with examples from the author’s previous studies based on vital records and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, which showed that (i) tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases in Japan; (ii) the decrease in mean blood pressure in Japan from the late 1980s to the early 2000s was partly attributable to the increased use of antihypertensive medication and reduced dietary salt intake; and (iii) progress in treatment coverage and control of high blood pressure is slower in Japan than in the United States and Britain. National health surveys in Japan are an invaluable asset, and findings from secondary analyses of these surveys would provide important suggestions for improving health in people around the world. PMID:26902170

  7. Correlation between national influenza surveillance data and google trends in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungjin; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Jo, Min Woo; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jae Ho; Ryoo, Seoung Mok; Kim, Won Young; Seo, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    In South Korea, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using internet search data, including Google Flu Trends. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between national influenza surveillance data and Google Trends in South Korea. Our study was based on a publicly available search engine database, Google Trends, using 12 influenza-related queries, from September 9, 2007 to September 8, 2012. National surveillance data were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) influenza-like illness (ILI) and virologic surveillance system. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the national surveillance and the Google Trends data for the overall period and for 5 influenza seasons. The correlation coefficient between the KCDC ILI and virologic surveillance data was 0.72 (pcorrelation was between the Google Trends query of H1N1 and the ILI data, with a correlation coefficient of 0.53 (pcorrelation with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 (pcorrelation coefficient compared with ILI data for three consecutive seasons: Tamiflu (r = 0.59, 0.86, 0.90, pcorrelated with national surveillance data in South Korea. The results of this study showed that Google Trends in the Korean language can be used as complementary data for influenza surveillance but was insufficient for the use of predictive models, such as Google Flu Trends.

  8. Ophthalmology resident surgical competency: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binenbaum, Gil; Volpe, Nicholas J

    2006-07-01

    To describe the prevalence, management, and career outcomes of ophthalmology residents who struggle with surgical competency and to explore related educational issues. Fourteen-question written survey. Fifty-eight program directors at Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education-accredited, United States ophthalmology residency programs, representing a total of 2179 resident graduates, between 1991 and 2000. Study participants completed a mailed, anonymous survey whose format combined multiple choice and free comment questions. Number of surgically challenged residents, types of problems identified, types of remediation, final departmental decision at the end of residency, known career outcomes, and residency program use of microsurgical skills laboratories and applicant screening tests. One hundred ninety-nine residents (9% overall; 10% mean per program) were labeled as having trouble mastering surgical skills. All of the programs except 2 had encountered such residents. The most frequently cited problems were poor hand-eye coordination (24%) and poor intraoperative judgment (22%). Most programs were supportive and used educational rather than punitive measures, the most common being extra practice-laboratory time (32%), scheduling cases with the best teaching surgeon (23%), and counseling (21%). Nearly one third (31%) of residents were believed to have overcome their difficulties before graduation. Other residents were encouraged to pursue medical ophthalmology (22%) or to obtain further surgical training through a fellowship (21%) or a supervised practice setting (12%); these residents were granted a departmental statement of satisfactory completion of residency for Board eligibility. Twelve percent were asked to leave residency. Of reported career outcomes, 92% of residents were practicing ophthalmology, 65% as surgical and 27% as medical ophthalmologists. Ninety-eight percent of residency programs had microsurgical practice facilities, 64% had a formal

  9. Trends in performance of the National Measles Case-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Since adoption of the measles case-based surveillance system in Zimbabwe in 1998, data has been routinely collected at all levels of the health delivery system and sent to national level with little or no documented evidence of use to identify risky populations, monitor impact of interventions and measure ...

  10. Degree Production and Cost Trends: A National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Higher Education Executive Officers, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The international imperative for postsecondary education is growing, and the push for state and national action is acute. To remain globally competitive, the United States must expedite efforts to further develop a well educated citizenry. Each state faces its own set of demographic and economic challenges. States and institutions operate in…

  11. Young adult smoking behavior: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

  12. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) conducted April 6 through 17, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with BNL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at BNL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the BNL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the BNL Survey. 80 refs., 24 figs., 48 tabs.

  14. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) conducted April 6 through 17, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with BNL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at BNL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the BNL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the BNL Survey. 80 refs., 24 figs., 48 tabs

  15. How doctors view and use social media: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James; Ryan, Christopher; Harris, Anthony

    2014-12-02

    Doctors are uncertain of their ethical and legal obligations when communicating with patients online. Professional guidelines for patient-doctor interaction online have been written with limited quantitative data about doctors' current usage and attitudes toward the medium. Further research into these trends will help to inform more focused policy and guidelines for doctors communicating with patients online. The intent of the study was to provide the first national profile of Australian doctors' attitudes toward and use of online social media. The study involved a quantitative, cross-sectional online survey of Australian doctors using a random sample from a large representative database. Of the 1500 doctors approached, 187 participated (12.47%). Most participants used social media privately, with only one-quarter not using any social media websites at all (48/187, 25.7%). One in five participants (30/155, 19.4%) had received a "friend request" from a patient. There was limited use of online communication in clinical practice: only 30.5% (57/187) had communicated with a patient through email and fewer than half (89/185, 48.1%) could offer their patients electronic forms of information if that were the patients' preference. Three in five participants (110/181, 60.8%) reported not being uncomfortable about interacting with patients who had accessed personal information about them online, prior to the consultation. Most of the participants (119/181, 65.8%) were hesitant to immerse themselves more fully in social media and online communication due to worries about public access and legal concerns. Doctors have different practices and views regarding whether or how to communicate appropriately with patients on the Internet, despite online and social media becoming an increasingly common feature of clinical practice. Additional training would assist doctors in protecting their personal information online, integrating online communication in patient care, and guidance on

  16. Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Shuper, Paul A; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that adult per-capita alcohol consumption, as estimated from self-reports of nationally representative surveys, underestimates 'true' consumption, as measured as the sum of recorded and unrecorded consumption. The proportion of total adult alcohol per capita reported in representative surveys is usually labelled 'coverage'. The aim of the present paper was to estimate coverage for South Africa under different scenarios of alcohol use assessment and 'true' consumption. Five nationally representative surveys from South Africa were used to estimate the prevalence of drinking and the grams per day among current drinkers. All surveys used a complex multi-stage sampling frame that was accounted for by using survey weights. The total (recorded and unrecorded), the recorded and the adjusted total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa served as different estimates of the 'true' consumption. South Africa. Alcohol use information was assessed on a total of 8115, 16 398 and 13 181 adults (15 years or older) in surveys from the years 2003, 2005 and 2008, respectively. Two surveys in 2012 included 27 070 and 18 688 adults. Coverage of the alcohol use reported in the surveys was calculated, compared with the 'true' adult per-capita alcohol. The survey data covered between 11.8% [2005; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) = 9.3-16.2%)] and 19.4% (2003; 95% UI = 14.9-24.2%) of the total alcohol used per capita. The highest coverage of 27.9% (95% UI = 22.4-36.8%) was observed when looking only at recorded alcohol in 2003. Evidence from five nationally representative surveys assessing alcohol use suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Trends in violent crime: a comparison between police statistics and victimization surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittebrood, Karin; Junger, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    Usually, two measures are used to describetrends in violent crime: police statistics andvictimization surveys. Both are available inthe Netherlands. In this contribution, we willfirst provide a description of the trends inviolent crime. It appears that both types ofstatistics reflect a different

  18. Survey Exploring Views of Scientists on Current Trends in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakeros, Xenofon; Pavlatou, Evangelia A.; Spyrellis, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    A survey exploring the views of scientists, chemists and chemical engineers, on current trends in Chemistry Education was conducted in Greece. Their opinions were investigated using a questionnaire focusing on curricula (the content and process of chemistry teaching and learning), as well as on the respondents' general educational beliefs and…

  19. National Survey of Radionuclide Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A House

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was mailed to all institutions in Canada licensed to use radiopharmaceuticals. Questions addressed meal type; mode of preparation; and means, ranges and SD of emptying times. Seventy-eight per cent of 222 facilities responded, including all 55 teaching centres. Eighty-five per cent of teaching and 56% of nonteaching centres perform solid phase gastric emptying studies (GES. The majority use 99mTc sulphur colloid (Tc-SC added to eggs before cooking as the standard meal. Twenty-five per cent of teaching and 21% of nonteaching centres perform liquid phase GES. Most use a watery solution of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Gastric emptying for solid phase GES, expressed as time for 50% emptying (mean t½, varied from 42 to 105 mins for centres using the Tc-SC egg meal. Twenty-eight per cent of teaching centres used ±2 SD to define their normal range, 26% used ±1 SD, 6% used ±1.5 SD, and 40% did not know the number of SD used. Twenty per cent of non-teaching centres used ±2 SD, 12% used ±1 SD and 68% did not know how many SD were used. For liquid phase GES, mean t½ varied from 20 to 60 mins. Eighteen per cent of centres used healthy volunteers to establish or validate normal ranges. There is substantial variability among the normal ranges for radionuclide solid and liquid phase GES in both teaching and nonteaching centres across Canada. A minority of facilities have established or validated their own normal ranges in healthy volunteers. There is a need for a more standardized protocol and range of normal, with internal validation by each institution.

  20. Trending a New Normal: Is Nigeria becoming a failed Nation?

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2017-01-01

    Judging from every economic parameter, Nigeria will suggest being a failed nation. Not so long ago international investors identified Nigeria as one of the world’s most promising investment opportunities, but things have changed drastically in the meantime. The slump in the price of crude oil has hit Nigerian economy hard, the twin curses of insecurity and corruption have not gone away either. The Nigerian currency - naira has also lost its value by 170% from its value in 2015. The question m...

  1. Strategic Plan for the U.S. Geological Survey. Status and Trends of Biological Resources Program: 2004-2009

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dresler, Paul V; James, Daniel L; Geissler, Paul H; Bartish, Timothy M; Coyle, James

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the USGS Status and Trends of Biological Resources Program is to measure, predict, assess, and report the status and trends of the Nation's biological resources to facilitate research...

  2. National Postsecondary Enrollment Trends: Before, during, and after the Great Recession. Signature[TM] Report 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Afet; Hossler, Don; Shapiro, Doug; Chen, Jin; Martin, Sarah; Torres, Vasti; Zerquera, Desiree; Ziskin, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This report, "National Postsecondary Enrollment Trends: Before, During, and After the Great Recession," brings to light emerging national and regional patterns among traditional-age, first-time students enrolling in colleges and universities during the fall term each year from 2006 through 2010--before, during, and after the recession.…

  3. Recent Trends in Diabetes Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors: Implications for National Diabetes Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinino, Linda; Griffey, Susan; Gallivan, Joanne; Lotenberg, Lynne Doner; Tuncer, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Examine trends in diabetes-related knowledge, perceptions, and behavior among U.S. adults with and without a diagnosis of diabetes and among subpopulations at risk. Discuss implications for national diabetes education and for the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) in particular. Methods: Three population-based NDEP National…

  4. A quality-assurance assessment for constituents reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and the National Trends Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, R.B.; Schroder, L.J.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    A continuing quality-assurance program has been operated by the U.S. Geographical Survey to evaluate any bias introduced by routine handling, shipping, and laboratory analyses of wet-deposition samples collected in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and National Trends Network (NTN). Blind-audit samples having a variety of constituent concentrations and values were selected. Only blind-audit samples with constituent concentrations and values less than the 95th-percentile concentration for natural wet-deposition samples were included in the analysis. Of the major ions, there was a significant increase of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ SO42+ and Cl- in samples handled according to standard protocols and shipped in NADP/NTN sample-collection buckets. For 1979-1987, graphs of smoothed data showing the estimated contaminations in blind-audit samples indicate a decrease in the median concentration and ranges of Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- contamination of blind-audit samples shipped in sample-collection buckets. Part of the contamination detected in blind-audit samples can be attributed to contact with the sample-collection bucket and lid; however, additional sources also seem to contaminate the blind-audit sample. Apparent decreases in the magnitude and range of sample contamination may be caused by differences in sample-collection bucket- and lid-washing procedures by the NADP/NTN Central Analytical Laboratory. Although the degree of bias is minimal for most constituents, summaries of the NADP/NTN data base may contain overestimates of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na-, K+, SO42- and Cl- concentrations, and underestimates of H+ concentrations.

  5. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the Department of Energy (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), conducted December 1 through 19, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with LLNL. The Survey covers all environmental media all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at LLNL, and interviews with site personnel. A Sampling and Analysis Plan was developed to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during performance of on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the LLNL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LLNL Survey. 70 refs., 58 figs., 52 tabs.,

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories Livermore (SNLL), located at Livermore, California. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The SNLL Survey is a portion of the larger, comprehensive DOE Environmental Survey encompassing all major operating facilities of DOE. The DOE Environmental Survey is one of a series of initiatives announced on September 18, 1985, by Secretary of Energy, John S. Herrington, to strengthen the environmental, safety, and health programs and activities within DOE. The purpose of the Environmental Survey is to identify, via a ''no fault'' baseline Survey of all the Department's major operating facilities, environmental problems and areas of environmental risk. The identified problem areas will be prioritized on a Department-wide basis in order of importance in 1989. The findings in this report are subject to modification based on the results from the Sampling and Analysis Phase of the Survey. The findings are also subject to modification based on comments from the Albuquerque Operations Office concerning the technical accuracy of the findings. The modified preliminary findings and any other appropriate changes will be incorporated into an Interim Report. The Interim Report will serve as the site-specific source for environmental information generated by the Survey, and ultimately as the primary source of information for the DOE-wide prioritization of environmental problems in the Survey Summary Report. 43 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs

  7. National Survey of the Education of Teachers. Bulletin, 1933, No. 10. Volume V: Special Survey Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Benjamin W.; Betts, Gilbert L.; Greenleaf, Walter J.; Waples, Douglas; Dearborn, Ned H.; Carney, Mabel; Alexander, Thomas

    1935-01-01

    The Seventy-first Congress authorized a survey of the education of teachers on a Nation-wide scope, conducted during the last 3 years. After the work of the survey was organized it was apparent that only a limited number of studies could be undertaken with the time and funds available. It was decided, therefore, to cooperate whenever possible with…

  8. Trending a New Normal: Is Nigeria becoming a failed Nation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Judging from every economic parameter, Nigeria will suggest being a failed nation. Not so long ago international investors identified Nigeria as one of the world’s most promising investment opportunities, but things have changed drastically in the meantime. The slump in the price of crude oil has hit Nigerian economy hard, the twin curses of insecurity and corruption have not gone away either. The Nigerian currency - naira has also lost its value by 170% from its value in 2015. The question most analysts and citizens are now asking is if Nigeria will ever fulfil its potential. This study empirically analyses the current economic situation of Nigeria, and gives recommendations on what government should do in getting the country out of recession.

  9. Trends in Healthcare Expenditures Among US Adults With Hypertension: National Estimates, 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Elizabeth B; Heincelman, Marc; Bishu, Kinfe G; Schumann, Samuel O; Schreiner, Andrew; Axon, R Neal; Mauldin, Patrick D; Moran, William P

    2018-05-30

    One in 3 US adults has high blood pressure, or hypertension. As prior projections suggest hypertension is the costliest of all cardiovascular diseases, it is important to define the current state of healthcare expenditures related to hypertension. We used a nationally representative database, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, to calculate the estimated annual healthcare expenditure for patients with hypertension and to measure trends in expenditure longitudinally over a 12-year period. A 2-part model was used to estimate adjusted incremental expenditures for individuals with hypertension versus those without hypertension. Sex, race/ethnicity, education, insurance status, census region, income, marital status, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and year category were included as covariates. The 2003-2014 pooled data include a total sample of 224 920 adults, of whom 36.9% had hypertension. Unadjusted mean annual medical expenditure attributable to patients with hypertension was $9089. Relative to individuals without hypertension, individuals with hypertension had $1920 higher annual adjusted incremental expenditure, 2.5 times the inpatient cost, almost double the outpatient cost, and nearly triple the prescription medication expenditure. Based on the prevalence of hypertension in the United States, the estimated adjusted annual incremental cost is $131 billion per year higher for the hypertensive adult population compared with the nonhypertensive population. Individuals with hypertension are estimated to face nearly $2000 higher annual healthcare expenditure compared with their nonhypertensive peers. This trend has been relatively stable over 12 years. Healthcare costs associated with hypertension account for about $131 billion. This warrants intense effort toward hypertension prevention and management. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Lakes – National Lake Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  11. The quality of sample surveys in a developing nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Neva South-Bourne4, Chloe Morris1, Denise Eldemire-Shearer1, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell51Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York, USA; 4Research assistant for Paul A Bourne; 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, JamaicaBackground: In Jamaica, population census began in 1844, and many intercensal ratios obtained from the census data showed that there is a general high degree of accuracy of the data. However, statistics from the Jamaican Ministry of Health showed that there are inaccuracies in health data collected from males using sample surveys.Objectives: The objectives of the present research are to 1 investigate the accuracy of a national sample survey, 2 explore the feasibility and quality of using a subnational sample survey to represent a national survey, 3 aid other scholars in understanding the probability of using national sample surveys and subnational sample surveys, 4 assess older men’s ­evaluation of their health status, and 5 determine whether dichotomization changes self-evaluated health status.Methods: For the current study, the data used in the analysis were originally collected from 2 different sources: 1 the Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC and 2 Survey of Older Men (SOM. Cross validation of self-evaluated data of men in Jamaica was done with comparable samples of the complete JSLC data and the SOM data, where men older than 55 years were selected from each sample.Results: In study 1, 50.2% of respondents indicated at least good self-evaluated health status compared with 74.0% in study 2. Statistical associations were found between health status and survey sample (Χ2 [df = 5

  12. How Doctors View and Use Social Media: A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, James; Ryan, Christopher; Harris, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors are uncertain of their ethical and legal obligations when communicating with patients online. Professional guidelines for patient-doctor interaction online have been written with limited quantitative data about doctors’ current usage and attitudes toward the medium. Further research into these trends will help to inform more focused policy and guidelines for doctors communicating with patients online. Objective The intent of the study was to provide the first national profi...

  13. Junior Radiologists' Forum (JRF): National trainee survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, S.; Beatie, A.; Pettet, G.; Kharay, A.; Hedayati, V.; Hameed, S.; McCleery, M.A.; Papadakos, N.; Chari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To gather information in order to highlight areas within training that could be improved and share ideas of good practice and, in addition, to compare national results with those of local training schemes. Materials and methods: A request to participate in the survey was emailed to 1158 radiology trainees across 36 UK training schemes in October 2012. The electronic replies were anonymous. The survey remained active for 6 weeks. The data were collated and analysed by members of the JRF. The survey itself was divided into seven sections, covering a diverse range of topics. Results: Six hundred and four trainees from 36 UK training schemes completed the survey, resulting in a response rate of 52%. - Highlights: • First Radiology specific national survey, written by trainees. • Training schemes can benchmark their performance against a national average. • Also can share areas of good practice; and highlight those that need improvement. • Summary of the results, highlighting the most pertinent findings from each section

  14. A National Survey of Female Counselors: Psychological and Behavioral Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Richard W.; And Others

    A national sample of female counselors (N=377) was surveyed regarding their psychological health and distress, work pressure and support, personal history (including erotic sexual contact with clients), personal traits, burnout and stress, personal work satisfaction, and professional concerns. Results revealed a wide variety of endorsed concerns.…

  15. Life and Work Values of Counselor Trainees: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busacca, Louis A.; Beebe, Ronald S.; Toman, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    This national web-based study used the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1994) and Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised (Zytowski, n.d.) to identify general life and work value orientations of 674 female and male entry-level counselor trainees residing in 27 states. In general, trainees emphasized benevolence, self-direction, and achievement and…

  16. Employment prospects and trends for gastroenterology trainees in Canada: A nationwide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razik, Roshan; Cino, Maria; Nguyen, Geoffrey C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many gastroenterology (GI) trainees face a variety of barriers to stable employment and are finding it increasingly difficult to secure employment in their chosen field. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate factors that contribute to the burden of unemployment and underemployment, and to examine solutions that may remedy this growing problem in the field of GI. METHODS: A nationwide survey of current, incoming and recently graduated individuals of GI training programs in Canada was conducted. Trainees in pediatric GI programs and those enrolled in sub-specialty programs within GI were also included. RESULTS: The response rate was 62%, with 93% of respondents enrolled in an adult GI training program. Many (73%) respondents planned to pursue further subspecialty training and the majority (53%) reported concerns regarding job security after graduation as contributory factors. Only 35% of respondents were confident that they would secure employment within six months of completing their training. Regarding barriers to employment, the most cited perceived reasons were lack of funding (both from hospitals and provincial governments) and senior physicians who continue to practice beyond retirement years. Sixty-nine per cent perceived a greater need for career guidance and 49% believed there were too many GI trainees relative to the current job market in their area. Most residents had a contingency plan if they remained unemployed >18 months, which often included moving to another province or to the United States. CONCLUSION: GI trainees throughout Canada reported substantial concerns about securing employment, citing national retirement trends and lack of funding as primary barriers to employment. Although these issues are not easily modifiable, certain problems should be targeted including optimizing training quotas, tailoring career guidance to the needs of the population, and emphasizing credentialing and quality control in endoscopy. PMID:24199210

  17. Employment prospects and trends for gastroenterology trainees in Canada: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razik, Roshan; Cino, Maria; Nguyen, Geoffrey C

    2013-11-01

    Many gastroenterology (GI) trainees face a variety of barriers to stable employment and are finding it increasingly difficult to secure employment in their chosen field. To elucidate factors that contribute to the burden of unemployment and underemployment, and to examine solutions that may remedy this growing problem in the field of GI. A nationwide survey of current, incoming and recently graduated individuals of GI training programs in Canada was conducted. Trainees in pediatric GI programs and those enrolled in subspecialty programs within GI were also included. The response rate was 62%, with 93% of respondents enrolled in an adult GI training program. Many (73%) respondents planned to pursue further subspecialty training and the majority (53%) reported concerns regarding job security after graduation as contributory factors. Only 35% of respondents were confident that they would secure employment within six months of completing their training. Regarding barriers to employment, the most cited perceived reasons were lack of funding (both from hospitals and provincial governments) and senior physicians who continue to practice beyond retirement years. Sixty-nine per cent perceived a greater need for career guidance and 49% believed there were too many GI trainees relative to the current job market in their area. Most residents had a contingency plan if they remained unemployed >18 months, which often included moving to another province or to the United States. GI trainees throughout Canada reported substantial concerns about securing employment, citing national retirement trends and lack of funding as primary barriers to employment. Although these issues are not easily modifiable, certain problems should be targeted including optimizing training quotas, tailoring career guidance to the needs of the population, and emphasizing credentialing and quality control in endoscopy.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  19. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no in...

