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Sample records for national population survey

  1. Symposium on cross national comparisons: Youth population surveys about child maltreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions...... of the world where epidemiologic data has not been previously available. Organizers will request in advance that the presenters include some data in formats that can be compared across studies. In a final session, the organizers will lead a discussion about the challenges of national surveys and cross national...

  2. Secondary Data Analysis of National Surveys in Japan Toward Improving Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu

    2016-01-01

    Secondary data analysis of national health surveys of the general population is a standard methodology for health metrics and evaluation; it is used to monitor trends in population health over time and benchmark the performance of health systems. In Japan, the government has established electronic databases of individual records from national surveys of the population’s health. However, the number of publications based on these datasets is small considering the scale and coverage of the surveys. There appear to be two major obstacles to the secondary use of Japanese national health survey data: strict data access control under the Statistics Act and an inadequate interdisciplinary research environment for resolving methodological difficulties encountered when dealing with secondary data. The usefulness of secondary analysis of survey data is evident with examples from the author’s previous studies based on vital records and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, which showed that (i) tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases in Japan; (ii) the decrease in mean blood pressure in Japan from the late 1980s to the early 2000s was partly attributable to the increased use of antihypertensive medication and reduced dietary salt intake; and (iii) progress in treatment coverage and control of high blood pressure is slower in Japan than in the United States and Britain. National health surveys in Japan are an invaluable asset, and findings from secondary analyses of these surveys would provide important suggestions for improving health in people around the world. PMID:26902170

  3. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey.

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    Parinita Bhattacharjee

    Full Text Available In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya.

  4. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  5. Dietary Energy Density in the Australian Adult Population from National Nutrition Surveys 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda Lee; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    It is hypothesized that the observed proliferation of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods globally is an important contributing factor to the development of the obesity epidemic. However, evidence that the population's dietary energy density has increased is sparse. The World Cancer Research Fund recommends that dietary energy density be density of the Australian population has changed between 1995 and 2012. A secondary analysis of two cross-sectional Australian national nutrition surveys from 1995 and 2011/2012 was conducted. Participants of the surveys included adults aged 18 years and older (1995 n=10,986 and 2011/2012 n=9,435) completing 24-hour dietary recalls, including a second recall for a subset of the population (10.4% in 1995 and 64.6% in 2011/2012). Outcome measures included the change in dietary energy density (calculated as energy/weight of food [kcal/g] for food only) between surveys. The National Cancer Institute method for "estimating ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day" was used to determine the usual distribution and the percentage of participants reporting energy density density was 1.59 (0.26) kcal/g and 1.64 (0.32) kcal/g (Pdensity recommendations. For those aged 70 years and older, the percentage with energy density density density has increased between the two surveys and few people consumed low energy-dense diets in line with recommendations. The change was largely due to increased energy density of older adult's diets, while young adults had high dietary energy density at both time points. These data suggest efforts now focus on the evaluation of the role of modifying energy density of the diet to reduce the risk of weight gain in adults. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

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    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  7. National Surveys of Population Health: Big Data Analytics for Mobile Health Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Bruce R

    2015-12-01

    At the core of the healthcare crisis is fundamental lack of actionable data. Such data could stratify individuals within populations to predict which persons have which outcomes. If baselines existed for all variations of all conditions, then managing health could be improved by matching the measuring of individuals to their cohort in the population. The scale required for complete baselines involves effective National Surveys of Population Health (NSPH). Traditionally, these have been focused upon acute medicine, measuring people to contain the spread of epidemics. In recent decades, the focus has moved to chronic conditions as well, which require smaller measures over longer times. NSPH have long utilized quality of life questionnaires. Mobile Health Monitors, where computing technologies eliminate manual administration, provide richer data sets for health measurement. Older technologies of telephone interviews will be replaced by newer technologies of smartphone sensors to provide deeper individual measures at more frequent timings across larger-sized populations. Such continuous data can provide personal health records, supporting treatment guidelines specialized for population cohorts. Evidence-based medicine will become feasible by leveraging hundreds of millions of persons carrying mobile devices interacting with Internet-scale services for Big Data Analytics.

  8. [A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-30

    In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19

  9. Pain profiles in a community dwelling population following spinal cord injury: a national survey.

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    Burke, Dearbhla; Fullen, Brona M; Lennon, Olive

    2017-07-24

    While as many as 60% of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop chronic pain, limited data currently exists on the prevalence and profile of pain post-SCI in community dwelling populations. A cross-sectional population survey. Primary care. Community dwelling adults with SCI. Following ethical approval members registered to a national SCI database (n=1,574) were surveyed. The survey included demographic and SCI characteristics items, the International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Basic Data Set (version 1) the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire (interview) and questions relating to health care utilisation. Data were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 20) Significance was set P < 0.05 for between group comparisons. In total 643 (41%) surveys were returned with 458 (71%) respondents experiencing pain in the previous week. Neuropathic pain (NP) was indicated in 236 (37%) of responses and nociceptive pain in 206 (32%) Common treatments for pain included medications n=347 (76%) massage n=133 (29%) and heat n=115 (25%). Respondents with NP reported higher pain intensities and increased healthcare service utilisation (P= < 0.001) when compared to those with nociceptive pain presentations. A higher proportion of females than males reported pain (P = 0.003) and NP (P = 0.001) and those unemployed presented with greater NP profiles compared with those in education or employment (P = 0.006). Pain, in particular NP post SCI interferes with daily life, increases health service utilisation and remains refractory to current management strategies. Increased availability of multi-disciplinary pain management and further research into management strategies is warranted.

  10. [High prevalence of malnutrition among the indigenous early childhood population in Mexico. National Nutrition Survey 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Zúñiga, María Concepción; Madrigal Fritsch, Herlinda; Villa, Antonio R; Guarneros Soto, Noé

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition among the indigenous early childhood population is still currently a serious public health problem, and given that no specific studies affording the possibility of knowing the nutritional condition of this population, the question was posed of identifying the prevalence of malnutrition among the indigenous population of Mexico by means of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey. A rural sample was selected from the Northern, Central and Southern regions where 70% or more of the population speak an indigenous language. The weight/age, height/age and weight/height Score Z desviations was calculated for 3,236 preschoolers and 4,899 school-age children. Nationwide and by regions, there were no difference by age group regarding the prevalences of the three indicators. By regions, for preschoolers, the South showed the highest prevalences of underheight (69.8%) and underweight (49.8%) than the North (respectively 36.1% and 22.6%), entailing statistically significant differences (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.04). For overweight and obesity, the North showed a 14.2% prevalence, and the South 5.6% (p < 0.05) for the same age group. The nutritional condition of the children studied reveals a geographical polarization, the greatest prevalences related to underheight and underweight children being found in southern Mexico, whilst those due to overalimentation were located in the North, this phenomenon possibly being due to lifestyles and availability of food differing from one region to the other.

  11. Low Back Pain Prevalence and Associated Factors in Iranian Population: Findings from the National Health Survey

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    Akbar Biglarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are very few studies that had a sample size sufficient to explore the association between factors related to low back pain in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Objective. To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, smoking, obesity, and low back pain in Iranian people. Methods. We used Iranian adults respondents (n=25307 from the National Health Survey. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of low back pain was found in 29.3% of the studied sample. High age, female sex, being married, obesity, low-economic index, being smoker, in a rural residence, and low educational attainment, all increased the odds of low back pain. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence on the importance of obesity in relation to low back pain. These results can be used as a basis to reinforce health programs to prevent obesity.

  12. [Alcohol Consumption in the Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo Andrés; Rodriguez, Viviana; Rincón, Carlos J; Morales, Diana Cabrera; Rodríguez, Sandy Johanna Pérez; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    National Survey of Mental Health (ENSM) in 2015 in Colombia asks, among other conditions, about alcohol consumption in people 12-17 years old, and 18 and older. Data were presented by age and region, with no cross-references to other categories of mental health problems, disorders, access to services, and health status. To assess alcohol consumption in Colombia, taking into account sociodemographic and clinical screening categories included. Secondary database analysis, sample size: 15,231 people from 13,200 households of five regions (Atlantic, Bogotá, Central, Eastern, and Pacific), with an age range from 12 to 96 years. AUDIT and AUDIT-C were used and stratified according to score and other variables included in the survey analysis. The high-risk drinking category was observed in 2.7% of children studied, with the highest percentage of drinking risk lying in the range of 18 to 44 years, with a clear majority of men. The study finds that a positive AUDIT-C in adults is associated with a higher percentage of non-anxiety, less anxiety problems, and traumatic events and traumatic events related to armed conflict. This requires further studies. Adults with positive AUDIT-C have a greater perception of well-being, but also a higher percentage of households in poverty. The study of individual, social, family and environmental factors in specific populations should be developed in order to make more appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  13. Population need for primary eye care in Rwanda: A national survey.

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    Tess Bright

    Full Text Available Universal access to Primary Eye Care (PEC is a key global initiative to reduce and prevent avoidable causes of visual impairment (VI. PEC can address minor eye conditions, simple forms of uncorrected refractive error (URE and create a referral pathway for specialist eye care, thus offering a potential solution to a lack of eye health specialists in low-income countries. However, there is little information on the population need for PEC, including prevalence of URE in all ages in Sub-Saharan Africa.A national survey was conducted of people aged 7 and over in Rwanda in September-December 2016. Participants were selected through two-stage probability proportional to size sampling and compact segment sampling. VI (visual acuity<6/12 was assessed using Portable Eye Examination Kit (PEEK; URE was detected using a pinhole and presbyopia using local near vision test. We also used validated questionnaires to collect socio-demographic and minor eye symptoms information. Prevalence estimates for VI, URE and need for PEC (URE, presbyopia with good distance vision, need for referrals and minor eye conditions were age and sex standardized to the Rwandan population. Associations between age, sex, socio-economic status and the key outcomes were examined using logistic regression.4618 participants were examined and interviewed out of 5361 enumerated (86% response rate. The adjusted population prevalence of VI was 3.7% (95%CI = 3.0-4.5%, URE was 2.2% (95%CI = 1.7-2.8% and overall need for PEC was 34.0% (95%CI = 31.8-36.4%. Women and older people were more likely to need PEC and require a referral.Nearly a third of the population in Rwanda has the potential to benefit from PEC, with greater need identified in older people and women. Universal access to PEC can address unmet eye health needs and public health planning needs to ensure equitable access to older people and women.

  14. After the First Steps: The Evolution of the National Population Health Survey

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    Yeo, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMany changes take place over the lifetime of a longitudinal panel survey.Changing priorities, new supplements, and conflicting demands are factors that may be unforeseen. Theevolution of the National Population Health Survey (NPHS since its first cycle in 1994/95 isdiscussed in this context. Statistics Canada contacts panel members every two years for twenty years,to estimate the health of Canadians and its determinants, health care use, and other characteristics.The NPHS was designed to provide both longitudinal and cross-sectional estimates, and to allow sampleand content supplements. Thsi paper describes the NPHS and the changes in focus needed to move thepanel forward to Cycle 2 and beyond.FrenchPlusieurs changements ont lieu pendant la vie d'une enquête longitudinale parpanel. Les changements de priorités, de nouveaux suppléments, et des demandesconflictuelles sont des facteurs qui peuvent ne pas avoir été prévus. L'évolution del'Enquête nationale sur la santé de la population (ENSP depuis son premier cycleen 1994/95 est discuté dans ce contexte. Statistique Canada contacte les membresdu panel tous les deux ans pendant vingt ans, pour estimer la santé des Canadienset ses déterminants, l'utilisation des soins de santé, et d'autres caractéristiques.L'ENSP a été conçu pour fournir des estimations longitudinales et transversales, etpour permettre l'ajout d'échantillon et de contenu supplémentaires. Ce papier décritl'ENSP et les mises au point nécessaires pour mener le panel au deuxième cycle etau-delà.

  15. Profiling the mobile-only population in Australia: insights from the Australian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Bernard; Haynes, Michele; Dinsdale, Shane; Western, Mark; Pennay, Darren

    2016-10-01

    The Australian population that relies on mobile phones exclusively has increased from 5% in 2005 to 29% in 2014. Failing to include this mobile-only population leads to a potential bias in estimates from landline-based telephone surveys. This paper considers the impacts on selected health prevalence estimates with and without the mobile-only population. Using data from the Australian Health Survey - which, for the first time, included a question on telephone status - we examined demographic, geographic and health differences between the landline-accessible and mobile-only population. These groups were also compared to the full population, controlling for the sampling design and differential non-response patterns in the observed sample through weighting and benchmarking. The landline-accessible population differs from the mobile-only population for selected health measures resulting in biased prevalence estimates for smoking, alcohol risk and private health insurance coverage in the full population. The differences remain even after adjusting for age and gender. Using landline telephones only for conducting population health surveys will have an impact on prevalence rate estimates of health risk factors due to the differing profiles of the mobile-only population from the landline-accessible population. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

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    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  17. [Poverty and Mental Disorders in the Colombian Population: National Mental Health Survey 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitian, Hoover; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael E; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Poverty has been associated in some studies with poorer outcomes in mental problems and disorders. A circular relationship has been considered in which poverty fosters the appearance of mental illness and this facilitates greater poverty. There are no studies in Colombia on this subject. To describe the association between mental problems and disorders and poverty according to the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in Colombia. Using the 2015 National Mental Health Survey, adjusted with the expansion factors for the population. The prevalences of mental problems and disorders obtained through semi-structured interviews employing the instruments SRQ-20, AUDIT C and A, modified PCL, familiar APGAR and CIDI CAPI. The poverty status was determined by the MPI. A total of 13,200 households were interviewed, of which 13.5% were classified as in a poverty condition, 6.3% of the adolescents of poor households reported a life-time prevalence of any mental disorder, and 4.6% in the last 12 months. On the other hand, the prevalences for the same age group not in a poverty condition were 7.2% and 3.3%, respectively. For adults in poverty, the prevalence of life-time mental disorders were 9.2%, with 4.3% in the last year, while those not considered poor showed prevalences of 9.1% and 3.9% for the same time periods. For the population of Colombia, there is a relationship between not being able to access the basic basket of goods and the presence of mental diseases, although there does not seems to be an association between an increase in poverty and the deterioration of mental health. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. [Personality Traits Screening in a Colombian Adult Population Sample - Colombian National Survey of Mental Health-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. [Self-reporting of road traffic accidents in a national survey of urban population in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paolo; Gutiérrez, César; Romaní, Franco

    2010-06-01

    To estimate the frequency of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the previous year in the general population and to determine the associated factors. We conducted a secondary analysis of the data of the III National Survey of Drug Use in the General Population of Peru, 2006. We measured socio-demographical variables: age, gender, place of origin, educational level and marital status. We also evaluated the use of legal, illegal and medical drugs. The independent variable was the self-reporting of a road traffic accident. We performed the descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis of the socio-demographical variables and the drug use (legal and illegal), together with the self-reporting of the traffic accident. The frequency of reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year according to the survey was 2.93% (95%CI: 2.92-2.94). The associated factors for self-reporting of a road traffic accident were: to live in the jungle areas (OR: 2.03; 95%CI:1.55-2.65), male gender (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.46-2.22), legal drugs use in the last year (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.53-2.55), alcohol consumption in the last year (OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.44-2.32) and medical drugs use in the last year (OR: 2.45, 95%CI 1.63-3.68). The prevalence of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year was very high compared to similar studies and other reporting sources. The variables associated with having had a traffic accident were: living in the jungle area, being male, legal drug use in the last month, especially alcohol and medical drug use in the last month. It is necessary to think carefully about the information system of the road traffic accidents in order to achieve a better picture of the problem putting emphasis in the legal drugs use.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of diabetes mellitus in Malawi: population-based national NCD STEPS survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msyamboza, Kelias Phiri; Mvula, Chimwemwe J; Kathyola, Damson

    2014-05-12

    Previously considered as a disease of the affluent, west or urban people and not of public health importance, diabetes mellitus is increasingly becoming a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. However, population-based data to inform prevention, treatment and control are lacking. Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based, nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and September 2009 on participants aged 25-64 years. A multi-stage cluster sample design and weighting were used to produce a national representative data for that age range. Detailed findings on the magnitude of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting blood glucose are presented in this paper. Fasting blood glucose measurement was conducted on 3056 participants (70.2% females, 87.9% from rural areas). The age- sex standardised population-based mean fasting blood glucose was 4.3 mmol/L (95% CI 4.1-4.4 mmol/L) with no significant differences by age, sex and location (urban/rural). The overall prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 4.2% (95% CI 3.0%-5.4%). Prevalence of impaired blood glucose was higher in men than in women, 5.7% (95% CI 3.9%-7.5%) vs 2.7% (95% CI 1.6%- 3.8%), p prevalence of raised fasting blood glucose or currently on medication for diabetes was 5.6% (95% CI 2.6%- 8.5%). Although the prevalence of diabetes was higher in men than women, 6.5% (95% CI 2.6%-10.3%) vs 4.7% (95% CI 2.4%-7.0%), in rural than urban, 5.4% (95% CI 2.4%-8.4%) vs 4.4% (95% CI 2.8%-5.9%) and in males in rural than males in urban, 6.9% (95% CI 2.8%-11.0%) vs 3.2% (95% CI 0.1%-6.3%), the differences were not statistically significant, p > 0.05. Compared to previous estimates, prevalence of diabetes increased from prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose and diabetes mellitus call for the implementation of primary healthcare approaches such as the WHO package for essential non-communicable diseases

  1. Colorectal cancer screening of high-risk populations: A national survey of physicians

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    White Pascale M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of colorectal cancer can be decreased by appropriate use of screening modalities. Patients with a family history of colon cancer and of African-American ethnicity are known to be at higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. We aimed to determine if there is a lack of physician knowledge for colorectal cancer screening guidelines based on family history and ethnicity. Between February and April 2009 an anonymous web-based survey was administered to a random sample selected from a national list of 25,000 internists, family physicians and gastroenterologists. A stratified sampling strategy was used to include practitioners from states with high as well as low CRC incidence. All data analyses were performed following data collection in 2009. Results The average knowledge score was 37 ± 18% among the 512 respondents. Gastroenterologists averaged higher scores compared to internists, and family physicians, p = 0.001. Only 28% of physicians correctly identified the screening initiation point for African-Americans while only 12% of physicians correctly identified the screening initiation point and interval for a patient with a family history of CRC. The most commonly cited barriers to referring high-risk patients for CRC screening were "patient refusal" and "lack of insurance reimbursement." Conclusions There is a lack of knowledge amongst physicians of the screening guidelines for high-risk populations, based on family history and ethnicity. Educational programs to improve physician knowledge and to reduce perceived barriers to CRC screening are warranted to address health disparities in colorectal cancer.

  2. Acupuncture, chiropractic and osteopathy use in Australia: a national population survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Charlie CL; Zhang, Anthony L; Lin, Vivian; Myers, Ray; Polus, Barbara; Story, David F

    2008-01-01

    Background There have been no published national studies on the use in Australia of the manipulative therapies, acupuncture, chiropractic or osteopathy, or on matters including the purposes for which these therapies are used, treatment outcomes and the socio-demographic characteristics of users. Methods This study on the three manipulative therapies was a component of a broader investigation on the use of complementary and alternative therapies. For this we conducted a cross-sectional, population survey on a representative sample of 1,067 adults from the six states and two territories of Australia in 2005 by computer-assisted telephone interviews. The sample was recruited by random digit dialling. Results Over a 12-month period, approximately one in four adult Australians used either acupuncture (9.2%), chiropractic (16.1%) or osteopathy (4.6%) at least once. It is estimated that, adult Australians made 32.3 million visits to acupuncturists, chiropractors and osteopaths, incurring personal expenditure estimated to be A$1.58 billion in total. The most common conditions treated were back pain and related problems and over 90% of the users of each therapy considered their treatment to be very or somewhat helpful. Adverse events are reported. Nearly one fifth of users were referred to manipulative therapy practitioners by medical practitioners. Conclusion There is substantial use of manipulative therapies by adult Australians, especially for back-related problems. Treatments incur considerable personal expenditure. In general, patient experience is positive. Referral by medical practitioners is a major determinant of use of these manipulative therapies. PMID:18377663

  3. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Cross-sectional study. This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households - 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at pinequalities contributed by differences in age, education, employment, marriage and the wealth status of the adult population.

  4. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  5. A comparison of the health status and health care utilization patterns between foreigners and the national population in Spain: new evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2009-08-01

    The increasing proportion of immigrants in Spanish society is placing pressure on the National Health Care System to accommodate the needs of this population group while keeping costs under control. In the year 2000, a law was approved in Spain according to which all people, regardless of their nationality, are entitled to use health care services under the same conditions as Spanish citizens, provided that they are registered in the local population census. However, empirical evidence about differences in health status and health care utilization between the immigrant and the Spanish population is insufficient. This paper uses the 2003 and 2006 Spanish National Health Surveys to explore the existence of inequalities in health and in the access to health services for the immigrant population living in Spain, relative to that of Spaniards. Our results show that there are different patterns in the level of health and the medical care use between the national and the foreign population in Spain: while immigrants' self-reported health relative to that of the Spanish population depends upon individual nationality, all immigrants, regardless of their nationality, seem to face barriers of entry to specialized care. Further research is needed to understand the nature of these barriers in order to design more effective health policies.

  6. [A population survey of the Yi nationality in Meigu County, Sichuan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Zhang, G

    1984-01-29

    In 1980, 95.35% of the 129,819 inhabitants of Meigu County in Faxin District of the Jinshan Yi autonomous district, Sichuan Province, were of Yi nationality. Agriculture is the primary mode of production and animal husbandry is an important secondary industry. Prior to Liberation, slavery was an integral part of Yi society. The standard of living was low, mortality high, and population growth slow. After Liberation from 1956-1980, the population grew 47.1%, 90% of which was a natural increase. The primary reason for the growth was a post-1960s annual average birth rate of 46/1000 and a mortality rate that fell from 35/1000 before Liberation to 13.3/1000 in 1976. The age structure also became younger. The average age in 1964 was 24 years, with a median age of 21.8 years, as compared to a 1980 average age of 23.8 years and a median age of 17 years. 47.2% of the population were aged from birth to 14 years; 2.9% were over 65 years. At the same time, 28% of the female population were of childbearing age. By 2000 Meigu County's population will reach 259,000. Although the primary reasons for the relatively rapid population increase are due to the destruction of the slave system and a higher standard of living, factors peculiar to Yi society are also significant: 1) the destruction of the slave system permitted the population to grow without the restraints of strict codes of class stratification; 2) the high value placed on having many offsprings, and of favoring male children still prevails; 3) the attitude of early marriage and the custom of widows marrying a relative of her deceased husband still prevail; 4) and infant mortality and the mortality rate of fertile women have declined. Elements which influence the population development of Meigu County include economic factors such as the need to support the old and the young, or the inability to produce enough food to keep up with the needs of an expanding population.