  20. 2012 national survey on bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior : traffic tech : technology transfer series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In 2012, NHTSA conducted a national telephone survey to obtain a status report on attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to outdoor walking and bicycling. This study updates national telephone survey data collected by NHTSA in 2002. The survey ad...

  1. The UK National Prolapse Survey: 10 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Swati; Cutner, Alfred; Moran, Paul

    2018-06-01

    To assess trends in the surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) amongst UK practitioners and changes in practice since a previous similar survey. An online questionnaire survey (Typeform Pro) was emailed to British Society of Urogynaecology (BSUG) members. They included urogynaecologists working in tertiary centres, gynaecologists with a designated special interest in urogynaecology and general gynaecologists. The questionnaire included case scenarios encompassing contentious issues in the surgical management of POP and was a revised version of the questionnaire used in the previous surveys. The revised questionnaire included additional questions relating to the use of vaginal mesh and laparoscopic urogynaecology procedures. Of 516 BSUG members emailed, 212 provided completed responses.. For anterior vaginal wall prolapse the procedure of choice was anterior colporrhaphy (92% of respondents). For uterovaginal prolapse the procedure of choice was still vaginal hysterectomy and repair (75%). For posterior vaginal wall prolapse the procedure of choice was posterior colporrhaphy with midline fascial plication (97%). For vault prolapse the procedure of choice was sacrocolpopexy (54%) followed by vaginal wall repair and sacrospinous fixation (41%). The laparoscopic route was preferred for sacrocolpopexy (62% versus 38% for the open procedure). For primary prolapse, vaginal mesh was used by only 1% of respondents in the anterior compartment and by 3% in the posterior compartment. Basic trends in the use of native tissue prolapse surgery remain unchanged. There has been a significant decrease in the use of vaginal mesh for both primary and recurrent prolapse, with increasing use of laparoscopic procedures for prolapse.

  2. Precipitation collector bias and its effects on temporal trends and spatial variability in National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Precipitation samples have been collected by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's (NADP) National Trends Network (NTN) using the Aerochem Metrics Model 301 (ACM) collector since 1978. Approximately one-third of the NTN ACM collectors have been replaced with N-CON Systems, Inc. Model ADS 00-120 (NCON) collectors. Concurrent data were collected over 6 years at 12 NTN sites using colocated ACM and NCON collectors in various precipitation regimes. Linear regression models of the colocated data were used to adjust for relative bias between the collectors. Replacement of ACM collectors with NCON collectors resulted in shifts in 10-year seasonal precipitation-weighted mean concentration (PWMC) trend slopes for: cations (−0.001 to −0.007 mgL−1yr−1), anions (−0.009 to −0.028 mgL−1yr−1), and hydrogen ion (+0.689 meqL-1yr−1). Larger shifts in NO3− and SO4−2 seasonal PWMC trend slopes were observed in the Midwest and Northeast US, where concentrations are generally higher than in other regions. Geospatial analysis of interpolated concentration rasters indicated regions of accentuated variability introduced by incorporation of NCON collectors into the NTN.

  3. Interview Survey Results and Analysis on New Trends in Open Innovation in Large Japanese Corporations (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki; UEDA Yoji; MINO Motoyasu

    2012-01-01

    Japanese firms, having to face global innovation competition and business reorganization targeting emerging markets in the world, are actively engaged in open innovation. In this paper, an interview survey conducted on nine large Japanese manufacturers provides the new trends in open and global innovation. They include (1) establishment of a dedicated function of open innovation, (2) open approach for the whole process of new business development, (3) strategic alliance activities, (4) collab...

  4. Water-quality characteristics and trends for selected sites at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 1949-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Davis, Linda C.; Fisher, Jason C.; Tucker, Betty J.; Raben, Flint A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, analyzed water-quality data collected from 67 aquifer wells and 7 surface-water sites at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from 1949 through 2009. The data analyzed included major cations, anions, nutrients, trace elements, and total organic carbon. The analyses were performed to examine water-quality trends that might inform future management decisions about the number of wells to sample at the INL and the type of constituents to monitor. Water-quality trends were determined using (1) the nonparametric Kendall's tau correlation coefficient, p-value, Theil-Sen slope estimator, and summary statistics for uncensored data; and (2) the Kaplan-Meier method for calculating summary statistics, Kendall's tau correlation coefficient, p-value, and Akritas-Theil-Sen slope estimator for robust linear regression for censored data. Statistical analyses for chloride concentrations indicate that groundwater influenced by Big Lost River seepage has decreasing chloride trends or, in some cases, has variable chloride concentration changes that correlate with above-average and below-average periods of recharge. Analyses of trends for chloride in water samples from four sites located along the Big Lost River indicate a decreasing trend or no trend for chloride, and chloride concentrations generally are much lower at these four sites than those in the aquifer. Above-average and below-average periods of recharge also affect concentration trends for sodium, sulfate, nitrate, and a few trace elements in several wells. Analyses of trends for constituents in water from several of the wells that is mostly regionally derived groundwater generally indicate increasing trends for chloride, sodium, sulfate, and nitrate concentrations. These increases are attributed to agricultural or other anthropogenic influences on the aquifer upgradient of the INL. Statistical trends of chemical constituents from several wells near

  5. 2007 national roadside survey of alcohol and drug use by drivers : drug results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report presents the first national prevalence estimates for drug-involved driving derived from the recently : completed 2007 National Roadside Survey (NRS). The NRS is a national field survey of alcohol- and drug-involved : driving conducted pri...

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories Livermore (SNLL), located at Livermore, California. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The SNLL Survey is a portion of the larger, comprehensive DOE Environmental Survey encompassing all major operating facilities of DOE. The DOE Environmental Survey is one of a series of initiatives announced on September 18, 1985, by Secretary of Energy, John S. Herrington, to strengthen the environmental, safety, and health programs and activities within DOE. The purpose of the Environmental Survey is to identify, via a no fault'' baseline Survey of all the Department's major operating facilities, environmental problems and areas of environmental risk. The identified problem areas will be prioritized on a Department-wide basis in order of importance in 1989. The findings in this report are subject to modification based on the results from the Sampling and Analysis Phase of the Survey. The findings are also subject to modification based on comments from the Albuquerque Operations Office concerning the technical accuracy of the findings. The modified preliminary findings and any other appropriate changes will be incorporated into an Interim Report. The Interim Report will serve as the site-specific source for environmental information generated by the Survey, and ultimately as the primary source of information for the DOE-wide prioritization of environmental problems in the Survey Summary Report. 43 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  8. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2016-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi- State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  9. [Key content and formulation of national Chinese materia medica resources survey at county level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hai-Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-08-01

    According to National Census for Water, National Population Census, National Land and Resources Survey, and work experience of experimental measures for national Chinese materia medica resources(CMMR) survey,the national CMMR survey at the county level is the key point of whole survey, that includes organization and management, field survey, sorting data three key links. Organization and management works of national CMMR survey needs to finish four key contents, there are definite goals and tasks, practicable crew, preparation directory, and security assurance. Field survey works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish five key contents, there are preparation works for field survey, the choice of the key survey area (samples), fill in the questionnaire, video data collection, specimen and other physical collection. Sorting data works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish tree key contents, there are data, specimen and census results.

  10. The National Map Customer Requirements: Findings from Interviews and Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Larry; Coray, Kevin E.; Poore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to receive customer feedback and to understand data and information requirements for The National Map. This report provides results and findings from interviews and surveys and will guide policy and operations decisions about data and information requirements leading to the development of a 5-year strategic plan for the National Geospatial Program. These findings are based on feedback from approximately 2,200 customers between February and August 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted more than 160 interviews with 200 individuals. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) and the International Map Trade Association (IMTA) surveyed their memberships and received feedback from over 400 members. The Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) received feedback from over 1,600 of its U.S.-based software users through an online survey sent to customers attending the ESRI International User Conference in the summer of 2008. The results of these surveys were shared with the USGS and have been included in this report.

  11. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  12. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  13. Examining National Trends in Educational Placements for Students with Significant Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morningstar, Mary E.; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Using the least restrictive environments (LRE) data from annual "Reports to Congress," this study examined national trends in placement between 2000 and 2014 for school-aged students considered to have significant disabilities from among the categories of autism (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), multiple disabilities (MD), and…

  14. The Redistribution of Responsibilities in Five European Educational Systems: From Global Trends to National Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Susana

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis on the evolution of the distribution of responsibilities--the authority of deciding over a particular domain--at the national, regional, and local levels in the European Union educational systems. After explaining common trends in the institutional arrangements through the role of evaluation, the…

  15. Proceedings of the national conference on recent trends in materials chemistry and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This national conference focuses on the latest trends in materials chemistry and engineering. Materials chemistry unites the diverse disciplines of science seamlessly and underlines the need for a collaborative research. In today's technologically advanced society, the need to extend the wealth of basic knowledge on materials to the solutions of engineering problems is great. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. [Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Martín; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio Méndez; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Gómez-Acosta, Luz María; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the inhabitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on overweight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  17. Breastfeeding Support in Neonatal Intensive Care: A National Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Bojesen, Susanne Nordby; Kronborg, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of breastfeeding of preterm infants is affected by the support provided at the hospital and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, policies and guidelines promoting breastfeeding vary both nationally and internationally. Objectives: The aim of this survey...... was to describe breastfeeding support in Danish NICUs, where approximately 98% of mothers initiate lactation. Methods: A national survey of all 19 Danish NICUs was conducted in 2009. Four NICUs were at designated Baby-Friendly hospitals, and 5 had a lactation consultant. In all NICUs, it was possible for some...... parents to stay overnight; 2 units had short restrictions on parents' presence. Five NICUs had integrated postpartum care for mothers. Breastfeeding policies, written guidelines, and systematic breastfeeding training for the staff were common in most NICUs. Seventeen NICUs recommended starting breast milk...

  18. Trends of VOC exposures among a nationally representative sample: Analysis of the NHANES 1988 through 2004 data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2011-09-01

    Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous due to emissions from personal, commercial and industrial products, but quantitative and representative information regarding long term exposure trends is lacking. This study characterizes trends from 1988 to 2004 for the 15 VOCs measured in blood in five cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a large and representative sample of U.S. adults. Trends were evaluated at various percentiles using linear quantile regression (QR) models, which were adjusted for solvent-related occupations and cotinine levels. Most VOCs showed decreasing trends at all quantiles, e.g., median exposures declined by 2.5 (m,p-xylene) to 6.4 (tetrachloroethene) percent per year over the 15 year period. Trends varied by VOC and quantile, and were grouped into three patterns: similar decreases at all quantiles (including benzene, toluene); most rapid decreases at upper quantiles (ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chloroform, tetrachloroethene); and fastest declines at central quantiles (1,4-dichlorobenzene). These patterns reflect changes in exposure sources, e.g., upper-percentile exposures may result mostly from occupational exposure, while lower percentile exposures arise from general environmental sources. Both VOC emissions aggregated at the national level and VOC concentrations measured in ambient air also have declined substantially over the study period and are supportive of the exposure trends, although the NHANES data suggest the importance of indoor sources and personal activities on VOC exposures. While piecewise QR models suggest that exposures of several VOCs decreased little or any during the 1990's, followed by more rapid decreases from 1999 to 2004, questions are raised concerning the reliability of VOC data in several of the NHANES cohorts and its applicability as an exposure indicator, as demonstrated by the modest correlation between VOC levels in blood and personal air

  19. Trends in injury morbidity in China, 1993-2013: A longitudinal analysis of population-based survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Peishan; Cai, Min; Cheng, Peixia; Zhang, Yaoguang; Schwebel, David C; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Xunjie; Gao, Yuyan; Ling, Xu; Hu, Guoqing

    2018-04-01

    Understanding long-term trends in injury morbidity is critical to prevention and intervention planning. The aim of this study was to assess long-term trends in injury morbidity rates in China from 1993 to 2013. Using data from the National Health Service Survey (NHSS), which is conducted every five years, crude and age-standardized prevalence during the previous two weeks and hospitalization rates in the last 12 months with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The Rao-Scott Chi-square test examined injury morbidity differences across the five survey years by location (urban/rural), sex, age group, and household income. Percent changes in morbidity rate were approximated using logistic regressions. Sampling weights were applied to all analyses. In 2013, crude two-week injury prevalence in China was 0.46% (95% CI: 0.40%, 0.52%) and 12-month crude hospitalization rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.63%, 0.77%). Age-standardized injury prevalence increased 31.4% (95% CI: 7.6%, 60.6%) between 1993 and 2013 (29.4%, 95% CI: 6.7%, 56.9% from 1993-2003; 1.6%, 95% CI: -14.8%, 21.0% from 2003-2013), and age-standardized hospitalization rates rose 107.2% (95% CI: 75.1%, 145.2%) from 1993 to 2013 (-9.5%, 95% CI: -24.6%, 8.6% from 1993-2003 and 129.0%, 95% CI: 93.9%, 170.4% from 2003-2013). Subgroup analyses showed similar trends over time. The leading cause of injury was dislocation, sprain or strain for prevalence, and fractures for hospitalization. In conclusion, injury morbidity increased substantially from 1993 to 2013 in China. Inconsistent changes in two-week prevalence and 12-month hospitalization rate merit attention from researchers and policy-makers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone scintigraphy in prostate cancer: a French national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneu, A.; Corone, C.; Giammarile, F.; Lumbroso, J.; Resche, I.

    1997-01-01

    A national survey has been performed in France concerning bone scan in prostatic carcinoma. Its aim was to define methods of performing examinations, criteria of analysis of imaging results and indications of radionuclide imaging in initial evaluation and post-therapeutic follow-up of the disease. Replies are given and recommendations are proposed in order to improve imaging quality, optimize interpretation and rationalize prescription of bone scintigraphy in case of prostatic carcinoma. (authors)

  1. A national survey of radiodiagnostic services in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaherrera S, P.; Echeverria T, F.; Buitron S, S.; Yela de Chacon, L.

    1979-11-01

    The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission elaborated a Radiation Protection Regulation for Ecuador. In order to implement it, a national survey of radiodiagnostic services was implemented with the following objectives: a) Statistics of Radiodiagnostic services related to geography and population ulation density, b) To establish general patterns for X-Ray control and calibration, c) Evaluation of the professional and technical work in this field. (Author)

  2. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydrolase (AHH) Data, 1988-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to determine the current status of and detect any long-term trends in the environmental quality of U.S. nearshore waters, NOAA initiated the National Status...

  3. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds (FAC) Data, 1984-1991, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends (NSandT) Benthic Surveillance Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds (FAC) file reports the trace concentrations of Fluorescent Aromatic...

  4. Public health financial management needs: report of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia F; Honoré, Peggy A; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The work reported here builds on the identification of public health financial management practice competencies by a national expert panel. The next logical step was to provide a validity check for the competencies and identify priority areas for educational programming. We developed a survey for local public health finance officers based on the public health finance competencies and field tested it with a convenience sample of officials. We asked respondents to indicate the importance of each competency area and the need for training to improve performance; we also requested information regarding respondent education, jurisdiction size, and additional comments. Our local agency survey sample drew on the respondent list from the National Association of County and City Health Officials 2005 local health department survey, stratified by agency size and limited to jurisdiction populations of 25,000 to 1,000,000. Identifying appropriate respondents was a major challenge. The survey was fielded electronically, yielding 112 responses from 30 states. The areas identified as most important and needing most additional training were knowledge of budget activities, financial data interpretation and communication, and ability to assess and correct the organization's financial status. The majority of respondents had some postbaccalaureate education. Many provided additional comments and recommendations. Health department finance officers demonstrated a high level of general agreement regarding the importance of finance competencies in public health and the need for training. The findings point to a critical need for additional training opportunities that are accessible, cost-effective, and targeted to individual needs.

  5. National trends in statin use by coronary heart disease risk category.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Only limited research tracks United States trends in the use of statins recorded during outpatient visits, particularly use by patients at moderate to high cardiovascular risk.Data collected between 1992 and 2002 in two federally administered surveys provided national estimates of statin use among ambulatory patients, stratified by coronary heart disease risk based on risk factor counting and clinical diagnoses. Statin use grew from 47% of all lipid-lowering medications in 1992 to 87% in 2002, with atorvastatin being the leading medication in 2002. Statin use by patients with hyperlipidemia, as recorded by the number of patient visits, increased significantly from 9% of patient visits in 1992 to 49% in 2000 but then declined to 36% in 2002. Absolute increases in the rate of statin use were greatest for high-risk patients, from 4% of patient visits in 1992 to 19% in 2002. Use among moderate-risk patients increased from 2% of patient visits in 1992 to 14% in 1999 but showed no continued growth subsequently. In 2002, 1 y after the release of the Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations, treatment gaps in statin use were detected for more than 50% of outpatient visits by moderate- and high-risk patients with reported hyperlipidemia. Lower statin use was independently associated with younger patient age, female gender, African American race (versus non-Hispanic white, and non-cardiologist care.Despite notable improvements in the past decade, clinical practice fails to institute recommended statin therapy during many ambulatory visits of patients at moderate-to-high cardiovascular risk. Innovative approaches are needed to promote appropriate, more aggressive statin use for eligible patients.

  6. Applying national survey results for strategic planning and program improvement: the National Diabetes Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Susan; Piccinino, Linda; Gallivan, Joanne; Lotenberg, Lynne Doner; Tuncer, Diane

    2015-02-01

    Since the 1970s, the federal government has spearheaded major national education programs to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the United States. These prevention and disease management programs communicate critical information to the public, those affected by the disease, and health care providers. The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), the leading federal program on diabetes sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), uses primary and secondary quantitative data and qualitative audience research to guide program planning and evaluation. Since 2006, the NDEP has filled the gaps in existing quantitative data sources by conducting its own population-based survey, the NDEP National Diabetes Survey (NNDS). The NNDS is conducted every 2–3 years and tracks changes in knowledge, attitudes and practice indicators in key target audiences. This article describes how the NDEP has used the NNDS as a key component of its evaluation framework and how it applies the survey results for strategic planning and program improvement. The NDEP's use of the NNDS illustrates how a program evaluation framework that includes periodic population-based surveys can serve as an evaluation model for similar national health education programs.