  7. A survey of the governance capacity of national public health associations to enhance population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, James; Shukla, Mahesh; Rice, James; Rispel, Laetitia

    2016-03-11

    National public health associations (PHAs) are key partners with governments and communities to improve, protect and promote the public's health. Governance and organizational capacity are among the key determinants of a PHA's effectiveness as an advocate for appropriate public health policies and practice. During 2014, the World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) conducted an on-line survey of its 82 PHA members, to identify the state of organizational governance of national public health associations, as well as the factors that influence optimal organizational governance. The survey consisted of 13 questions and focused on the main elements of organizational governance: cultivating accountability; engaging stakeholders; setting shared direction; stewarding resources; and, continuous governance enhancement. Four questions included a qualitative open-ended response for additional comments. The survey data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The qualitative data was analyzed using thematic content analysis Responses were received from 62 PHAs, constituting a 75.6 % response rate. The two most important factors that support governance effectiveness were a high degree of integrity and ethical behavior of the PHA's leaders (77 %) and the competence of people serving on the PHA's governing body (76 %). The lack of financial resources was considered as the most important factor that negatively affected organizational governance effectiveness (73 %). The lack of mentoring for future PHA leaders; ineffective or incompetent leadership; lack of understanding about good governance practices; and lack of accurate information for strategic planning were identified as factors influencing PHA governance effectiveness. Critical elements for PHA sustainability included diversity, gender-responsiveness and inclusive governance practices, and strategies to build the future generation of public health leaders. National PHA have a responsibility to put into place

  8. A survey of the governance capacity of national public health associations to enhance population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Chauvin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National public health associations (PHAs are key partners with governments and communities to improve, protect and promote the public’s health. Governance and organizational capacity are among the key determinants of a PHA’s effectiveness as an advocate for appropriate public health policies and practice. Methods During 2014, the World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA conducted an on-line survey of its 82 PHA members, to identify the state of organizational governance of national public health associations, as well as the factors that influence optimal organizational governance. The survey consisted of 13 questions and focused on the main elements of organizational governance: cultivating accountability; engaging stakeholders; setting shared direction; stewarding resources; and, continuous governance enhancement. Four questions included a qualitative open-ended response for additional comments. The survey data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The qualitative data was analyzed using thematic content analysis Results Responses were received from 62 PHAs, constituting a 75.6 % response rate. The two most important factors that support governance effectiveness were a high degree of integrity and ethical behavior of the PHA’s leaders (77 % and the competence of people serving on the PHA’s governing body (76 %. The lack of financial resources was considered as the most important factor that negatively affected organizational governance effectiveness (73 %. The lack of mentoring for future PHA leaders; ineffective or incompetent leadership; lack of understanding about good governance practices; and lack of accurate information for strategic planning were identified as factors influencing PHA governance effectiveness. Critical elements for PHA sustainability included diversity, gender-responsiveness and inclusive governance practices, and strategies to build the future generation of public health

  9. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Santric Milicevic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: То explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5, and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index. The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16-1.51, unemployment (1.36; 1.18-1.56, single status (1.34; 1.23-1.45, and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08-1.32 or poor (1.33; 1.21-1.47 were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59-0.89. Single (1.50; 1.26-1.78, unemployed (1.39; 1.07-1.80 and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10-1.83 had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married individuals, or

  10. A bulletin on survey findings of China's national population and reproductive health in 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1998-08-01

    This article presents findings from the 1997 State Family Planning Commission's KAP survey in China. The aim was to assess reproductive health and contraception and the future needs for family planning management. The national sample included 1041 sampling points in 337 counties among 186,089 registered persons in the first demographic stage and 15,213 persons in the second in-depth KAP stage of the survey. The average age at first marriage of women was 1.5 years higher in 1997 than in 1990. The birthrate declined, and fertility remained stable at below replacement levels. Contraceptive usage among women of childbearing ages was 83.4%. 9.2% relied on male sterilization, 40% relied on female sterilization, 43.4% used IUDs, and 4.1% used condoms. 25.5% of married reproductive age women had an unwanted pregnancy due to contraceptive failure. 62.5% of women of childbearing age received contraceptives free of charge. 28.6% received contraceptive supplies from retail shops. 39.1% who had a contraceptive operation had access to pre-operative counseling, and 50.9% received post-operative counseling. 23.5% had follow-up visits. The average age of menarche was 15.2 years. The average age of menopause was 44.8 years. Gynecological discomfort increased with age. 63% consulted doctors. 58.5% fully breast-fed for over 6 months. 57.3% had knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, and 63.5% had heard of AIDS. 75% were happy with their sexual lives. 7.8% nationally had received at least one kind of economic assistance or skill training, of whom 50.6% had access to loans or poverty alleviation funds.

  11. National survey on sports injuries in the Netherlands: target populations for sports injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-03-01

    To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.

  12. Nutritional status of under-five children in Libya: a national population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenoir Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Libya.Population and methods: A secondary analysis of data of 5348 children taken from a nationalrepresentative, two-stage, cluster-sample survey that was performed in 1995.Results: Prevalence rates of underweight, wasting, stunting, and overweight were determined usingstandard definitions in reference to newly established WHO growth charts. The study revealed that4.3% of children were underweight, 3.7% wasted, 20.7% stunted, and 16.2% overweight. Seventypercent of children had normal weight. Undernutrition was more likely to be found in males, in ruralareas, and in underprivileged groups. Overweight was more likely found in urban, privileged groups.Wasting was more common in arid regions; stunting was more common in mountainous regions of Al-Akhdar, Al-Gharbi, and in Sirt. Al-Akhdar had the highest prevalence of overweight.Conclusion: The country had a low prevalence of underweight and wasting, moderate prevalence ofstunting, and high prevalence of overweight. The country is in the early stages of transition withevidence of dual-burden in some regions. Similar surveys are needed to verify secular trends of thesenutritional problems, particularly overweight.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in ethnic populations within Canada: results from national cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard; So, Lawrence; Mohan, Sailesh; Khan, Nadia; King, Kathryn; Quan, Hude

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors have been noted across ethnic groups both within and between countries. The Canadian population is becoming increasingly diverse because of immigration. Understanding ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors is critically important in planning appropriate prevention strategies for the country's rapidly changing population. We sought to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in various Canadian ethnic groups. We analyzed 3 cross-sectional cycles (for 2000, 2003 and 2005) of the Canadian Community Health Survey of people aged 12 years and older. The surveys were conducted by means of self-reported questionnaires. We used stratified analysis to evaluate the relation between risk factors and ethnicity. The effect of participants' ethnicity on the prevalence of risk factors was estimated by means of logistic regression, with adjustment for differences in age, sex, marital status, education, household income, language spoken, immigration status, residency type (urban or rural), household size, region (province or territory) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, cancer, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bowel disease, arthritis, epilepsy, ulcers, thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus). We included 371 154 individuals in the analysis. Compared with white people, people from visible minorities (i.e., neither white nor Aboriginal) had a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus (4.5% v. 4.0%), hypertension (14.7% v. 10.8%), smoking (20.4% v. 9.7%) and obesity (defined as body mass index ≥ 30; 14.8% v. 9.7%) but a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (50.3% v. 58.1%). More specifically, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, people from most visible minorities, in comparison with the white population, were less likely to smoke; were more likely to be physically inactive, with the exception of people of Korean, Japanese and

  14. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A. Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension.

  15. Self-reported occupational accidents among Brazil's adult population based on data from the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Franco, Marco da Silveira; Santos, Flavia Vinhaes; Machado, Elaine Leandro; Gómez, Carlos Minayo

    2017-01-01

    to provide an overview of occupational accidents among Brazil's adult population. descriptive study using data from the 2013 National Health Survey. A total of 4.9 million workers mentioned having suffered some kind of work-related accident, which is equivalent to 3.4% (CI95% 4.6-5.6) of Brazil's adult population. Prevalence rates were higher among men, young adults aged between 18 and 39 years, and black people and in the North Region of the country. Prevalence was highest in the State of Para and lowest in the State of Rio de Janeiro State. Around one third of all accidents were commuting accidents, 50.4% (CI95% 45.3-55.5) of people who had suffered an occupational accident were prevented from carrying out some kind of routine activity due to the accident, 8.8% (CI95% 6.4-11.2) were hospitalized and 19% (CI95% 15.3-22.7) had sequelae resulting from occupational accidents. the data provided by the National Health Survey comprises an unprecedented and invaluable source of information on these issues in Brazil. The results of the survey confirm that occupational accidents are underreported, since official figures do not cover individuals working in the informal sector.

  16. Need and Demand for Sedation or General Anesthesia in Dentistry: A National Survey of the Canadian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Chanpong, B; Haas, D. A; Locker, D

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the need and demand for sedation or general anesthesia (GA) for dentistry in the Canadian adult population. A national telephone survey of 1101 Canadians found that 9.8% were somewhat afraid of dental treatment, with another 5.5% having a high level of fear. Fear or anxiety was the reason why 7.6% had ever missed, cancelled, or avoided a dental appointment. Of those with high fear, 49.2% had avoided a dental appointment at some point because of fear or anxi...

  17. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Breast and Cervical Cancers in Mongolia: A National Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Pooja; Dugee, Otgonduya; Enkhtuya, Palam; Knaul, Felicia M; Demaio, Alessandro R

    2015-11-01

    Mongolia bears the second-highest cancer burden in the world (5,214 disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 people, age standardized). To determine drivers of the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases, including breast and cervical cancers, a national knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey was implemented in 2010. This paper analyzed the results of the 2010 KAP survey, which sampled 3,450 households nationally. Reflecting Mongolian screening policies, women aged 30 and older were included in analyses of questions regarding breast and cervical cancer (n = 1,193). Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (MORs) were derived through logistic regression to determine associations between demographic covariables (residence, age, education, employment) and survey responses. This study found that 25.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.3-28.3) and 22.1% (95% CI: 19.8-24.5) of female participants aged 30 years or older self-rated their knowledge of breast and cervical cancers, respectively, as "none." Employment and education were associated with greater awareness of both cancers and participation in screening examinations (p migration. Finally, although there is awareness that early detection improves outcomes, a significant proportion of women do not engage in screening. These trends warrant further research on barriers and solutions. The rising burden of breast and cervical cancers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, necessitates the development of effective strategies for cancer control. This paper examines barriers to health service use in Mongolia, a country with a high cancer burden. The 2010 national knowledge, attitude and practices survey data indicate that cancer control efforts should focus on improving health education among lower-educated, rural, and unemployed populations, who display the least knowledge of breast and cervical cancers. Moreover, the findings support the need to emphasize individual risk for disease in cancer

  18. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Lotufo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods: Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8 never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women, and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion: The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.

  19. [Sexual attitudes of Czech Republic population: the results of the national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P; Zverina, J

    1997-01-01

    The sexual attitudes of 1719 (862 male, 857 female) respondents over 15 years of age were investigated by an anonymous survey who made up a representative sample of the population of the Czech Republic. The questionnaire contained a total of 35 questions. The findings showed objections, in principle, against premarital sexual intercourse and abortion (3.3% of men, 3.6% of women), while 57.5% of women and 59.7% of men stated that every woman has the right to decide whether to bear children. 3.0% of men and 4.4% of women were altogether against premarital sexual intercourse, while 50.3% of men and 69.4% of women deemed that it is allowed within the framework of a lasting relationship. 4.0% of men and 8.6% of women thought that pornography should be banned. 36% (22.7% of men, 46.4% of women) were against group sexual activity, while 53.7% of men and 47.7% of women deemed it acceptable but would refuse to take part in it. 24% (18.3% of men, 30.9% of women) were against extramarital intercourse, while 44.0% of men and 25.7% of women thought it was natural and normal. 28% (14.5% of men, 39.9% of women) were against casual sex, while 40.3% of men and 41.8% of women did not condemn it, but would not engage in it either. 7% (5.0% of men, 9.6% of women) were against masturbation and considered it harmful, while 65.5% of men and 58.4% of women thought it was a natural manifestation of human sexuality. 6% (6.1% of men, 5.7% of women) were against homosexual intercourse, while 33.4% of men and 41.0% of women thought it was a disease, which those afflicted could not help. 5% of men and 4.4% of women rejected contraceptive use.

  20. Prevalence of angina pectoris in the Brazilian population from the Rose questionnaire: analysis of the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Vieira, Maria Lucia; Bensenor, Isabela Martins

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of angina pectoris in the Brazilian adult population with the use of the Rose questionnaire for angina in the National Health Survey (PNS 2013). Population survey representing the Brazilian population aged 18 years and older, with probability carried out sampling in three stages. The interview records of 60,202 individuals were obtained in the country. The respondent was presented with the short Rose questionnaire with three questions, adapted by Lawlor in 2003 and validated in Brazil, to identify angina pectoris grade I (mild) and II (moderate/severe). The prevalence rate was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) according to sex, age, education, and race/color. The prevalence of mild angina (grade I) was of 7.6% (95%CI 7.2 - 8.0) for the entire population, more frequently in women - 9.1% (95%CI 8.5 - 9.7) - than in men - 5.9% (95%CI 5.3 - 6.4). The frequency of moderate/severe angina (grade II) was of 4.2 (95%CI 3.9 - 4.5), also more common in women - 5.2% (95%CI 4.7 - 5.6) - than in men - 3.0% (95%CI 2.7 - 3.4). The prevalence of angina by age group increased progressively with age. The prevalence of angina of any sort was inverse to years of formal study. Despite the higher value of the presence of angina in black people, there was no significant difference by race/skin color. The high prevalence rate of angina pectoris in the population aged 18 years and above was consistent with studies in other countries, revealing the importance of coronary heart disease as a public health problem.

  1. Sexual behaviors among older adults in Spain: results from a population-based national sexual health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish National Sexual Health Survey (SNSHS) is designed to examine sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and sexual health among the Spanish population. To describe sexual activity and behaviors of Spaniards aged ≥ 65 years old focusing on gender differences. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using individual data from the SNSHS. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included was 1,939 (1,118 women, 821 men). Sexual activity, frequency, sexual behaviors, sexual practices, and reasons for lack of sexual activity were assessed from questions included in the survey. Subjects who reported having any sexual practice including giving or receiving kissing and hugging, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or masturbation, with at least one partner in the previous 12 months were considered as sexually active. We analyzed sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and sexual health, comorbid conditions, and medications using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, 62.3% of men and 37.4% of elderly women were sexually active (P practices were kissing, hugging, and vaginal intercourse. The most common reasons for sexual inactivity were: partner was physically ill (23%), lack of interest (21%), and the man was a widower (23%). This study provided data on sexual activity in older Spanish adults and has identified potential factors that appear to influence sexuality in the elderly with some gender differences. Current results can have implications for healthcare providers for addressing these concerns in an effective manner. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Assessing Genetic Literacy Awareness and Knowledge Gaps in the US Population: Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda; Ratcliff, Chelsea L; Hesse, Bradford W; Greenberg-Worisek, Alexandra J

    2018-05-31

    Public understanding of the role of genetics in disease risk is key to appropriate disease prevention and detection. This study assessed the current extent of awareness and use of genetic testing in the US population. Additionally, the study identified characteristics of subgroups more likely to be at risk for low genetic literacy. The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey, including measures of genetic testing awareness, genetic testing applications and genetic testing usage. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated associations between sociodemographics, genetic testing awareness, and genetic testing use. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were aware of genetic tests. Testing awareness differed by age, household income, and race/ethnicity. Most participants had heard of using tests to determine personal disease risk (82.58%) or inherited disease risk in children (81.41%), but less were familiar with determining treatment (38.29%) or drug efficacy (40.76%). Among those with genetic testing awareness, actual testing uptake was low. A large portion of the general public lacks genetic testing awareness and may benefit from educational campaigns. As precision medicine expands, increasing public awareness about genetic testing applications for disease prevention and treatment will be important to support population health. This is a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Population norms for the AQoL derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Graeme; Korn, Sam; Richardson, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    To provide Australian health-related quality of life (HRQoL) population norms, based on utility scores from the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) measure, a participant-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument. The data were from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. AQoL scores were analysed by age cohorts, gender, other demographic characteristics, and mental and physical health variables. The AQoL utility score mean was 0.81 (95%CI 0.81-0.82), and 47% obtained scores indicating a very high HRQoL (>0.90). HRQoL gently declined by age group, with older adults' scores indicating lower HRQoL. Based on effect sizes (ESs), there were small losses in HRQoL associated with other demographic variables (e.g. by lack of labour force participation, ES(median) : 0.27). Those with current mental health syndromes reported moderate losses in HRQoL (ES(median) : 0.64), while those with physical health conditions generally also reported moderate losses in HRQoL (ES(median) : 0.41). This study has provided contemporary Australian population norms for HRQoL that may be used by researchers as indicators allowing interpretation and estimation of population health (e.g. estimation of the burden of disease), cross comparison between studies, the identification of health inequalities, and to provide benchmarks for health care interventions. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Health Information Brokers in the General Population: An Analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Mazor, Kathleen M; Agunwamba, Amenah A; Valluri, Sruthi; Wilson, Patrick M; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2016-06-03

    Health information exchanged between friends or family members can influence decision making, both for routine health questions and for serious health issues. A health information broker is a person to whom friends and family turn for advice or information on health-related topics. Characteristics and online behaviors of health information brokers have not previously been studied in a national population. The objective of this study was to examine sociodemographic characteristics, health information seeking behaviors, and other online behaviors among health information brokers. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2013-2014; n=3142) were used to compare brokers with nonbrokers. Modified Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between broker status and sociodemographics and online information seeking. Over half (54.8%) of the respondents were consulted by family or friends for advice or information on health topics (ie, they acted as health information brokers). Brokers represented 54.1% of respondents earning brokers (PR 1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.47) as were those with education past high school (PR 1.42, CI 1.22-1.65). People aged ≥75 were less likely to be brokers as compared to respondents aged 35-49 (PR 0.81, CI 0.67-0.99). Brokers used the Internet more frequently for a variety of online behaviors such as seeking health information, creating and sharing online content, and downloading health information onto a mobile device; and also reported greater confidence in obtaining health information online. More than 50% of adults who responded to this national survey, including those with low income and those born abroad, were providing health information or advice to friends and family. These individuals may prove to be effective targets for initiatives supporting patient engagement and disease management, and may also be well-positioned within their respective social networks to propagate health messages.

  5. Inequalities in mental health in the working population of Spain: a National Health Survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-de la Torre, Jorge; Artazcoz, Lucía; Molina, Antonio José; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In the working population, poor mental health is a significant problem whose prevalence rates and associated factors could differ by gender, especially in a period of socioeconomic changes. The aims of this study were: a) to determine the prevalence of poor mental health in the working population of Spain in 2011; b) to identify the association of this prevalence with socioeconomic and work-related variables for men and women separately; c) to determine if the patterns differ by gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from the National Health Survey of Spain (2011). Of the 21,007 participants in the survey, we selected 7396 whose employment status was described as "working" The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as a screening tool to detect poor mental health. Prevalences were calculated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between variables. The prevalence of poor mental health was higher among women (19.9%) than men (13.9%), the overall prevalence being 16.8%. The variables associated with a higher prevalence were type of contract and work-related variables in men, and age and socioeconomic variables in women. This study shows that, in the working population of Spain, the prevalence of poor mental health and its related factors differ by gender. Poor mental health is mainly related to socioeconomic variables in women but is mostly associated with work-related variables in men. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Comorbid Visual and Psychiatric Disabilities Among the Chinese Elderly: A National Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Wang, Zhenjie; Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of, and association between, co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities among elderly (>65 years-of-age) persons in China. Random representative samples were obtained using multistage, stratified, cluster sampling, with probabilities proportional to size. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights that reflected this multistage, stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Logistic regression models were used to elucidate associations between visual and psychiatric disabilities. Among the Chinese elderly, >160,000 persons have co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities. The weighted prevalence among this cohort is 123.7 per 100,000 persons. A higher prevalence of co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities was found in the oldest-old (pvisual disability was significantly associated with a higher risk of having a psychiatric disability among persons aged ≥80 years-of-age [adjusted odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.54]. A significant number of Chinese elderly persons were living with co-morbid visual and psychiatric disabilities. To address the challenge of these co-morbid disorders among Chinese elders, it is incumbent upon the government to implement additional and more comprehensive prevention and rehabilitation strategies for health-care systems, reinforce health promotion among the elderly, and improve accessibility to health-care services.

  7. Prevalence of Diabetes and Relationship with Socioeconomic Status in the Thai Population: National Health Examination Survey, 2004–2014

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    Wichai Aekplakorn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and trend of diabetes, related glycemic control, and influential socioeconomic (SES factors in the Thai population aged ≥20 years during 2004–2014. Methods. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey 2004, 2009, and 2014 were used. Age-adjusted prevalence was calculated, and the associations of education levels with prevalence of diabetes and glycemic control were examined using logistic regression. Results. Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes increased from 7.7% in 2004 to 7.8% in 2009 and 9.9% in 2014 (8.9% among men and 10.8% among women. Proportions of undiagnosed diabetes were slightly decreased but remained high in 2014 (51.2% for men and 41.3% for women. Diabetes prevalence was higher among those with primary education in both sexes; however, undiagnosed diabetes was higher among women with secondary and university educations. The percentages of those treated and controlled slightly improved among men (45.9% but not among women (36.4%. Unmet glycemic control was also higher among women with secondary education levels and among men with university-level educations. Conclusions. Epidemic diabetes continues to grow in the Thai population, particularly in individuals with lower educational attainment. Measures to detect new cases and strengthen glycemic control should be scaled up.

  8. Cross-national and multilevel correlates of partner violence: an analysis of data from population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Lori L; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    On average, intimate partner violence affects nearly one in three women worldwide within their lifetime. But the distribution of partner violence is highly uneven, with a prevalence of less than 4% in the past 12 months in many high-income countries compared with at least 40% in some low-income settings. Little is known about the factors that drive the geographical distribution of partner violence or how macro-level factors might combine with individual-level factors to affect individual women's risk of intimate partner violence. We aimed to assess the role that women's status and other gender-related factors might have in defining levels of partner violence among settings. We compiled data for the 12 month prevalence of partner violence from 66 surveys (88 survey years) from 44 countries, representing 481 205 women between Jan 1, 2000, and Apr 17, 2013. Only surveys with comparable questions and state-of-the-art methods to ensure safety and encourage violence disclosure were used. With linear and quantile regression, we examined associations between macro-level measures of socioeconomic development, women's status, gender inequality, and gender-related norms and the prevalence of current partner violence at a population level. Multilevel modelling and tests for interaction were used to explore whether and how macro-level factors affect individual-level risk. The outcome for this analysis was the population prevalence of current partner violence, defined as the percentage of ever-partnered women (excluding widows without a current partner), aged from 15 years to 49 years who were victims of at least one act of physical or sexual violence within the past 12 months. Gender-related factors at the national and subnational level help to predict the population prevalence of physical and sexual partner violence within the past 12 months. Especially predictive of the geographical distribution of partner violence are norms related to male authority over female behaviour

  9. Need and Demand for Sedation or General Anesthesia in Dentistry: A National Survey of the Canadian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanpong, B; Haas, D. A; Locker, D

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the need and demand for sedation or general anesthesia (GA) for dentistry in the Canadian adult population. A national telephone survey of 1101 Canadians found that 9.8% were somewhat afraid of dental treatment, with another 5.5% having a high level of fear. Fear or anxiety was the reason why 7.6% had ever missed, cancelled, or avoided a dental appointment. Of those with high fear, 49.2% had avoided a dental appointment at some point because of fear or anxiety as opposed to only 5.2% from the no or low fear group. Regarding demand, 12.4% were definitely interested in sedation or GA for their dentistry and 42.3% were interested depending on cost. Of those with high fear, 31.1% were definitely interested, with 54.1% interested depending on cost. In a hypothetical situation where endodontics was required because of a severe toothache, 12.7% reported high fear. This decreased to 5.4% if sedation or GA were available. For this procedure, 20.4% were definitely interested in sedation or GA, and another 46.1% were interested depending on cost. The prevalence of, and preference for, sedation or GA was assessed for specific dental procedures. The proportion of the population with a preference for sedation or GA was 7.2% for cleaning, 18% for fillings or crowns, 54.7% for endodontics, 68.2% for periodontal surgery, and 46.5% for extraction. For each procedure, the proportion expressing a preference for sedation or GA was significantly greater than the proportion having received treatment with sedation or GA (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that there is significant need and demand for sedation and GA in the Canadian adult population. PMID:15859442

  10. Need and demand for sedation or general anesthesia in dentistry: a national survey of the Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanpong, B; Haas, D A; Locker, D

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the need and demand for sedation or general anesthesia (GA) for dentistry in the Canadian adult population. A national telephone survey of 1101 Canadians found that 9.8% were somewhat afraid of dental treatment, with another 5.5% having a high level of fear. Fear or anxiety was the reason why 7.6% had ever missed, cancelled, or avoided a dental appointment. Of those with high fear, 49.2% had avoided a dental appointment at some point because of fear or anxiety as opposed to only 5.2% from the no or low fear group. Regarding demand, 12.4% were definitely interested in sedation or GA for their dentistry and 42.3% were interested depending on cost. Of those with high fear, 31.1% were definitely interested, with 54.1% interested depending on cost. In a hypothetical situation where endodontics was required because of a severe toothache, 12.7% reported high fear. This decreased to 5.4% if sedation or GA were available. For this procedure, 20.4% were definitely interested in sedation or GA, and another 46.1% were interested depending on cost. The prevalence of, and preference for, sedation or GA was assessed for specific dental procedures. The proportion of the population with a preference for sedation or GA was 7.2% for cleaning, 18% for fillings or crowns, 54.7% for endodontics, 68.2% for periodontal surgery, and 46.5% for extraction. For each procedure, the proportion expressing a preference for sedation or GA was significantly greater than the proportion having received treatment with sedation or GA (P sedation and GA in the Canadian adult population.