  7. National Differences in Trends for Heart Failure Hospitalizations by Sex and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeian, Boback; Kominski, Gerald F; Ong, Michael K; Mays, Vickie M; Brook, Robert H; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2017-07-01

    National heart failure (HF) hospitalization rates have not been appropriately age standardized by sex or race/ethnicity. Reporting hospital utilization trends by subgroup is important for monitoring population health and developing interventions to eliminate disparities. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to estimate the crude and age-standardized rates of HF hospitalization between 2002 and 2013 by sex and race/ethnicity. Direct standardization was used to age-standardize rates to the 2000 US standard population. Relative differences between subgroups were reported. The national age-adjusted HF hospitalization rate decreased 30.8% from 526.86 to 364.66 per 100 000 between 2002 and 2013. Although hospitalizations decreased for all subgroups, the ratio of the age-standardized rate for men compared with women increased from 20% greater to 39% ( P trend=0.002) between 2002 and 2013. Black men had a rate that was 229% ( P trend=0.141) and black women, 240% ( P trend=0.725) with reference to whites in 2013 with no significant change between 2002 and 2013. Hispanic men had a rate that was 32% greater in 2002 and the difference narrowed to 4% ( P trend=0.047) greater in 2013 relative to whites. For Hispanic women, the rate was 55% greater in 2002 and narrowed to 8% greater ( P trend=0.004) in 2013 relative to whites. Asian/Pacific Islander men had a 27% lower rate in 2002 that improved to 43% ( P trend=0.040) lower in 2013 relative to whites. For Asian/Pacific Islander women, the hospitalization rate was 24% lower in 2002 and improved to 43% ( P trend=0.021) lower in 2013 relative to whites. National HF hospitalization rates have decreased steadily during the recent decade. Disparities in HF burden and hospital utilization by sex and race/ethnicity persist. Significant population health interventions are needed to reduce the HF hospitalization burden among blacks. An evaluation of factors explaining the improvements in the HF hospitalization rates among

  8. New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okabe Nobuhiko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. Methods Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the databases of scientific literature, and English and non-English keywords directly linked to infectious disease control, we identified international and regional infectious disease journals. In order to ascertain whether the newly selected journals were appropriate to survey a wide range of research articles, we compared the number of original articles and reviews registered in the selected journals to those in the 'Infectious Disease Category' of the Science Citation Index Expanded™ (SCI Infectious Disease Category during 1998-2006. Subsequently, we applied the newly selected journals to survey the number of original articles and reviews originating from 11 Asian countries during the same period. Results One hundred journals, written in English or 7 non-English languages, were newly selected as infectious disease journals. The journals published 14,156 original articles and reviews of Asian origin and 118,158 throughout the world, more than those registered in the SCI Infectious Disease Category (4,621 of Asian origin and 66,518 of the world in the category. In Asian trend analysis of the 100 journals, Japan had the highest percentage of original articles and reviews in the area, and no noticeable increase in articles was revealed during the study period. China, India and Taiwan had relatively large numbers and a high increase rate of original articles among Asian countries. When adjusting the publication of original articles according to the country population and the gross domestic product (GDP, Singapore and

  9. Trends in Sexual Orientation Missing Data Over a Decade of the California Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Joseph; Grant, David; Cochran, Susan D.; Lee, Annie C.; Ponce, Ninez A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored changes in sexual orientation question item completion in a large statewide health survey. Methods. We used 2003 to 2011 California Health Interview Survey data to investigate sexual orientation item nonresponse and sexual minority self-identification trends in a cross-sectional sample representing the noninstitutionalized California household population aged 18 to 70 years (n = 182 812 adults). Results. Asians, Hispanics, limited-English-proficient respondents, and those interviewed in non-English languages showed the greatest declines in sexual orientation item nonresponse. Asian women, regardless of English-proficiency status, had the highest odds of item nonresponse. Spanish interviews produced more nonresponse than English interviews and Asian-language interviews produced less nonresponse when we controlled for demographic factors and survey cycle. Sexual minority self-identification increased in concert with the item nonresponse decline. Conclusions. Sexual orientation nonresponse declines and the increase in sexual minority identification suggest greater acceptability of sexual orientation assessment in surveys. Item nonresponse rate convergence among races/ethnicities, language proficiency groups, and interview languages shows that sexual orientation can be measured in surveys of diverse populations. PMID:25790399

  10. National surveys of radiofrequency field strengths from radio base stations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Ken H.; Van Wyk, Marthinus J.; Rowley, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analysed almost 260 000 measurement points from surveys of radiofrequency (RF) field strengths near radio base stations in seven African countries over two time frames from 2001 to 2003 and 2006 to 2012. The results of the national surveys were compared, chronological trends investigated and potential exposures compared by technology and with frequency modulation (FM) radio. The key findings from thes data are that irrespective of country, the year and mobile technology, RF fields at a ground level were only a small fraction of the international human RF exposure recommendations. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in typical measured levels since the introduction of 3G services. The mean levels in these African countries are similar to the reported levels for countries of Asia, Europe and North America using similar mobile technologies. The median level for the FM services in South Africa was comparable to the individual but generally lower than the combined mobile services. PMID:24044904

  11. National surveys of radiofrequency field strengths from radio base stations in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K. H.; Van Wyk, M. J.; Rowley, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analysed almost 260 000 measurement points from surveys of radiofrequency (RF) field strengths near radio base stations in seven African countries over two time frames from 2001 to 2003 and 2006 to 2012. The results of the national surveys were compared, chronological trends investigated and potential exposures compared by technology and with frequency modulation (FM) radio. The key findings from these data are that irrespective of country, the year and mobile technology, RF fields at a ground level were only a small fraction of the international human RF exposure recommendations. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in typical measured levels since the introduction of 3G services. The mean levels in these African countries are similar to the reported levels for countries of Asia, Europe and North America using similar mobile technologies. The median level for the FM services in South Africa was comparable to the individual but generally lower than the combined mobile services. (authors)

  12. Monitoring HIV Testing in the United States: Consequences of Methodology Changes to National Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Van Handel

    Full Text Available In 2011, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, an in-person household interview, revised the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV section of the survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, a telephone-based survey, added cellphone numbers to its sampling frame. We sought to determine how these changes might affect assessment of HIV testing trends.We used linear regression with pairwise contrasts with 2003-2013 data from NHIS and BRFSS to compare percentages of persons aged 18-64 years who reported HIV testing in landline versus cellphone-only households before and after 2011, when NHIS revised its in-person questionnaire and BRFSS added cellphone numbers to its telephone-based sample.In NHIS, the percentage of persons in cellphone-only households increased 13-fold from 2003 to 2013. The percentage ever tested for HIV was 6%-10% higher among persons in cellphone-only than landline households. The percentage ever tested for HIV increased significantly from 40.2% in 2003 to 45.0% in 2010, but was significantly lower in 2011 (40.6% and 2012 (39.7%. In BRFSS, the percentage ever tested decreased significantly from 45.9% in 2003 to 40.2% in 2010, but increased to 42.9% in 2011 and 43.5% in 2013.HIV testing estimates were lower after NHIS questionnaire changes but higher after BRFSS methodology changes. Data before and after 2011 are not comparable, complicating assessment of trends.

  13. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    This report presents a description of the status of photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the 20 participating countries of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. A survey of the status of PV power systems applications and markets in each country has been conducted every two years for the past six years and biennial reports published. The decision has now been taken to move to shorter annual reports and this is the first such report. This report presents an overview of PV power systems applications and markets at the end of 1998 and analyses the trends in PV power systems implemented between 1992 and 1998. (author)

  14. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This report presents a description of the status of photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the 20 participating countries of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. A survey of the status of PV power systems applications and markets in each country has been conducted every two years for the past six years and biennial reports published. The decision has now been taken to move to shorter annual reports and this is the first such report. This report presents an overview of PV power systems applications and markets at the end of 1998 and analyses the trends in PV power systems implemented between 1992 and 1998. (author)

  15. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Schizophrenia in China: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Su, Yun-Ai; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Shu, Liang; Yu, Xin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Seiner, Stephen J; Chiu, Helen F K; Ning, Yu-Ping; Wang, Gao-Hua; Zhang, Ke-Rang; Li, Tao; Sun, Li-Zhong; Shi, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xian-Sheng; Mei, Qi-Yi; Li, Ke-Qing; Si, Tian-Mei

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use in the treatment of schizophrenia in China. This study examined the frequency of ECT use, its trend between 2006 and 2012, and its independent demographic and clinical correlates in a nationwide survey in China. A total of 5162 inpatients in 45 Chinese psychiatric hospitals/centers were interviewed (2696 in 2006 and 2466 in 2012). Patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Electroconvulsive therapy was used in 6.1% of the whole sample; 4.7% in 2006 and 7.7% in 2012 (P Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia has increased between 2006 and 2012 in China. Its percentage was higher than the figures reported in most other countries. Reasons for the substantial variations in the frequency of ECT across different provinces in China require further investigations.

  16. A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare; Scherer, Christian; Rosenlund, Christina

    A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database......A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database...

  17. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chonde, Timothy M.; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M.; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G.; Egwaga, Saidi M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. METHODS:

  18. Survey of technological trends in functional membrane materials; Kinosei makuzai ni kansuru gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    Materials for membranes with novel functions are surveyed. The survey is focused on 10 subjects, which are high-performance RO (reverse osmosis)/UF (ultrafiltration) membranes; development of an energy-efficient secondary treatment system for urban wastewater using pollution-free membranes; high-performance ion exchange membranes; artificial lung membranes; hydrogen separation membranes (hydrogen as energy); development of an energy-efficient combustion system using gas separation membranes (oxygen-enriched membranes); organic matter separation membranes; enzyme-aided chemical reaction membranes and their application; development of a distilling ship; and functional membranes making use of photosynthesis. Discussed in this connection are the outlines of the technologies, the need of their development, methods and contents of the development efforts, and the effects and impacts of their development. The survey further concerns the particulars of the trends in novel technologies about functional membrane materials development, covering gas separation and liquid separation technologies; chemical reaction membranes; and enzyme-aided chemical reaction membranes and their application systems. As for their application, the survey covers the field of application of desalinated or ultrapure water; field of application of food fermentation technologies; industrial wastewater, valuable materials recovery, and urban wastewater treatment; and application to medical systems. (NEDO)

  19. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M Alisa

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970-2010 and 1990-2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO₂ emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed.

  20. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa

    2013-01-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970–2010 and 1990–2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO2 emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed.

  1. Radiotherapy for Graves' orbitopathy: results of a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyd, R.; Zamboglou, N.; Heinrich Seegenschmiedt, M.; Strassmann, G.; Micke, O.; Makoski, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is a widely accepted indication for radiation therapy (RT). In conjunction with the German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy for Benign Diseases (GCG-BD), a national survey was conducted in order to assess whether or not there is a consensus on the indication for RT and various treatment factors which were studied. Material and Methods: A questionnaire was circulated to 190 RT institutions to obtain relevant data concerning the patients' workload, stage-dependent indication, and diagnostic procedures, which were considered to be necessary. Further questions addressed details on radiation technique and dose-fractionation schedules, the combined use of corticoids, and salvage RT after previous treatment failure following RT. Results: With a response rate of 152/190 (80%), the survey is nationally representative. Based on the case workload, an estimated annual number of 1,600 GO cases are treated in German radiotherapy departments. With an 88% consensus, stages II-V are the typical indications. 85% considered imaging studies necessary for indication and only 48% for laboratory tests. 76% of the institutions used total doses in the range of 15-20 Gy, and conventional fractionation was most common (57%). 82% used a face mask fixation and 67% CT-based treatment planning. Approximately 50% would prescribe salvage RT, and total doses in the range of 20-40 Gy were considered to be acceptable. Conclusions: The survey revealed a consensus concerning most of the factors studied. We recommend to review the patterns of care for RT of other entities of benign diseases and to implement a quality assurance program both on national and international levels. (orig.)

  2. Anesthesia Practice and Clinical Trends in Interventional Radiology: A European Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslam, Philip J.; Yap, Bernard; Mueller, Peter R.; Lee, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine current European practice in interventional radiology regarding nursing care, anesthesia, and clinical care trends.Methods: A survey was sent to 977 European interventional radiologists to assess the use of sedoanalgesia, nursing care, monitoring equipment, pre- and postprocedural care, and clinical trends in interventional radiology. Patterns of sedoanalgesia were recorded for both vascular and visceral interventional procedures. Responders rated their preferred level of sedoanalgesia for each procedure as follows: (a) awake/alert, (b) drowsy/arousable, (c) asleep/arousable, (d) deep sedation, and (e) general anesthesia. Sedoanalgesic drugs and patient care trends were also recorded. A comparison was performed with data derived from a similar survey of interventional practice in the United States.Results: Two hundred and forty-three of 977 radiologists responded (25%). The total number of procedures analyzed was 210,194. The majority (56%) of diagnostic and therapeutic vascular procedures were performed at the awake/alert level of sedation, 32% were performed at the drowsy/arousable level, and 12% at deeper levels of sedation. The majority of visceral interventional procedures were performed at the drowsy/arousable level of sedation (41%), 29% were performed at deeper levels of sedation, and 30% at the awake/alert level. In general, more sedoanalgesia is used in the United States. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported the use of a full-time radiology nurse, 67% used routine blood pressure/pulse oximetry monitoring, and 46% reported the presence of a dedicated recovery area. Forty-nine percent reported daily patient rounds, 30% had inpatient hospital beds, and 51% had day case beds.Conclusion: This survey shows clear differences in the use of sedation for vascular and visceral interventional procedures. Many, often complex, procedures are performed at the awake/alert level of sedation in Europe, whereas deeper levels of sedation are

  3. National survey of indoor radon levels in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Katic, M.; Faj, Z.; Lukacevic, I.; Planinic, J.; Suveljak, B.; Faj, D.; Lukic, M.

    2006-01-01

    National survey of indoor radon was performed by a random sampling of thousand (782 realized) dwellings in Croatia. Radon concentrations were measured for one year with LR-115 SSNT detectors and arithmetic and geometric means of 68 and 50 Bq/m 3 were obtained, respectively. The arithmetic means of radon concentrations on 20 counties were from 33 to 198 Bq/m 3 . The percentage of dwellings with radon concentrations above 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 was 5.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The average annual effective dose of the indoor radon was estimated as 2.2 mSv. (author)

  4. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful.

  5. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Survey of recent trends in CFC phaseout measures overseas; 1994 nendo shogaikoku ni okeru freon taisaku saishin doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Technical literature is referred to for the survey of recent trends in CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) phaseout in various countries overseas. The European Union will totally abolish CFC by the end of 1994 while other developed countries will totally abolish the same by the end of 1995 in compliance with the Montreal protocol. Many of the developing countries are actively striving to reduce CFC use with the help of the Multilateral Fund of Montreal. China and India have production facilities in themselves, and have not announced a phaseout program. There is a proposition for accelerating the regulation of HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), but reliable substitutes for them are not yet available and their ozone layer restoring capability if used will be slight. It is feared that such will on the contrary retard CFC phaseout in developing countries. Accordingly, any abrupt acceleration of CFC phaseout implementation is inappropriate. Introduced in this report as fluorine-containing greenhouse gas-related information are a summary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the history of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change activities. According to an American survey, the aluminum industry emits 30,000 tons of CF{sub 4} and C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and the semiconductor manufacturing industry 2,000-3,000 tons. As for SF{sub 6}, 5,000-8,000 tons are emitted mainly by the power industry. Measures for inhibiting them are being taken. (NEDO)

  6. Conservation landmarks: bureau of biological survey and national biological service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1995-01-01

    A century separates the recent development of the National Biological Service (NBS) and an early predecessor, the Bureau of Biological Survey (BBS). Both organizations were established at critical crossroads for the conservation of the nation's living biological resources and are conservation landmarks of their times. The BBS of the 192()'s was described as 'a government Bureau of the first rank, handling affairs of great scientific, educational, social, and above all, economic importance throughout the United States and its outlying possessions'' (Cameron 1929:144-145). This stature was achieved at a time of great social, economic, and ecological change. BBS had the vision to pioneer new approaches that led to enhanced understanding of the relation between people, other living things, and the environment. The NBS faces similar challenges to address the issues of the 1990's and beyond.

  7. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.; O'Colmain, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 112 Bq/m 3 and 100 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  8. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cork and Kerry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the third phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Cork and Kerry. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 76 Bq/m 3 and 70 Bq/m 3 . The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  9. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in The Netherlands 2009. Task 1. Exchange and dissemination of information on PV power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of photovoltaic power systems. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual Trends in photovoltaic applications report. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. This document is the Dutch National Survey Report for the year 2009. Information from this document will be used as input to the annual Trends in photovoltaic applications report.

  10. Public Administration as an academic disicpline: Trends and changes in the COCOPS academic survey of European Public Administration scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); D.S.D. Curry; S. Gadellaa (Stefanie)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report summarises the finding from the COCOPS academic survey, a survey of public administration academics in European countries fielded in 2013. Respondents were asked to reflect on the state of the discipline and general trends within the discipline and in

  11. External quality-assurance results for the national atmospheric deposition program/national trends network, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Gordon, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Five external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2000 through 2001 (study period): the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the field-audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. Each program is designed to measure specific components of the total error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assesses the variability and bias of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators with respect to accuracy goals. The accuracy goals are statistically based using the median of all of the measurements obtained for each of four intersite-comparison studies. The percentage of site operators responding on time that met the pH accuracy goals ranged from 84.2 to 90.5 percent. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, 88.9 to 99.0 percent of the site operators met the accuracy goals for specific conductance. The blind-audit program evaluates the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly precipitation samples. The blind-audit data for the study period indicate that sample handling introduced a small amount of sulfate contamination and slight changes to hydrogen-ion content of the precipitation samples. The magnitudes of the paired differences are not environmentally significant to NADP/NTN data users. The field-audit program (also known as the 'field-blank program') was designed to measure the effects of field exposure, handling, and processing on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. The results indicate potential low-level contamination of NADP/NTN samples with calcium, ammonium, chloride, and nitrate. Less sodium contamination was detected by the field-audit data than in previous years. Statistical analysis of the paired differences shows that contaminant ions

  12. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2002 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lola J; Owings, Maria F; Hall, Margaret J

    2005-03-01

    This report presents 2002 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2002, data were collected for approximately 327,000 discharges. Of the 474 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 445 (94 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 33.7 million inpatients were discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals in 2002. They used 164.2 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.9 days. Common first-listed discharge diagnoses included delivery, ischemic heart disease, psychoses, pneumonia, and malignant neoplasms. Inpatients had 6.8 million cardiovascular procedures and 6.6 million obstetric procedures. Males had higher rates for cardiac procedures such as cardiac catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft, but males and females had similar rates of pacemaker procedures. The number and rate of all cesarean deliveries, primary and repeat, rose from 1995 to 2002; the rate of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery dropped from 35.5 in 1995 to 15.8 in 2002.

  13. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  14. Results of the 2015 National Certified Pharmacy Technician Workforce Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Holmes, Erin R

    2017-07-01

    The results of the 2015 National Certified Pharmacy Technician Workforce Survey are described. A survey was e-mailed to a randomized sample of 5,000 certified pharmacy technicians (CPhTs) throughout the United States, with response reminders employed. Survey items eliciting demographic and work characteristics and work life attitudes were generated from the literature and qualitative interviews. This study aimed to describe job satisfaction, sources of stress, profession and employer commitment, education and training, and reasons for entry into the profession among CPhTs and determine relationships between those variables and CPhTs' level of involvement in various work activities, with particular attention paid to differences in practice setting. Frequency statistics, correlation analysis, and means testing were used to meet study objectives and identify significant differences. A total of 516 CPhTs currently working as a pharmacy technician responded to the survey. The CPhTs reported high levels of involvement in more traditional activities but less involvement in those that involve greater cognitive load. Respondents reported moderate levels of job satisfaction and commitment and somewhat high levels of stress overall. Most CPhTs chose to be a pharmacy technician because they desired to enter a healthcare field and help people and were recruited. CPhTs derived benefit from all aspects of education and training evaluated and most from on-the-job training. Perceived value of education and training was associated with higher satisfaction and commitment and with lower stress. There were a number of differences in these work life attitudes across practice settings and by involvement in various job functions. The results of the survey indicated that job satisfaction and commitment were moderate and that stress levels were somewhat high among CPhTs. There were a number of differences in work life attitudes across practice settings and by involvement in various job

  15. National Survey of Veterans, Active Duty Service Members, Demobilized National Guard and Reserve Members, Family Members, and Surviving Spouses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2010 National Survey of Veterans (NSV) is the sixth in a series of comprehensive nationwide surveys designed to help the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) plan...