  11. Geographical variation and factors influencing modern contraceptive use among married women in Ethiopia: evidence from a national population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Yihunie; Reda, Ayalu A; Tamene, Habtamu; Benedict, Susan; Deribe, Kebede

    2013-09-26

    Modern contraceptive use persists to be low in most African countries where fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. Though there is an evidence of increased overall contraceptive prevalence, a substantial effort remains behind in Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify factors associated with modern contraceptive use and to examine its geographical variations among 15-49 married women in Ethiopia. We conducted secondary analysis of 10,204 reproductive age women included in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The survey sample was designed to provide national, urban/rural, and regional representative estimates for key health and demographic indicators. The sample was selected using a two-stage stratified sampling process. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to determine the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and associated factors in Ethiopia. Being wealthy, more educated, being employed, higher number of living children, being in a monogamous relationship, attending community conversation, being visited by health worker at home strongly predicted use of modern contraception. While living in rural areas, older age, being in polygamous relationship, and witnessing one's own child's death were found negatively influence modern contraceptive use. The spatial analysis of contraceptive use revealed that the central and southwestern parts of the country had higher prevalence of modern contraceptive use than that of the eastern and western parts. The findings indicate significant socio-economic, urban-rural and regional variation in modern contraceptive use among reproductive age women in Ethiopia. Strengthening community conversation programs and female education should be given top priority.

  12. Access to health-care in Canadian immigrants: a longitudinal study of the National Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants often lose their health advantage as they start adapting to the ways of the new society. Having access to care when it is needed is one way that individuals can maintain their health. We assessed the healthcare access in Canadian immigrants and the socioeconomic factors associated with access over a 12-year period. We compared two measures of healthcare access (having a regular doctor and reporting an unmet healthcare need in the past 12 months) among immigrants and Canadian-born men and women, aged more than 18 years. We applied a logistic random effects model to evaluate these outcomes separately, in 3081 males and 4187 females from the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006). Adjusting for all covariates, immigrant men and women (white and non-white) had similar odds of having a regular doctor than the Canadian-born individuals (white immigrants: males OR: 1.32, 95% C.I.: 0.89-1.94, females OR: 1.14, 95% C.I.: 0.78-1.66; non-white immigrants: males OR: 1.28, 95% C.I.: 0.73-2.23, females OR: 1.23, 95% C.I.: 0.64-2.36). Interestingly, non-white immigrant women had significantly fewer unmet health needs (OR: 0.32, 95% C.I.: 0.17-0.59). Among immigrants, time since immigration was associated with having access to a regular doctor (OR per year: 1.02, 95% C.I.: 1.00-1.04). Visible minority female immigrants were least likely to report an unmet healthcare need. In general, there is little evidence that immigrants have worse access to health-care than the Canadian-born population. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Convergence of body mass index of immigrants to the Canadian-born population: evidence from the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2009-01-01

    Recent immigrants typically have better physical health than the native born population. However, this 'healthy immigrant effect' tends to gradually wane over time, with increasing length of residence in the host country. To assess whether the body mass index (BMI) of different immigrant groups converged to the Canadian population's levels, we estimated 12-year trajectories of changes in BMI (accounting for socio-demographic changes). Using data from seven longitudinal waves of the National Population Health Survey (1994 through 2006), we compared the changes in BMI (kg/m(2)) among three groups: white immigrants, non-white immigrants and Canadian born, aged 18-54 at baseline. We applied linear random effects models to evaluate these BMI separately in 2,504 males and 2,960 females. BMI increased in Canadian born, white immigrants, and non-white immigrants over the 12-year period. However, non-white immigrants (males and females) had a lower mean BMI than Canadian born individuals during this period [Males: -2.27, 95% Confidence interval (CI) -3.02 to -1.53; Females: -1.84, 95% CI -2.79 to -0.90]. In contrast, the mean BMI in white male immigrants and Canadian born individuals were similar (-0.32, 95% CI -0.91 to 0.27). Even after adjusting for time since immigration, non-white immigrants had lower BMI than white immigrants. White male immigrants were the only sub-group to converge to the BMI of the Canadian born population. These results indicate that the loss of 'healthy immigrant effect' with regard to convergence of BMI to Canadian levels may not be experienced equally by all immigrants in Canada.

  14. [Prevalence and Associated Factors of Mental Disorders in Colombian Child Population, the 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Aulí, Javier; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Gil, Fabián; Garzón, Daniel; Casas, Germán

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey aimed to expand our knowledge about the real mental state of children in Colombia, taking into account the fact that most mental disorders in adults begin during childhood or adolescence. It is essential to have an improved knowledge of the magnitude of this issue and to design timely interventions that reduce long term complications. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the disorders in the last 12 months and 30 days according to the DSM-IV, as well as to collect data about social and demographic variables. The structured Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-P), which provides DSM-IV diagnoses, was applied to carers of non-institutionalised children between 7 and 11 years old. The disorders evaluated included: major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in its three kinds (mixed, inattentive, and hyperactive), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. The instrumentation was computer-assisted. Prevalences of the disorders are present both in the last 30 days and in the last 12 months. In general, there is a prevalence of any of the disorders of 3% (95% CI, 2.2-4.0) in the last 30 days, and 4.7% (95% CI, 3.6-6.2) in the last 12 months. When evaluated individually, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most frequent disorder, with a prevalence of 2.3% and 3.0% in the last 30 days and the last 12 months, respectively. In addition, the disorders that are known to frequently begin during childhood are the most common disorders in the age group studied, with a prevalence of 2.5% in the last 30 days and 3.2% in the last year. The 2015 National Mental Health Survey provides precise information about the real mental situation in children between the ages of 7 and 11 years in Colombia, compared with past epidemiological studies in the country, which were restricted to specific populations. By

  15. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Setegn

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country.We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005 Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000 and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005 women of reproductive age (15-49 years were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM. The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots.The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds

  16. Socio-geographic mobility and health status: a longitudinal analysis using the National Population Health Survey of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Sarah; Setia, Maninder S; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie

    2009-12-01

    The paper reviews arguments that associations between small area socio-economic conditions and individual health are likely to vary according to the type of health condition considered. We comment on the importance of longitudinal research to examine how far area conditions predict later health outcomes, and also how far area variations in health may result from selective migration processes predicted by health status. Using data for 1996 and 2002, from the National Population Health Survey of Canada, linked to small area data on social and on material deprivation in the area of residence for 6950 survey respondents at the two time points, we report on analyses to address these questions. The area measures of material and social deprivation were previously developed by Pampalon and colleagues at the Institut National de Santé Publique de Québec and related to the dissemination area matching the informant's postal code. The health outcomes considered were restriction of activity due to chronic conditions and psychological distress. Our findings suggest that individuals living in materially deprived areas in 2002 were more likely to be affected by health conditions resulting in restriction of activity. Prevalence of psychological distress was higher in areas with greater social deprivation in 2002. Most of these area differences were attenuated when adjustment was made for individual socio-demographic characteristics. Measures recorded in 1996 of individual characteristics and measures of deprivation for area of residence were used to predict change in health outcomes by 2002. Several individual factors (sex, age group, income, household composition) in 1996 were predictive of later health outcomes. After controlling for these individual characteristics the only significant association between health change and area deprivation was with development of restricted activity, which was more common among people who, in 1996, had lived in areas that ranked moderately

  17. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15-49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds of women

  18. Psoriasis and the Risk of Depression in the US Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brandon E; Martires, Kathryn J; Ho, Roger S

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a risk factor for depression. Depression may also trigger or exacerbate psoriasis. The relationship between psoriasis and depression, however, remains to be fully explored. To investigate the association between psoriasis and major depression in the US population. Population-based study using participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2009 through 2012. Diagnosis of major depression based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. We identified 351 (2.8%) cases of psoriasis and 968 (7.8%) cases of major depression among 12,382 US citizens included in our study. Fifty-eight (16.5%) patients with psoriasis met criteria for a diagnosis of major depression. The mean (SD) Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score was significantly higher among patients with a history of psoriasis than those without psoriasis (4.54 [5.7] vs 3.22 [4.3], P < .001). Psoriasis was significantly associated with major depression, even after adjustment for sex, age, race, body mass index, physical activity, smoking history, alcohol use, history of myocardial infarction (MI), history of stroke, and history of diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.41-3.11], P < .001). Interaction term analyses involving patients with a history of both psoriasis and a cardiovascular event, specifically MI or stroke, did not reveal a synergistically increased risk of major depression (psoriasis and MI: OR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.28-3.60], P = .91; psoriasis and stroke: OR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.12-3.66], P = .63). In adjusted multivariable models, the risk of major depression was not significantly different between patients with limited vs extensive psoriasis (OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.18-2.44], P = .53). Self-reported history of psoriasis was independently associated with major depression as assessed by a validated screening tool, even when controlling for comorbidities. History of cardiovascular event did not modify the risk of major depression for patients with psoriasis. The severity

  19. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. A prevalência de hipercolesterolemia no Brasil não é conhecida para todo o país, havendo somente inquéritos em algumas cidades. Avaliar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto autorreferido na população adulta brasileira, utilizando-se dos dados da

  20. Tobacco consumption by the portuguese population. Data from the 2005–2006 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausenda Machado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the epidemiological portrayal of tobacco consumption in Portugal 2005–2006, using data from the National Health Survey.In this analysis the Portuguese population is characterised according to smoking patterns, exposure to smoke and attitudes to smoking in general. Data is presented by gender, age groups, regions of residence and other social characteristics. Frequencies results are estimated values for the Portuguese population in 2005. Logistic binary regression models are used to study regular smoking-related characteristics.Results show that 20.9% of the Portuguese population (including Madeira and the Azores aged 15 or more were smokers (male: 30.9%; female: 11.8%, and that 18.7% smoked regularly. More than one half of men were smokers or ex-smokers (56.9% whereas the great majority of women had never smoked (81.3%.After removing the effect of the different age structures among regions, the highest rate of males who smoked regularly was observed in the Azores region (31.0%, followed by the Alentejo region (29.9%. The highest rate of women who smoked regularly occurred in the Lisbon and Tagus Valley region (15.4%, followed by the Algarve region (12.8%.Daily average cigarette consumption was higher among male (20 cigarettes than female smokers (13 cigarettes. The Azores population presented the highest daily average consumption (male: 23 cigarettes; female: 16 cigarettes. Resumo: O presente estudo visa contribuir para o conhecimento da epidemiologia da exposição ao tabaco na população portuguesa, através da análise de dados do Inquérito Nacional de Saúde realizado entre 2005 e 2006.Neste trabalho, a população portuguesa é caracterizada quanto à prevalência de fumadores, ex-fumadores e não fumadores e quanto à exposição e atitudes face ao fumo do tabaco. Algumas destas características são desagregadas por variáveis sociodemográficas, como o sexo

  1. Adapting the Healthy Eating Index 2010 for the Canadian Population: Evidence from the Canadian National Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Ng, Alena Praneet; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-08-21

    The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made. The aims of this study were: (a) to develop a Canadian adaptation of the HEI-2010 (i.e., Healthy Eating Index-Canada 2010 (HEI-C 2010)) by adapting the recommendations of the HEI-2010 to Canada's Food Guide (CFG) 2007; (b) to evaluate the validity and reliability of the HEI-C 2010; and (c) to examine relationships between HEI-C 2010 scores with diet quality and the likelihood of being obese. Data from 12,805 participants (≥18 years) were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between compliance to the HEI-C 2010 recommendations and the likelihood of being obese, adjusting for errors in self-reported dietary data. The total mean error-corrected HEI-C 2010 score was 50.85 ± 0.35 out of 100. Principal component analysis confirmed multidimensionality of the HEI-C 2010, while Cronbach's α = 0.78 demonstrated internal reliability. Participants in the fourth quartile of the HEI-C 2010 with the healthiest diets were less likely to consume refined grains and empty calories and more likely to consume beneficial nutrients and foods ( p -trend < 0.0001). Lower adherence to the index recommendations was inversely associated with the likelihood of being obese; this association strengthened after correction for measurement error (Odds Ratio: 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.17-1.71). Closer adherence to Canada's Food Guide 2007 assessed through the HEI-C 2010 was associated with improved diet quality and reductions in the likelihood of obesity when energy intake and measurement errors were taken into account. Consideration of energy requirements and energy density in future updates of Canada's Food Guide are

  2. Familial concordance of metabolic syndrome in Korean population--Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Ha; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Thomas, G Neil; Ahn, Song Vogue; Hur, Nam Wook; Choi, Dong Phil; Suh, Il

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the familial concordance of metabolic syndrome and its components in a nationally representative survey in Korean. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationwide survey examining the general health and nutritional status of the Korean people. We enrolled 1641 married couples and 1527 parents-1342 offspring. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 17.1% for husbands, 11.7% for wives, 14.3% for parents, and 7.2% for offspring. After adjustment for age, there were strong positive correlations between family members for the metabolic variables. Compared with husbands whose wives did not have metabolic syndrome, adjusted odds ratio in husbands whose wives had metabolic syndrome was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.10-1.87) for the risk of having metabolic syndrome. Similarly, wives whose husbands had metabolic syndrome had 1.41 (95% CI: 1.08-1.84) times higher risk of having metabolic syndrome. Compared with children whose parents did not have metabolic syndrome, adjusted odds ratio in children with at least one parent with the metabolic syndrome was 2.56 (95% CI: 1.09-5.98) for the metabolic syndrome. Our study revealed that there is significant familial concordance for metabolic syndrome and its components in Korean families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Population-based survey of the prevalence and types of glaucoma in Nigeria: results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Entekume, Gabriel; Rabiu, Mansur; Spry, Paul; Wormald, Richard; Nolan, Winifred; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Gilbert, Clare E

    2015-12-12

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. There tends to be a lower reporting of glaucoma in Africa compared to other blinding conditions in global burden data. Research findings of glaucoma in Nigeria will significantly increase our understanding of glaucoma in Nigeria, in people of the West African diaspora and similar population groups. We determined the prevalence and types of glaucoma in Nigeria from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment cross-sectional Survey of adults aged ≥40 years. Multistage stratified cluster random sampling with probability-proportional-to-size procedures were used to select a nationally representative sample of 15,027 persons aged ≥40 years. Participants had logMAR visual acuity measurement, FDT visual function testing, autorefraction, A-scan biometry and optic disc assessment. Participants with visual acuity of worse than 6/12 or suspicious optic discs had detailed examination including Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy and fundus photography. Disc images were graded by Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Glaucoma was defined using International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria; and classified into primary open-angle or primary angle-closure or secondary glaucoma. Diagnosis of glaucoma was based on ISGEO classification. The type of glaucoma was determined by gonioscopy. A total of 13,591 participants in 305 clusters were examined (response rate 90.4 %). Optic disc grading was available for 25,289 (93 %) eyes of 13,081 (96 %) participants. There were 682 participants with glaucoma; a prevalence of 5.02 % (95 % CI 4.60-5.47). Among those with definite primary glaucoma that had gonioscopy (n = 243), open-angle glaucoma was more common (86 %) than angle-closure glaucoma (14 %). 8 % of glaucoma was secondary with the commonest causes being couching (38 %), trauma (21 %) and uveitis (19 %). Only 5.6 % (38/682) of participants with

  4. Methods of the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Resano-Pérez, Elsa; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera, Juan A; Sepúlveda-Amor, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99) is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. The NNS-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of Mexico. The last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. The study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years), and women of chi...

  5. Novel approach to systematic random sampling in population surveys: Lessons from the United Arab Emirates National Diabetes Study (UAEDIAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nabil; Albadawi, Salah; Abusnana, Salah; Fikri, Mahmoud; Madani, Abdulrazzag; Mairghani, Maisoon; Alawadi, Fatheya; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has risen rapidly in the Middle East, particularly in the Gulf Region. However, some prevalence estimates have not fully accounted for large migrant worker populations and have focused on minority indigenous populations. The objectives of the UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Study are to: (i) define the prevalence of, and risk factors for, T2DM; (ii) describe the distribution and determinants of T2DM risk factors; (iii) study health knowledge, attitudes, and (iv) identify gene-environment interactions; and (v) develop baseline data for evaluation of future intervention programs. Given the high burden of diabetes in the region and the absence of accurate data on non-UAE nationals in the UAE, a representative sample of the non-UAE nationals was essential. We used an innovative methodology in which non-UAE nationals were sampled when attending the mandatory biannual health check that is required for visa renewal. Such an approach could also be used in other countries in the region. Complete data were available for 2719 eligible non-UAE nationals (25.9% Arabs, 70.7% Asian non-Arabs, 1.1% African non-Arabs, and 2.3% Westerners). Most were men < 65 years of age. The response rate was 68%, and the non-response was greater among women than men; 26.9% earned less than UAE Dirham (AED) 24 000 (US$6500) and the most common areas of employment were as managers or professionals, in service and sales, and unskilled occupations. Most (37.4%) had completed high school and 4.1% had a postgraduate degree. This novel methodology could provide insights for epidemiological studies in the UAE and other Gulf States, particularly for expatriates. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Changing experience of adverse medical events in the National Health Service: Comparison of two population surveys in 2001 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alastair M; Fenn, Paul; Rickman, Neil; Vencappa, Dev

    2017-12-01

    Care quality is important to patients and providers, but is hard to measure. This study aimed to examine changes in the frequency and severity of one quality measure - adverse events associated with medical care - in Great Britain over a 12-year period when available resources initially expanded and were subsequently constrained. Data on perceived adverse events, collected from two representative population surveys in 2001 and 2013, were analysed and compared. The samples consisted of 8202 adults aged 15 and over in 2001 and 19,746 adults aged 15 and over in 2013. The main outcome measures were self-reported illness, injury or impairment caused in the opinion of the respondent by medical treatment or care. Respondents were also asked about the perceived severity of harm in terms of health and work, and any actions taken in response. The proportion of all respondents reporting that over the last three years they had suffered some illness, injury or impairment that in their opinion was caused by their medical treatment or care was 2.5% (497/19746) in 2013, compared with 4.8% (391/8202) in 2001, a reduction of 33% after adjusting for age, gender, income and social class differences between the two surveys. Perceived impact on health and work of these events was similar in both surveys, as was the proportion of injured respondents who pursued a legal claim for financial compensation, at 11% (53/497) in 2013 and 10.5% (41/391) in 2001. We also report multivariate analyses of perceived harm rates and severity, and propensity to seek, and accept, compensation. Our results suggest that the NHS became significantly safer over this period when measured by patient perceived harm from medical care. Our survey method could provide a valuable contribution to the monitoring of trends in health-care related adverse events and the impact of patient safety initiatives. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [Depression and Anxiety Disorders and Associated Factors in the Adolescent Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez, Adriana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rondón, Martín; Bautista, Nubia; Rengifo, Herney; Medina Rico, Mauricio

    2016-12-01

    There was a prevalence of mental disorders of 17% in adolescents in the past year. These tended to be chronic and their appearance at this age is associated with a worse prognosis than those in adulthood. To determine the prevalence and mental factors associated with major depression and anxiety disorders. Data were obtained from the IV National Mental Health Survey representing 5 regions. A structured computerised survey was conducted using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview-Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Adolescent Version (CAPI-CIDI-A), focused on the most common depression and anxiety disorders. It included a sample of 1754 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old. The prevalence of any disorder at some point in life was 7.2% (95%CI, 5.8-8.9). The most common disorder corresponded to social phobia manifested sometime in life in 4.8% (95%CI, 3.7-6.2). Less frequent were panic disorder in girls (0.2%; 95% CI, 0.1-1.0) and other bipolar disorders in boys (0.2%; 95%CI, 0.1-0.7). Among the associated factors of suffering from any disorder were, being female (OR=2.1), having little family support (OR=2.0), having witnessed at least one traumatic event (OR=2.6), and having had a previous suicide attempt (OR=3.4). Participation in at least one group was a protective factor (OR=0.5). Mental disorders of anxiety and depression represent a major burden of disease for Colombia. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychosocial determinants of HIV testing across stages of change in Spanish population: a cross-sectional national survey

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    Maria Jose Fuster-RuizdeApodaca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this research is to study the psychosocial determinants of HIV-testing as a function of the decision or change stage concerning this health behavior. The determinants considered in the major ongoing health models and the stages contemplated in the Precaution Adoption Process Model are analysed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1,554 people over 16 years of age living in Spain by a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI. The sample design was randomised, with quotas of sex and age. The survey measured various psychosocial determinants of health behaviors considered in the main cognitive theories, the interviewees' stage of change concerning HIV-testing (lack of awareness, decision not to act, decision to act, action, maintenance, and abandonment, and the signal for the action of getting tested or the perceived barriers to being tested. Results Approximately two thirds of the population had not ever had the HIV test. The predominant stage was lack of awareness. The most frequently perceived barriers to testing were related to the health system and to the stigma. We also found that the psychosocial determinants studied differed depending on the respondents' stage of change. Perception of risk, perceived self-efficacy, proximity to people who had been tested, perceived benefits of knowing the diagnosis, and a positive instrumental and emotional attitude were positively associated with the decision and maintenance of testing behavior. However, unrealistic underestimation of the risk of HIV infection, stereotypes about the infection, and the perceived severity of HIV were associated with the decision not to be tested. Conclusions There are various sociocognitive and motivational profiles depending on people’s decision stage concerning HIV-testing. Knowing this profile may allow us to design interventions to influence the psychosocial determinants that characterise each stage of change.