  16. National Trends in Hemoglobin Concentration and Prevalence of Anemia among Chinese School-Aged Children, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette

    2017-04-01

    To assess the trend of sex disparity in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia among Chinese school-aged children from 1995 to 2010. Data were collected from 360 866 children aged 7, 9, 12, 14, and 17 years during 4 cross-sectional surveys (1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of the Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health. Shifts in hemoglobin concentration distributions were compared by sex. Average shifts and sex differences were calculated with quantile regression models. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio of sex for prevalence of anemia in different surveys. The mean hemoglobin concentration increased among Chinese children between 1995 and 2010, from 132.7 to 138.3 g/L in boys, and from 127.7 to 132.3 g/L in girls. The prevalence of anemia decreased from 18.8% in 1995 to 9.9% in 2010. It was higher in rural than urban children among all age groups. The prevalence odds ratios of girls versus boys for anemia increased in both urban and rural areas over time. Hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia improved among Chinese school-aged children over time. Hemoglobin concentration improved faster in boys than girls and as a result the relative prevalence of anemia in girls compared with boys increased. Sex-specific preventive guidelines and public health policies for childhood anemia are needed in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in stunting and overweight in Peruvian pre-schoolers from 1991 to 2011: findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Valdivia, Martín

    2014-11-01

    To examine trends in stunting and overweight in Peruvian children, using 2006 WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study criteria. Trend analyses using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from Demographic and Health Surveys (1991-2011). We performed logistic regression analyses of stunting and overweight trends in sociodemographic groups (sex, age, urban-rural residence, region, maternal education and household wealth), adjusted for sampling design effects (strata, clusters and sampling weights). Peru. Children aged 0-59 months surveyed in 1991-92 (n 7999), 1996 (n 14 877), 2000 (n 11 754), 2007-08 (n 8232) and 2011 (n 8186). Child stunting declined (F(1, 5149) = 174·8, P ≤ 0·00) and child overweight was stable in the period 1991-2011 (F(1, 5147) = 0·4, P ≤ 0·54). Over the study period, levels of stunting were highest in rural compared with urban areas, the Andean and Amazon regions compared with the Coast, among children of low-educated mothers and among children living in households in the poorest wealth quintile. The trend in overweight rose among males in coastal areas (F(1, 2250) = 4·779, P ≤ 0·029) and among males in the richest wealth quintile (F(1, 1730) = 5·458, P ≤ 0·020). The 2011 levels of stunting and overweight were eight times and three and a half times higher, respectively, than the expected levels from the 2006 WHO growth standards. The trend over the study period in stunting declined in most sociodemographic subgroups. The trend in overweight was stable in most sociodemographic subgroups.

  18. Low validity of Google Trends for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S; Andel, Rita; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Till, Benedikt; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that search volumes of the most popular search engine worldwide, Google, provided via Google Trends, could be associated with national suicide rates in the USA, UK, and some Asian countries. However, search volumes have mostly been studied in an ad hoc fashion, without controls for spurious associations. This study evaluated the validity and utility of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of suicide rates in the USA, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Suicide-related search terms were systematically collected and respective Google Trends search volumes evaluated for availability. Time spans covered 2004 to 2010 (USA, Switzerland) and 2004 to 2012 (Germany, Austria). Temporal associations of search volumes and suicide rates were investigated with time-series analyses that rigorously controlled for spurious associations. The number and reliability of analyzable search volume data increased with country size. Search volumes showed various temporal associations with suicide rates. However, associations differed both across and within countries and mostly followed no discernable patterns. The total number of significant associations roughly matched the number of expected Type I errors. These results suggest that the validity of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates is low. The utility and validity of search volumes for the forecasting of suicide rates depend on two key assumptions ("the population that conducts searches consists mostly of individuals with suicidal ideation", "suicide-related search behavior is strongly linked with suicidal behavior"). We discuss strands of evidence that these two assumptions are likely not met. Implications for future research with Google Trends in the context of suicide research are also discussed.

  19. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Romero-Martínez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. Results. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. Conclusions. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on over­weight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  20. Trends in health care expenditure among US adults with heart failure: The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Bishu, Kinfe G; Fonarow, Gregg C; Egede, Leonard E

    2017-04-01

    Population-based national data on the trends in expenditures related to heart failure (HF) are scarce. Assessing the time trends in health care expenditures for HF in the United States can help to better define the burden of this condition. Using 10-year data (2002-2011) from the national Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (weighted sample of 188,708,194US adults aged ≥18years) and a 2-part model (adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and time); we estimated adjusted mean and incremental medical expenditures by HF status. The costs were direct total health care expenditures (out-of-pocket payments and payments by private insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, and other sources) from various sources (office-based visits, hospital outpatient, emergency department, inpatient hospital, pharmacy, home health care, and other medical expenditures). Compared with expenditures for individuals without HF ($5511 [95% CI 5405-5617]), individuals with HF had a 4-fold higher mean expenditures of ($23,854 [95% CI 21,733-25,975]). Individuals with HF had $3446 (95% CI 2592-4299) higher direct incremental expenditures compared with those without HF, after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities. Among those with HF, costs continuously increased by $5836 (28% relative increase), from $21,316 (95% CI 18,359-24,272) in 2002/2003 to $27,152 (95% CI 20,066-34,237) in 2010/2011, and inpatient costs ($11,318 over the whole period) were the single largest component of total medical expenditure. The estimated unadjusted total direct medical expenditures for US adults with HF were $30 billion/y and the adjusted total incremental expenditure was $5.8 billion/y. Heart failure is costly and over a recent 10-year period, and direct expenditure related to HF increased markedly, mainly driven by inpatient costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  2. National trends in occupational injuries before and after 1992 and predictors of workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Abhinav; Leigh, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    Numbers and costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are significant in terms of morbidity and dollars, yet our understanding of time trends is minimal. We investigated trends and addressed some common hypotheses regarding causes of fluctuations. We pulled data on incidence rates (per 100 full-time employed workers) for injuries and illnesses from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and on costs and benefits from the National Academy of Social Insurance for 1973 through 2007. Rates reflected all injury and illness cases, lost work-time cases, and cases resulting in at least 31 days away from work. We adjusted dollar costs (premiums) and benefits for inflation and measured them per employed worker. We plotted data in time-trend charts and ran linear regressions. From 1973 to 1991, there was a weak to nonexistent downward trend for injury and illness rates, and rates were strongly and negatively correlated with the unemployment rate. From 1992 to 2007, there were strong, consistent downward trends, but no longer were there statistically significant correlations with unemployment. Significant predictors (and signs) of workers' compensation premiums for 1973-2007 included medical price inflation (positive), number of lost-time injuries (positive), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (negative), and inflation-adjusted interest rate on U.S. Treasury bonds (negative). Dollars of benefits were positively and significantly predicted by medical inflation and number of lost-time cases. For 1992-2007, the Dow Jones variable was the only robust predictor of premiums; the number of injuries was not a significant positive predictor. We had two major conclusions. First, the year 1992 marked a sharp contrast in trends and correlations between unemployment and incidence rates for occupational injuries and illnesses. Second, for the entire time period (1973-2007), insurance carriers' premiums were strongly associated with returns on investments.

  3. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2001 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lola Jean; Owings, Maria F; Hall, Margaret J

    2004-06-01

    This report presents 2001 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Admission source and type, collected for the first time in the 2001 National Hospital Discharge Survey, are shown. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2001, data were collected for approximately 330,000 discharges. Of the 477 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 448 (94 percent) responded to the survey. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code numbers. Rates are computed with 2001 population estimates based on the 2000 census. The appendix includes a comparison of rates computed with 1990 and 2000 census-based population estimates. An estimated 32.7 million inpatients were discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals in 2001. They used 159.4 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.9 days. Common first-listed discharge diagnoses included delivery, psychoses, pneumonia, malignant neoplasm, and coronary atherosclerosis. Males had higher rates for procedures such as cardiac catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft, and females had higher rates for procedures such as cholecystectomy and total knee replacement. The rates of all cesarean deliveries, primary and repeat, rose from 1995 to 2001; the rate of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery dropped 37 percent during this period.

  4. BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS IN INDONESIA: NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD HEALTH SURVEY 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs, which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was one of the study instruments. The 'WHO Step 1 questionnaire' was adapted with some modifications. Samples of NHHS, morbidity survey was sub-sample of module sample of National Social Economic Survey (NSES 2001. A sample of 15,148 people aged 10 years+ were analyzed to identify their behavior regarding smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. These findings are a representation of the national figures, which were presented by characteristics of the population such as: sex, age, residence, region and economic status. Economic status was divided into 5 strata, which were calculated from a quintile of household expenditure. The results showed that 29.7% of the population aged 10 years+ are daily smokers. This is more prevalent in males than females (58.9% vs. 3.7%. This behavior increases by age group, except for the oldest; there are slightly more smokers in rural areas than urban areas (31% vs. 28%, and no difference among regions (30-31%. Those with better economic status are less likely to smoke than poorer ones. Alcohol consumption is reportedly very low (2.7%, more prevalent in males than females (4.9% vs. 0.8%, and higher in rural areas than urban areas (3.1% vs. 2.1%. Eastern Indonesia, was higher than Sumatra, Java and Bali (6.3%, 4.7%, and 1.2% respectively. There were no differences in alcohol consumption according to economic status'.' Physical inactivity is very high (68%, more prevalent in females than males (73% vs. 63%, and higher in

  5. National Trends in Patients Hospitalized for Stroke and Stroke Mortality in France, 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoffre, Camille; de Peretti, Christine; Gabet, Amélie; Grimaud, Olivier; Woimant, France; Giroud, Maurice; Béjot, Yannick; Olié, Valérie

    2017-11-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of death in women and the third leading cause in men in France. In young adults (ie, stroke was observed at a local scale between 1985 and 2011. After the implementation of the 2010 to 2014 National Stroke Action Plan, this study investigates national trends in patients hospitalized by stroke subtypes, in-hospital mortality, and stroke mortality between 2008 and 2014. Hospitalization data were extracted from the French national hospital discharge databases and mortality data from the French national medical causes of death database. Time trends were tested using a Poisson regression model. From 2008 to 2014, the age-standardized rates of patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke increased by 14.3% in patients hemorrhagic stroke was stable (+2.0%), irrespective of age and sex. The proportion of patients hospitalized in stroke units substantially increased. In-hospital mortality decreased by 17.1% in patients with ischemic stroke. From 2008 to 2013, stroke mortality decreased, except for women between 45 and 64 years old and for people aged ≥85 years. An increase in cardiovascular risk factors and improved stroke management may explain the increase in the rates of patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke. The decrease observed for in-hospital stroke mortality may be because of recent improvements in acute-phase management. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. National survey of foodborne viruses in Australian oysters at production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Valeria; Hodgson, Kate; McLeod, Catherine; Tan, Jessica; Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison

    2018-02-01

    Internationally human enteric viruses, such as norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are frequently associated with shellfish related foodborne disease outbreaks, and it has been suggested that acceptable NoV limits based on end-point testing be established for this high risk food group. Currently, shellfish safety is generally managed through the use of indicators of faecal contamination. Between July 2014 and August 2015, a national prevalence survey for NoV and HAV was done in Australian oysters suitable for harvest. Two sampling rounds were undertaken to determine baseline levels of these viruses. Commercial Australian growing areas, represented by 33 oyster production regions in New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and Queensland, were included in the survey. A total of 149 and 148 samples were collected during round one and two of sampling, respectively, and tested for NoV and HAV by quantitative RT-PCR. NoV and HAV were not detected in oysters collected in either sampling round, indicating an estimated prevalence for these viruses in Australian oysters of oysters was consistent with epidemiological evidence, with no oyster-related foodborne viral illness reported during the survey period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. National supply-chain survey of drug manufacturer back orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, G S

    2001-07-01

    The impact of manufacturer back orders on the supply chain for pharmaceuticals in the institutional setting was studied. A questionnaire was distributed during May and June 2000 to 600 institutional pharmacies affiliated with a major national drug and supply group purchasing organization. The instrument included questions on basic institutional demographics, perceptions about the frequency of manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals, the quality of communication with manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders, the two most significant back orders that had occurred in the 12 months preceding the survey, and the reasons for and impact of back orders. A total of 170 usable surveys were returned (net response rate, 28.3%). Reported manufacturer back orders included an array of drug classes, including blood products, antimicrobials, antiarrhythmics, benzodiazepine antagonists, thrombolytics, corticosteroids, and antihypertensives. Respondents perceived significant back orders as increasing in frequency. Communication by manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders was reported to be relatively poor. A raw-material shortage was the most common reason given by manufacturers for back orders (36.5%), followed by a regulatory issue (23.2%). In most cases (92%), medical staff members had to be contacted, indicating an interruption in the normal drug distribution process. In over a third of instances, respondents stated that the back order resulted in less optimal therapy. A survey found that manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals were increasing in frequency and that information flow within the supply chain was insufficient to meet the needs of end users.

  8. Remediation of problematic residents--A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nasir I; Ahmed, Aadil; Stewart, Michael G; Miller, Robert H; Choi, Sukgi S

    2016-04-01

    Despite careful selection processes, residency programs face the challenge of training residents who fall below minimal performance standards. Poor performance of a resident can endanger both patient safety and the reputation of the residency program. It is important, therefore, for a program to identify such residents and implement strategies for their successful remediation. The purpose of our study was to gather information on evaluation and remediation strategies employed by different otolaryngology programs. Cross-sectional survey. We conducted a national survey, sending a questionnaire to the program directors of 106 otolaryngology residency programs. We collected information on demographics of the program, identification of problematic residents, and remediation strategies. The response rate was 74.5%, with a 2% cumulative incidence of problematic residents in otolaryngology programs during the past 10 years. The most frequently reported deficiencies of problematic residents were unprofessional behavior with colleagues/staff (38%), insufficient medical knowledge (37%), and poor clinical judgment (34%). Personal or professional stress was the most frequently identified underlying problem (70.5%). Remediation efforts included general counseling (78%), frequent feedback sessions (73%), assignment of a mentor (58%), and extra didactics (47%). These remediation efforts failed to produce improvement in 23% of the identified residents, ultimately leading to their dismissal. The apparent deficiencies, underlying causes, and remediation strategies vary among otolaryngology residency programs. Based on the results of this survey, we offer recommendations for the early identification of problematic residents and a standardized remediation plan. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Obesity and central adiposity in Mexican adults: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Obesidad y adiposidad central en adultos mexicanos: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Barquera; Ismael Campos-Nonato; Lucía Hernández-Barrera; Mario Flores; Ramón Durazo-Arvizu; Rebecca Kanter; Juan A Rivera

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Mexico, and to explore trends compared to the previous Mexican National Health Survey (ENSA 2000) and to Mexican-Americans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) was used to describe overweight, obesity and central adiposity. Trends over time were assessed using the ENSA 2000 and by comparing the ENSANUT 2006 results to those of Mexican-Americans using the...

  10. National seasonal influenza vaccination survey in Europe, 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mereckiene, J

    2008-10-23

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with the European Union (EU) Member States and Norway and Iceland to describe seasonal influenza immunisation in the 2006-7 season, in particular to identify country-specific recommendations for risk groups, obtain vaccine uptake information and allow comparison with global recommendations. A standardised questionnaire was completed electronically by each country\\'s project gatekeeper. Of the 29 countries surveyed, 28 recommended seasonal influenza vaccination for older age groups (22 for those aged > 65 years), and in one country vaccine was recommended for all age groups. All countries recommended vaccinating patients with chronic pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and most countries advised to immunise patients with haematologic or metabolic disorders (n=28), immunologic disorders (n=27) and renal disease (n=27), as well as residents of long-term care facilities (n=24). Most countries recommended vaccination for staff in hospitals (n=25), long-term care facilities (n=25) and outpatient clinics (n=23), and one-third had such recommendations for workers in essential (n=10), military (n=10) and veterinary services (n=10) and poultry industry (n=13). Eight countries recommended vaccine for pregnant women; and five advised to vaccinate children (with age limits ranging from 6 months to 5 years). Twenty countries measured influenza vaccine uptake among those aged > 65 years (range 1.8%-82.1%), seven reported uptake in healthcare workers (range 14%-48%) and seven assessed coverage in persons with underlying medical conditions (range 27.6%-75.2%). The data provided by this study can assist EU states to assess and compare their influenza vaccination programme performance with other countries. The information provides a comprehensive overview of policies and programmes and their outcomes and can be used to inform joint discussions on how the national policies in the EU might be standardised in the future to achieve optimal

  11. National seasonal influenza vaccination survey in Europe, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereckiene, J; Cotter, S; Nicoll, A; Levy-Bruhl, D; Ferro, A; Tridente, G; Zanoni, G; Berra, P; Salmaso, S; O'Flanagan, D; O Flanagan, D

    2008-10-23

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with the European Union (EU) Member States and Norway and Iceland to describe seasonal influenza immunisation in the 2006-7 season, in particular to identify country-specific recommendations for risk groups, obtain vaccine uptake information and allow comparison with global recommendations. A standardised questionnaire was completed electronically by each country's project gatekeeper. Of the 29 countries surveyed, 28 recommended seasonal influenza vaccination for older age groups (22 for those aged > 65 years), and in one country vaccine was recommended for all age groups. All countries recommended vaccinating patients with chronic pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and most countries advised to immunise patients with haematologic or metabolic disorders (n=28), immunologic disorders (n=27) and renal disease (n=27), as well as residents of long-term care facilities (n=24). Most countries recommended vaccination for staff in hospitals (n=25), long-term care facilities (n=25) and outpatient clinics (n=23), and one-third had such recommendations for workers in essential (n=10), military (n=10) and veterinary services (n=10) and poultry industry (n=13). Eight countries recommended vaccine for pregnant women; and five advised to vaccinate children (with age limits ranging from 6 months to 5 years). Twenty countries measured influenza vaccine uptake among those aged > 65 years (range 1.8%-82.1%), seven reported uptake in healthcare workers (range 14%-48%) and seven assessed coverage in persons with underlying medical conditions (range 27.6%-75.2%). The data provided by this study can assist EU states to assess and compare their influenza vaccination programme performance with other countries. The information provides a comprehensive overview of policies and programmes and their outcomes and can be used to inform joint discussions on how the national policies in the EU might be standardised in the future to achieve optimal

  12. TRENDS IN RETIREMENT SAVING: EVIDENCE FROM AN ONLINE SURVEY OF ROMANIAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GURAN (TEODORESCU ILEANA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the population aging and the demographic crisis throughout Europe and the developed world, the public pension systems will become increasingly strained as the proportion of pensioners to the working population will continue to increase. Empirical evidence shows that individuals fail to save enough for retirement to compensate for the less than optimal level of public pensions, and thus are facing the risk of a decrease in the standard of living in their post-retirement years. This larger context makes the study of retirement saving behavior an important matter. The objective of this paper is to document current trends in retirement saving behavior from the data collected through an online survey of Romanian households. The survey was distributed as an online questionnaire that collected 1285 of responses. The survey’s objective was to document households’ financial situation, as well as other psychological and social factors that might explain saving behavior. The analysis of the survey results indicates that there is a gap between intentions and actions when it comes to retirement saving. This gap and the resulting suboptimal retirement saving rates are explained in behavioral economics literature by anomalies in the inter-temporal choices of individuals, subject to self-control issues. We will see to what extent this gap is due to self-control issues and to what extent it is explained by the current financial situation of individuals. We will also conclude about possible retirement saving behavior influencing factors and motives.