  9. Influenza vaccination uptake among the working age population of Japan: results from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination rates among Japanese people of working age (20-69 years is currently suboptimal, and the reasons for this have not been clearly elucidated. This study examined factors associated with vaccination intention among the working age population in Japan during September 2011, one-month prior to influenza vaccination becoming available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A web-based survey of intention to be vaccinated against influenza in the coming season was undertaken among 3,129 Japanese aged 20 to 69 years. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations between vaccination intent and other variables. Influenza vaccination intent was associated with having been vaccinated in the previous year (Odds Ratio (OR: 3.81; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 3.75-3.86, the number of children per household (one compared with zero; OR: 1.37; 95%CI: 1.11-1.65, and household income ($50,000 to <$100,000 compared with $0 to <$50,000; OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.07-1.54. Smoking was inversely associated with influenza vaccine uptake (current smokers compared with non-smokers; OR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.61-0.98. A history of either the survey respondent or a household member having being medically diagnosed with influenza in the previous year was not statistically associated with future influenza vaccination intent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, this suggests that intention to be vaccinated among working age Japanese is associated with a past history of influenza vaccination, having children, and the household's income. As such, consideration of these factors should now form the cornerstone of strategies to encourage increased uptake of vaccination against influenza in future years.

  10. Psychosocial determinants of HIV testing across stages of change in Spanish population: a cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster-RuizdeApodaca, Maria Jose; Laguia, Ana; Molero, Fernando; Toledo, Javier; Arrillaga, Arantxa; Jaen, Angeles

    2017-03-07

    The goal of this research is to study the psychosocial determinants of HIV-testing as a function of the decision or change stage concerning this health behavior. The determinants considered in the major ongoing health models and the stages contemplated in the Precaution Adoption Process Model are analysed. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1,554 people over 16 years of age living in Spain by a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI). The sample design was randomised, with quotas of sex and age. The survey measured various psychosocial determinants of health behaviors considered in the main cognitive theories, the interviewees' stage of change concerning HIV-testing (lack of awareness, decision not to act, decision to act, action, maintenance, and abandonment), and the signal for the action of getting tested or the perceived barriers to being tested. Approximately two thirds of the population had not ever had the HIV test. The predominant stage was lack of awareness. The most frequently perceived barriers to testing were related to the health system and to the stigma. We also found that the psychosocial determinants studied differed depending on the respondents' stage of change. Perception of risk, perceived self-efficacy, proximity to people who had been tested, perceived benefits of knowing the diagnosis, and a positive instrumental and emotional attitude were positively associated with the decision and maintenance of testing behavior. However, unrealistic underestimation of the risk of HIV infection, stereotypes about the infection, and the perceived severity of HIV were associated with the decision not to be tested. There are various sociocognitive and motivational profiles depending on people's decision stage concerning HIV-testing. Knowing this profile may allow us to design interventions to influence the psychosocial determinants that characterise each stage of change.

  11. [Depression and Anxiety Disorders and Associated Factors in the Adult Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Bohórquez, Adriana; Rondón, Martín; Medina Rico, Mauricio; Rengifo, Hernet; Bautisa, Nubia

    2016-12-01

    Mental disorders are the first causes of disability adjusted life years (DALY), contributing with the 7.4%. This value increases as the DALYs of the transmittable diseases decrease. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of the major depressive and anxious disorders. Data obtained from the IV Mental Health Survey with representation from 5 regions. A computerised interview was conducted, focusing on the most frequent anxiety and depressive disorders, using the CIDI CAPI 3.0. A sample of 10,870 adults over 18 years old was obtained. The lifetime prevalence of any of these disorders is 10.1% (95% CI: 8.8-11.5) in the population between 18 and 44 years, and of 7.7% (95% CI: 6.5-9.1) in those older than 45 years. The prevalence in the last 12 months was 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-6.0) in the younger group, and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) in the older group. Of the people with evaluated mental disorders, 17.6% (95% CI: 13.1-23.4) had 2 or more disorders, a comorbidity that is more common in the female population (20.4%, 95% CI: 14.2-28.3) than in males (13.5%, 95% CI: 7.9-22.0). Major depressive disorder is the most prevalent of the disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 4.3% (95% CI: 3.7-5.0). After adjusting in a multivariate model, being divorced or widowed (OR=1.3), previous suicide attempt (OR=3.3), and having 6 or more features of border-line personality, were associated with an increased risk of presenting with any of the studied disorders. Anxiety and depressive mental disorders are an important health burden in Colombia. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  12. Prevalence and Work-Relatedness of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in the Working Population, United States, 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.; Sweeney, Marie H.; Sestito, John P.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patterns of prevalence and work-relatedness of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among workers offer clues about risk factors and targets for prevention. Methods Data from an occupational health supplement to the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of self-reported clinician-diagnosed CTS overall and by demographic characteristics. The proportion of these cases self-reported to have been attributed to work by clinicians was also examined overall and by demographic characteristics. In addition, the distribution of industry and occupation (I&O) categories to which work-related cases of CTS were attributed was compared to the distribution of I&O categories of employment among current/recent workers. Results Data were available for 27,157 adults, including 17,524 current/recent workers. The overall lifetime prevalence of clinician-diagnosed CTS among current/recent workers was 6.7%. The 12-month prevalence was 3.1%, representing approximately 4.8 million workers with current CTS; 67.1% of these cases were attributed to work by clinicians, with overrepresentation of certain I&O categories. Conclusions CTS affected almost 5 million U.S. workers in 2010, with prevalence varying by demographic characteristics and I&O. PMID:22495886

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in the Korean population--Korean National Health Insurance Corporation Survey 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Shil; Ko, Yu Kyung; Ban, Keum Ok

    2013-07-01

    To determine the factors affecting the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in younger and older Koreans. Metabolic syndrome, in combination with other, interrelated predisposing factors, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Korea, the prevalence of this syndrome, like those of other chronic diseases, has increased continually in recent years. This is an analytic, descriptive cross-sectional study. This survey targeted 690,283 examinees that had undergone a medical examination on a life transition period performed by the National Health Insurance Corporation from January-December 2008. For the purpose of this study, the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the criteria of the American Heart Association and the Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The relationship between the risk factors and prevalence rate was shown using a multiple logistic regression model. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 24·8% in the 40 year olds and 40·8% in the 66 year olds. Among the younger adults, the prevalence in women was only 0·57 times that in men. A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that heavy obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease are the strongest independent predictors of metabolic syndrome among younger and older Koreans. As a management strategy, a nursing intervention strategy for the improvement of lifestyle factors including self-care through proper diet and exercise should be developed and implemented. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Time Trends of High Blood Pressure Prevalence, Awareness and Control in the Italian General Population : Surveys of the National Institute of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lonardo, Anna; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Palmieri, Luigi; Vanuzzo, Diego; Giampaoli, Simona

    2017-06-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The urgency of the problem was underlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, which recommends a 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised BP by 2020. A surveillance system represents a useful tool to monitor BP in the general population. Since 1980s, the National Institute of Health has conducted several surveys of the adult general population, measuring cardiovascular risk factors by standardized procedures and methods. To describe mean BP levels and high BP prevalence from 1978 to 2012 by sex and quinquennia of age. Data were derived from the following three studies: (i) Risk Factors and Life Expectancy (RIFLE), conducted between 1978 and 2002 in 13 Italian regions (>70,000 persons); (ii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare (OEC), conducted between 1998-2002 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons); and (iii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey (OEC/HES), conducted between 2008-2012 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons). A significant decrease in mean systolic and diastolic BP levels and prevalence of high BP from 1978 to 2012 was observed both in men and women. BP and high BP increased by age classes in all considered periods. BP awareness and control also improved. Our data suggest that BP control could be achieved by 2020, as recommended by WHO.

  15. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Alexander; Varnaccia, Gianni; Lahmann, Nils; Kottner, Jan; Kroll, Lars Eric

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041), the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2) of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0). In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16) and age 18-29 (OR 1.54), as well as agricultural (OR 5.40), technical (OR 3.41), skilled service (OR 4.24) or manual (OR 5.12), and unskilled service (OR 3.13) or manual (OR 4.97) occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78), working in awkward postures (OR 1.46), environmental stress (OR 1.48), and working under pressure (OR 1.41). Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47) and obesity (OR 1.73) present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  16. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rommel

    Full Text Available Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041, the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI. Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2 of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0. In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16 and age 18-29 (OR 1.54, as well as agricultural (OR 5.40, technical (OR 3.41, skilled service (OR 4.24 or manual (OR 5.12, and unskilled service (OR 3.13 or manual (OR 4.97 occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78, working in awkward postures (OR 1.46, environmental stress (OR 1.48, and working under pressure (OR 1.41. Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47 and obesity (OR 1.73 present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  17. How well do regional or national Breeding Bird Survey data predict songbird population trends at an intact boreal site?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S. Machtans

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to monitor boreal songbird trends was initiated in 1998 in a relatively undisturbed and remote part of the boreal forest in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Eight years of point count data were collected over the 14 years of the study, 1998-2011. Trends were estimated for 50 bird species using generalized linear mixed-effects models, with random effects to account for temporal (repeat sampling within years and spatial (stations within stands autocorrelation and variability associated with multiple observers. We tested whether regional and national Breeding Bird Survey (BBS trends could, on average, predict trends in our study area. Significant increases in our study area outnumbered decreases by 12 species to 6, an opposite pattern compared to Alberta (6 versus 15, respectively and Canada (9 versus 20. Twenty-two species with relatively precise trend estimates (precision to detect > 30% decline in 10 years; observed SE ≤ 3.7%/year showed nonsignificant trends, similar to Alberta (24 and Canada (20. Precision-weighted trends for a sample of 19 species with both reliable trends at our site and small portions of their range covered by BBS in Canada were, on average, more negative for Alberta (1.34% per year lower and for Canada (1.15% per year lower relative to Fort Liard, though 95% credible intervals still contained zero. We suggest that part of the differences could be attributable to local resource pulses (insect outbreak. However, we also suggest that the tendency for BBS route coverage to disproportionately sample more southerly, developed areas in the boreal forest could result in BBS trends that are not representative of range-wide trends for species whose range is centred farther north.

  18. Poor Adherence to US Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Emilyn C; Liu, Yan; Davis, Jennifer S; Chang, Shine; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Poor diet quality in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse health outcomes throughout life, yet the dietary habits of American children and how they change across childhood and adolescence are unknown. This study sought to describe diet quality among children and adolescents by assessing adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and to determine whether any differences in adherence occurred across childhood. We employed a cross-sectional design using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Of 9,280 children aged 4 to 18 years who participated in NHANES from 2005 to 2010, those with insufficient data on dietary recall (n=852) or who were pregnant or lactating during the time of interview (n=38) were excluded from the final study sample (n=8,390). We measured adherence to the DGA using the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and stratified participants into three age groups (4 to 8, 9 to 13, and 14 to 18 years of age). We analyzed each of 12 HEI-2010 components and total HEI-2010 score. The youngest children had the highest overall diet quality due to significantly greater scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dairy, and whole grains. These children also had the highest scores for sodium, refined grains, and empty calories. Total HEI-2010 scores ranged from 43.59 to 52.11 out of 100, much lower than the minimum score of 80 that is thought to indicate a diet associated with good health. Overall, children and adolescents are failing to meet the DGA and may be at an increased risk of chronic diseases throughout life. By analyzing which food groups show differences between age groups, we provide data that can inform the development of dietary interventions to promote specific food groups targeting specific ages and improve diet quality among children and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in herb and dietary supplement use in the U.S. adult population: a comparison of the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Hsuen; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Kennedy, Jae

    2011-11-01

    Past national surveys indicate that use of herbs and dietary supplements rose rapidly in the United States during the 1990s and early 2000s. Additional research is needed to determine whether this growth rate and associated patterns of use have persisted over time. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess population and subpopulation changes in rates of herb and supplement use; and (2) to assess changes in rates of disclosure of herb and supplement use to conventional medical providers. This study used data from the 2002 (n = 30,427) and 2007 (n = 22,657) Adult Complementary and Alternative Medicine File to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Weighted group and subgroup comparisons used the Wald χ(2) tests to compare differences in herb and supplement use between 2002 and 2007. The number of adults in the United States that ever used herbs or supplements grew slightly, from 50.6 million in 2002 to 55.1 million in 2007. However, the proportion of adults who reported use of herbs or supplements in the past 12 months dropped significantly: from 18.9% in 2002 to 17.9% in 2007 (P minorities also reported a significant decline in recent use. The proportion of respondents that disclosed herb or supplement use to their physician or another conventional medical professional rose, from 33.4% in 2002 to 45.4% in 2007. However, <1% of recent herb and supplement users disclosed this use to their pharmacist. Limitations of this research are that the 2 national data sets were not directly comparable and that questionnaires in the 2 surveys assessed were not identical. Herbal preparations and dietary supplements remain popular in the United States, but the user population and patterns of use are changing. Ongoing surveillance of this health behavior is a public health priority. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Survey on Services to Multicultural Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Lee; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports results of a recent national survey that examined the availability and variety of services provided to multicultural populations by medium and large public libraries. Highlights include measuring multicultural activity; planning for new services; staffing; languages; literacy and English-as-a-Second-Language programs; and barriers to…

  1. Variation in LPA is associated with Lp(a levels in three populations from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Dumitrescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] levels can differ dramatically across diverse racial/ethnic populations. The extent to which genetic variation in LPA can explain these differences is not fully understood. To explore this, 19 LPA tagSNPs were genotyped in 7,159 participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. NHANES III is a diverse population-based survey with DNA samples linked to hundreds of quantitative traits, including serum Lp(a. Tests of association between LPA variants and transformed Lp(a levels were performed across the three different NHANES subpopulations (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. At a significance threshold of p<0.0001, 15 of the 19 SNPs tested were strongly associated with Lp(a levels in at least one subpopulation, six in at least two subpopulations, and none in all three subpopulations. In non-Hispanic whites, three variants were associated with Lp(a levels, including previously known rs6919246 (p = 1.18 × 10(-30. Additionally, 12 and 6 variants had significant associations in non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively. The additive effects of these associated alleles explained up to 11% of the variance observed for Lp(a levels in the different racial/ethnic populations. The findings reported here replicate previous candidate gene and genome-wide association studies for Lp(a levels in European-descent populations and extend these findings to other populations. While we demonstrate that LPA is an important contributor to Lp(a levels regardless of race/ethnicity, the lack of generalization of associations across all subpopulations suggests that specific LPA variants may be contributing to the observed Lp(a between-population variance.

  2. Chronic pain and pattern of health care utilization among Malaysian elderly population: National Health and Morbidity Survey III (NHMS III, 2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Zaki, Lily R; Hairi, Noran N

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to report prevalence of chronic pain and to examine whether chronic pain influence healthcare usage among elderly Malaysian population. This was a sub-population analysis of the elderly sample in the Malaysia's Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) 2006, a nation-wide population based survey. A subset of 4954 elderly aged 60 years and above was used in the analysis. Chronic pain, pain's interference and outcome variables of healthcare utilization (hospital admission and ambulatory care service) were all measured and determined by self-report. Prevalence of chronic pain among elderly Malaysian was 15.2% (95% CI: 14.5, 16.8). Prevalence of chronic pain increased with advancing age, and the highest prevalence was seen among the old-old group category (21.5%). Across young-old and old-old groups, chronic pain was more prevalent among females, Indian ethnicity, widows/widowers, rural residency and those with no educational background. Our study showed that chronic pain alone increased hospitalization but not visits to ambulatory facilities. Presence of chronic pain was significantly associated with the frequency of hospitalization (aIRR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02, 1.38) but not ambulatory care service. Chronic pain is a prevalent health problem among the elderly in Malaysia and is associated with higher hospitalization rate among the elderly population. This study provides insight into the distribution of chronic pain among the elderly and its relationship with the patterns of healthcare utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmacharya Dibesh B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal. Results A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA in the east. Nineteen (27% scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53% of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females and five (2 males and 3 females in KCA. Conclusions We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites.

  4. 2012 National Immunization Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir This website is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being maintained or ... 12, 2013: Content on this page kept for historical reasons. National Immunization Survey (NIS) – Children (19-35 ...

  5. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  6. National Aquatic Resource Survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Surface water monitoring data from national aquatic surveys (lakes, streams, rivers). This dataset is associated with the following publication: Stoddard , J., J....

  7. National Survey of Family Growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) gathers information on family life, marriage and divorce, pregnancy, infertility, use of contraception, and men's and...

  8. Trends in HIV testing and associated factors among men in South Africa: evidence from 2005, 2008 and 2012 national population-based household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusha, T; Mabaso, M; Richter, L; Desmond, C; Jooste, S; Simbayi, L

    2017-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan African countries, including South Africa, uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among men remains a major challenge. Few studies have explored HIV testing uptake among men and factors that influence their testing behaviours. This article explores trends in HIV testing uptake and associated factors among men aged 15 years and older in South Africa using national HIV population-based household surveys conducted in 2005, 2008 and 2012. A multistage cross-sectional design was used in the three nationally representative household-based surveys. P-trend Chi-squared statistic was used to analyze changes in HIV testing in relation to demographic factors, and HIV-related risk behaviours across the three surveys. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between ever testing for HIV, demographic factors and HIV-related risk behaviours. HIV testing uptake among men was 28% in 2005, 43% in 2008 and 59% in 2012. A trend was also observed in HIV testing by sociodemographic factors, but differences existed within variables. HIV testing uptake was mainly influenced by the effects of selected population characteristics. Reduced likelihood of HIV testing was significantly associated with males aged 15-24 years, Black African race group, being single and unemployed, those residing in urban informal and rural informal areas, and those men who ever had sex. The observed sociodemographic differentials suggest that an effective expansion strategy for HIV testing needs to prioritize those most unlikely to test as identified by the current findings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inflammation gene variants and susceptibility to albuminuria in the U.S. population: analysis in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1991-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Man-huei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Albuminuria, a common marker of kidney damage, serves as an important predictive factor for the progression of kidney disease and for the development of cardiovascular disease. While the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic, low-grade inflammation is a suspected key factor. Genetic variants within genes involved in inflammatory processes may, therefore, contribute to the development of albuminuria. Methods We evaluated 60 polymorphisms within 27 inflammatory response genes in participants from the second phase (1991-1994 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, a population-based and nationally representative survey of the United States. Albuminuria was evaluated as logarithm-transformed albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, as ACR ≥ 30 mg/g, and as ACR above sex-specific thresholds. Multivariable linear regression and haplotype trend analyses were conducted to test for genetic associations in 5321 participants aged 20 years or older. Differences in allele and genotype distributions among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans were tested in additive and codominant genetic models. Results Variants in several genes were found to be marginally associated (uncorrected P value IL1B (rs1143623 among Mexican Americans remained significantly associated with increased odds, while IL1B (rs1143623, CRP (rs1800947 and NOS3 (rs2070744 were significantly associated with ACR ≥ 30 mg/g in this population (additive models, FDR-P TNF rs1800750, which failed the test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions in this population. Haplotypes within MBL2, CRP, ADRB2, IL4R, NOS3, and VDR were significantly associated (FDR-P Conclusions Our findings suggest a small role for genetic variation within inflammation-related genes to the susceptibility to albuminuria. Additional studies are needed to further assess whether genetic variation in these, and untested, inflammation genes alter the

  10. [Health-related quality-of-life in the smoking general population of Spain: An approach from the National Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lossada, A; Rejas, J

    2016-10-01

    Smoking has been associated with an important health risk. The aim was to analyze the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) status of the adult Spanish general population included in the National Health Survey according to its smoking status. Data were included from National Health Survey for the year 2011-2012 with information of HRQoL status in general population over 15 years of age. Adult male and female, 18 years of age or above, were categorized into 3 exclusive groups according to their current smoking status: smokers (daily smokers of any form of tobacco, at least the previous 12 months), ex-smokers of one or more years since quitting smoking and people who have never smoked (non smokers). HRQoL was assessed with the Spanish version of the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire included into the National Health Survey. A total of 19,604 records were analyzed: 4,723 (24.09%) smokers, 3,797 (19.37%) ex-smokers, and 11,084 (56.54%) non smokers, male and female with 18 years of age or above. Smokers showed significantly adjusted mean scores (95% CI) in utility of 0.903 (0.899-0.908) and 75.36 (74.06-76.69) in the visual analogue scale of current state of health, ex-smokers 0.924 (0.919-0.929) and 76.85 (76.67-78.07), and non smokers 0.902 (0.899-0.905) and 76.25 (75.02-77.51), P<.01 between groups in both variables. In the Spanish general population, subjects who are ex-smokers showed better utility values and state health scores, supporting the hypothesis that quitting smoking could be associated with a discreet improvement of HRQoL. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Experience-based VAS values for EQ-5D-3L health states in a national general population health survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sun; Chen, Jiaying; Kind, Paul; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Yaoguang; Burström, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of deriving experience-based visual analogue scale (VAS) values for EQ-5D-3L health states using national general population health survey data in China. The EQ-5D-3L was included in the National Health Services Survey (n = 120,709, aged 15-103 years) to measure health-related quality of life. The respondents reported their current health status on a VAS and completed the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire, enabling modelling of the association between the experience-based VAS values and self-reported problems on EQ-5D dimensions and severity levels. VAS values were generally negatively associated with problems reported on the EQ-5D dimensions, and the anxiety/depression dimension had the greatest impact on VAS values. A previously obtained value for dead allowed the values for all 243 EQ-5D-3L health states to be transformed to the 0-1 scale (0 = dead, 1 = full health). This study presents the feasibility of deriving an experience-based VAS values for EQ-5D-3L health states in China. The analysis of these VAS data raises more fundamental issues concerning the universal nature of the classification system and the extent to which Chinese respondents utilise the same concepts of health as defined by this classification system.

  12. Progress in Reversing the HIV Epidemic through Intensified Access to Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey in Kenya, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrea A.; Mukui, Irene; N’gan’ga, Lucy; Katana, Abraham; Koros, Dan; Wamicwe, Joyce; De Cock, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) called for 90% of persons living with HIV (PLHIV) to know their status, 90% of these to be on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of these to be virally suppressed by 2020 (90-90-90). It is not clear whether planned ART scale-up in countries whose eligibility criteria for ART initiation are based on recommendations from the 2013 World Health Organization treatment guidelines will be sufficient to meet UNAIDS' new global targets. Materials and Methods Using data from a nationally representative population-based household survey of persons in Kenya we compared coverage and unmet need associated with HIV diagnosis, ART, and viral suppression among PLHIV aged 15–64 years in 2012 based on criteria outlined in the 2014 national ART guidelines and UNAIDS’ 90-90-90 goals. Estimates were weighted to account for sampling probability and nonresponse. Results Eight in ten PLHIV aged 15–64 years needed ART based on treatment eligibility. Need for treatment based on the national treatment policy was 97.4% of treatment need based on UNAIDS’ 90-90-90 goals, requiring an excess of 24,000 PLHIV to access treatment beyond those eligible for ART to achieve UNAIDS’ 90-90-90 treatment target. The gap in treatment coverage was high, ranging from 43.1% nationally to 52.3% in Nyanza among treatment-eligible PLHIV and 44.6% nationally to 52.4% in Nyanza among all PLHIV. Conclusion Maintaining the current pace of ART scale-up in Kenya will result in thousands of PLHIV unreached, many with high viral load and at-risk of transmitting infection to others. Careful strategies for reaching 90-90-90 will be instrumental in determining whether intensified access to treatment can be achieved to reach all who require ART. PMID:26930291

  13. National narcolepsy survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doherty, L.

    2010-04-01

    Narcolepsy is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and has a prevalence of 25 per 100,000. We suspect this is higher than presently seen in the Republic of Ireland. We aimed to calculate the Irish prevalence of Narcolepsy and to examine current management practices. We conducted an online survey of respiratory physicians, neurologists, paediatric neurologists, and psychiatrists with an interest in sleep disorders (73% response rate). Of this group, a total of 16 physicians managed 180 patients prior to January 2009. A clinical diagnosis alone was reached in 67 (41%) patients, the remainder by polysomnography or multiple sleep latency testing. No patients were diagnosed by cerebro-spinal fluid analysis of hypocretin levels. While 70 (42%) patients received modafanil, only 7 (4%) were treated with sodium oxybate. Even allowing for missing data it is apparent that Narcolepsy is hugely under-diagnosed in Ireland, however, current practises adhere with new international guidelines.

  14. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background No nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea. Methods Nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564) who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Results The reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10%) and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%), respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%). The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81%) and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%), respectively. Conclusion The Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea. PMID:28116874

  15. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNo nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea.MethodsNation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564 who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015.ResultsThe reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10% and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%, respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81% and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%, respectively.ConclusionThe Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea.

  16. The population impact of smoke-free workplace and hospitality industry legislation on smoking behaviour. Findings from a national population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; de Vries, Hein

    2011-04-01

    To study the impact of implementing smoke-free workplace and hospitality industry legislation on smoking behaviour. A cross-sectional population survey from 2001 to 2008 (n ≈ 18,000 per year) was used to assess trends and seasonal patterns in smoking and quitting, and to examine whether changes could be observed after the workplace smoking ban in the Netherlands in 2004 and the hospitality industry ban in 2008. Outcome measures were smoking prevalence, quit attempts and successful quit attempts. Interactions with educational level (socio-economic status) and bar visiting (exposure to the hospitality industry ban) were tested. The workplace ban was followed by a decrease in smoking prevalence (OR = 0.91, P hospitality industry ban was not (OR = 0.96, P = 0.127). Both bans, especially the workplace ban, were followed by an increase in quit attempts and successful quit attempts: workplace ban, OR = 1.31, P hospitality industry ban, OR = 1.13, P = 0.013; OR = 1.44, P hospitality industry ban had a larger effect on quit attempts among frequent bar visitors (OR = 1.48, P = 0.003) than on non-bar visitors (OR = 0.71, P = 0.014). A workplace smoking ban in the Netherlands was followed by more changes in smoking and quitting than a hospitality industry ban. The hospitality industry ban only appeared to have an impact on quit attempts, and not on smoking prevalence. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Prevalence and social burden of active chronic low back pain in the adult Portuguese population: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime C

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of active chronic low back pain (CLBP) in the adult Portuguese population; to compare the active CLBP population with the population without CLBP; and to explore factors associated with active CLBP. The present study was conducted under the scope of EpiReumaPt a population-based study. Active CLBP was self-reported and considered if present on the day of the interview and for ≥90 days. Prevalence estimates were calculated. Association of active CLBP with quality of life, functional ability and healthcare consumption were evaluated. Factors associated with active CLBP were identified through logistic regression. Among 10.661 EpiReumaPt subjects, 1487 self-reported active CLBP. The prevalence of active CLBP was 10.4 % (95 % CI 9.6; 11.9 %). After adjustment, active CLBP subjects had a higher likelihood for anxiety symptoms (OR 2.77), early retirement due to disease (OR 1.88) and more physician visits (β = 2.65). Factors significantly and independently associated with the presence of active CLBP were: female gender (OR 1.34), overweight/obesity (OR 1.27), presence of self-reported rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD) (OR 2.93), anxiety symptoms (OR 2.67), age (OR 1.02) and higher number of self-reported comorbidities (OR 1.12). Active CLBP is highly prevalent in the Portuguese population and is associated with disability and with a high consumption of healthcare resources. Female gender, older age, anxiety symptoms, overweight/obesity, the presence of other RMD and the number of comorbidities were independently associated with the presence of active CLBP. These factors should be taken into account when new cohort prospective studies will be developed.

  18. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 μg/L), low normal (15.0–30.0 μg/L for women and 15.0–50.0 for men), and normal (≥30.0 μg/L for women and ≥50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  19. Chronic disease prevalence from Italian administrative databases in the VALORE project: a validation through comparison of population estimates with general practice databases and national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Administrative databases are widely available and have been extensively used to provide estimates of chronic disease prevalence for the purpose of surveillance of both geographical and temporal trends. There are, however, other sources of data available, such as medical records from primary care and national surveys. In this paper we compare disease prevalence estimates obtained from these three different data sources. Methods Data from general practitioners (GP) and administrative transactions for health services were collected from five Italian regions (Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Marche and Sicily) belonging to all the three macroareas of the country (North, Center, South). Crude prevalence estimates were calculated by data source and region for diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For diabetes and COPD, prevalence estimates were also obtained from a national health survey. When necessary, estimates were adjusted for completeness of data ascertainment. Results Crude prevalence estimates of diabetes in administrative databases (range: from 4.8% to 7.1%) were lower than corresponding GP (6.2%-8.5%) and survey-based estimates (5.1%-7.5%). Geographical trends were similar in the three sources and estimates based on treatment were the same, while estimates adjusted for completeness of ascertainment (6.1%-8.8%) were slightly higher. For ischaemic heart disease administrative and GP data sources were fairly consistent, with prevalence ranging from 3.7% to 4.7% and from 3.3% to 4.9%, respectively. In the case of heart failure administrative estimates were consistently higher than GPs’ estimates in all five regions, the highest difference being 1.4% vs 1.1%. For COPD the estimates from administrative data, ranging from 3.1% to 5.2%, fell into the confidence interval of the Survey estimates in four regions, but failed to detect the higher prevalence in the most Southern region (4.0% in

  20. Folate status and concentrations of serum folate forms in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Fazili, Zia; Lacher, David A; Zhang, Mindy; Johnson, Clifford L; Hamner, Heather C; Bailey, Regan L; Rader, Jeanne I; Yamini, Sedigheh; Berry, R J; Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-28

    Serum and erythrocyte (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured the serum folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolised folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-formylTHF), 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF)) and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)) by HPLC-MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US population ≥ 1 year (n approximately 7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2. Data analysis for serum total folate was conducted including and excluding MeFox. Concentrations (geometric mean; detection rate) of 5-methylTHF (37·5 nmol/l; 100 %), UMFA (1·21 nmol/l; 99·9 %), MeFox (1·53 nmol/l; 98·8 %), and THF (1·01 nmol/l; 85·2 %) were mostly detectable. 5-FormylTHF (3·6 %) and 5,10-methenylTHF (4·4 %) were rarely detected. The biggest contributor to serum total folate was 5-methylTHF (86·7 %); UMFA (4·0 %), non-methyl folate (4·7 %) and MeFox (4·5 %) contributed smaller amounts. Age was positively related to MeFox, but showed a U-shaped pattern for other folates. We generally noted sex and race/ethnic biomarker differences and weak (Spearman's rfolates. All biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations with recent folic acid-containing dietary supplement use. These first-time population data for serum folate forms generally show similar associations with demographic, physiological and lifestyle variables as serum total folate. Patterns observed for MeFox may suggest altered folate metabolism dependent on biological characteristics.

  1. AIDS stigma as an obstacle to uptake of HIV testing: evidence from a Zimbabwean national population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambisa, William; Curtis, Sian; Mishra, Vinod

    2010-02-01

    Using the 2005-2006 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, we investigated the prevalence of HIV testing uptake within a sample of women (6839) and men (5315), and identified the independent effects of AIDS stigma on testing uptake, with particular emphasis on three pathways to testing: voluntary testing, testing when offered, and testing when required. The prevalence of self-reported HIV testing was higher among women (31%) than men (22%). For women, the main pathway to testing uptake was to accept testing when it is offered (46%), whereas for men it was voluntary testing (53%). In the logistic regression models, we found that social rejection stigma was inversely associated with uptake across all pathways of testing for women, but not men. As regards observed enacted stigma, respondents who both knew someone with HIV and had observed discrimination against someone with HIV were more likely to test for HIV through all pathways, while those who knew someone with HIV but had not observed stigma were more likely to test voluntarily. Individual characteristics important to the adoption of testing included high educational attainment, religion, exposure to mass media, and ever use of condoms; while being never married and self-perceived risk were barriers to testing. Programmatic strategies aimed at increasing HIV testing uptake should consider reducing stigma toward people living with HIV/AIDS and also addressing the role of agency and structure in individual's decision to be tested for HIV.

  2. Association between hepatitis C infection and cerebro-cardiovascular disease: analysis of a national population-based survey in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, Mohsen; Kandil, Sahar; Mohsen, Amira

    2018-05-03

    To examine the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, cardiovascular risk factors and cerebro-cardiovascular (CCV) disease. The source of data was the Egypt Health Issues Survey conducted in 2015. Participants were 11 256 individuals with complete HCV testing, age 25-59 years. Data on demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, CCV disease (myocardial infarction and/or cerebral stroke) and HCV infection were retrieved. Descriptive, bivariate, multivariable logistic regression and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the independent association of past HCV exposure or chronic infection with diabetes, hypertension and CCV disease. 3.9% of participants were antibody positive/RNA negative and considered to have past HCV exposure; 7.9% had detectable HCV-RNA and were considered to have chronic infection. Participants with negative antibodies and no history of liver disease (n = 9928) were the control group. In addition to the previously known risk factors, multivariable analyses revealed that diabetes was independently associated with past HCV exposure (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.27-2.32) and HCV chronic infection (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.23-1.97), whereas CCV disease was independently associated with past exposure (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.62-4.46) and not with chronic infection. No evidence of an association between hypertension and either HCV status was found. The association of both past HCV exposure and chronic infection with diabetes and that of past HCV exposure with CCV disease may suggest targeting HCV-positive reactors for preventive and curative programmes addressing extrahepatic complications. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Association between Sarcopenia and Dipstick Proteinuria in the Elderly Population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Duna; Cho, Mi-Ryung; Choi, Minyong; Lee, Sang Hyun; Park, Youngmin

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia and proteinuria are significant health difficulties in the elderly; however, few studies have investigated their relationship. In this study, we investigated the association between sarcopenia and proteinuria in Korean subjects over 60 years old. Methods We included data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey conducted from 2009 to 2011 (n=4,008). Sarcopenia was defined using appendicular skel...

  4. Folate status and concentrations of serum folate forms in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Fazili, Zia; Lacher, David A.; Zhang, Mindy; Johnson, Clifford L.; Hamner, Heather C.; Bailey, Regan L.; Rader, Jeanne I.; Yamini, Sedigheh; Berry, R. J.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Serum and red blood cell (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured serum folate forms [5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of THF, 5-formylTHF, 5,10-methenylTHF), and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)] by HPLC-MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US persons ≥1 year (n ~7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2. Data analysis for serum total folate was conducted including and excluding MeFox. Concentrations (geometric mean; detection rate) of 5-methylTHF (37.5 nmol/L; 100%), UMFA (1.21 nmol/L; 99.9%), MeFox (1.53 nmol/L; 98.8%), and THF (1.01 nmol/L; 85.2%) were mostly detectable. 5-FormylTHF (3.6%) and 5,10-methenylTHF (4.4%) were rarely detected. The biggest contributor to serum total folate was 5-methylTHF (86.7%); UMFA (4.0%), non-methyl folate (4.7%), and MeFox (4.5%) contributed smaller amounts. Age was positively related to MeFox but showed a U-shaped pattern for other folates. We generally noted sex and race-ethnic biomarker differences and weak (Spearman r folates. All biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations with recent folic acid-containing dietary supplement use. These first-time population data for serum folate forms generally show similar associations with demographic, physiologic, and lifestyle variables as serum total folate. Patterns observed for MeFox may suggest altered folate metabolism dependent on biological characteristics. PMID:25917925

  5. National Geodetic Survey's Airport Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), formerly part of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, has been performing Aeronautical surveys since the 1920's. NGS, in...

  6. [Mental Problems, Mood and Anxiety Disorders in The Population Displaced by Violence in Colombia; Results of The National Mental Health Survey 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rincón Rodríguez, Carlos Javier; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Bautista Bautista, Nubia; Collazos, Jaime; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Colombia has a large population exposed to violence. Our data suggest a significant number displaced by the conflict. As there is an increased risk of vulnerability, their problems and mental disorders need to be assessed in order to determine specific treatments. To determine the prevalence of problems and mental disorders in those internally displaced by the conflict. Data was obtained from the National Mental Health Survey 2015. The diagnostic tools used were the composite international diagnosis interview (CIDI-CAPI), Self-reporting questionnaire (SQR). Alcohol consumption was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification test (AUDIT). A survey based on the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed. The modified Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C) was used to determine possible post-traumatic stress Disorder. Multidimensional poverty index (MPI) and Family-Apgar questionnaire were applied to general individual and household data. A total of 943 persons displaced by the conflict were reported, with self-report of symptoms in 16.4% (95% CI, 13.2-20.1). The prevalence of any of the measured mental disorders (CIDI-CAPI) ever in life was 15.9% (95% CI, 11.9-21.1), with a suicidal ideation of 12.5% (95%CI, 9.0-17.1), and excessive alcohol consumption in 10.1% (95% CI, 7.2-13.9). More than one-third (35.6%, (95% CI, 30.7-40.8) of people report having experienced, witnessed, or been told that someone close had had a traumatic event related to the armed conflict. An increased risk of PTSD is reported by 3.6% (95% CI, 2.2-5.9) displaced people that had reported at least one traumatic event. Family dysfunction in the displaced population is absent (74.8% (95%.CI, 70.4-78.8). The displaced population has a high prevalence of problems and mental disorders, which confirms their disadvantaged situation. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier Espa

  7. [UNHEALTHY FOOD INTAKE IS LINKED TO HIGHER PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILEAN ADULT POPULATION: CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN 2009-2010 NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaillant, Catalina; Echeverría, Guadalupe; Villarroel, Luis; Marin, Pedro Paulo; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-11-01

    metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of risk factors known to promote cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Environmental factors, such as unhealthy diet, play a major role in the development of this condition. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of MS and its association with food intake quality among Chilean adults. we analyzed data of 2 561 adults (≥ 18 years-old) included in the last National Health Survey (NHS 2009-2010) who had appropriate information to diagnose MS based on ATP III-NCEP guidelines. Consumption frequency of fish, whole grains, dairy, fruits and vegetables was also analyzed and associated with MS prevalence. Using a healthy diet score (HDS), we described the overall diet quality and further correlated it with MS prevalence. we found that lower whole grain intake was associated with greater MS prevalence (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.088-2.919; p = 0.022). HDS showed better diet quality among women and in subjects with increasing age and higher educational level. A HDS Chilean adult population exhibits a high prevalence of MS linked to a poor diet quality. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Time trends in leisure time physical activity and physical fitness in elderly people: 20 year follow-up of the Spanish population national health survey (1987-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco-Garrido Pilar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate trends in leisure time physical activity and physical fitness between 1987-2006 in older Spanish people. Methods We analyzed data collected from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 1987 (n = 29,647, 1993 (n = 20,707, 1995-1997 (n = 12,800, 2001 (n = 21,058, 2003 (n = 21,650, and 2006 (n = 29,478. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included in the current study was 29,263 (1987: n = 4,958-16.7%; 1993: n = 3,751-17.8%; 1995-97: n = 2,229-17.4%; 2001: n = 4,356-20.7%; 2003: 6,134-28.3%; 2006: 7,835-26.5%. Main variables included leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness. We analyzed socio-demographic characteristics, self-rated health status, lifestyle habit and co-morbid conditions using multivariate logistic regression models. Results Women exhibited lower prevalence of leisure time physical activity and physical fitness compared to men (P Conclusions We found an increase in leisure time physical activity in the older Spanish population. Older age, married status, co-morbid conditions, obesity, and worse self-perceived health status were associated with lower activity. Identification of these factors can help to identify individuals at risk for physical inactivity.

  9. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  10. Different outcomes for different health measures in immigrants: evidence from a longitudinal analysis of the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2012-02-01

    The response of immigrants to new societies is dynamic. There may be an initial period of happiness followed by peaks of stressful periods. These reactions along with socio-economic changes are likely to influence their health, which may start converging towards the average health of the host population. We used a longitudinal analysis to assess the differences in health outcomes (mental health and self-rated health), separately in men and women, in Canadian born and immigrants over a 12-year period (and the associated socio-economic factors). We used random effects logistic regression models for evaluation of these health outcomes in 3,081 men and 4,187 women from the National Population Health Survey (1994/95 to 2006/07). After adjusting for all the covariates, non-white immigrants were less likely to have severe psychological distress compared with the Canadian born individuals [odds ratio (OR) Men: 0.49, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.24-1.00, Women-OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32-0.92]. Immigrant women (white and non-white) were more likely to rate their health as poor through this 12-year period than the Canadian born women (White-OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.17-2.64; Non-white-OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.01-3.28). Immigrants in the lowest income adequacy category reported higher psychological distress and poorer health than those in the highest income categories. We did not find any significant differences in the mental health and self-rated health of Canadian men and white male immigrants throughout this 12-year period. Though, non-white immigrant women were less likely to have severe psychological distress through this 12 year period, they were the ones most likely to rate their health as poor.

  11. Burden of Cardiovascular Disease among Multi-Racial and Ethnic Populations in the United States: An Update from the National Health Interview Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study aimed to provide new evidence of health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM, and to examine their associations with lifestyle-related risk factors across the U.S. multi-racial and ethnic groups. Methods: The analysis included a randomized population sample of 68,321 subjects aged ≥18 years old who participated in the U.S. 2012 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys. Hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and DM were classified according to participants’ self-report of physician diagnosis. Assessments of risk factors were measured using standard survey instruments. Associations of risk factors with hypertension, CHD, stroke and DM were analyzed using univariable and multivariable analysis methods. Results: Non-Hispanic (NH-Blacks had significantly higher odds of hypertension, stroke and DM, while NH-Asians and Hispanics had significantly lower odds of stroke and higher odds of stroke and higher odds of DM than NH-Whites (p<0.001. NH-Whites had higher odds of CHD than NH-Black, NH-Asians and Hispanics (p<0.001. Increased body weight, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity were significantly associated with increased odds of hypertension, CHD, stroke and DM (p<0.001. However, the strengths of associations between lifestyle-related factors and the study outcomes were different across racial and ethnic groups. NH-Asians with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 had the highest odds ratios (OR, 95%CI for hypertension (5.37, 4.01-7.18, CHD (2.93, 1.90-4.52 and stroke (2.23, 1.08-4.61, and had the second highest odd ratios for DM (3.78, 2.68-5.35 than NH-Whites, NH-Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion: CVD and DM disproportionately affect the U.S. multi-racial and ethnic population. Although lifestyle-related risk factors are significantly associated with increased odds of CVD and DM, the impacts of risk factors on the study outcomes are different by race and ethnicity.

  12. Identifying Risk Factors for Recent HIV Infection in Kenya Using a Recent Infection Testing Algorithm: Results from a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Kim

    Full Text Available A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA that can distinguish recent from long-standing HIV infection can be applied to nationally representative population-based surveys to characterize and identify risk factors for recent infection in a country.We applied a RITA using the Limiting Antigen Avidity Enzyme Immunoassay (LAg on stored HIV-positive samples from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey. The case definition for recent infection included testing recent on LAg and having no evidence of antiretroviral therapy use. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with recent and long-standing infection compared to HIV-uninfected persons. All estimates were weighted to adjust for sampling probability and nonresponse.Of 1,025 HIV-antibody-positive specimens, 64 (6.2% met the case definition for recent infection and 961 (93.8% met the case definition for long-standing infection. Compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, factors associated with higher adjusted odds of recent infection were living in Nairobi (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.37; confidence interval [CI] 2.64-48.87 and Nyanza (AOR 4.55; CI 1.39-14.89 provinces compared to Western province; being widowed (AOR 8.04; CI 1.42-45.50 or currently married (AOR 6.42; CI 1.55-26.58 compared to being never married; having had ≥ 2 sexual partners in the last year (AOR 2.86; CI 1.51-5.41; not using a condom at last sex in the past year (AOR 1.61; CI 1.34-1.93; reporting a sexually transmitted infection (STI diagnosis or symptoms of STI in the past year (AOR 1.97; CI 1.05-8.37; and being aged <30 years with: 1 HSV-2 infection (AOR 8.84; CI 2.62-29.85, 2 male genital ulcer disease (AOR 8.70; CI 2.36-32.08, or 3 lack of male circumcision (AOR 17.83; CI 2.19-144.90. Compared to HIV-uninfected persons, factors associated with higher adjusted odds of long-standing infection included living in Coast (AOR 1.55; CI 1.04-2.32 and Nyanza (AOR 2.33; CI 1.67-3.25 provinces compared to

  13. Social Acceptance of Smoking Restrictions During 10 Years of Policy Implementation, Reversal, and Reenactment in the Netherlands: Findings From a National Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Karin; Willemsen, Marc C; de Vries, Hein; Monshouwer, Karin; Nagelhout, Gera E

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which smoking restrictions are socially accepted in a country such as the Netherlands where smoking restrictions have been implemented and reversed several times. The current study assessed trends as well as factors associated with two indicators of social acceptance of smoking restrictions in the Netherlands: acceptance of smoking in public places and implementation of home smoking bans. We used data from the Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits (DCSSH) between 2005 and 2014 (n = 182826). The DCSSH is a national population survey with a cross-sectional design in which respondents aged 15 years and older are surveyed weekly. Acceptance of smoking in public places decreased for six out of eight included venues, with the largest decrease for smoking in restaurants. The decrease in acceptance was larger among younger respondents and smokers. Smoking on terraces was an exception: decrease in acceptance there was larger among older respondents and ex-smokers. Implementation of home smoking bans increased over time. Having implemented a home smoking ban was associated with being male, being younger, having a high socioeconomic status, and being ex- or never smoker. Social acceptance of smoking restrictions has increased in the Netherlands, despite a suboptimal implementation process of smoking restrictions. However, there is still potential for improvement as acceptance of smoking is still quite high for some public venues like bars. It is important to strengthen smoking restrictions in order to further denormalize smoking in the Netherlands. We examined the extent to which smoking restrictions are socially accepted in the Netherlands where smoking restrictions have been implemented and reversed several times. Acceptance of smoking in public places decreased and implementation of home smoking bans increased between 2005 and 2014. Social acceptance of smoking restrictions increased in the Netherlands despite a suboptimal

  14. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  15. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) is a national survey designed to meet the need for objective, reliable information about the provision and use of...

  16. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (NSSRN) Download makes data from the survey readily available to users in a one-stop download. The Survey has been...