  13. Social Determinants of Health in the United States: Addressing Major Health Inequality Trends for the Nation, 1935-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Daus, Gem P; Allender, Michelle; Ramey, Christine T; Martin, Elijah K; Perry, Chrisp; Reyes, Andrew A De Los; Vedamuthu, Ivy P

    2017-01-01

    This study describes key population health concepts and examines major empirical trends in US health and healthcare inequalities from 1935 to 2016 according to important social determinants such as race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, area deprivation, unemployment, housing, rural-urban residence, and geographic location. Long-term trend data from the National Vital Statistics System, National Health Interview Survey, National Survey of Children's Health, American Community Survey, and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to examine racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, rural-urban, and geographic inequalities in health and health care. Life tables, age-adjusted rates, prevalence, and risk ratios were used to examine health differentials, which were tested for statistical significance at the 0.05 level. Life expectancy of Americans increased from 69.7 years in 1950 to 78.8 years in 2015. However, despite the overall improvement, substantial gender and racial/ethnic disparities remained. In 2015, life expectancy was highest for Asian/Pacific Islanders (87.7 years) and lowest for African-Americans (75.7 years). Life expectancy was lower in rural areas and varied from 74.5 years for men in rural areas to 82.4 years for women in large metro areas, with rural-urban disparities increasing during the 1990-2014 time period. Infant mortality rates declined dramatically during the past eight decades. However, racial disparities widened over time; in 2015, black infants had 2.3 times higher mortality than white infants (11.4 vs. 4.9 per 1,000 live births). Infant and child mortality was markedly higher in rural areas and poor communities. Black infants and children in poor, rural communities had nearly three times higher mortality rate compared to those in affluent, rural areas. Racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities were particularly marked in mortality and/or morbidity from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, COPD, HIV/AIDS, homicide

  14. Home mechanical ventilation in Canada: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McKim, Douglas A; Katz, Sherri L; Leasa, David; Nonoyama, Mika; Pedersen, Cheryl; Goldstein, Roger S; Road, Jeremy D

    2015-05-01

    No comprehensive Canadian national data describe the prevalence of and service provision for ventilator-assisted individuals living at home, data critical to health-care system planning for appropriate resourcing. Our objective was to generate national data profiling service providers, users, types of services, criteria for initiation and monitoring, ventilator servicing arrangements, education, and barriers to home transition. Eligible providers delivering services to ventilator-assisted individuals (adult and pediatric) living at home were identified by our national provider inventory and referrals from other providers. The survey was administered via a web link from August 2012 to April 2013. The survey response rate was 152/171 (89%). We identified 4,334 ventilator-assisted individuals: an estimated prevalence of 12.9/100,000 population, with 73% receiving noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and 18% receiving intermittent mandatory ventilation (9% not reported). Services were delivered by 39 institutional providers and 113 community providers. We identified variation in initiation criteria for NIV, with polysomnography demonstrating nocturnal hypoventilation (57%), daytime hypercapnia (38%), and nocturnal hypercapnia (32%) as the most common criteria. Various models of ventilator servicing were reported. Most providers (64%) stated that caregiver competency was a prerequisite for home discharge; however, repeated competency assessment and retraining were offered by only 45%. Important barriers to home transition were: insufficient funding for paid caregivers, equipment, and supplies; a shortage of paid caregivers; and negotiating public funding arrangements. Ventilatory support in the community appears well-established, with most individuals managed with NIV. Although caregiver competency is a prerequisite to discharge, ongoing assessment and retraining were infrequent. Funding and caregiver availability were important barriers to home transition. Copyright © 2015

  15. Causes of adult female deaths in Bangladesh: findings from two National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Quamrun; El Arifeen, Shams; Jamil, Kanta; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-09-18

    Assessment of causes of death and changes in pattern of causes of death over time are needed for programmatic purposes. Limited national level data exist on the adult female causes of death in Bangladesh. Using data from two nationally representation surveys, the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys (BMMS), the paper examines the causes of adult female death, aged 15-49 years, and changes in the patterns of these deaths. In both surveys, all household deaths three years prior to the survey were identified. Adult female deaths were then followed by a verbal autopsy (VA) using the WHO structured questionnaire. Two physicians independently reviewed the VA forms to assign a cause of death using the ICD-10; in case of disagreement, a third physician made an independent review and assigned a cause of death. The overall mortality rates for women aged 15-49 in 2001 and 2010 were 182 per 100,000 and 120 per 100,000 respectively. There is a shift in the pattern of causes of death during the period covered by the two surveys. In the 2001 survey, the main causes of death were maternal (20 %), followed by diseases of the circulatory system (15 %), malignancy (14 %) and infectious diseases (13 %). However, in the 2010 survey, malignancies were the leading cause (21 %), followed by diseases of the circulatory system (16 %), maternal causes (14 %) and infectious diseases (8 %). While maternal deaths remained the number one cause of death among 20-34 years old in both surveys, unnatural deaths were the main cause for teenage deaths, and malignancies were the main cause of death for older women. Although there is an increasing trend in the proportion of women who died in hospitals, in both surveys most women died at home (74 % in 2001 and 62 % in 2010). The shift in the pattern of causes of adult female deaths is in agreement with the overall change in the disease pattern from communicable to non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. Suicide and other violent deaths as

  16. Mass-casualty events at schools: a national preparedness survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James; Shirm, Steve; Liggin, Rebecca; Aitken, Mary E; Dick, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Recent school shootings and terrorist events have demonstrated the need for well-coordinated planning for school-based mass-casualty events. The objective of this study was to document the preparedness of public schools in the United States for the prevention of and the response to a mass-casualty event. A survey was mailed to 3670 school superintendents of public school districts that were chosen at random from a list of school districts from the National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education in January 2004. A second mailing was sent to nonresponders in May 2004. Descriptive statistics were used for survey variables, and the chi2 test was used to compare urban versus rural preparedness. The response rate was 58.2% (2137 usable surveys returned). Most (86.3%) school superintendents reported having a response plan, but fewer (57.2%) have a plan for prevention. Most (95.6%) have an evacuation plan, but almost one third (30%) had never conducted a drill. Almost one quarter (22.1%) have no disaster plan provisions for children with special health care needs, and one quarter reported having no plans for postdisaster counseling. Almost half (42.8%) had never met with local ambulance officials to discuss emergency planning. Urban school districts were better prepared than rural districts on almost all measures in the survey. There are important deficiencies in school emergency/disaster planning. Rural districts are less well prepared than urban districts. Disaster/mass-casualty preparedness of schools should be improved through coordination of school officials and local medical and emergency officials.

  17. Critical evaluation of national vital statistics: the case of preterm birth trends in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sofia; Rodrigues, Teresa; Montenegro, Nuno; Barros, Henrique

    2015-11-01

    Using vital statistics, the Portuguese National Health Plan predicts that 14% of live births will be preterm in 2016. The prediction was based on a preterm birth rise from 5.9% in 2000 to 8.8% in 2009. However, the same source showed an actual decline from 2010 onwards. To assess the plausibility of national preterm birth trends, we aimed to compare the evolution of preterm birth and low birthweight rates between vital statistics and a hospital database. A time-trend analysis (2004-2011) of preterm birth (rates was conducted using data on singleton births from the national birth certificates (n = 801,783) and an electronic maternity unit database (n = 21,392). Annual prevalence estimates, ratios of preterm birth:low birthweight and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated to compare data sources. Although the national prevalence of preterm birth increased from 2004 (5.4%), particularly between 2006 and 2009 (highest rate was 7.5% in 2007), and decreased after 2009 (5.7% in 2011), the prevalence at the maternity unit remained constant. Between 2006 and 2009, preterm birth was almost 1.4 times higher in the national statistics (using the national or the catchment region samples) than in the maternity unit, but no differences were found for low birthweight. Portuguese preterm birth prevalence seems biased between 2006 and 2009, suggesting that early term babies were misclassified as preterm. As civil registration systems are important to support public health decisions, monitoring strategies should be taken to assure good quality data. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. A preliminary survey of the National Wetlands Inventory as mapped for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, N.L.; Rope, R.C.; Glennon, J.M.; Moor, K.S.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately 135 areas within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been mapped as wetland habitat as part of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). A preliminary survey of these wetlands was conducted to examine their general characteristics and status, to provide an estimation of relative ecological importance, to identify additional information needed to complete ecological characterization of important INEL wetlands, and to identify high priority wetland areas on the INEL. The purpose of the survey was to provide information to support the preparation of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Information characterizing general vegetation, hydrology, wildlife use, and archaeology was collected at 105 sample sites on the INEL. Sites representing NWI palustrine, lacustrine, and riverine wetlands (including manmade), and areas unmapped or unclassified by the NWI were included in the sample. The field information was used to develop a preliminary ranking of relative ecological importance for each wetland visited during this survey. Survey limitations are identified

  19. Factors affecting study efficiency and item non-response in health surveys in developing countries: the Jamaica national healthy lifestyle survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Franklyn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health surveys provide important information on the burden and secular trends of risk factors and disease. Several factors including survey and item non-response can affect data quality. There are few reports on efficiency, validity and the impact of item non-response, from developing countries. This report examines factors associated with item non-response and study efficiency in a national health survey in a developing Caribbean island. Methods A national sample of participants aged 15–74 years was selected in a multi-stage sampling design accounting for 4 health regions and 14 parishes using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Means and proportions of the variables of interest were compared between various categories. Non-response was defined as failure to provide an analyzable response. Linear and logistic regression models accounting for sample design and post-stratification weighting were used to identify independent correlates of recruitment efficiency and item non-response. Results We recruited 2012 15–74 year-olds (66.2% females at a response rate of 87.6% with significant variation between regions (80.9% to 97.6%; p Conclusion Informative health surveys are possible in developing countries. While survey response rates may be satisfactory, item non-response was high in respect of income and sexual practice. In contrast to developed countries, non-response to questions on income is higher and has different correlates. These findings can inform future surveys.

  20. STARS - Supportability Trend Analysis and Reporting System for the National Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Leroy J.; Doempke, Gerald T.

    1990-01-01

    The concept, implementation, and long-range goals of a Supportability Trend Analysis and Reporting System (STARS) for the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) are discussed. The requirement was established as a direct result of the recommendations of the Rogers Commission investigation of the circumstances of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. STARS outlines the requirements for the supportability-trend data collection, analysis, and reporting requirements that each of the project offices supporting the Space Shuttle are required to provide to the NSTS program office. STARS data give the historic and predictive logistics information necessary for all levels of NSTS management to make safe and cost-effective decisions concerning the smooth flow of Space Shuttle turnaround.

  1. [National Trends in the Distribution of Candida Species Causing Candidemia in Japan from 2003 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koichi; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Takesue, Yoshio; Tomono, Kazunori; Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Niki, Yoshitiho; Yoshida, Minoru; Sei, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    The Epidemiological Investigation Committee for Human Mycoses in Japan performed a retrospective epidemiological survey of candidemia and causative Candida species. Data from 2003 to 2014 were collected from 10 Japanese university hospitals. A total of 328,318 blood cultures were included. The prevalence of fungi in all cultures and in positive cultures were 0.58±0.09% and 4.46±0.66%, respectively. Among the results that were positive for Candida species (N=1,921), Candida albicans was the most common species (39.5%) and was followed by Candida parapsilosis (23.3%), Candida glabrata (13.2%), Candida tropicalis (7.1%), Candida krusei (3.2%), and others (13.7%). During the last 6 years, the frequency of C. albicans has significantly decreased in Japan, while that of C. glabrata has increased. Additional surveys are needed to continuously monitor the trends in the distribution of candidemia.

  2. [Trends in tobacco consumption from 2006 to 2011 in Brazilian capitals according to the VIGITEL survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Sá, Naiza Nayla Bandeira de; Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Moura, Lenildo de; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Luz, Micheline Gomes Campos da; Bernal, Regina Ivata Tomie

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trends in indicators of smoking in Brazilian State capitals, according to the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Illnesses Using a Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) in adults, from 2006 to 2011. A simple linear regression model was used (a = 5%). There was a decrease in the prevalence of smokers and heavy smokers among men and in individuals 35 to 54 years of age. Smoking also decreased among individuals with 9-11 years of schooling and in the Northeast, North, and Central West regions. For heavy smokers, the largest decline was in the Northeast. Brazil's regulatory policy has been responsible for the decline in tobacco prevalence.

  3. A survey of residual analysis and a new test of residual trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Klapes, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    A survey of residual analysis in behavior-analytic research reveals that existing methods are problematic in one way or another. A new test for residual trends is proposed that avoids the problematic features of the existing methods. It entails fitting cubic polynomials to sets of residuals and comparing their effect sizes to those that would be expected if the sets of residuals were random. To this end, sampling distributions of effect sizes for fits of a cubic polynomial to random data were obtained by generating sets of random standardized residuals of various sizes, n. A cubic polynomial was then fitted to each set of residuals and its effect size was calculated. This yielded a sampling distribution of effect sizes for each n. To test for a residual trend in experimental data, the median effect size of cubic-polynomial fits to sets of experimental residuals can be compared to the median of the corresponding sampling distribution of effect sizes for random residuals using a sign test. An example from the literature, which entailed comparing mathematical and computational models of continuous choice, is used to illustrate the utility of the test. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Trend Analysis of Worldwide FDI Flows in the Context of Promoting Sustainable Development and National Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgeta Ailincă

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About FDI there are numerous studies, some of them have mostly theoretical character and others mostly practical. This article aims at capturing and analyzing the most important trends in the short, medium and long term on FDI flows worldwide, thus this study has a rather practical approach. Also, the paper aims to discern how FDI flows may influence the sustainable development and the national interest. The analysis starts from studying the past in the most significant developments of the world economy in terms of inflows of investment attraction, drawing marginally some advantages or disadvantages of joining a political entity with regional vocation (e.g. European Union or a currency area (e.g. E.M.U.. It should also be noted that, beyond the analysis of past trends, the direction towards which worldwide foreign direct investment (FDI should be considered in relationship with the ability to infer certain areas which in future can attract FDI for a sustainable and balanced national economy development, serving to the national interest. Thus, the article aims, through a broad set of indicators, to seize these structural or cyclical advantages of world economies and, to the extent that can be applied to the Romanian economy, to contribute to the restructuring of objectives of macroeconomic policies in order to mobilize the country's potential to attract FDI.

  5. Changes in retiree health benefits: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lissovoy, G; Kasper, J D; Di Carlo, S; Gabel, J

    1990-01-01

    Employers are increasingly concerned by the cost of health benefits provided to retired workers. One reason is that the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the organization that establishes "generally accepted accounting principles," has proposed altering the way firms report expenditures for retiree medical coverage on financial statements. We recently completed a national survey of business firms offering retiree health benefits to address three issues: 1) What is the current structure of retiree health benefit plans? 2) What changes are firms planning to implement in the structure of their retiree health benefits? 3) To what extent are these changes due to the FASB proposal? The FASB reporting proposal is only one factor underlying these changes. More important is the real financial pressure on firms due to the accelerating cost of retiree health care.

  6. National survey describing and quantifying students with communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andzik, Natalie R; Schaefer, John M; Nichols, Robert T; Chung, Yun-Ching

    2018-01-01

    Research literature has yet to quantify and describe how students with complex communication needs are supported in the classroom and how special educators are being prepared to offer support. This study sought out special educators to complete a survey about their students with complex communication needs. Over 4,000 teachers representing 50 states reported on the communicative and behavioral characteristics of 15,643 students. Teachers described the training they have received and instructional approaches they used. The majority of students were reported to use speech as their primary communication mode. Over half of students utilizing alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) were reported to have non-proficient communication. Teacher training varied across respondents as well as the supports they used to support these students in the classroom. The majority of students with disabilities using AAC when communicating across the nation are not proficiently communicating. Implications and recommendations will be discussed.

  7. Health risk behavior among Thai youth: national survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.

  8. Measuring success: results from a national survey of recruitment and retention initiatives in the nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Carthon, J Margo; Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Chittams, Jesse; Park, Elizabeth; Guevara, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify common components of diversity pipeline programs across a national sample of nursing institutions and determine what effect these programs have on increasing underrepresented minority enrollment and graduation. Linked data from an electronic survey conducted November 2012 to March 2013 and American Association of Colleges of Nursing baccalaureate graduation and enrollment data (2008 and 2012). Academic and administrative staff of 164 nursing schools in 26 states, including Puerto Rico in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to (1) describe organizational features of nursing diversity pipeline programs and (2) determine significant trends in underrepresented minorities' graduation and enrollment between nursing schools with and without diversity pipeline programs Twenty percent (n = 33) of surveyed nursing schools reported a structured diversity pipeline program. The most frequent program measures associated with pipeline programs included mentorship, academic, and psychosocial support. Asian, Hispanic, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander nursing student enrollment increased between 2008 and 2012. Hispanic/Latino graduation rates increased (7.9%-10.4%, p = .001), but they decreased among Black (6.8%-5.0%, p = .004) and Native American/Pacific Islander students (2.1 %-0.3%, p ≥ .001). Nursing diversity pipeline programs are associated with increases in nursing school enrollment and graduation for some, although not all, minority students. Future initiatives should build on current trends while creating targeted strategies to reverse downward graduation trends among Black, Native American, and Pacific Island nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulation in Canadian postgraduate emergency medicine training - a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Hall, Andrew Koch; Hagel, Carly; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Dagnone, Jeffrey Damon; Howes, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Simulation-based education (SBE) is an important training strategy in emergency medicine (EM) postgraduate programs. This study sought to characterize the use of simulation in FRCPC-EM residency programs across Canada. A national survey was administered to residents and knowledgeable program representatives (PRs) at all Canadian FRCPC-EM programs. Survey question themes included simulation program characteristics, the frequency of resident participation, the location and administration of SBE, institutional barriers, interprofessional involvement, content, assessment strategies, and attitudes about SBE. Resident and PR response rates were 63% (203/321) and 100% (16/16), respectively. Residents reported a median of 20 (range 0-150) hours of annual simulation training, with 52% of residents indicating that the time dedicated to simulation training met their needs. PRs reported the frequency of SBE sessions ranging from weekly to every 6 months, with 15 (94%) programs having an established simulation curriculum. Two (13%) of the programs used simulation for resident assessment, although 15 (94%) of PRs indicated that they would be comfortable with simulation-based assessment. The most common PR-identified barriers to administering simulation were a lack of protected faculty time (75%) and a lack of faculty experience with simulation (56%). Interprofessional involvement in simulation was strongly valued by both residents and PRs. SBE is frequently used by Canadian FRCPC-EM residency programs. However, there exists considerable variability in the structure, frequency, and timing of simulation-based activities. As programs transition to competency-based medical education, national organizations and collaborations should consider the variability in how SBE is administered.

  10. Breastfeeding support in neonatal intensive care: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Kronborg, Hanne; Hallström, Inger

    2012-08-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding of preterm infants is affected by the support provided at the hospital and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, policies and guidelines promoting breastfeeding vary both nationally and internationally. The aim of this survey was to describe breastfeeding support in Danish NICUs, where approximately 98% of mothers initiate lactation. A national survey of all 19 Danish NICUs was conducted in 2009. Four NICUs were at designated Baby-Friendly hospitals, and 5 had a lactation consultant. In all NICUs, it was possible for some parents to stay overnight; 2 units had short restrictions on parents' presence. Five NICUs had integrated postpartum care for mothers. Breastfeeding policies, written guidelines, and systematic breastfeeding training for the staff were common in most NICUs. Seventeen NICUs recommended starting breast milk expression within 6 hours after birth, and mothers were encouraged to double pump. Most NICUs aimed to initiate skin-to-skin contact the first time the parents were in the NICU, and daily skin-to-skin contact was estimated to last for 2-4 hours in 63% and 4-8 hours in 37% of the units. The use of bottle-feeding was restricted. The Danish NICUs described the support of breastfeeding as a high priority, which was reflected in the recommended policies for breast milk pumping, skin-to-skin contact, and the parents' presence in the NICU, as well as in the restricted use of bottle-feeding. However, support varied between units, and not all units supported optimal breastfeeding.

  11. Trends and Predictors of National Institutes of Health Funding to Plastic Surgery Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Abbatematteo, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin; Serletti, Joseph M

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated low levels of National Institutes of Health funding for surgical research. The authors compared the funding in plastic surgery with the funding for other surgical specialties. A query of National Institutes of Health grants awarded to departments of surgical specialties was performed using the National Institutes of Health RePORTER database (2008 to 2016). Trends in funding were compared by specialty and adjusted for the number of active physicians in each specialty. Plastic surgery residency program characteristics were correlated with funding procurement. Eight hundred eighty-nine faculty at 94 plastic surgery residency programs were queried. Forty-eight investigators (5.4 percent) at 23 programs (24.4 percent) had National Institutes of Health funding. From 2008 to 2016, a total of $84,142,138 was awarded through 81 grants. Funding supported translational (44.6 percent), clinical (26.4 percent), basic science (27.2 percent), and educational (1.7 percent) research. In 2016, plastic surgery received the least amount of National Institutes of Health funding per active physician ($1,530) relative to orthopedic surgery ($3124), obstetrics and gynecology ($3885), urology ($5943), otolaryngology ($9999), general surgery ($11,649), ophthalmology ($11,933), and neurologic surgery ($20,874). Plastic surgery residency program characteristics associated with National Institutes of Health funding were high ranking and had more than 10 clinical faculty (p < 0.05). Plastic surgery receives the least National Institutes of Health funding among the surgical specialties. Departments and divisions of plastic surgery should support investigators applying for research grants to increase future National Institutes of Health funding.

  12. The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and human exposure to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M

    2012-02-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in using human biomonitoring - the measurement of chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in biological specimens/body fluids - for investigating exposure to environmental chemicals. General population human biomonitoring programs are useful for investigating human exposure to environmental chemicals and an important tool for integrating environment and health. One of these programs, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), conducted in the United States is designed to collect data on the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized, civilian U.S. population. NHANES includes a physical examination, collecting a detailed medical history, and collecting biological specimens (i.e., blood and urine). These biological specimens can be used to assess exposure to environmental chemicals. NHANES human biomonitoring data can be used to establish reference ranges for selected chemicals, provide exposure data for risk assessment, and monitor exposure trends. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Bozeman National Topographic Map, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Bozeman National Topographic Map NL12-8 are presented in Volume I and II of this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  14. Intoxicated workers: findings from a national Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke

    2011-09-01

    To identify prevalence of alcohol and drug use and intoxication at work. A total of 9,828 Australian workers ≥14 years old. Australia 2007. Work-place alcohol use and drug use, intoxication at work, industry and occupation of employment. Secondary analysis of a large nationally representative survey involving descriptive and weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Differential patterns were identified by drug type, worker characteristics and occupational setting, controlling for demographic variables. Nearly 9% of workers surveyed (8.7%) usually drank alcohol at work and 0.9% usually used drugs at work. Attending work under the influence of alcohol was more prevalent (5.6%) than attending work under the influence of drugs (2.0%), and significantly more likely among young, male, never married workers with no dependent children. Hospitality industry workers were 3.5 times more likely than other workers to drink alcohol and two to three times more likely to use drugs at work or attend work under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Other high-risk industries and occupations included construction, financial services, tradespersons and unskilled workers. More than one in 20 Australian workers admit to having worked under the influence of alcohol and almost one in 50 report attending work under the influence of psychoactive drugs. The rates are higher for some industries, such as the hospitality industry, than others. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Lander National Topographic Map, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Lander National Topographic Map NK12-6 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  16. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Heo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level nested within schools (2nd level to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  17. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S V; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  18. Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Penman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. Materials and Methods: To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 respondents completed the survey. Sixty overseas respondents and 1265 yoga teachers (to be reported separately were excluded, leaving 2,567 yoga practitioner respondents. Results: The typical yoga survey respondent was a 41-year-old, tertiary educated, employed, health-conscious female (85% women. Asana (postures and vinyasa (sequences of postures represented 61% of the time spent practicing, with the other 39% devoted to the gentler practices of relaxation, pranayama (breathing techniques, meditation and instruction. Respondents commonly started practicing yoga for health and fitness but often continued practicing for stress management. One in five respondents practiced yoga for a specific health or medical reason which was seen to be improved by yoga practice. Of these, more people used yoga for stress management and anxiety than back, neck or shoulder problems, suggesting that mental health may be the primary health-related motivation for practicing yoga. Healthy lifestyle choices were seen to be more prevalent in respondents with more years of practice. Yoga-related injuries occurring under supervision in the previous 12 months were low at 2.4% of respondents. Conclusions: Yoga practice was seen to assist in the management of specific health issues and medical conditions. Regular yoga practice may also exert a healthy lifestyle effect including vegetarianism, non-smoking, reduced alcohol consumption, increased exercise and reduced stress with resulting cost benefits

  19. Malpractice liability and defensive medicine: a national survey of neurosurgeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian V Nahed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of American neurosurgeons' perceptions of malpractice liability and defensive medicine practices. METHODS: A validated, 51-question online-survey was sent to 3344 practicing U.S. neurosurgeon members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, which represents 76% of neurosurgeons in academic and private practices. RESULTS: A total of 1028 surveys were completed (31% response rate by neurosurgeons representing diverse sub-specialty practices. Respondents engaged in defensive medicine practices by ordering additional imaging studies (72%, laboratory tests (67%, referring patients to consultants (66%, or prescribing medications (40%. Malpractice premiums were considered a "major or extreme" burden by 64% of respondents which resulted in 45% of respondents eliminating high-risk procedures from their practice due to liability concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Concerns and perceptions about medical liability lead practitioners to practice defensive medicine. As a result, diagnostic testing, consultations and imaging studies are ordered to satisfy a perceived legal risk, resulting in higher healthcare expenditures. To minimize malpractice risk, some neurosurgeons have eliminated high-risk procedures. Left unchecked, concerns over medical liability will further defensive medicine practices, limit patient access to care, and increase the cost of healthcare delivery in the United States.

  20. Malpractice liability and defensive medicine: a national survey of neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahed, Brian V; Babu, Maya A; Smith, Timothy R; Heary, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of American neurosurgeons' perceptions of malpractice liability and defensive medicine practices. A validated, 51-question online-survey was sent to 3344 practicing U.S. neurosurgeon members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, which represents 76% of neurosurgeons in academic and private practices. A total of 1028 surveys were completed (31% response rate) by neurosurgeons representing diverse sub-specialty practices. Respondents engaged in defensive medicine practices by ordering additional imaging studies (72%), laboratory tests (67%), referring patients to consultants (66%), or prescribing medications (40%). Malpractice premiums were considered a "major or extreme" burden by 64% of respondents which resulted in 45% of respondents eliminating high-risk procedures from their practice due to liability concerns. Concerns and perceptions about medical liability lead practitioners to practice defensive medicine. As a result, diagnostic testing, consultations and imaging studies are ordered to satisfy a perceived legal risk, resulting in higher healthcare expenditures. To minimize malpractice risk, some neurosurgeons have eliminated high-risk procedures. Left unchecked, concerns over medical liability will further defensive medicine practices, limit patient access to care, and increase the cost of healthcare delivery in the United States.

  1. Language awareness in the bilingual healthcare setting: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gwerfyl Wyn; Irvine, Fiona Elizabeth; Jones, Peter Reece; Spencer, Llinos Haf; Baker, Colin Ronald; Williams, Cen

    2007-09-01

    The significance of effective interpersonal communication in healthcare is well established, as is the importance of overcoming language barriers. This has a particular bearing for minority language speakers, where denying language choice can compromise the quality of healthcare provision. Nevertheless, there is limited empirical research exploring language awareness in healthcare and the factors that influence language choice for minority language speakers. This paper reports on the nurses, midwives and health visitors (NMHV) data set of the first phase of a large-scale national study, commissioned by the Welsh Assembly Government, to examine the nature and extent of Welsh language awareness amongst healthcare professionals in Wales, UK. The study involved a questionnaire survey of healthcare professionals working in the public, private and voluntary sectors of healthcare. A stratified random sample of 3358 healthcare professionals was surveyed, of which 1842 (55%) were nurses, midwives and health visitors. The researcher-designed self-administered questionnaire was distributed by post to participants between July and September 2003. A total of 1042 (57%) NMHV returned their questionnaires for analysis. A strong positive correlation is identified between the NMHV use of the Welsh language in practice and their Welsh language proficiency (planguage attitudes (planguage region (planguage attitude scores are more positive than expected, particularly amongst those with limited Welsh language proficiency and those working in regions with the lowest proportions of Welsh speakers. In view of the universal drive for culturally and linguistically appropriate healthcare practice, the findings have important implications for bilingual and multilingual healthcare settings worldwide. The evidence emerging from this survey confirms that cross-cultural communication is enhanced by NMHV language attitudes as well as their proficiency levels. Language awareness training is

  2. Japanese practicing physicians' relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%, received drug samples (85% and stationery (96%, and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME events at the workplace (80% and outside the workplace (93%. Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49% and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%. Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to

  3. Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Stephen; Cohen, Marc; Stevens, Philip; Jackson, Sue

    2012-07-01

    The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 respondents completed the survey. Sixty overseas respondents and 1265 yoga teachers (to be reported separately) were excluded, leaving 2,567 yoga practitioner respondents. The typical yoga survey respondent was a 41-year-old, tertiary educated, employed, health-conscious female (85% women). Asana (postures) and vinyasa (sequences of postures) represented 61% of the time spent practicing, with the other 39% devoted to the gentler practices of relaxation, pranayama (breathing techniques), meditation and instruction. Respondents commonly started practicing yoga for health and fitness but often continued practicing for stress management. One in five respondents practiced yoga for a specific health or medical reason which was seen to be improved by yoga practice. Of these, more people used yoga for stress management and anxiety than back, neck or shoulder problems, suggesting that mental health may be the primary health-related motivation for practicing yoga. Healthy lifestyle choices were seen to be more prevalent in respondents with more years of practice. Yoga-related injuries occurring under supervision in the previous 12 months were low at 2.4% of respondents. Yoga practice was seen to assist in the management of specific health issues and medical conditions. Regular yoga practice may also exert a healthy lifestyle effect including vegetarianism, non-smoking, reduced alcohol consumption, increased exercise and reduced stress with resulting cost benefits to the community.

  4. National survey of the Portuguese elderly nutritional status: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Teresa; Peixoto-Plácido, Catarina; Goulão, Beatriz; Mendonça, Nuno; Alarcão, Violeta; Santos, Nuno; de Oliveira, Rita Machado; Yngve, Agneta; Bye, Asta; Bergland, Astrid; Lopes, Carla; Nicola, Paulo; Santos, Osvaldo; Clara, João Gorjão

    2016-07-16

    Worldwide we are facing a serious demographic challenge due to the dramatic growth of the population over 60 years. It is expected that the proportion of this population will nearly double from 12 to 22 %, between 2015 and 2050. This demographic shift comes with major health and socio-economic concerns. Nutrition is a fundamental determinant of both health and disease and its role in extending a healthy lifespan is the object of considerable research. Notably, malnutrition is one of the main threats to health and quality of life among the elderly. Therefore, knowledge about nutritional status among the elderly is essential for the promotion and maintenance of healthy ageing and to support the development of health protection policies and equity in elderly health care. This is a nationwide nutrition survey of the Portuguese population over 65 years old, with data collection through face-to-face interviews. A representative and random sample of community dwelling elderly and nursing homes residents will be obtained by multistage sampling stratified per main Portuguese regions, sex and age groups. Minimum sample size was estimated to be 2077 elderly (979 in the community and 1098 in nursing homes). Data will be collected on food habits and eating patterns, nutritional status, food insecurity, lifestyle, self-rated general health status and self-reported diseases, functionality, loneliness, cognitive function, emotional status and demographic and socio-economic characterization. This is the first national survey to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition of the Portuguese population above 65 years old, including those living in nursing homes. It will allow the identification of population subgroups of elderly with increased odds of malnutrition and nutritional risk. In addition, this survey will contribute to the identification of psychosocial and clinical predictors of malnutrition among elderly, which is an important risk factor for other

  5. Trend in active transportation to school among Swiss school children and its associated factors: three cross-sectional surveys 1994, 2000 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bringolf-Isler Bettina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giving the rising trend in childhood obesity in many countries including Switzerland, strategies to increase physical activity such as promoting active school travel are important. Yet, little is known about time trends of active commuting in Swiss schoolchildren and factors associated with changes in walking and biking to school. Methods Between 1994 and 2005, information about mobility behaviour of children aged 6-14 years was collected within three Swiss population based national travel behaviour surveys. Mode of transport to school was reported for 4244 children. Weighted multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess active school travel time trends and their influencing factors. Results More than 70% of Swiss children walked or biked to school. Nevertheless, the proportion of children biking to school decreased (p = 0.05, linear trend, predominately in urban areas, and motorized transportation increased since 1994 (p = 0.02. Distance to school did not change significantly over time but availability of bikes decreased (p Conclusions Programs to encourage safe biking and to limit car use as mode of transport to school are warranted to stop this trend.

  6. Public perspectives on nuclear security. US national security surveys, 1993--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). UNM Inst. for Public Policy

    1998-08-01

    This is the third report in a series of studies to examine how US attitudes about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era and to identify trends in public perceptions and preferences relevant to the evolution of US nuclear security policy. It presents findings from three surveys: a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public; a written survey of randomly selected members of American Men and Women of Science; and a written survey of randomly selected state legislators from all fifty US states. Key areas of investigation included nuclear security, cooperation between US and Russian scientists about nuclear issues, vulnerabilities of critical US infrastructures and responsibilities for their protection, and broad areas of US national science policy. While international and US national security were seen to be slowly improving, the primary nuclear threat to the US was perceived to have shifted from Russia to China. Support was found for nuclear arms control measures, including mutual reductions in stockpiles. However, respondents were pessimistic about eliminating nuclear armaments, and nuclear deterrence continued to be highly values. Participants favored decreasing funding f/or developing and testing new nuclear weapons, but supported increased investments in nuclear weapons infrastructure. Strong concerns were expressed about nuclear proliferation and the potential for nuclear terrorism. Support was evident for US scientific cooperation with Russia to strengthen security of Russian nuclear assets. Elite and general public perceptions of external and domestic nuclear weapons risks and external and domestic nuclear weapons benefits were statistically significantly related to nuclear weapons policy options and investment preferences. Demographic variables and individual belief systems were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and to policy and spending preferences.

  7. Trends in National Emergency Medicine Conference Didactic Lectures Over a 6-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael; Riddell, Jeff; Njie, Abdoulie

    2017-01-01

    National conference didactic lectures have traditionally featured hour-long lecture-based presentations. However, there is evidence that longer lectures can lead to both decreased attention and retention of information. The authors sought to identify trends in lecture duration, lecture types, and number of speakers at four national emergency medicine (EM) conferences over a 6-year period. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the length, number of speakers, and format of didactic lectures at four different national EM conferences over 6 years. The authors abstracted data from the national academic assemblies for the four largest not-for-profit EM organizations in the United States: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. There was a significant yearly decrease in the mean lecture lengths for three of the four conferences. There was an increase in the percentage of rapid fire sessions over the preceding 2 years with a corresponding decrease in the percentage of general educational sessions. There was no significant difference in the mean number of speakers per lecture. An analysis of 4210 didactic lecture sessions from the annual meetings of four national EM organizations over a 6-year period showed significant decreases in mean lecture length. These findings can help to guide EM continuing medical education conference planning and research.

  8. Profile of e-patients: analysis of their cancer information-seeking from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghye; Kwon, Nahyun

    2010-10-01

    Researchers have yet to fully understand how competent e-patients are in selecting and using health information sources, or, more importantly, who e-patients are. This study attempted to uncover how cancer e-patients differ from other cancer information seekers in terms of their sociodemographic background, social networks, information competence, and selection of cancer information sources. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, and a series of chi-square tests showed that factors that distinguished cancer e-patients from other cancer information seekers were age, gender, education, employment status, health insurance, and membership in online support groups. They were not different in the other factors measured by the survey. Our logistic regression analysis revealed that the e-patients were older and talked about their health issues with friends or family more frequently compared with online health information seekers without cancer. While preferring information from their doctors over the Internet, e-patients used the Internet as their primary source. In contrast to previous literature, we found little evidence that e-patients were savvy health information consumers who could make informed decisions on their own health. The findings of this study addressed a need for a better design and delivery of health information literacy programs for cancer e-patients.

  9. External quality-assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn; Rhodes, Mark F.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2009–2010. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples; a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) and Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL). The blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in total Hg concentration data produced by the HAL. The co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and precipitation collectors that use optical sensors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the United States. Results also suggest that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new precipitation collectors could cause –8 to +14 percent shifts in NADP annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations and total deposition values for ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and larger shifts (+13 to +74 percent) for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The prototype N-CON Systems bucket collector is more efficient in the catch of precipitation in winter than Aerochem Metrics Model 301 collector, especially for light snowfall.

  10. Rising trends and inequalities in cesarean section rates in Pakistan: Evidence from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sarwat; Bahk, Jinwook; Khang, Young-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Despite global efforts to improve maternal health, many developing countries including Pakistan have failed to achieve the target of a 75% reduction in maternal deaths by 2015. Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in access to emergency obstetric care is crucial for reducing the maternal mortality rate. This study was done to examine the time trends and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of cesarean section (C-section) in Pakistan during 1990-2013. We used data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) conducted during 1990 to 2013. All these surveys are nationally representative surveys of ever-married women aged 15-49 years with a sample size of 6611, 10,023, and 13,558 women in 1990-1991, 2006-2007, and 2012-2013, respectively, with an overall response rate of over 90%. The unit of analysis for this study was women with their most recent live birth in the five years preceding the surveys. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were employed to investigate the prevalence of cesarean sections according to selected sociodemographic characteristics of women. C-section rates were found to have increased during this period, with an especially significant rise from 2.7% in 1990-1991 to 15.8% in 2012-2013 with lower utilization among the non-educated women (7.5%), compared with the women with higher education (40.3%). C-section rates ranged from 5.5% in the poorest women to 35.3% in the richest women. Only 11.5% of the rural women had a C-section compared to 25.6% of the urban women. A greater likelihood of having a cesarean section was observed in the richest, highly educated, and urban-living women while there was no significant difference observed in cesarean section rates between the private and public sectors in all three surveys. To improve maternal health, routine monitoring and evaluation of the provision of emergency obstetric services are needed to address the underuse of C-section in poor and rural areas and

  11. Rising trends and inequalities in cesarean section rates in Pakistan: Evidence from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Mumtaz

    Full Text Available Despite global efforts to improve maternal health, many developing countries including Pakistan have failed to achieve the target of a 75% reduction in maternal deaths by 2015. Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in access to emergency obstetric care is crucial for reducing the maternal mortality rate. This study was done to examine the time trends and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of cesarean section (C-section in Pakistan during 1990-2013. We used data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS conducted during 1990 to 2013. All these surveys are nationally representative surveys of ever-married women aged 15-49 years with a sample size of 6611, 10,023, and 13,558 women in 1990-1991, 2006-2007, and 2012-2013, respectively, with an overall response rate of over 90%. The unit of analysis for this study was women with their most recent live birth in the five years preceding the surveys. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were employed to investigate the prevalence of cesarean sections according to selected sociodemographic characteristics of women. C-section rates were found to have increased during this period, with an especially significant rise from 2.7% in 1990-1991 to 15.8% in 2012-2013 with lower utilization among the non-educated women (7.5%, compared with the women with higher education (40.3%. C-section rates ranged from 5.5% in the poorest women to 35.3% in the richest women. Only 11.5% of the rural women had a C-section compared to 25.6% of the urban women. A greater likelihood of having a cesarean section was observed in the richest, highly educated, and urban-living women while there was no significant difference observed in cesarean section rates between the private and public sectors in all three surveys. To improve maternal health, routine monitoring and evaluation of the provision of emergency obstetric services are needed to address the underuse of C-section in poor and

  12. Tendências nas condições de saúde e uso de serviços de saúde entre idosos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998, 2003 Trends in health conditions and use of health services by the Brazilian elderly: a study based on the National Household Sample Survey (1998, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar as tendências das condições de saúde e do uso de serviços de saúde entre idosos brasileiros, utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostras de Domicílios (PNAD. Foram incluídos no estudo 28.943 e 35.042 participantes das PNAD 1998 e 2003 com idade > 60 anos, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que houve melhora nas condições de saúde dos idosos nesse período, considerando-se indicadores como percepção da saúde, ter estado recentemente acamado, capacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária e número de doenças crônicas. Os resultados também monstraram que houve aumento do número de consultas médicas e odontológicas entre 1998 e 2003. Tais tendências foram consistentemente observadas em ambos os sexos. Os autores chamam a atenção para a importância do suplemento de saúde da PNAD como fonte de informação para o monitoramento e/ou vigilância das condições de saúde da população idosa brasileira.This study examined trends in health conditions and use of health services by the Brazilian elderly, based on health data from the National Household Sample Surveys (PNAD conducted in 1998 and 2003. 28,943 and 35,042 individuals aged > 60 years were included in the study, respectively. The results showed an improvement in health conditions in the study population during this period, as measured by self-rated health, having remained bedridden in the previous two weeks, ability to perform selected activities of daily living, number of chronic conditions, and self-reported arthritis. There was also an increase in the number of doctor and dentist visits from 1998 to 2003. The trends were consistent for both men and women. The results emphasize the importance of the PNAD health supplement as a source of information for the surveillance or monitoring of health and health-related conditions in the Brazilian elderly population.

  13. A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in saudi arabia: a survey of junior residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadani, Fahad; Alrushood, Aziz; Altokhy, Hisham; Alasbali, Tariq

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender on outcome was assessed in a univariate fashion using the Chi-square or Fisher exact test when appropriate. A P-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant for all analyses. A total of 68 out of 85 residents (80%) responded to the survey. Over one-half of the residents preferred to pursue a fellowship within Saudi Arabia (53%), while others (25%) planned to train in North America. The majority of respondents wished to practice in an urban setting (63%). Anterior segment was the most desired subspecialty, while general ophthalmology and glaucoma were not a popular choice. Most residents were interested in refractive surgery (77%) and research (75%). The main factor influencing the decision to pursue ophthalmology was the ability to combine medicine and surgery (97%), while a positive elective experience was also an important factor, particularly for female respondents (91% vs. 57%; P < 0.001). Concerted efforts are required to encourage adoption to ophthalmic practice in public institutions rather than in private practice. In addition training in underrepresented subspecilaties should be encouraged to ensure adequate ophthalmic care for all citizens of Saudi Arabia.