  17. Social vulnerability from a social ecology perspective: a cohort study of older adults from the National Population Health Survey of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous social factors, generally studied in isolation, have been associated with older adults’ health. Even so, older people’s social circumstances are complex and an approach which embraces this complexity is desirable. Here we investigate many social factors in relation to one another and to survival among older adults using a social ecology perspective to measure social vulnerability among older adults. Methods 2740 adults aged 65 and older were followed for ten years in the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Twenty-three individual-level social variables were drawn from the 1994 NPHS and five Enumeration Area (EA)-level variables were abstracted from the 1996 Canadian Census using postal code linkage. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify dimensions of social vulnerability. All social variables were summed to create a social vulnerability index which was studied in relation to ten-year mortality. Results The PCA was limited by low variance (47%) explained by emergent factors. Seven dimensions of social vulnerability emerged in the most robust, yet limited, model: social support, engagement, living situation, self-esteem, sense of control, relations with others and contextual socio-economic status. These dimensions showed complex inter-relationships and were situated within a social ecology framework, considering spheres of influence from the individual through to group, neighbourhood and broader societal levels. Adjusting for age, sex, and frailty, increasing social vulnerability measured using the cumulative social vulnerability index was associated with increased risk of mortality over ten years in a Cox regression model (HR 1.04, 95% CI:1.01-1.07, p = 0.01). Conclusions Social vulnerability has important independent influence on older adults’ health though relationships between contributing variables are complex and do not lend themselves well to fragmentation into a small number of discrete factors. A

  18. National Chemistry Teacher Safety Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plohocki, Barbra A.

    This study evaluated the status of secondary school instructional chemistry laboratory safety using a survey instrument which focused on Teacher background Information, Laboratory Safety Equipment, Facility Safety, General Safety, and a Safety Content Knowledge Survey. A fifty question survey instrument based on recent research and questions developed by the researcher was mailed to 500 secondary school chemistry teachers who participated in the 1993 one-week Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Chemistry Institute conducted at Princeton University, New Jersey. The data received from 303 respondents was analyzed by t tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The level of significance for the study was set at ~\\ performance on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey and secondary school chemistry teachers who have had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training and those who have not had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training. Secondary school chemistry teachers who attended school district sponsored safety inservices did not score higher on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey than teachers who did not attend school district sponsored safety inservice sessions. The type of school district (urban, suburban, or rural) had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory safety equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. The certification area (chemistry or other type of certificate which may or may not include chemistry) of the secondary school teacher had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. Overall, this study indicated a majority of secondary school chemistry teachers were interested in attending safety workshops applicable to chemistry safety. Throughout this research project, many teachers indicated they were not adequately instructed on the collegiate level in science safety and had to rely on common sense and self-study in their future teaching careers.

  19. Trends in urinary arsenic among the U.S. population by drinking water source: Results from the National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Barrett; Smit, Ellen; Cardenas, Andres; Hystad, Perry; Kile, Molly L

    2018-04-01

    In 2001, the United States revised the arsenic maximum contaminant level for public drinking water systems from 50µg/L to 10µg/L. This study aimed to examine temporal trends in urinary arsenic concentrations in the U.S. population from 2003 to 2014 by drinking water source among individuals aged 12 years and older who had no detectable arsenobetaine - a biomarker of arsenic exposure from seafood intake. We examined data from 6 consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2014; N=5848). Total urinary arsenic (TUA) was calculated by subtracting arsenobetaine's limit of detection and detectable arsenocholine from total arsenic. Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted using a second total urinary arsenic index (TUA2, calculated by adding arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid). We classified drinking water source using 24-h dietary questionnaire data as community supply (n=3427), well or rain cistern (n=506), and did not drink tap water (n=1060). Geometric means (GM) of survey cycles were calculated from multivariate regression models adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, BMI, income, creatinine, water source, type of water consumed, recent smoking, and consumption of seafood, rice, poultry, and juice. Compared to 2003-2004, adjusted TUA was 35.5% lower in 2013-2014 among the general U.S. Stratified analysis by smoking status indicated that the trend in lower TUA was only consistent among non-smokers. Compared to 2003-2004, lower adjusted TUA was observed in 2013-2014 among non-smoking participants who used community water supplies (1.98 vs 1.16µg/L, pwater (2.24 vs 1.53µg/L, pwater supplier and to a lesser extent those who did not drink tap water. However, the sensitivity analysis showed overall exposure stayed the same or was higher among well or rain cistern users. Finally, the greatest decrease in TUA was among participants within the highest exposure percentiles (e.g. 95th percentile had

  20. Cancer screening rate in people with diabetes in the Korean population: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumban Walter Chuck

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To investigate the screening rates for gastric, breast, and cervical cancer in people with diabetes compared with people without diabetes. METHODS Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009 were used. Cancer-free men who were 40 years old and over and cancer-free women who were 30 years old and over were included. The lifetime screening rate and regular screening rate were compared in people with and without diabetes. RESULTS Fewer people with diabetes than people without diabetes had ever received cancer screening (53.5 vs. 59.5%, p<0.001 for gastric cancer; 60.5 vs. 71.5%, p<0.001 for breast cancer; and 49.1 vs. 59.6%, p<0.001 for cervical cancer. Fewer people with diabetes than people without diabetes received the recommended screenings for gastric cancer (38.9 vs. 42.9%, p<0.001, breast cancer (38.8 vs. 44.6%, p<0.001, and cervical cancer (35.1 vs. 51.2%, p<0.001. In subgroup analyses according to socioeconomic factors, the lifetime and recommended screening rates were lower in the diabetic population in most socioeconomic subgroups. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for socioeconomic factors, people with diabetes showed lower lifetime screening rates for gastric and cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 0.9 and OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9, and lower regular screening rates for breast and cervical cancer (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9 and OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.9. CONCLUSIONS The cancer screening rate in people with diabetes was lower than in people without diabetes. Considering the higher cancer risk in people with diabetes, efforts to increase the screening rate in this high-risk population should be implemented.

  1. Co-morbid depression is associated with poor work outcomes in persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD: A large, nationally representative survey in the Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD is associated with poor clinical and psychological outcomes. However, the full extent of the burden of, and interaction between, this co-morbidity on important vocational outcomes remains less clear, particularly at the population level. We examine the association of co-morbid MDD with work outcomes in persons with and without CVD. Methods This study utilised cross-sectional, population-based data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 8841 to compare work outcomes of individuals with diagnostically-defined MDD and CVD, MDD but not CVD, CVD but not MDD, with a reference group of "healthy" Australians. Workforce participation was defined as being in full- or part-time employment. Work functioning was measured using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Absenteeism was assessed using the 'days out of role' item. Results Of the four groups, those with co-morbid MDD and CVD were least likely to report workforce participation (adj OR:0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6. Those with MDD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI:0.7-0.9 and CVD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9 also reported significantly reduced odds of participation. Employed individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD were 8 times as likely to experience impairments in work functioning (adj OR:8.1, 95% CI: 3.8- 17.3 compared with the reference group. MDD was associated with a four-fold increase in impaired functioning. Further, individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD reported greatest likelihood of workplace absenteeism (adj. OR:3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6. Simultaneous exposure to MDD and CVD conferred an even greater likelihood of poorer work functioning. Conclusions Co-morbid MDD and CVD is associated with significantly poorer work outcomes. Specifically, the effects of these conditions on work functioning are synergistic. The development of specialised treatment programs for those with co

  2. Co-morbid depression is associated with poor work outcomes in persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD): A large, nationally representative survey in the Australian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with poor clinical and psychological outcomes. However, the full extent of the burden of, and interaction between, this co-morbidity on important vocational outcomes remains less clear, particularly at the population level. We examine the association of co-morbid MDD with work outcomes in persons with and without CVD. Methods This study utilised cross-sectional, population-based data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 8841) to compare work outcomes of individuals with diagnostically-defined MDD and CVD, MDD but not CVD, CVD but not MDD, with a reference group of "healthy" Australians. Workforce participation was defined as being in full- or part-time employment. Work functioning was measured using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Absenteeism was assessed using the 'days out of role' item. Results Of the four groups, those with co-morbid MDD and CVD were least likely to report workforce participation (adj OR:0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6). Those with MDD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI:0.7-0.9) and CVD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9) also reported significantly reduced odds of participation. Employed individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD were 8 times as likely to experience impairments in work functioning (adj OR:8.1, 95% CI: 3.8- 17.3) compared with the reference group. MDD was associated with a four-fold increase in impaired functioning. Further, individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD reported greatest likelihood of workplace absenteeism (adj. OR:3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6). Simultaneous exposure to MDD and CVD conferred an even greater likelihood of poorer work functioning. Conclusions Co-morbid MDD and CVD is associated with significantly poorer work outcomes. Specifically, the effects of these conditions on work functioning are synergistic. The development of specialised treatment programs for those with co-morbid MDD and CVD is

  3. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2012-02-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  4. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2009-06-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  5. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Romero-Martínez; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Lucia Cuevas-Nasu; Ignacio Méndez Gómez-Humarán; Elsa Berenice Gaona-Pineda; Luz María Gómez-Acosta; Juan Ángel Rivera-Dommarco; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organizat...

  6. Folate status and concentrations of serum folate forms in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Fazili, Zia; Lacher, David A.; Zhang, Mindy; Johnson, Clifford L.; Hamner, Heather C.; Bailey, Regan L.; Rader, Jeanne I.; Yamini, Sedigheh; Berry, R. J.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Serum and red blood cell (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured serum folate forms [5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of THF, 5-formylTHF, 5,10-methenylTHF), and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)] by HPLC-MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US persons ≥1 year (n ~7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition...

  7. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Carla R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-01-01

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414

  8. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG. This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973 and adults (n = 24,809. Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1 g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01 oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02 oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02 oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%, grain mixtures (16.3%, other foods (15.8% and fruits (11.3%. For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%, other foods (14.3%, grain mixtures (12.0% and fruits (11.1%. Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC (31%, yeast breads/rolls (21% and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%. The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%, RTEC (23% and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%. Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S. population.

  9. Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Carla R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-02-09

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n=14,973) and adults (n=24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population.

  10. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  11. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  12. Modern Surveying Techniques In National Infrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in National Development ... Modern Surveying Techniques In National Infrastructural Development: Case Study Of Roads ... Ways that Remote Sensing help to make highway construction easier were discussed.

  13. National indicators of health literacy: ability to understand health information and to engage actively with healthcare providers - a population-based survey among Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Anne; Friis, Karina; Osborne, Richard H; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-10-22

    Health literacy is a multidimensional concept covering a range of cognitive and social skills necessary for participation in health care. Knowledge of health literacy levels in general populations and how health literacy levels impacts on social health inequity is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to perform a population-based assessment of dimensions of health literacy related to understanding health information and to engaging with healthcare providers. Secondly, the aim was to examine associations between socio-economic characteristics with these dimensions of health literacy. A population-based survey was conducted between January and April 2013 in the Central Denmark Region. Postal invitations were sent to a random sample of 46,354 individuals >25 years of age. Two health literacy dimensions were selected from the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ™): i) Understanding health information well enough to know what to do (5 items), and ii) Ability to actively engage with health care providers (5 items). Response options ranged from 1 (very difficult) to 4 (very easy). We investigated the level of perceived difficulty of each task, and the associations between the two dimensions and socio-economic characteristics. A total of 29,473 (63.6%) responded to the survey. Between 8.8%, 95% CI: 8.4-9.2 and 20.2%, 95% CI: 19.6-20.8 of the general population perceived the health literacy tasks as difficult or very difficult at the individual item level. On the scale level, the mean rating for i) understanding health information was 3.10, 95% CI: 3.09-3.10, and 3.07, 95% CI: 3.07-3.08 for ii) engagement with health care providers. Low levels of the two dimensions were associated with low income, low education level, living alone, and to non-Danish ethnicity. Associations with sex and age differed by the specific health literacy dimension. Estimates on two key dimensions of health literacy in a general population are now available. A substantial proportion of the

  14. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: national youth fitness survey plan, operations, and analysis, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrud, Lori; Chiappa, Michele M; Burt, Vicki L; Gahche, Jaime; Zipf, George; Johnson, Clifford L; Dohrmann, Sylvia M

    2014-04-01

    In October 2008, the federal government issued its first-ever Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans to provide science-based guidance on the types and amounts of physical activity that provide substantial health benefits for Americans (1). Guidelines for children and adolescents recommend 60 minutes or more of aerobic, muscle-strengthening, or bone-strengthening physical activity daily (1). While the number of children in the United States who meet the recommendations in the Physical Activity Guidelines is unknown, the percentage that is physically active in the United States may be declining. No recent national data exist on the fitness levels of children and adolescents. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's (NHANES) National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) was conducted in 2012 and collected data on physical activity and fitness levels for U.S. children and adolescents aged 3-15 years. The objective of NNYFS was to provide national-level estimates of the physical activity and fitness levels of children, based on interview and physical examination data. Results from the survey are intended to contribute to the development of policies and programs to improve youth fitness nationally. The data also may be used in the development of national reference standards for measures of fitness and physical activity. Methods The NNYFS survey design used the design for NHANES, which is a multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized resident population of the United States. NNYFS consisted of a household interview and a physical activity and fitness examination in a mobile examination center. A total of 1,640 children and adolescents aged 3-15 were interviewed, and 1,576 were examined. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  15. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. Objective We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one’s sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain’s resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, PInternet sexual health seeking. Conclusions A minority in Britain used the Internet for the sexual health reasons examined. Use of information/support websites was reported by those at greater STI risk, including younger people, indicating that demand for online STI services, and Internet-based sexual health interventions in general, may increase over time in this and subsequent cohorts. However, the impact on health inequalities needs addressing during design and evaluation of online sexual health interventions so that they maximize

  16. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicken, Catherine R H; Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-20

    Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one's sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain's resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, PInternet sexual health seeking. A minority in Britain used the Internet for the sexual health reasons examined. Use of information/support websites was reported by those at greater STI risk, including younger people, indicating that demand for online STI services, and Internet-based sexual health interventions in general, may increase over time in this and subsequent cohorts. However, the impact on health inequalities needs addressing during design and evaluation of online sexual health interventions so that they maximize public health benefit.

  17. Three-Quarters of Persons in the US Population Reporting a Clinical Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia Do Not Satisfy Fibromyalgia Criteria: The 2012 National Health Interview Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walitt

    Full Text Available Although fibromyalgia criteria have been in effect for decades, little is known about how the fibromyalgia diagnosis is applied and understood by clinicians and patients. We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS to determine the prevalence of self-reported clinician diagnosed fibromyalgia and then compared demographics, symptoms, disability and medical utilization measures of persons with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that did not meet diagnostic criteria (false-positive or prior [F/P] fibromyalgia to persons with and without criteria-positive fibromyalgia.The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS collected information about both clinical diagnosis and symptoms of fibromyalgia that was appropriately weighted to represent 225,726,257 US adults. Surrogate NHIS diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia were developed based on the level of polysymptomatic distress (PSD as characterized in the 2011 modified American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR for fibromyalgia. Persons with F/P fibromyalgia were compared with persons who do not have fibromyalgia and those meeting surrogate NHIS fibromyalgia criteria.Of the 1.78% of persons reporting a clinical diagnosis, 73.5% did not meet NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. The prevalence of F/P fibromyalgia is 1.3%. F/P fibromyalgia is associated with a mild degree of polysymptomatic distress (NHIS PSD score 6.2 and characterized by frequent but not widespread pain and insomnia. Measures of work disability and medical utilization in F/P fibromyalgia were equal to that seen with NHIS criteria positive fibromyalgia and were 6-7x greater in F/P fibromyalgia than in non-fibromyalgia persons. F/P fibromyalgia was best predicted by being female (Odds Ratio [OR] 8.81, married (OR 3.27, and white (OR 1.96. In contrast, being a white, married woman was only modestly predictive of NHIS (criteria positive fibromyalgia (OR 2.1.The majority of clinically diagnosed fibromyalgia cases in the US do not reach levels

  18. [Key content and formulation of national Chinese materia medica resources survey at county level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hai-Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-08-01

    According to National Census for Water, National Population Census, National Land and Resources Survey, and work experience of experimental measures for national Chinese materia medica resources(CMMR) survey,the national CMMR survey at the county level is the key point of whole survey, that includes organization and management, field survey, sorting data three key links. Organization and management works of national CMMR survey needs to finish four key contents, there are definite goals and tasks, practicable crew, preparation directory, and security assurance. Field survey works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish five key contents, there are preparation works for field survey, the choice of the key survey area (samples), fill in the questionnaire, video data collection, specimen and other physical collection. Sorting data works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish tree key contents, there are data, specimen and census results.

  19. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

  20. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics through personal household interviews. The results of NHIS provide data to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives.

  1. The effect of Avoidant Personality Disorder on the persistence of Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder in the general population: results from a longitudinal, nationally representative mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian J; Turnbull, Danielle L; Robinson, Jennifer A; Grant, Bridget F; Stein, Murray B

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to prospectively examine the role of Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) as a determinant in the outcome of Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (GSAD) using Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions 3 years later. This study analyzed data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC (n = 34,653). GSAD was operationalized based on the DSM-IV definitions of this SAD subtype. Logistic regression analyses indicated that AvPD significantly predicted the persistence of GSAD, even after adjusting for a number of important sociodemographic variables and other psychiatric comorbidity. AvPD did not significantly predict outcome in non-generalized SAD. AvPD can influence the course of GSAD in adulthood. Specific personality dimensions may underlie and explain the similarities between AvPD and GSAD. Self-criticism could be a shared feature of both AvPD and GSAD and could represent an important psychological marker of poor prognosis in comorbid GSAD and AvPD. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The prevalence of inflammatory back pain: population-based estimates from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Michael H; Witter, James P; Reveille, John D

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the current US inflammatory back pain (IBP) prevalence using four published case definitions. Analysis of an IBP data collection instrument specifically designed for the 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were 5103 US adults ages 20-69 with complete data. IBP prevalence as determined by Calin et al criteria, European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria, and Berlin criteria 8a and 7b. Age-adjusted US prevalence of IBP by Calin criteria was 5.0% (95% CI 4.2% to 5.8%). Prevalence of IBP was 5.6% (95% CI 4.7% to 6.5%) by ESSG criteria, and 5.8% (95% CI 5.2% to 6.4%) and 6.0% (95% CI 4.9% to 7.1%) by Berlin Criteria 8a and 7b, respectively. IBP prevalence did not differ significantly by age groups or between men and women. IBP prevalence was significantly lower among non-Hispanic black persons compared with non-Hispanic white persons for the Calin and ESSG IBP criteria. For the ESSG and Berlin 7b criteria, non-Hispanic white persons had significantly higher IBP prevalences compared with Mexican Americans. IBP is associated with spondyloarthritis. Awareness of the prevalence of IBP may be useful for planning future epidemiological studies as well as development and validation of diagnostic and classification criteria for specific clinically defined diseases.

  3. Anemia and Iron Status Among Different Body Size Phenotypes in Chinese Adult Population: a Nation-Wide, Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Xiao, Cheng; Yang, Hui; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Rui; Cao, Yongtong

    2017-12-09

    Previous studies have shown that there is a controversial relationship between iron homeostasis and obesity. This study aims to explore the relationship of anemia and iron status with different body size phenotypes in adult Chinese population. Using information on iron status-related parameters and lifestyle data from 8462 participants of the 2009 wave of China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009 CHNS), we performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of anemia and iron parameters according to different body size phenotypes. Participants with higher body mass index (BMI) had a lower anemia prevalence with significant trends in both metabolic status groups (P different metabolic status groups and in different body size phenotypes, respectively. The ORs for higher ferritin and transferrin increased across different body size phenotypes in both genders, and for sTfR/log ferritin index decreased (P < 0.01 for trend). This association was still statistically significant after adjustment for multiple confounders. We found an inverse association of BMI levels with the prevalence of anemia and strong association of serum ferritin and transferrin with higher risk of obesity or overweight in both metabolic status groups.

  4. Association of knowledge of HIV and other factors with individuals' attitudes toward HIV infection: a national cross-sectional survey among the Japanese non-medical working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stigma of and discrimination because of HIV has been described as the most important obstacle to prevention and treatment efforts. The purpose of this study was to investigate negative attitudes and prejudice toward HIV among the Japanese non-medical working population and to explore contributing factors. METHODS: An online anonymous nationwide survey involving approximately 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. Questions ranged from background information and HIV knowledge to individuals' attitudes towards HIV infection in the workplace. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied for analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of participants feared transmission of HIV from infected colleagues, 34% tended to avoid contact with them and 40% had prejudiced opinions about HIV infection. Despite a relatively high level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS overall (11.9 ± 3.3 from 15 points, only 50% of individuals were aware of some issues. Greater knowledge was associated with less negative attitudes towards HIV infection (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.31-0.48 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low level of knowledge, whereas greater health consciousness was inversely related to attitude (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.50-2.58 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low health consciousness. CONCLUSION: Knowledge neutralizes peoples' negative attitudes towards HIV infection, whereas greater health consciousness may worsen them. Educational programs should balance knowledge with health consciousness to improve the efficacy of HIV interventions.

  5. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as of...

  6. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  7. Geodetic Control Points - National Geodetic Survey Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This data contains a set of geodetic control stations maintained by the National Geodetic Survey. Each geodetic control station in this dataset has either a precise...

  8. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 4,864 social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as...

  9. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as of...

  10. National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) Round 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 6,520 social security beneficiaries age 18-64 receiving disability benefits in active pay status as...

  11. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) is designed to collect data on the utilization and provision of ambulatory care services in hospital...

  12. Sexual debut in Mexico: a comparison of household national surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Gayet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate calendar of sexual debut in Mexico and its trends using national representative household surveys. Materials and methods. Analysis of five birth cohorts extracted from four national population based household surveys in Mexico (National Health Survey 2000, National Survey on Demographic Dynamics 2009, National Youth Survey 2010, and National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, using as outcome the proportion of individuals that reported sexual debut before the age of 16 and before the age of 20. Results. Overall, the four analyzed surveys produce consistent results, although some differences were found. While a larger proportion among younger cohorts reported sexual debut before the age of 20, that was not the case for sexual debut before 16 years. Conclusions. While data seems to reflect a relative stable age of sexual debut in Mexico, there is a recent trend to prepone sexual initiation that highlights the need to strengthen comprehensive sexual education and the supply of sexual and reproductive health services that are accessible and friendly to adolescents thus responding to the growing demand from this age group.

  13. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ah Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM I value (5 μg/L among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001. The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.79–5.95 and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79 times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  14. HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners Among Sexually Active People Living with HIV in South Africa: Results from the 2012 National Population-Based Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbayi, Leickness C; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Evans, Meredith; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Kupamupindi, Takura; Mafoko, Goitseone; Zuma, Khangelani

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the prevalence and correlates of HIV seropositive status disclosure to sexual partners by people living with HIV (PLHIV) in South Africa. Secondary analysis of the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey was conducted on data obtained from 934 sexually active PLHIV aged 15 years and older who responded to the question about HIV seropositive status disclosure. Overall, a large majority of respondents (77.1 %) reported disclosing their HIV-positive status to all their current sex partners. Multiple regression analysis, after adjustments for sex, marital status and locality type, revealed that those who were living together, going steady, and those who were single were all 60 % [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.20-0.78; AOR = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.24-0.77; and AOR = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.19-1.00, all ps < 0.05] less likely to disclose their HIV positive status to their partners compared to those who were married. Those who lived in rural formal areas were 70 % less likely to disclose their HIV status to their partners compared to those who stayed in urban formal areas (AOR = 0.3, 95 % CI 0.17-0.69, p < 0.001). Those who had correct HIV knowledge and rejection of myths were 2.0 times more likely to disclose their HIV status to their partners compared to those who did not have correct HIV knowledge and rejection of myths (AOR = 2.0, 95 % CI 1.04-3.68, p < 0.05). In conclusion, intervention programmes which help improve HIV seropositive status disclosure are needed by PLHIV who are not married, live in rural formal areas, and have incorrect HIV knowledge and rejection of myths.