  14. Vestibular Assessment and Rehabilitation: Ten-Year Survey Trends of Audiologists' Opinions and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M Dawn; Akin, Faith W; Riska, Kristal M; Andresen, Kimberly; Mondelli, Stephanie Stamps

    2016-02-01

    The past decade has yielded changes in the education and training of audiologists and technological advancements that have become widely available for clinical balance function testing. It is unclear if recent advancements in vestibular instrumentation or the transition to an AuD degree have affected audiologists' vestibular clinical practice or opinions. The purpose of this study was to examine predominant opinions and practices for vestibular assessment (VA) and vestibular rehabilitation (VR) over the past decade and between master's- and AuD-level audiologists. A 31-question survey was administered to audiologists via U.S. mail in 2003 (N = 7,500) and electronically in 2014 (N = 9,984) with a response rate of 12% and 10%, respectively. There was an increase in the number of audiologists providing vestibular services in the past decade. Most respondents agreed that audiologists were the most qualified professionals to conduct VA. Less than half of the surveyed audiologists felt that graduate training was adequate for VA. AuD-level audiologists were more satisfied with graduate training and felt more comfortable performing VA compared to master's-level audiologists. Few respondents agreed that audiologists were the most qualified professionals to conduct VR or that graduate training prepared them to conduct VR. The basic vestibular test battery was unchanged across surveys and included: calorics, smooth pursuit, saccades, search for spontaneous, positional, gaze and optokinetic nystagmus, Dix-Hallpike, case history, and hearing evaluation. There was a trend toward greater use of air (versus water) calorics, videonystagmography (versus electronystagmography), and additional tests of vestibular and balance function. VA is a growing specialty area in the field of audiology. Better training opportunities are needed to increase audiologists' knowledge and skills for providing vestibular services. The basic tests performed during VA have remained relatively unchanged

  15. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  16. National Trends and Predictors of Locally Advanced Penile Cancer in the United States (1998-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipollini, Juan; Chaing, Sharon; Peyton, Charles C; Sharma, Pranav; Kidd, Laura C; Giuliano, Anna R; Johnstone, Peter A; Spiess, Philippe E

    2017-08-12

    We analyzed the trends in presentation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis and determined the socioeconomic predictors for locally advanced (cT3-cT4) disease in the United States. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with clinically nonmetastatic penile SCC and staging available from 1998 to 2012. Temporal trends per tumor stage were evaluated, and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors for advanced presentation during the study period. A total of 5767 patients with stage ≤ T1-T2 (n = 5423) and T3-T4 (n = 344) disease were identified. Increasing trends were noted in all stages of penile SCC with a greater proportion of advanced cases over time (P = .001). Significant predictors of advanced presentation were age > 55 years, the presence of comorbidities, and Medicaid or no insurance (P guide targeted interventions in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Applications in France. National Survey Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, Andre; Equer, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The activity in France during the year 2006 is summarized according to five items: installed PV power, costs and prices, PV production, budgets and energy policy. The overall power of the systems installed in France in 2006, was estimated at 10,9 MW of which 9,4 MW are connected to the grid. A 55 % increase compared to the previous year (7,0 MW total and 5,9 MW grid-connected). Operational photovoltaic capacity at the end of 2006 is 43,9 MW. This accounts for the annual production of around 44 GWh in electrical energy. System prices continue to decrease with an 8,12 EUR/W for roof added-on PV. Some grid-connected systems with power larger than 10 kW were proposed at the turnkey price of 5 EUR/W. Prices of equipment followed trends of European market. PV modules prices (imported) increased by 20 % due to a demand greater than the offer and increase in feedstock silicon price. Concerning manufacturers of materials, cells and modules, direct production costs decreased due to the increase in volume production and introduction of innovations in the manufacturing processes thanks to R and D results transferred to production. Production of photovoltaic cells and modules by Photowatt International Company was of 33 MW in 2006 and has almost reached full production capacity. The Emix production of multi-crystalline silicon ingots using the cold crucible continuous electromagnetic casting process has reached 35 tons (3 MW equivalent) with one furnace (10 MW equivalent capacity). Tenesol is operating a 15 MW capacity PV modules manufacturing line in its subsidiary Tenesol Technologies. Another subsidiary, located in South Africa can produce up to 35 MW modules. Both factories rely upon crystalline silicon technology. Thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon PV modules on glass substrate, are produced by Free Energy at a nearly constant 0,5 MW per year. The French national R and D budget on PV, as estimated by the Ministry of Research, amounts to 24,2 MEUR including the ADEME

  18. Obesity and central adiposity in Mexican adults: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, Simón; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Flores, Mario; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón; Kanter, Rebecca; Rivera, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Mexico, and to explore trends compared to the previous Mexican National Health Survey (ENSA 2000) and to Mexican-Americans. The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) was used to describe overweight, obesity and central adiposity. Trends over time were assessed using the ENSA 2000 and by comparing the ENSANUT 2006 results to those of Mexican-Americans using the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000 and 2005-2006. A total of 33023 adults > 20 years old were included; 39.7% were found to be overweight and 29.9% were found to be obese; 75.9% of all adults had abdominal obesity. In Mexico between 2000 and 2006, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults increased approximately 12%. Mexican-Americans showed a higher prevalence of morbid obesity compared to native Mexicans. Mexico has experienced a rapid increase in the number of adults who have experienced excess weight gain between the years 2000 and 2006.

  19. Recent national trends in the use of adolescent inpatient bariatric surgery: 2000 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Deirdre C; Merrill, Chaya T; Cottrell, Linda T; Nadler, Evan P; Burd, Randall S

    2013-02-01

    To determine the current rate of inpatient bariatric surgical procedures among adolescents and to analyze national trends of use from 2000 to 2009. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Discharge data obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database, 2000 through 2009. Adolescents (defined herein as individuals aged 10-19 years) undergoing inpatient bariatric procedures. Inpatient bariatric surgery. The primary outcome measure was the national population-based bariatric procedure rate. The secondary outcome measures were trends in procedure rates and type, demographics, complication rate, length of stay, and hospital charges from 2000 through 2009. The inpatient bariatric procedure rate increased from 0.8 per 100 000 in 2000 to 2.3 per 100 000 in 2003 (328 vs 987 procedures) but did not change significantly in 2006 (2.2 per 100 000) or 2009 (2.4 per 100 000), with 925 vs 1009 procedures. The use of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding approached one-third (32.1%) of all procedures by 2009. The cohort was predominantly female and older than 17 years. The prevalence of comorbidities increased from 2003 (49.3%) to 2009 (58.6%) (P = .002), while the complication rate remained low and the in-hospital length of stay decreased by approximately 1 day (P bariatric procedures among adolescents has plateaued since 2003. The predominant procedure type has changed to minimally invasive techniques, including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Trends show low complication rates and decreasing length of stay, despite increasing comorbid conditions among patients.

  20. Methodology of the National School-based Health Survey in Malaysia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings. © 2014 APJPH.

  1. Trends in food intake in French children from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA (étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires) dietary surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Carine; Dufour, Ariane; Touvier, Mathilde; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Maire, Bernard; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the intake of different food groups in French children aged 3-17 years (n 1455), and to analyse trends since a dietary survey undertaken 8 years ago. Dietary intake was evaluated using data from the 2006-7 cross-sectional INCA2 national dietary survey (étude Individuelle Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires), based on a 7 d food record. Dietary intake (percentage of subjects consuming the food group and amount eaten) was assessed for thirty-nine food categories. We observed variations in food consumption by age, sex, North-South regional gradient, seasonal period and educational level of the responding parent. Trends in dietary intake between 1999 and 2007 were determined by comparing the INCA1 (n 1126) and the INCA2 surveys. Both surveys had been carried out using the same methodology. The findings showed a decrease in energy intake in children aged 3-14 years, due to a reduction in the consumption of foods of animal origin and sweetened products. In adolescents aged 15-17 years, energy intake remained rather stable; during this 8-year period, the consumption of meat decreased, whereas the consumption of savoury snacks such as sandwiches and hamburgers significantly increased. These trends occurred during a time of growing concern about overweight and the associated co-morbidities in France. A number of public health measures were implemented over this period to improve dietary habits and physical activity patterns in children and adults. The periodic monitoring of dietary patterns through the INCA surveys is an essential part of the surveillance network in France.

  2. Trend in the affordability of tobacco products in Bangladesh: findings from the ITC Bangladesh Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Stoklosa, Michal; Drope, Jeffrey; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Driezen, Pete; Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hussain, A K M Ghulam

    2018-04-19

    The price of tobacco products in relation to the income of tobacco users-affordability-is recognised as a key determinant of tobacco use behaviour. The effectiveness of a price increase as a deterrent to tobacco use depends on how much price increases in relation to the income of the potential users. The aim of this paper is to examine the distribution of and trends in the affordability of tobacco products in Bangladesh. Using four waves of International Tobacco Control Survey data on Bangladesh, this study measures affordability of tobacco products at the individual level as the ratio of self-reported price and self-reported income. The trends in affordability by brand categories of cigarettes and of bidi and smokeless tobacco are estimated using multivariate linear regression analysis. Despite significant increase in price, the affordability of cigarettes increased between 2009 and 2014-2015 due to income growth outpacing price increase. The increase was disproportionately larger for more expensive brands. The affordability of bidis increased over this period as well. The affordability of smokeless tobacco products remained unchanged between 2011-2012 and 2014-2015. The tax increases that were implemented during 2009-2015 were not enough to increase tobacco product prices sufficiently to outweigh the effect of income growth, and to reduce tobacco consumption. The findings from this research inform policymakers that in countries experiencing rapid economic growth, significant tax increases are needed to counteract the effect of income growth, in order for the tax increases to be effective in reducing tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. National Survey of Burnout among US General Surgery Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Leisha C; Jeffe, Donna B; Jin, Linda; Awad, Michael M; Turnbull, Isaiah R

    2017-01-01

    Background Burnout is a complex syndrome of emotional distress that can disproportionately affect individuals who work in healthcare professions. Study Design For a national survey of burnout in US general surgery residents, we asked all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited general surgery program directors to email their general surgery residents an invitation to complete an anonymous, online survey. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory; total scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA) subscales were calculated. Burnout was defined as having a score in the highest tertile for EE or DP or lowest tertile for PA. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to test associations between burnout tertiles for each subscale and various resident and training-program characteristics as appropriate. Results From April–December, 2014, 665 residents actively engaged in clinical training had data for analysis; 69% met the criterion for burnout on at least one subscale. Higher burnout on each subscale was reported by residents planning private practice compared with academic careers. A greater proportion of women than men reported burnout on EE and PA. Higher burnout on EE and DP was associated with greater work hours per week. Having a structured mentoring program was associated with lower burnout on each subscale. Conclusions The high rates of burnout among general surgery residents are concerning given the potential impact of burnout on the quality of patient care. Efforts to identify at-risk populations and to design targeted interventions to mitigate burnout in surgical trainees are warranted. PMID:27238875

  4. National Survey of Yoga Practitioners: Mental and Physical Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives to describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. Design a cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys Setting 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n = 18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Outcome Measures Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Age: 19 to 87 years (M = 51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor’s degree). Mean years of yoga practice = 11.4 (± 7.5). BMI = 12.1–49.4 (M = 23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M = 6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8 %), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Conclusions Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. PMID:23876562

  5. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) - NMVCCS XML Case Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  6. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 4-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  7. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 8-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the 8-year 2002-2009 data...

  8. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 2-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Carson National Forest, New Mexico, Part of Rio Arriba County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. Time trends, improvements and national auditing of rectal cancer management over an 18-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodeda, K; Johansson, R; Zar, N; Birgisson, H; Dahlberg, M; Skullman, S; Lindmark, G; Glimelius, B; Påhlman, L; Martling, A

    2015-09-01

    The main aims were to explore time trends in the management and outcome of patients with rectal cancer in a national cohort and to evaluate the possible impact of national auditing on overall outcomes. A secondary aim was to provide population-based data for appraisal of external validity in selected patient series. Data from the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry with virtually complete national coverage were utilized in this cohort study on 29 925 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012. Of eligible patients, nine were excluded. During the study period, overall, relative and disease-free survival increased. Postoperative mortality after 30 and 90 days decreased to 1.7% and 2.9%. The 5-year local recurrence rate dropped to 5.0%. Resection margins improved, as did peri-operative blood loss despite more multivisceral resections being performed. Fewer patients underwent palliative resection and the proportion of non-operated patients increased. The proportions of temporary and permanent stoma formation increased. Preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy became more common as did multidisciplinary team conferences. Variability in rectal cancer management between healthcare regions diminished over time when new aspects of patient care were audited. There have been substantial changes over time in the management of patients with rectal cancer, reflected in improved outcome. Much indirect evidence indicates that auditing matters, but without a control group it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the possible impact of a quality control registry on faster shifts in time trends, decreased variability and improvements. Registry data were made available for reference. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Misperceptions of "light" cigarettes abound: National survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many smokers believe that "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, which is at variance with the scientific evidence. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC aims to address this problem in Article 11 which deals with misleading labelling of tobacco products. In this study we aimed to determine smokers' use and beliefs concerning "light" and "mild" cigarettes ("lights", including in relation to ethnicity, deprivation and other socio-demographic characteristics. Methods The New Zealand (NZ arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project uses as its sampling frame the NZ Health Survey. This is a national sample with boosted sampling of Maori, Pacific peoples and Asians. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376 about use and beliefs relating to "light" cigarettes. We assessed the associations with smoking "lights" after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, and smoking-related behaviours and beliefs. Results Many smokers of "lights" believed that smoking "lights" made it easier to quit smoking (25%, that "lights" are less harmful (42%, and that smokers of "lights" take in less tar (43%. Overall most "lights" smokers (60% had at least one of these three beliefs, a proportion significantly higher than for smokers of "regular" cigarettes at 45% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.29 – 2.96. While "lights" smokers had significantly lower tobacco consumption and were more aware of smoking harms, they were no more likely to be intending to quit or have made a previous quit attempt. By ethnicity, both Maori and Pacific people were less likely to smoke "lights" than Europeans (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.35 – 0.80 and aOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05 – 0.40 respectively. In contrast there was no significant difference by level of deprivation. Roll-your-own (RYO tobacco smokers were less likely to smoke "light" forms of RYO tobacco while both older and women

  13. Cross-national trends in perceived school pressure by gender and age from 1994 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinger, Don A; Freeman, John G; Bilz, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pressure within school can be a critical component in understanding how the school experience influences young people's intellectual development, physical and mental health and future educational decisions. METHODS: Data from five survey rounds (1993/1994, 1997/1998, 2001/2002, 2005....... These findings were consistent across countries. Regionally, children in North America reported the highest levels of school pressure, and students in the Germanic countries the lowest. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with child development and differences in societal expectations and structures, along...... with the possible, albeit, differential impact of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), may partially explain the differences and trends found in school pressure. School pressure increases alongside the onset of adolescence and the shift from elementary school to the higher demanding...

  14. Trends and Correlates of Consenting to Provide Social Security Numbers: Longitudinal Findings from the General Social Survey (1993-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Shin, Hee-Choon; Rosen, Zohn; Kang, Jeong-han; Dykema, Jennifer; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and confidentiality are often of great concern to respondents answering sensitive questions posed by interviewers. Using the 1993-2010 General Social Survey, we examined trends in the provision of social security numbers (SSNs) and correlates of those responses. Results indicate that the rate of SSN provision has declined over the past…

  15. National hospital discharge survey: 2004 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lola Jean; DeFrances, Carol Jean; Hall, Margaret Jean

    2006-10-01

    This report presents 2004 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2004, data were collected for approximately 371,000 discharges. Of the 476 eligible nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 439 (92 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 34.9 million inpatients were discharged from nonfederal short-stay hospitals in 2004. They used 167.9 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Hospital use by age ranged from 4.3 million days of care for patients 5-14 years of age to 31.8 million days of care for 75-84 year olds. Almost a third of patients 85 years and over were discharged from hospitals to long-term care institutions. Diseases of the circulatory system was the leading diagnostic category for males. Childbirth was the leading category for females, followed by circulatory diseases. The proportion of HIV discharges who were 40 years of age and over increased from 40 percent in 1995 to 67 percent in 2004. The rate of cardiac catheterizations was higher for males than for females and higher for patients 65-74 and 75-84 years of age than for older or younger groups. The average length of stay for both vaginal and cesarean deliveries decreased from 1980 through 1995 but stays for vaginal deliveries increased 24 percent during the period from 1995 to 2004.

  16. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2003 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lola Jean; Lees, Karen A; DeFrances, Carol J

    2006-05-01

    This report presents 2003 national estimates and trend data on the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2003, data were collected for approximately 320,000 discharges. Of the 479 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 426 (89 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 34.7 million inpatients were discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals in 2003. They used 167.3 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Females used almost one-third more days of hospital care than males. Patients with five or more diagnoses rose from 29 percent of discharges in 1990 to 57 percent in 2003. The leading diagnostic category was respiratory diseases for children under 15 years, childbirth for 15-44 year olds, and circulatory diseases for patients 45 years of age and over. Only surgical procedures were performed for 27 percent of discharges, 18 percent had surgical and nonsurgical procedures, and 16 percent had only nonsurgical procedures. A total of 664,000 coronary angioplasties were performed, and stents were inserted during 86 percent of these procedures with drug-eluting stents used in 28 percent. The number and rate of total and primary cesarean deliveries rose from 1995 to 2003. The rate of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery dropped 58 percent, from 35.5 in 1995 to 14.8 in 2003.

  17. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2005 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrances, Carol J; Cullen, Karen A; Kozak, Lola Jean

    2007-12-01

    This report presents 2005 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey. The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2005, data were collected for approximately 375,000 discharges. Of the 473 eligible nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 444 (94 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 34.7 million discharges from nonfederal short-stay hospitals occurred in 2005. Discharges used 165.9 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Persons 65 years and over accounted for 38 percent of the hospital discharges and 44 percent of the days of care. The proportion of discharges whose status was described as routine discharge or discharged to the patient's home declined with age, from 91 percent for inpatients under 45 years of age to 41 percent for those 85 years and over. Hospitalization for malignant neoplasms decreased from 1990-2005. The hospitalization rate for asthma was the highest for children under 15 years of age and those 65 years of age and over. The rate was lowest for those 15-44 years of age. Thirty-eight percent of hospital discharges had no procedures performed, whereas 12 percent had four or more procedures performed. An episiotomy was performed during a majority of vaginal deliveries in 1980 (64 percent), but by 2005, it was performed during less than one of every five vaginal deliveries (19 percent).

  18. Trends in intensity modulated radiation therapy use for locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha Reyngold, MD, PhD; Joyce Niland, PhD; Anna ter Veer, MS; Tanios Bekaii-Saab, MD; Lily Lai, MD; Joshua E. Meyer, MD; Steven J. Nurkin, MD, MS; Deborah Schrag, MD, MPH; John M. Skibber, MD, FACS; Al B. Benson, MD; Martin R. Weiser, MD; Christopher H. Crane, MD; Karyn A. Goodman, MD, MS

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been rapidly incorporated into clinical practice because of its technological advantages over 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT). We characterized trends in IMRT utilization in trimodality treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network cancer centers between 2005 and 2011. Methods and materials: Using the prospective National Comprehensive Cancer Network Colorectal Cancer Database, ...

  19. 75 FR 43944 - Defense Science Board; Task Force on Trends and Implications of Climate Change for National and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board; Task Force on Trends and Implications of Climate Change for National and International Security AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... and Implications of Climate Change for National and International Security will meet in closed session...

  20. 75 FR 34438 - Defense Science Board Task Force on Trends and Implications of Climate Change for National and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board Task Force on Trends and Implications of Climate Change for National and International Security AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... and Implications of Climate Change for National and International Security will meet in closed session...