  15. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  16. Appalachian National Scenic Trail pilot survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Zarnoch; Michael Bowker; Ken Cordell; Matt Owens; Gary T. Green; Allison Ginn

    2011-01-01

    Visitation statistics on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) are important for management and Federal Government reporting purposes. However, no survey methodology has been developed to obtain accurate trailwide estimates over linear trails that traverse many hundreds of back-country miles. This research develops a stratified random survey design which utilizes...

  17. NATIONAL EMPLOYER HEALTH INSURANCE SURVEY (NEHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...

  18. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence, consumption, initiation, and cessation between 2001 and 2008 in the Netherlands. Findings from a national population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelhout Gera E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widening of socioeconomic status (SES inequalities in smoking prevalence has occurred in several Western countries from the mid 1970’s onwards. However, little is known about a widening of SES inequalities in smoking consumption, initiation and cessation. Methods Repeated cross-sectional population surveys from 2001 to 2008 (n ≈ 18,000 per year were used to examine changes in smoking prevalence, smoking consumption (number of cigarettes per day, initiation ratios (ratio of ever smokers to all respondents, and quit ratios (ratio of former smokers to ever smokers in the Netherlands. Education level and income level were used as indicators of SES and results were reported separately for men and women. Results Lower educated respondents were significantly more likely to be smokers, smoked more cigarettes per day, had higher initiation ratios, and had lower quit ratios than higher educated respondents. Income inequalities were smaller than educational inequalities and were not all significant, but were in the same direction as educational inequalities. Among women, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Among low educated women, smoking prevalence remained stable between 2001 and 2008 because both the initiation and quit ratio increased significantly. Among moderate and high educated women, smoking prevalence decreased significantly because initiation ratios remained constant, while quit ratios increased significantly. Among men, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking consumption only. Conclusions While inequalities in smoking prevalence were stable among Dutch men, they increased among women, due to widening inequalities in both smoking cessation and initiation. Both components should be addressed in equity-oriented tobacco control policies.

  19. Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in a national survey in the US population: SHIELD (Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Bazata, Debbra D; Clark, Nathaniel G; Gavin, James R; Green, Andrew J; Lewis, Sandra J; Reed, Michael L; Stewart, Walter; Chapman, Richard H; Fox, Kathleen M; Grandy, Susan

    2007-10-03

    Studies derived from continuous national surveys have shown that the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus in the US is increasing. This study estimated the prevalence in 2004 of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes and other conditions in a community-based population, using data from the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD). The initial screening questionnaire was mailed in 2004 to a stratified random sample of 200,000 households in the US, to identify individuals, age > or = 18 years of age, with diabetes or risk factors associated with diabetes. Follow-up disease impact questionnaires were then mailed to a representative, stratified random sample of individuals (n = 22,001) in each subgroup of interest (those with diabetes or different numbers of risk factors for diabetes). Estimated national prevalence of diabetes and other conditions was calculated, and compared to prevalence estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. Response rates were 63.7% for the screening, and 71.8% for the follow-up baseline survey. The SHIELD screening survey found overall prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) was 8.2%, with increased prevalence with increasing age and decreasing income. In logistic regression modeling, individuals were more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes if they had abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 3.50; p or =28 kg/m2 (OR = 4.04; p self-report only) to those from NHANES 1999-2002 (self-report, clinical and laboratory evaluations), the prevalence of diabetes was similar. SHIELD allows the identification of respondents with and without a current diagnosis of the illness of interest, and potential longitudinal evaluation of risk factors for future diagnosis of that illness.

  20. Population Growth and National Population Policy of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thukral, A. K.; Singh, B. P.

    2008-01-01

    The population growth in India may overtake China by the year 2030. The National Population Policy of India targets population stabilization in India by the year 2045. The present paper carries out objective analysis of the population growth in India in terms of change in specific growth. At the present rate of specific growth rate decline, the population by the end of the century will be 2.49 billion. For the population to achieve zero growth by the year 2045, a decline in specific growth rate will have to be achieved at the rate of 0.000428 per year.

  1. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed ...

  2. National Trends in Nonstatin Use and Expenditures Among the US Adult Population From 2002 to 2013: Insights From Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Joseph A; Warraich, Haider J; Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Spatz, Erica S; Desai, Nihar R; Rana, Jamal S; Virani, Salim S; Blankstein, Ron; Khera, Amit; Blaha, Michael J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Katzen, Barry T; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Krumholz, Harlan M; Nasir, Khurram

    2018-01-22

    Evidence supporting nonstatin lipid-lowering therapy in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk reduction is variable. We aim to examine nonstatin utilization and expenditures in the United States between 2002 and 2013. We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey database to estimate national trends in nonstatin use and cost (total and out-of-pocket, adjusted to 2013 US dollars using a gross domestic product deflator) among adults 40 years or older. Nonstatin users increased from 3 million (2.5%) in 2002-2003 (20.1 million prescriptions) to 8 million (5.6%) in 2012-2013 (45.8 million prescriptions). Among adults with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, nonstatin use increased from 7.5% in 2002-2003 to 13.9% in 2012-2013 after peaking at 20.3% in 2006-2007. In 2012-2013, 15.9% of high-intensity statin users also used nonstatins, versus 9.7% of low/moderate-intensity users and 3.6% of statin nonusers. Nonstatin use was significantly lower among women (odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.86), racial/ethnic minorities (odds ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.36-0.47), and the uninsured (odds ratio 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.40-0.56). Total nonstatin expenditures increased from $1.7 billion (out-of-pocket cost, $0.7 billion) in 2002-2003 to $7.9 billion (out-of-pocket cost $1.6 billion) in 2012-2013, as per-user nonstatin expenditure increased from $550 to $992. Nonstatin expenditure as a proportion of all lipid-lowering therapy expenditure increased 4-fold from 8% to 32%. Between 2002 and 2013, nonstatin use increased by 124%, resulting in a 364% increase in nonstatin-associated expenditures. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Determinants of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years in South Africa: a 2012 population-based national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Sokhela, Zinhle; Mohlabane, Neo; Chibi, Buyisile; Zuma, Khangelani; Simbayi, Leickness

    2018-01-26

    South Africa is making tremendous progress in the fight against HIV, however, adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years (AGYW) remain at higher risk of new HIV infections. This paper investigates socio-demographic and behavioural determinants of HIV infection among AGYW in South Africa. A secondary data analysis was undertaken based on the 2012 population-based nationally representative multi-stage stratified cluster random household sample. Multivariate stepwise backward and forward regression modelling was used to determine factors independently associated with HIV prevalence. Out of 3092 interviewed and tested AGYW 11.4% were HIV positive. Overall HIV prevalence was significantly higher among young women (17.4%) compared to adolescent girls (5.6%). In the AGYW model increased risk of HIV infection was associated with being young women aged 20-24 years (OR = 2.30, p = 0.006), and condom use at last sex (OR = 1.91, p = 0.010), and decreased likelihood was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.06, p girls model decreased risk of HIV infection was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.01, p < 0.001), being married (OR = 0.07), p = 0.016], and living in less poor household (OR = 0.08, p = 0.002). In the young women's models increased risk of HIV infection was associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.09, p = 0.013), and decreased likelihood was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.17, p < 0.001), one sexual partner (OR = 0.6, p = 0.014), low risk alcohol use (OR = 0.17, p < 0.001), having a sexual partner within 5 years of age (OR = 0.29, p = 0.022), and having tertiary education (OR = 0.29, p = 0.022). These findings support the need to design combination prevention interventions which simultaneously address socio-economic drivers of the HIV epidemic, promote education, equity and access to schooling, and target age-disparate partnerships

  4. Trends in Health Information-Seeking Behaviour in the U.S. Foreign-Born Population Based on the Health Information National Trends Survey, 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, JungWon; Huang, Hong; Soojung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated trends in the health information-seeking behaviour of the U.S. foreign-born population over a ten-year period and examined whether health information disparities between this population and native-born citizens have decreased. Method: Data were collected from six iterations of the Health Information National…

  5. Research and assessment of national population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the necessity and probability of making researches on assessment of national population dose, and discusses some problems which might be noticeable in the research work. (author)

  6. National natality and fetal mortality surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    A project is described in which the Epidemiologic Studies Branch, DBE, is cooperating with the National Center for Health Statistics in a National Natality Survey and a National Fetal Mortality Survey of a sample of live births and of late fetal deaths (28 or more weeks gestation) in 1979. Questionnaires will be sent to a sample of mothers who had a live born infant or late fetal death in 1979, to hospitals in which the deliveries took place, to attending physicians, and all other possible sources of health care. The survey will provide quantitative information regarding use of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, including ultrasound, during pregnancy and possible associations between radiation and late fetal mortality. Specifically the study will provide information on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers and complications of pregnancy, labor, and delivery. The physical condition of the infant at birth is also included. This is one of many health surveys conducted routinely by the NCHS under the National Health Survey program

  7. Population Estimates, Health Care Characteristics, and Material Hardship Experiences of U.S. Children with Parent-Reported Speech-Language Difficulties: Evidence from Three Nationally Representative Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A.; Parish, Susan L.; Akorbirshoev, Ilhom; Son, Esther; Rosenthal, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide estimates for the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties in U.S. children, and to describe the levels of health care access and material hardship in this population. Method: We tabulated descriptive and bivariate statistics using cross-sectional data from the 2007 and 2011/2012 iterations of the National…

  8. National survey of residential magnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karipidis, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    The release of the Doll report in the UK, and its reported association between prolonged exposures to higher levels of power frequency magnetic fields and a small risk of leukaemia in children, has heightened community concerns. This disquiet among the general public has prompted the possibility of a national survey of residential magnetic field exposures to be implemented. Measurement methodologies were reviewed by the author and long-term measurements made by a logger placed in the living room for a 24-hour period were chosen as a surrogate measurement for the evaluation of exposure. An international comparison of similar surveys is presented, showing great deficiency, with the exception of Schuz et al and the UKCCS, in the number of homes surveyed. Factors influencing the selection of residences in the survey sample are elucidated and a range of sample sizes is presented with varying precision and confidence levels. Finally a feasible sample of 1,000 homes is chosen and a cost estimate is calculated with extra options for the measurement of the child's bedroom, a schools' survey and child personal exposure measurements included in the outlay. The purpose of the proposed national survey is to determine the proportion of Australian homes that are exposed to fields greater than 0.4 μT and the influence of proximity to powerlines as a cause. The study would also enable an interstate and international comparison of exposures to be made. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  9. Additive association of vitamin D insufficiency and sarcopenia with low femoral bone mineral density in noninstitutionalized elderly population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-G; Lee, Y-h; Kim, K J; Lee, W; Kwon, O H; Kim, J-H

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency and sarcopenia are crucial risk factors for osteoporosis. In a study of noninstitutionalized elderly subjects, we investigated the simultaneous effect of vitamin D and sarcopenia on bone mineral density (BMD) and found that sarcopenia was associated with low BMD in the femur, especially in those with suboptimal vitamin D levels. Although vitamin D insufficiency and sarcopenia are prevalent in the elderly population worldwide, their possible influence on BMD has not been determined. We aimed to investigate the different effect of vitamin D insufficiency and sarcopenia on BMD in the elderly Korean population. Individuals aged 60 or older were selected from those who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010; 1,596 males and 1,886 females were analyzed. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and a panel of clinical and laboratory parameters were also measured. The study population was divided into four groups according to their vitamin D and sarcopenic status. BMD in total femur and in the femoral neck but not the lumbar spine was markedly decreased in sarcopenic subjects with vitamin D insufficiency [25(OH)D sarcopenia, low daily calcium intake, low 25(OH)D levels, age, and BMI. These data showed that an association between vitamin D insufficiency and low BMD was more prominent in elderly subjects with sarcopenia.

  10. Vitamin D status among the elderly Chinese population: a cross-sectional analysis of the 2010-2013 China national nutrition and health survey (CNNHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Yun, Chunfeng; He, Yuna; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-14

    Vitamin D inadequacy is common among the elderly, especially within the Asian population. The vitamin D status among healthy adults in the elderly Chinese population was evaluated. A total of 6014 healthy adults aged 60 years or older (2948 men, 3066 women) participated in this descriptive cross-sectional analysis. Possible predictors of vitamin D inadequacy were evaluated via multiple logistic regression analyses. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were 61.0 nmol/l (interquartile range (IQR) 44.3-80.6, range 5.1-154.5) for men and 53.7 nmol/l (IQR 38.8-71.0, range 6.0-190.0) for women, with 34.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 32.4-35.8) of men and 44.0% (95% CI 42.2-45.8) of women presenting vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D vitamin D inadequacy was positively correlated with female gender (P vitamin D inadequacy was positively correlated with the spring season (P = 0.0015), low ambient UVB levels (P vitamin D inadequacy was positively correlated with the spring season (P = 0.0005) and low ambient UVB levels (P Vitamin D inadequacy is prevalent among the elderly population in China. Because residing in regions with low ambient UVB levels increases the risk of vitamin D inadequacy both for men and women, vitamin D supplementation and sensible sun exposure should be encouraged, especially during the cooler seasons. Further studies are required to determine the optimal vitamin D intake and sun exposure levels to maintain sufficient vitamin D levels in the elderly Chinese population.

  11. Longer sitting time and low physical activity are closely associated with chronic low back pain in population over 50 years of age: a cross-sectional study using the sixth korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Min; Kim, Ho-Joong; Jeong, Hyunseok; Kim, Hyoungmin; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S

    2018-04-17

    There is increasing evidence supporting an association between sitting time and low back pain (LBP). However, the degree of the association between the total daily sitting time and LBP in the general population is poorly understood. (1) To analyze the association between the duration of sitting time and LBP, and (2) to examine this association according to the degree of physical activity in population over 50 years of age with a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. A cross-sectional study PATIENT SAMPLE: Data from version VI-2, 3 of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2014 and 2015. Multiple logistic regression was performed to find the rates of association between chronic LBP, level of sitting time, and physical activity. Nationwide Health surveys and examinations were conducted in general Korean representative populations (n = 7,550 in 2014, n = 7,380 in 2015). Chronic LBP was defined as self-reported LBP lasting for more than 30 days during the past 3 months in a health survey. Sitting time and daily physical activity were evaluated using the long version of the international physical activity questionnaires (IPAQ). The duration of sitting time was divided into 2 categories according to the median value (7 hours), and further divided into 4 categories using quartiles. Physical activity was also divided into low and high physical activity according to duration of mid- to high-intensity activities. There were no sources of funding and no conflicts of interest associated with this study. On multiple logistic regression analysis, sitting time more than 7 hours/day was significantly associated with LBP (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.33, pphysical activity, the duration of sitting time showed more positive association with LBP than that in all the participants and participants with high levels of physical activity. Longer duration of sitting time is a risk factor for LBP. Furthermore, long duration of sitting

  12. The French national survey on food consumption of children under 3 years of age - Nutri-Bébé 2013: design, methodology, population sampling and feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouraqui, Jean-Pierre; Tavoularis, Gabriel; Emery, Yves; Francou, Aurée; Hébel, Pascale; Bocquet, Magali; Hankard, Régis; Turck, Dominique

    2018-02-01

    To update the data on food consumption and practices in children under 3 years of age in metropolitan France. The Nutri-Bébé 2013 cross-sectional study selected a random sample, according to the quota sampling method. After giving their informed consent, parents had to record the food consumption during three non-consecutive days framed by two face-to-face interviews, using for quantitative information different portion size measurement aids. One thousand one hundred and eighty-four children were enrolled. Mothers' mean age was 30·8 (sd 5·4) years; 38 % were primiparous; 89 % lived with a partner; 60 % had an occupation. Of the infants younger than 4 months, 31 % were breast-fed. One thousand and thirty-five children consumed infant formula followed by growing-up milk in 63 % of them; solid foods were introduced at a mean age of 5·4 (sd 2·13) months. From 8 months onwards, 25 % of children consumed the same foods as their parents on a more or less regular basis; 29 % ate in front of a screen, with a daily average screen time of 43·0 (sd 40·4) min. This robust survey highlights the low prevalence and duration of breast-feeding in France and shows a modest improvement since the previous survey of 2005 in the observance of recommendations concerning other feeding practices. The frequent consumption of adult foods and the screen time are of concern.

  13. Individual- and community-level determinants of social acceptance of people living with HIV in Kenya: results from a national population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Sambisa, William

    2009-09-01

    Using the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, we investigated the influence of individual- and community-level factors on accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLHIV) using three outcomes: (1) willingness to care for an infected household member, (2) willingness to buy vegetables from an infected vendor, and (3) willingness to allow an infected female teacher to continue teaching. In multilevel logistic regression models, we found that individuals who expressed greater acceptance of PLHIV were more likely to be male, older, more educated, high AIDS knowledge, and exposed to mass media. At the community level, differences in accepting attitudes were associated with community AIDS knowledge, community education, and community AIDS experience, but not for region, or place of residence. The findings suggest the important role of community factors in determining social acceptance of PLHIV. Programmatic strategies aimed at increasing these accepting attitudes should consider both individual- and community-level factors.

  14. COPD in Taiwan: a National Epidemiology Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng SL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Lung Cheng,1,2 Ming-Cheng Chan,3 Chin-Chou Wang,4 Ching-Hsiung Lin,5 Hao-Chien Wang,6 Jeng-Yuan Hsu,3 Liang-Wen Hang,7,8 Chee-Jen Chang,9 Diahn-Warng Perng,10,* Chong-Jen Yu6,* On behalf of the Taiwan COPD Consortium 1Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li City, Taoyuan County, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 5Division of Chest Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, Changhua County, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 7Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sleep Medicine Center, China Medical University Hospital, 8Department of Respiratory Therapy, College of Health Care, China Medical University, Taichung, 9Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Guishan Township, Taoyuan County, 10Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: To determine the prevalence of COPD in Taiwan and to document the disease characteristics and associated risk factors.Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional national survey of adults older than 40 years in Taiwan. Respiratory health screening questions identified subjects with diagnosed COPD or whose reported symptoms also fulfilled an epidemiological case definition; these were eligible to complete the survey, which also included indices of symptom severity and disability and questions on comorbidities, medical treatments, smoking habits, and occupations potentially harmful to respiratory health. Subjects with diagnosed COPD were subdivided by smoking status. Subjects who fulfilled the case definition

  15. Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A levels, and serum thyroid hormones among the Korean adult population - Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choonghee; Choi, Wookhee; Hwang, Moonyoung; Lee, Youngmee; Kim, Suejin; Yu, Seungdo; Lee, Inae; Paek, Domyung; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-04-15

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have been used extensively in many consumer products, resulting in widespread exposure in the general population. Studies have suggested associations between exposure to phthalates and BPA, and serum thyroid hormone levels, but confirmation on larger human populations is warranted. Data obtained from nationally representative Korean adults (n=6003) recruited for the second round of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS), 2012-2014, were employed. Three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, along with benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites, and BPA were measured in subjects' urine. Thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in serum. The associations between urinary phthalates or BPA and thyroid hormone levels were determined. Urinary phthalate metabolites were generally associated with lowered total T4 or T3, or increased TSH levels in serum. Interquartile range (IQR) increases of mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) were associated with a 3.7% increase of TSH, and a 1.7% decrease of total T4 levels, respectively. When grouped by sex, urinary MEHHP levels were inversely associated with T4 only among males. Among females, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) levels were inversely associated with TSH and T3, respectively. In addition, negative association between BPA and TSH was observed. Several phthalates and BPA exposures were associated with altered circulatory thyroid hormone levels among general Korean adult population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones, public health implications of such alteration warrant further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. What Are Probability Surveys used by the National Aquatic Resource Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  17. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  18. [Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Martín; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio Méndez; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Gómez-Acosta, Luz María; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the inhabitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on overweight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  19. Suicide risk in a representative sample of people receiving HIV care: Time to target most-at-risk populations (ANRS VESPA2 French national survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Marcellin, Fabienne; Fressard, Lisa; Préau, Marie; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Guagliardo, Valérie; Mora, Marion; Roux, Perrine; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Suicide risk is high among people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study aimed to identify major correlates of suicide risk in a representative sample of PLHIV in France, in order to help target individuals who would benefit from suicide risk screening and psychiatric care. The ANRS VESPA2 cross-sectional survey (April 2011-January 2012) collected socio-demographic, medical and behavioral data from 3,022 PLHIV recruited in 73 French HIV hospital departments. The study sample comprised the 2,973 participants with available self-reported data on suicide risk (defined as having either thought about and planned to commit suicide during the previous 12 months or attempted suicide during the same period of time) and medical data on comorbidities. Weighted Poisson models adjusted for HCV co-infection and significant clinical variables were used to estimate the relationship between suicide risk and HIV transmission groups, experience with HIV disease and other psychosocial factors. Suicide risk was reported by 6.3% of PLHIV in the study sample. After adjustment for HIV immunological status and HCV co-infection, women (IRR [95%CI]:1.93 [1.17; 3.19]) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (1.97 [1.22; 3.19]) had a higher suicide risk than the rest of the sample. Moreover, the number of discrimination-related social contexts reported (1.39 [1.19; 1.61]), homelessness (4.87 [1.82; 13.02]), and reporting a feeling of loneliness (4.62 [3.06; 6.97]) were major predictors of suicide risk. Reducing the burden of precarious social conditions and discrimination is an important lever for preventing suicide risk among PLHIV in France. Comprehensive care models involving peer/community social interventions targeted at women and MSM need to be implemented to lower the risk of suicide in these specific subgroups of PLHIV.

  20. Suicide risk in a representative sample of people receiving HIV care: Time to target most-at-risk populations (ANRS VESPA2 French national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patrizia Carrieri

    Full Text Available Suicide risk is high among people living with HIV (PLHIV. This study aimed to identify major correlates of suicide risk in a representative sample of PLHIV in France, in order to help target individuals who would benefit from suicide risk screening and psychiatric care.The ANRS VESPA2 cross-sectional survey (April 2011-January 2012 collected socio-demographic, medical and behavioral data from 3,022 PLHIV recruited in 73 French HIV hospital departments. The study sample comprised the 2,973 participants with available self-reported data on suicide risk (defined as having either thought about and planned to commit suicide during the previous 12 months or attempted suicide during the same period of time and medical data on comorbidities. Weighted Poisson models adjusted for HCV co-infection and significant clinical variables were used to estimate the relationship between suicide risk and HIV transmission groups, experience with HIV disease and other psychosocial factors.Suicide risk was reported by 6.3% of PLHIV in the study sample. After adjustment for HIV immunological status and HCV co-infection, women (IRR [95%CI]:1.93 [1.17; 3.19] and men who have sex with men (MSM (1.97 [1.22; 3.19] had a higher suicide risk than the rest of the sample. Moreover, the number of discrimination-related social contexts reported (1.39 [1.19; 1.61], homelessness (4.87 [1.82; 13.02], and reporting a feeling of loneliness (4.62 [3.06; 6.97] were major predictors of suicide risk.Reducing the burden of precarious social conditions and discrimination is an important lever for preventing suicide risk among PLHIV in France. Comprehensive care models involving peer/community social interventions targeted at women and MSM need to be implemented to lower the risk of suicide in these specific subgroups of PLHIV.