  1. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Abdullah, Muna; Mekonnen, Yared; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Amouzou, Agbessi; Friedman, Howard; Barros, Aluisio J D; Hounton, Sennen

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that family planning contributes to the decline in child mortality by decreasing the proportions of births that are considered high risk. The main objective of the present analysis was to examine the trends in use of modern contraceptives and their relationship with total fertility rate (TFR) and distribution of births by demographic risk factors as defined by mother's age, birth interval, and birth order at the sub-national level in Ethiopia. Analyses used data from three Demographic and Health Surveys in Ethiopia (2000, 2005, and 2011), which are nationally representative data collected through questionnaire-based interviews from women 15-49 using a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. First, we examined the trends of and relationship between TFR (in the 3 years before each survey) and modern contraceptive use among currently married women in all administrative regions over the time period 2000-2011 using linear regression analysis. We also examined the relationship between birth risks and under-five mortality using the no-risk group as a reference. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the effect of being a resident in one of the regions and having an avoidable birth risk (which includes births to mothers younger than 18 and older than 34 years, birth interval of less than 24 months and birth order higher than third) after adjusting for select covariates including wealth, educational status, residence, religion and exposure to family planning information. Sub-national-level regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between modern contraceptive use among married women and the TFR, with an average decrease of TFR by one child per woman associated with a 13 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive use between 2000 and 2011. A high percentage of births in Ethiopia (62%) fall in one of the risk categories (excluding first births), with wide regional variation from 55% in

  2. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Shiferaw

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence shows that family planning contributes to the decline in child mortality by decreasing the proportions of births that are considered high risk. The main objective of the present analysis was to examine the trends in use of modern contraceptives and their relationship with total fertility rate (TFR and distribution of births by demographic risk factors as defined by mother's age, birth interval, and birth order at the sub-national level in Ethiopia. Design: Analyses used data from three Demographic and Health Surveys in Ethiopia (2000, 2005, and 2011, which are nationally representative data collected through questionnaire-based interviews from women 15–49 using a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. First, we examined the trends of and relationship between TFR (in the 3 years before each survey and modern contraceptive use among currently married women in all administrative regions over the time period 2000–2011 using linear regression analysis. We also examined the relationship between birth risks and under-five mortality using the no-risk group as a reference. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the effect of being a resident in one of the regions and having an avoidable birth risk (which includes births to mothers younger than 18 and older than 34 years, birth interval of less than 24 months and birth order higher than third after adjusting for select covariates including wealth, educational status, residence, religion and exposure to family planning information. Results: Sub-national-level regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between modern contraceptive use among married women and the TFR, with an average decrease of TFR by one child per woman associated with a 13 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive use between 2000 and 2011. A high percentage of births in Ethiopia (62% fall in one of the risk categories (excluding first

  3. Trends in mass media exposure upon women: A review of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Jahan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background With the rapid advancement of technology, mass media acquired widespread exposure upon major portion of the world population. The overall media platform has smooth access into peoples’ everyday lifestyle through routine tele transmission of all the existing media (such as broadcast, print, digital, outdoor media etc.. Mass media platform is one of the few most powerful influential factors causing dynamic behavioral changes. Objective To assess mass media exposure and it’s changing trends in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS from 1993- 94 to 2014. Methods The study used data from the published reports of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS 1993-1994 to BDHS 2014. Results In the years of 1999-2000, 2004, 2007, 2014 women aged 20-24 years (41%, 54%, 56%, 57% respectively have passed more time watching television in weekly basis than the other age groups. Higher percentage was observed among the educated women than uneducated from 1999-2000 to 2014 who has made access to all three media (television, radio and newspaper at least once a week. Proportion of women who had accessed all three media at least once a week was much higher in the highest quintile families than the lowest quintile families and more exposure in urban women than the rural women. The region-wise coverage was higher in 1999-2000 in case of Chittagong (5.2%, Dhaka (4.7%, Khulna (5.1%, Rajshahi (3.1%, and Sylhet (3.9% division with access to all three media at least once a week except Barisal division. Conclusion Findings show higher percentage of television watching tendency among comparatively more educated and economically flourished urban women. Therefore, the major policy challenge addressees the need for designing of communications strategies targeting the less privileged, rural and illiterate people who constitute the majority of population in Bangladesh.

  4. Music Therapy Practice Status and Trends Worldwide: An International Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Petra; Tague, Daniel B

    2017-11-01

    The field of music therapy is growing worldwide. While there is a wealth of country-specific information available, only a few have databased workforce censuses. Currently, little to no descriptive data exists about the global development of the profession. The purpose of this study was to obtain descriptive data about current demographics, practice status, and clinical trends to inform worldwide advocacy efforts, training needs, and the sustainable development of the field. Music therapists (N = 2,495) who were professional members of organizations affiliated with the World Federation of Music Therapy (WFMT) served as a sample for this international cross-sectional survey study. A 30-item online questionnaire was designed, pilot tested by key partners, and translated into seven languages. Researchers and key partners distributed the online survey through e-mail invitations and social media announcements. Professional music therapists worldwide are well-educated, mature professionals with adequate work experience, who are confident in providing high-quality services primarily in mental health, school, and geriatric settings. Due to ongoing challenges related to recognition and government regulation of the field as an evidence-based and well-funded healthcare profession, most individuals work part-time music therapy jobs and feel underpaid. Yet, many music therapists have a positive outlook on the field's future. Continued research and advocacy efforts, as well as collaborations with lobbyists, business consultants, and credentialing/licensure experts to develop progressive strategies, will be crucial for global development and sustainability of the field. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Location matters: trends in inequalities in child mortality in Indonesia. Evidence from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Andrew; Firth, Sonja; Marthias, Tiara; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable improvements in life expectancy and other human development indicators in Indonesia are thought to mask considerable disparities between populations in the country. We examine the existence and extent of these disparities by measuring trends and inequalities in the under-five mortality rate and neonatal mortality rate across wealth, education and geography. Using data from seven waves of the Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys, direct estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were generated for 1980-2011. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured by rate differences and ratios, and where possible, slope and relative indices of inequality. Disparities were assessed by levels of rural/urban location, island groups, maternal education and household wealth. Declines in national rates of under-five and neonatal mortality have accorded with reductions of absolute inequalities in clusters stratified by wealth, maternal education and rural/urban location. Across these groups, relative inequalities have generally stabilised, with possible increases with respect to mortality across wealth subpopulations. Both relative and absolute inequalities in rates of under-five and neonatal mortality stratified by island divisions have widened. Indonesia has made considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, with the largest reductions happening before the Asian financial crisis (1997-98) and decentralisation (2000). Hasty implementation of decentralisation reforms may have contributed to a slowdown in mortality rate reduction thereafter. Widening inequities between the most developed provinces of Java-Bali and those of other island groupings should be of particular concern for a country embarking on an ambitious plan for universal health coverage by 2019. A focus on addressing the key supply side barriers to accessing health care and on the social determinants of health in remote and disadvantaged regions will

  6. Location matters: trends in inequalities in child mortality in Indonesia. Evidence from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodge

    Full Text Available Considerable improvements in life expectancy and other human development indicators in Indonesia are thought to mask considerable disparities between populations in the country. We examine the existence and extent of these disparities by measuring trends and inequalities in the under-five mortality rate and neonatal mortality rate across wealth, education and geography.Using data from seven waves of the Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys, direct estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were generated for 1980-2011. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured by rate differences and ratios, and where possible, slope and relative indices of inequality. Disparities were assessed by levels of rural/urban location, island groups, maternal education and household wealth.Declines in national rates of under-five and neonatal mortality have accorded with reductions of absolute inequalities in clusters stratified by wealth, maternal education and rural/urban location. Across these groups, relative inequalities have generally stabilised, with possible increases with respect to mortality across wealth subpopulations. Both relative and absolute inequalities in rates of under-five and neonatal mortality stratified by island divisions have widened.Indonesia has made considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, with the largest reductions happening before the Asian financial crisis (1997-98 and decentralisation (2000. Hasty implementation of decentralisation reforms may have contributed to a slowdown in mortality rate reduction thereafter. Widening inequities between the most developed provinces of Java-Bali and those of other island groupings should be of particular concern for a country embarking on an ambitious plan for universal health coverage by 2019. A focus on addressing the key supply side barriers to accessing health care and on the social determinants of health in remote and

  7. Do patient surveys work? The influence of a national survey programme on local quality-improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R; Seccombe, I

    2008-12-01

    To assess current attitudes towards the national patient survey programme in England, establish the extent to which survey results are used and identify barriers and incentives for using them. Qualitative interviews with hospital staff responsible for implementing the patient surveys (survey leads). National Health Service (NHS) hospital organisations (trusts) in England. Twenty-four patient survey leads for NHS trusts. Perceptions of the patient surveys were mainly positive and were reported to be improving. Interviewees welcomed the surveys' regular repetition and thought the questionnaires, survey methods and reporting of results, particularly inter-organisational benchmark charts, were of a good standard. The survey results were widely used in action planning and were thought to support organisational patient-centredness. There was variation in the extent to which trusts disseminated survey findings to patients, the public, staff and their board members. The most common barrier to using results was difficulty engaging clinicians because survey findings were not sufficiently specific to specialties, departments or wards. Limited statistical expertise and concerns that the surveys only covered a short time frame also contributed to some scepticism. Other perceived barriers included a lack of knowledge of effective interventions, and limited time and resources. Actual and potential incentives for using survey findings included giving the results higher weightings in the performance management system, financial targets, Payment by Results (PbR), Patient Choice, a patient-centred culture, leadership by senior members of the organisation, and boosting staff morale by disseminating positive survey findings. The national patient surveys are viewed positively, their repetition being an important factor in their success. The results could be used more effectively if they were more specific to smaller units.

  8. Nursing procedures during continuous renal replacement therapies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Benelli, Sonia; Barbarigo, Fabio; Cocozza, Giulia; Pettinelli, Noemi; Di Luca, Emanuela; Mettifogo, Mariangela; Toniolo, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The current role of nurses in the management of critically ill patients needing continuous renal replacement therapies is clearly fundamental. The care of these complex patients is typically shared by critical care and dialysis nurses: their precise duties may vary from country to country. To clarify this issue we conducted a national-level survey at a recent Italian course on nursing practices during continuous renal replacement therapies. A total of 119 questionnaires were analysed. The participants, who were equally divided between critical care and dialysis nurses, came from 44 different hospitals and 35 Italian cities. Overall, 23% of participants answered that "the dialysis staff" were responsible for continuous renal replacement therapies in the Intensive Care Unit, while 39% answered "the critical care nurse", and 38% "a shared organization". Interestingly, less than the half of participants claimed specific continuous renal replacement therapies training was provided to employees before handling an acute dialysis machine. Finally, about 60% of participants had experience of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation machines used in conjunction with continuous renal replacement therapies. Workload coordination and management of critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapies in Italy is not standardized. At present, the duties of critical care and dialysis nurses vary significantly across the country. They frequently overlap or leave gaps in the assistance received by patients. The role of nurses involved in the care of continuous renal replacement therapies patients in Italy currently requires better organization, possibly starting with intensive standardized training and educational programs.

  9. Contextualizing educational differences in "vaccination uptake": A thirty nation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarovs, Kirils; Achterberg, Peter

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses the issue of public acceptance of vaccination with specific attention being paid to the role of education in vaccine uptake. Using Flash Eurobarometer 287 (2009) survey data and exploring it through the lens of Beck's reflexive modernization and Roger's protection motivation theories we examined how individual-level factors affect intention to get vaccinated, particularly aimed at examining whether higher education predicts more or less vaccination intention in different societies. The empirical results support an idea that at least for seasonal flu educational differences in vaccination uptake are contextual upon the reflexivity of the society in which respondent happens to live. Educated people living in more reflexive modernized countries tend to oppose vaccination against seasonal flu more that those highly educated living in less advanced societies, indicating that skeptical attitude towards science that is intrinsic to the modern post-industrial nations induces the immunization opposition among most informed and distrustful social group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [French residents' training in instrumental deliveries: A national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, C; Raimond, E; Dupont, A; Pelissier, A; Bonneau, S; Gabriel, R; Graesslin, O

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate French residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology's training in instrumental deliveries in 2015. We conducted a national descriptive survey among 758 residents between December 2014 and January 2015. Respondents were invited by email to specify their University Hospital, their current university term, the number of instrumental deliveries performed by vacuum extractor, forceps or spatulas, and whether they made systematic ultrasound exams before performing the extraction. Response rate was 34.7 % (n=263). There were important differences between regions in terms of type of instruments used. Vacuum extractor was the most commonly used instrument for instrumental deliveries by French residents (56.9 %), more than forceps (25.2 %) and spatulas (17.9 %). At the end of the residency, all the residents had been trained in instrumental deliveries with at least two instruments. The training of difficult techniques as well as their perfect control is required for instrumental deliveries. Yet, we are forced to note that there are substantial differences in the French residents' training in instrumental deliveries depending on their region. So, teaching at least two techniques seems essential as well as improving the training capacities and standardizing practices. A greater systematization of the teaching of the mechanics and obstetric techniques might be a solution to be considered too. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. National Training Center Fort Irwin expansion area aquatic resources survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    Biologists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were requested by personnel from Fort Irwin to conduct a biological reconnaissance of the Avawatz Mountains northeast of Fort Irwin, an area for proposed expansion of the Fort. Surveys of vegetation, small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and aquatic resources were conducted during 1995 to characterize the populations and habitats present with emphasis on determining the presence of any species of special concern. This report presents a description of the sites sampled, a list of the organisms found and identified, and a discussion of relative abundance. Taxonomic identifications were done to the lowest level possible commensurate with determining the status of the taxa relative to its possible listing as a threatened, endangered, or candidate species. Consultation with taxonomic experts was undertaken for the Coleoptera ahd Hemiptera. In addition to listing the macroinvertebrates found, the authors also present a discussion related to the possible presence of any threatened or endangered species or species of concern found in Sheep Creek Springs, Tin Cabin Springs, and the Amargosa River.

  12. Media education in pediatric residencies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Frintner, Mary Pat; Mulligan, Deborah A; Fuld, Gilbert L; Olson, Lynn M

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the current state of residency education with respect to counseling parents about media usage and whether trainees consider it to be adequate. A national survey of graduating pediatric residents was conducted in the United States to determine the amount of training they receive on traditional and new media, their perceptions of its quality, and their self-reported practices regarding talking to families about media usage. A 58% response rate was achieved with no evidence of response bias based on age or gender. Only 38% rated their residency program as "very good" or "excellent" in preparing them to provide anticipatory guidance on the effects of media on children and adolescents. In logistic regression analyses, controlling for demographic characteristics, more training on media issues was a significant predictor for usually/always advising families on traditional, passive media (adjusted odds ratio = 3.29; 95% confidence interval 2.26-4.81) and usually/always advising families on new, interactive media use (adjusted odds ratio = 3.96; 95% confidence interval 2.61-6.00) during well-child visits. The majority of residents believe their training on children in media is inadequate. Enhanced training on media is needed in US pediatric residencies. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perspectives on global health amongst obstetrician gynecologists: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Sarah Rae; Raglan, Greta B; Little, Sarah E; Schulkin, Jay; Robinson, Julian N

    2018-02-01

    Objective To characterize contemporary attitudes toward global health amongst board-certified obstetricians-gynecologists (Ob-Gyns) in the US. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Respondents were stratified by interest and experience in global health and group differences were reported. Results A total of 202 of 400 (50.5%) surveys were completed; and 67.3% ( n = 136) of respondents expressed an interest in global health while 25.2% ( n = 51) had experience providing healthcare abroad. Personal safety was the primary concern of respondents (88 of 185, 47.6%), with 44.5% (57 of 128) identifying 2 weeks as an optimal period of time to spend abroad. The majority (113 of 186, 60.8%) cited hosting of local physicians in the US as the most valuable service to developing a nation's healthcare provision. Conclusion Despite high interest in global health, willingness to spend significant time abroad was limited. Concerns surrounding personal safety dovetailed with the belief that training local physicians in the US provides the most valuable service to international efforts. These attitudes and concerns suggest novel solutions will be required to increase involvement of Ob-Gyns in global women's health.

  14. Child obesity service provision: a cross-sectional survey of physiotherapy practice trends and professional needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Nikki; Choy, Nancy Low; Leong, Gary M; Hughes, Roger; Hing, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This study explored current physiotherapy practice trends for management of children who are overweight or obese. The professional needs of physiotherapists working with this population were also assessed, including the perceived need for physiotherapy clinical guidelines for prevention and management of children with obesity. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with questionnaires purposefully distributed through 13 key physiotherapy services throughout Australia. Snowball sampling resulted in completed questionnaires from 64 physiotherapists who provided services to children. Half (n=33, 52%) of respondents provided services specifically to overweight or obese children. Of those providing services, one-quarter had prior training specific to working with this population. Most used multi-disciplinary models (n=16, 76%) and provided under 5h of obesity-related services each week (n=29, 88%). Half (n=16, 49%) used body mass index as an outcome measure but more (n=25, 76%) used bodyweight. Only 14 (42%) assessed motor skills. The majority of respondents (n=57, 89%) indicated a need for physiotherapy guidelines to best manage overweight and obese children. Professional development priorities included: 'Educating children and families', 'Assessment methods' and 'Exercise prescription' for overweight and obese children. This data provides workforce intelligence to guide future professional training and inform development of clinical guidelines for physiotherapists in prevention and management of children with obesity and related chronic disease.

  15. The SLUGGS survey: globular cluster stellar population trends from weak absorption lines in stacked spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Conroy, Charlie; Foster, Caroline; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Arnold, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey, we stack 1137 Keck DEIMOS (Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph) spectra of globular clusters from 10 galaxies to study their stellar populations in detail. The stacked spectra have median signal-to-noise ratios of ˜90 Å-1. Besides the calcium triplet, we study weaker sodium, magnesium, titanium and iron lines as well as the Hα and higher order Paschen hydrogen lines. In general, the stacked spectra are consistent with old ages and a Milky Way-like initial mass function. However, we see different metal line index strengths at fixed colour and magnitude, and differences in the calcium triplet-colour relation from galaxy to galaxy. We interpret this as strong evidence for variations in the globular cluster colour-metallicity relation between galaxies. Two possible explanations for the colour-metallicity relation variations are that the average ages of globular clusters vary from galaxy to galaxy or that the average abundances of light elements (i.e. He, C, N and O) differ between galaxies. Stacking spectra by magnitude, we see that the colours become redder and metal line indices stronger with brighter magnitudes. These trends are consistent with the previously reported `blue tilts' being mass-metallicity relations.

  16. Variations in teenage birth rates, 1991-98: national and state trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S J; Curtin, S C; Mathews, T J

    2000-04-24

    This report presents national birth rates for teenagers for 1991-98 and the percent change, 1991-98. State-specific teenage birth rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin for 1991 and 1998 and the percent change, 1991 to 1998, are also presented. Tabular and graphical descriptions of the trends in teenage birth rates for the Nation and each State, by age group, race, and Hispanic origin of the mother, are discussed. Birth rates for teenagers 15-19 years declined nationally between 1991 and 1998 for all age and race and Hispanic origin populations, with the steepest declines recorded for black teenagers. State-specific rates fell significantly in all States for ages 15-19 years; declines ranged from 10 to 38 percent. In general, rates by State fell more for younger than for older teenagers, ranging by State from 10 to 46 percent for ages 15-17 years. Statistically significant reductions for older teenagers ranged from 3 to 39 percent. Reductions by State were largest for black teenagers 15-19 years, with rates falling 30 percent or more in 15 States. Among the factors accounting for these declines are decreased sexual activity, increases in condom use, and the adoption of the implant and injectable contraceptives.

  17. Traffic Tech : National Telephone Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted its third national telephone survey of distracted driving to monitor the public's attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior about cell phone use and texting while driving, an...

  18. National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births (NPHS-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...

  19. Water-quality characteristics and trends for selected wells possibly influenced by wastewater disposal at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 1981-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Fisher, Jason C.; Maimer, Neil V.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, analyzed water-quality data collected from 64 aquifer wells and 35 perched groundwater wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from 1981 through 2012. The wells selected for the study were wells that possibly were affected by wastewater disposal at the INL. The data analyzed included tritium, strontium-90, major cations, anions, nutrients, trace elements, total organic carbon, and volatile organic compounds. The analyses were performed to examine water-quality trends that might influence future management decisions about the number of wells to sample at the INL and the type of constituents to monitor.

  20. National Prevalence and Trends of HIV Transmitted Drug Resistance in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; García-Morales, Claudia; Garrido-Rodríguez, Daniela; Ormsby, Christopher E.; Hernández-Juan, Ramón; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; González-Hernández, Luz A.; Torres-Escobar, Indiana; Navarro-Álvarez, Samuel; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Background Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) remains an important concern for the management of HIV infection, especially in countries that have recently scaled-up antiretroviral treatment (ART) access. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a study to assess HIV diversity and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) prevalence and trends in Mexico. 1655 ART-naïve patients from 12 Mexican states were enrolled from 2005 to 2010. TDR was assessed from plasma HIV pol sequences using Stanford scores and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. TDR prevalence fluctuations over back-projected dates of infection were tested. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Mexico (99.9%). TDR prevalence (Stanford score>15) in the country for the study period was 7.4% (95% CI, 6.2∶8.8) and 6.8% (95% CI, 5.7∶8.2) based on the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. NRTI TDR was the highest (4.2%), followed by NNRTI (2.5%) and PI (1.7%) TDR. Increasing trends for NNRTI (p = 0.0456) and PI (p = 0.0061) major TDR mutations were observed at the national level. Clustering of viruses containing minor TDR mutations was observed with some apparent transmission pairs and geographical effects. Conclusions TDR prevalence in Mexico remains at the intermediate level and is slightly lower than that observed in industrialized countries. Whether regional variations in TDR trends are associated with differences in antiretroviral drug usage/ART efficacy or with local features of viral evolution remains to be further addressed. PMID:22110765