  1. A national survey of radiodiagnostic services in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaherrera S, P.; Echeverria T, F.; Buitron S, S.; Yela de Chacon, L.

    1979-11-01

    The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission elaborated a Radiation Protection Regulation for Ecuador. In order to implement it, a national survey of radiodiagnostic services was implemented with the following objectives: a) Statistics of Radiodiagnostic services related to geography and population ulation density, b) To establish general patterns for X-Ray control and calibration, c) Evaluation of the professional and technical work in this field. (Author)

  2. Post-harmonised European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Sobrino Vázquez, Natalia

    Look-up tables are collected and analysed for 12 European National Travel Surveys (NTS) in a harmonized way covering the age group 13-84 year. Travel behaviour measured as kilometres, time use and trips per traveller is compared. Trips per traveller are very similar over the countries whereas...... of walking trips rather similar with a higher level of cycling in the Netherlands, more public transport in Switzerland, and more air traffic in Sweden. Normally kilometres per respondent / inhabitant is used for national planning purpose and this is very affected by the share of mobile travellers...

  3. [National epidemiological survey on childhood obesity, 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zong-yi

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the 3rd national survey on childhood obesity was conducted not only to understand the present status and trends of childhood obesity in China since the last survey conducted 10 years ago, but also to reveal the health status of preschool children at nutrition transit period and to evaluate the efficacy and sensitivity of cited reference population, criteria and cut-off point of body mass index (BMI), adiposity rebound age, waist/hip ratio and other parameters relevant to the diagnosis of obesity made by the national task force on childhood obesity of China (NTFCOC). A total of 84,766 children aged 0 - 7 years were recruited in the survey by the random cluster sampling which represented a 1, 414, 220 children's population from 11 cities covered north, central, south and west regions of China. The criteria of screening overweight/obesity was more than 1 Z-score/2 Z-score of the medium of reference value of weight for height made by WHO. Length-height/weight for all subjects and waist/hip/thigh circumference and blood pressure data for children 3 - 6 years of age were measured. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, overweight-obesity ratio, adiposity rebound age and BMI were calculated. The enumeration and measurement data were statistically managed by chi-square test and T-test, respectively using SPSS version 12.0 and the significance level was 0.05. (1) The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 7.2% and 19.8% for all; 8.9% and 22.2% for boys, and 5.3% and 17.0% for girls, respectively, which is 3.6/4.7 times higher than that of 1996 respectively, the annual increase rate of obesity and overweight was in average 156% and 52%, respectively. The distribution pattern of prevalence of overweight and obesity in geographic areas and gender was that the northern regions had higher prevalence than the west and the central regions and the prevalence in boys was higher than in girls. The obesity/overweight ratio (OOR) was still at a high risk level. (2

  4. Trends in consumption of fats and oils among Indian tribal population over a period of 30 years: Findings of National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Laxmaiah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In several randomized control trials, it was observed that the dietary fat content has a little, but a significant effect on energy consumption and body weight. The purpose of this communication was to assess fat consumption among tribals, time trends and its association with obesity and hypertension. Methods: These were community based cross-sectional studies, adopted multistage random sampling procedure. The subjects were covered from 120 randomly selected villages each from 9 states in India. Information on household socio-economic & demographic and food intakes were collected. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured by using standard equipment and procedures. Results: The mean intake of food and nutrients were assessed in 14,324, 32,023, and 41507 tribal subjects in 1985-87, 1998-99 and 2008-09, respectively. The mean consumption of visible fats was 10g/CU/day, as against requirement of 20g and increased from 7g in 1985-87 to 10g in 2008-09. The percentage of energy obtained from total fat (20.8g/day was 10% as against safe limit of 20%. The consumption of total dietary fats was increased significantly over a period of 3 decades in all the age groups, but it is less than recommended levels of ICMR. The fat intake was significantly associated with obesity and hypertension. Conclusions: Even though fat consumption was increased in all the age groups, but less than the recommended levels of ICMR. The consumption of fat was significantly associated with obesity and hypertension. There is an urgent need to create awareness among tribal population to consume adequate and quality of fats.

  5. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella

    2016-01-01

    In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health...

  6. Applying national survey results for strategic planning and program improvement: the National Diabetes Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Susan; Piccinino, Linda; Gallivan, Joanne; Lotenberg, Lynne Doner; Tuncer, Diane

    2015-02-01

    Since the 1970s, the federal government has spearheaded major national education programs to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the United States. These prevention and disease management programs communicate critical information to the public, those affected by the disease, and health care providers. The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), the leading federal program on diabetes sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), uses primary and secondary quantitative data and qualitative audience research to guide program planning and evaluation. Since 2006, the NDEP has filled the gaps in existing quantitative data sources by conducting its own population-based survey, the NDEP National Diabetes Survey (NNDS). The NNDS is conducted every 2–3 years and tracks changes in knowledge, attitudes and practice indicators in key target audiences. This article describes how the NDEP has used the NNDS as a key component of its evaluation framework and how it applies the survey results for strategic planning and program improvement. The NDEP's use of the NNDS illustrates how a program evaluation framework that includes periodic population-based surveys can serve as an evaluation model for similar national health education programs.

  7. Updating and improving the National Population Database to National Population Database 2

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, Graham; FAIRBURN, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 Staffordshire University delivered the National Population Database for use in estimating populations at risk under the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations (COMAH). In 2006 an assessment of the updating and potential improvements to NPD was delivered to HSE. Between Autumn 2007 and Summer 2008 an implementation of the feasibility report led to the creation of National Population Database 2 which both updated and expanded the datasets contained in the original NPD. This repor...

  8. Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome in the urban Chinese population: prevalence and disease burden using the 2010, 2012, and 2013 China National Health and Wellness Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bo Ding,1 Marco DiBonaventura,2 Niklas Karlsson,1 Xia Ling31Department of Global Medical Affairs, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Medical Affairs China, AstraZeneca, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Research has suggested a significant burden for patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. However, few studies have studied this population in the People’s Republic of China, a region in the midst of rapid epidemiological change with respect to respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACOS and its association with patient outcomes in urban China.Methods: Data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 China National Health and Wellness Survey, an Internet-based survey of adults in urban China, were used (N=59,935. Respondents were categorized into one of four groups based on self-reported physician diagnoses: ACOS, asthma only, COPD only, or control (ie, no asthma or COPD. A propensity score matching procedure was conducted to cull the control group into a subgroup (ie, matched controls who resembled patients with ACOS, asthma only, and COPD only. These four groups (ACOS, asthma only, COPD only, matched controls were then compared with respect to health status (Short Form-12 version 2/Short Form-36 version 2, work productivity, and health care resource use using generalized linear models.Results: Patients with ACOS (N=366 comprised 0.61% of the adult population, 30.73% of the asthma population, and 18.60% of the COPD population in the People’s Republic of China. Patients with ACOS reported significantly worse health status (eg, health utilities =0.63, 0.66, 0.63, and 0.69 for ACOS, COPD only, asthma only, and matched controls, respectively and significantly greater work impairment (eg, overall work impairment =43.65%, 35.19%, 48.55%, and 29.80%, respectively and health care

  9. Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome in the urban Chinese population: prevalence and disease burden using the 2010, 2012, and 2013 China National Health and Wellness Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; DiBonaventura, Marco; Karlsson, Niklas; Ling, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested a significant burden for patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, few studies have studied this population in the People's Republic of China, a region in the midst of rapid epidemiological change with respect to respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACOS and its association with patient outcomes in urban China. Data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 China National Health and Wellness Survey, an Internet-based survey of adults in urban China, were used (N=59,935). Respondents were categorized into one of four groups based on self-reported physician diagnoses: ACOS, asthma only, COPD only, or control (ie, no asthma or COPD). A propensity score matching procedure was conducted to cull the control group into a subgroup (ie, matched controls) who resembled patients with ACOS, asthma only, and COPD only. These four groups (ACOS, asthma only, COPD only, matched controls) were then compared with respect to health status (Short Form-12 version 2/Short Form-36 version 2), work productivity, and health care resource use using generalized linear models. Patients with ACOS (N=366) comprised 0.61% of the adult population, 30.73% of the asthma population, and 18.60% of the COPD population in the People's Republic of China. Patients with ACOS reported significantly worse health status (eg, health utilities =0.63, 0.66, 0.63, and 0.69 for ACOS, COPD only, asthma only, and matched controls, respectively) and significantly greater work impairment (eg, overall work impairment =43.65%, 35.19%, 48.55%, and 29.80%, respectively) and health care resource use (eg, physician visits in the past 6 months =5.13, 3.84, 4.65, and 2.39, respectively) compared with matched controls and patients with COPD only. Few significant differences were observed between patients with ACOS and asthma only. Patients with ACOS have a greater comorbidity burden and significantly worse health

  10. Fruit and vegetable intake in the Mexican population: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de frutas y verduras en la población mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Ramírez-Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify fruit and vegetable (FV dietary intake in the Mexican population and compliance with international recommendations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: FV dietary intake (FV-DI and compliance with international recommendations were obtained in a representative sample of a Mexican population ages 1-59 years old using dietary data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. RESULTS: Average FV-DI for different age groups range from 61 to 72 g for fruits and 26 to 56 g for vegetables. Average total FV intakes were 88.7 g in preschool-age, 103.1 g in school-aged children, 116.3 g in adolescents and 122.6 g in adults. The lowest intakes were observed in the northern region and among the population with the lowest wellbeing levels. CONCLUSIONS: Less than 30% of the Mexican population had adequate intakes of FV. Developing and implementing strategies aimed at increasing intake of these food groups is a national priority.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar la ingestión dietética de frutas y verduras y el apego a recomendaciones internacionales en la población mexicana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La ingestión dietética de frutas y verduras y el apego a recomendaciones fueron obtenidas en una muestra representativa de la población mexicana de entre 1 a 59 años de edad, usando datos sobre dieta de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. RESULTADOS: Los promedios de ingestión dietética para los diversos grupos de edad fluctuaron entre 61 y 72 g en frutas y 26 y 56 g en verduras. Los promedios de ingestión dietética total de frutas y verduras fueron: 87.5 g en preescolares, 103.1 g en escolares, 116.3 g en adolescentes y 122.6 g en adultos. Los menores consumos se observaron en la región norte y en la población con los menores niveles de bienestar. CONCLUSIONES: Menos de 30% de la población tuvo consumos adecuados. El desarrollo e implementación de estrategias y programas que contribuyan a aumentar el

  11. The quality of sample surveys in a developing nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Neva South-Bourne4, Chloe Morris1, Denise Eldemire-Shearer1, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell51Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York, USA; 4Research assistant for Paul A Bourne; 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, JamaicaBackground: In Jamaica, population census began in 1844, and many intercensal ratios obtained from the census data showed that there is a general high degree of accuracy of the data. However, statistics from the Jamaican Ministry of Health showed that there are inaccuracies in health data collected from males using sample surveys.Objectives: The objectives of the present research are to 1 investigate the accuracy of a national sample survey, 2 explore the feasibility and quality of using a subnational sample survey to represent a national survey, 3 aid other scholars in understanding the probability of using national sample surveys and subnational sample surveys, 4 assess older men’s ­evaluation of their health status, and 5 determine whether dichotomization changes self-evaluated health status.Methods: For the current study, the data used in the analysis were originally collected from 2 different sources: 1 the Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC and 2 Survey of Older Men (SOM. Cross validation of self-evaluated data of men in Jamaica was done with comparable samples of the complete JSLC data and the SOM data, where men older than 55 years were selected from each sample.Results: In study 1, 50.2% of respondents indicated at least good self-evaluated health status compared with 74.0% in study 2. Statistical associations were found between health status and survey sample (Χ2 [df = 5

  12. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New

  13. 78 FR 14549 - National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ...] National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey AGENCY... National Contact Center customer evaluation surveys. In this request, the previously approved surveys have... several months. These temporary surveys will allow the National Contact Center to compare its customer...

  14. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  15. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  20. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  2. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  4. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  5. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  6. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  7. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  8. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  9. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  10. Survey of the distributions of population and agricultural produce, etc. and the application for population dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toshinori

    1978-07-01

    The computer model CARIEN to calculate the population doses due to all LWRs in Japan needs the distributions of population and agricultural produce around the nuclear installations. These distributions were presumed to be obtainable from national censuses, and a case-study survey was carried out in 1976 for the area up to 1000 km from the JAERI Tokai Research Establishment. The present report describes the survey and its results, and then discusses applicability of the censuses for population dose evaluation. The national censuses of population and foodstuffs were found to be sufficient for determining these distributions and predicting the future population changes. Results indicated the following: a) the population and agricultural produce around little contribute to the population doses, b) the contributions of leafy vegetables and cow's milk are important compared with inhalation, and c) if such as rice, egg and pork concentrate radionuclides to the same extent as leafy vegetables or milk, these are also important. (auth.)

  11. Racial/ethnic disparities in service utilization for individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders in the general population: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M; Narrow, William E; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-07-01

    This study sought to determine whether black/white disparities in service utilization for mental health and substance use disorders persist or are diminished among individuals with psychiatric comorbidity in the general population. The 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was used to identify individuals with lifetime co-occurring substance use disorders and mood/anxiety disorders (N = 4250; whites, N = 3597; blacks, N = 653). Lifetime service utilization for problems with mood, anxiety, alcohol, and drugs was assessed. Compared to whites, blacks with co-occurring mood or anxiety and substance use disorders were significantly less likely to receive services for mood or anxiety disorders, equally likely to receive services for alcohol use disorders, and more likely to receive some types of services for drug use disorders. Regardless of race/ethnicity, individuals with these co-occurring disorders were almost twice as likely to use services for mood/anxiety disorders than for substance use disorders. Despite the fact that comorbidity generally increases the likelihood of service use, black/white disparities in service utilization among an all-comorbid sample were found, although these disparities differed by type of disorder. Further research is warranted to understand the factors underlying these differences. Prevention and intervention strategies are needed to address the specific mental health needs of blacks with co-occurring disorders, as well as the overall lack of service use for substance use disorders among individuals with co-occurring psychiatric conditions.

  12. The Danish National Health Survey 2010. Study design and respondent characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the five Danish regions and the National Institute of Public Health at the University of Southern Denmark conducted a national representative health survey among the adult population in Denmark. This paper describes the study design and the sample and study population as well as the conte...

  13. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  14. Comparison of the MDRD Study and CKD-EPI Equations for the Estimation of the Glomerular Filtration Rate in the Korean General Population: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jeong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared the accuracy of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD study and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equations in Korean patients and evaluated the difference in CKD prevalence determined using the two equations in the Korean general population. Methods: The accuracy of the two equations was evaluated in 607 patients who underwent a chromium-51-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid GFR measurement. Additionally, we compared the difference in CKD prevalence determined by the two equations among 5,822 participants in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010. Results: Among the 607 subjects, the median bias of the CKD-EPI equation was significantly lower than that of the MDRD study equation (0.9 vs. 2.2, p=0.020. The accuracy of the two equations was not significantly different in patients with mGFR 2; however, the accuracy of the CKD-EPI equation was significantly higher than that of the MDRD study equation in patients with GFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2. The prevalences of the CKD stages 1, 2 and 3 in the Korean general population were 47.56, 49.23, and 3.07%, respectively, for the MDRD study equation; and were 68.48, 28.89, and 2.49%, respectively, for the CKD-EPI equation. Conclusions: These data suggest that the CKD-EPI equation might be more useful in clinical practice than the MDRD study equation in Koreans.

  15. National indoor radon survey in Filipino homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Cruz, Fe M.; Garcia, Teofilo Y.; Palad, Lorna Jean H.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C.; Duran, Emerenciana B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first national survey of indoor radon concentrations in different types of Filipino houses throughout the Philippines. Measurements were carried out using 2,626 CR-39 alpha track detectors that were deployed in selected houses for a period of six months. Results of analyses showed that indoor radon concentration in Filipino houses ranged from 1.4 to 57.6 Bq/m 3 with a mean value of 21.4 ± 9.2 Bq/m 3 . This leads to an estimated annual average effective dose equivalent of 0.4 mSv. There are slight differences in the mean concentrations of radon in different types of houses, which ranged from 19.4 to 25.3 Bq/m 3 . Highest mean radon concentrations were observed in houses made of concrete with a mean radon value of 25.3 ± 10.1 Bq/m 3 . Radon concentrations in the houses surveyed were below the action limits of 200 Bq/m 3 set by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and do not pose any hazard to the health of the occupants. (author)

  16. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wartella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.

  17. National survey of MRSA: Ireland, 1995.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Z

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this survey was to obtain an indication of the size of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) problem in Ireland prior to introducing national MRSA control guidelines. A survey of all microbiology laboratories in Ireland was carried out over two weeks in Spring 1995. For patients from whom MRSA was isolated during the study period standard demographic and clinical data were requested and period prevalence\\/1000 discharges was calculated. All 45 microbiology laboratories surveyed responded. MRSA was isolated from 448 patients during the two-week period. The period prevalence of MRSA was 16.5\\/1000 discharges. Males aged > or = 65 had the highest rate (50\\/1000 discharges). Half of all isolates were from patients in surgical or medical wards, but 4% were from community-based sources such as GPs, nursing homes and hospices. Thirty-two percent of MRSA patients were infected rather than colonized. MRSA is clearly a significant problem in Ireland. While it is largely a hospital problem at present, the increasing trend towards day procedures and shorter hospital stay means that infection will increase in the community.

  18. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1995 customer satisfaction survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a national Customer Satisfaction Survey in response to the requirements of the National Performance Review and Executive Order 12862. An independent research organization, Schulman,...

  19. National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Song, Won O

    2014-01-01

    Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health.

  20. Comparison of the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC in the elderly population: a long-term mortality analysis from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong Kyu; Baek, Seunghee; Lee, Sei Won; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Do; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2018-01-01

    Despite the ongoing intense debate on the definition of airflow limitation by spirometry in the elderly population, there have only been few studies comparing the fixed ratio and the Z -score of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) in terms of long-term mortalities. In this study, we aimed to identify the proper method for accurately defining the airflow limitation in terms of long-term mortality prediction in the elderly population. Data were collected from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. Non-Hispanic Caucasians aged 65-80 years were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of both methods were plotted and compared for 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities. Of 1,331 subjects, the mean age was 71.7 years and 805 (60.5%) were males. For the 10-year all-cause mortality, the area under the curve (AUC) of the fixed ratio was significantly greater than that of the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC, but both showed poor prediction performance (0.633 vs 0.616, p ratio and the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC showed comparable prediction performance with greater AUCs (0.784 vs 0.778, p =0.160, and 0.896 vs 0.896, p =0.971, respectively). Interestingly, the conventional cutoff of 0.7 in the fixed ratio was consistently higher than the optimal for the 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities (0.70 vs 0.69, 0.62, and 0.61, respectively), whereas that of -1.64 in the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC was consistently lower than the optimal cutoff (-1.64 vs -1.31, -1.47, and -1.41, respectively). In the elderly population, both the fixed ratio and the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC showed comparable prediction performance for the 10-year respiratory and COPD mortalities. However, the conventional cutoff of neither 0.70 in the fixed ratio nor -1.64 in the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC was optimal for predicting the long-term mortalities.

  1. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  2. Public health financial management needs: report of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia F; Honoré, Peggy A; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The work reported here builds on the identification of public health financial management practice competencies by a national expert panel. The next logical step was to provide a validity check for the competencies and identify priority areas for educational programming. We developed a survey for local public health finance officers based on the public health finance competencies and field tested it with a convenience sample of officials. We asked respondents to indicate the importance of each competency area and the need for training to improve performance; we also requested information regarding respondent education, jurisdiction size, and additional comments. Our local agency survey sample drew on the respondent list from the National Association of County and City Health Officials 2005 local health department survey, stratified by agency size and limited to jurisdiction populations of 25,000 to 1,000,000. Identifying appropriate respondents was a major challenge. The survey was fielded electronically, yielding 112 responses from 30 states. The areas identified as most important and needing most additional training were knowledge of budget activities, financial data interpretation and communication, and ability to assess and correct the organization's financial status. The majority of respondents had some postbaccalaureate education. Many provided additional comments and recommendations. Health department finance officers demonstrated a high level of general agreement regarding the importance of finance competencies in public health and the need for training. The findings point to a critical need for additional training opportunities that are accessible, cost-effective, and targeted to individual needs.

  3. Work site stress management: national survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, J E

    1989-12-01

    The National Survey of Work Site Health Promotion Activities established baseline data on the frequency of nine types of health promotion activity at private work sites with more than 50 employees in the United States. Stress management activities were provided at 26.6% of work sites. Types of activities at those work sites with some stress management activity included group counseling (58.5%), individual counseling (39.3%), follow-up counseling (25.9%), special events (11.5%), providing information about stress (80.7%), providing a place to relax (64.8%), and making organizational changes to reduce employee stress (81.2%). Frequency of activities varied by industry type and by region of the country. Incidence of most types of activities did not increase as work site size increased, although the likelihood of having any of these activities did increase with work site size. Stress management activities were more likely to be present at work sites with a medical staff or health educator. An increase in output, productivity, or quality was the most frequently cited benefit (46.5%). Negative effects were reported at 2.6% of the work sites. Other health promotion activities found at the work sites surveyed included smoking cessation (61.8%), treatment and control of high blood pressure (36.7%), and weight control (34.7%). Employee Assistance Programs were responsible for stress management at 62% of the work sites with an Employee Assistance Program.

  4. The effect of long working hours on 10-year risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in the Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Hong, Yun-Chul; Min, Kyoung-Bok; Kim, Tae-Shik; Kim, Min-Seok; Kang, Mo-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the emergence of long working hours and the associated conditions such as coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke have gained attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between long working hours and the 10-year-risk of CHD and stroke, estimated by Jee's health risk-appraisal model for ischemic heart disease. We analyzed data from Koreans who randomly enrolled in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012 and finally included 13,799 participants. The participants were classified as per their working hours: 0-30 h/week, 31-39 h/week, 40 h/week, 41-50 h/week, 51-60 h/week, 61-70 h/week, 71-80 h/week, and >80 h/week. The risks for CHD and stroke were determined using Jee's health risk-appraisal model. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the association between working hours and 10-year risk for CHD. The 10-year risks for CHD and stroke were significantly and positively associated with working hours in both men and women. Furthermore, higher risks for CHD and stroke were associated with longer working hours in women. Long working hours are significantly associated with the risks of CHD and stroke, estimated by Jee's health risk-appraisal model. This study suggests the need for proper management of working hours to reduce CHD risk and stroke risk in the Korean population.

  5. Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.G.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001

  6. National health and nutrition examination survey: plan and operations, 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, George; Chiappa, Michele; Porter, Kathryn S; Ostchega, Yechiam; Lewis, Brenda G; Dostal, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Background-Starting in 1999, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) became a continuous, ongoing annual survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian resident population of the United States. A continuous survey allowed content to change to meet emerging needs. Objective-This report describes how NHANES for 1999-2010 was designed and implemented. NHANES is a national survey designed to provide national estimates on various health-related topics. Methods-The survey used in-person face-to-face interviews and physical examinations for data collection. Approximately 5,000 people per year participated in NHANES. The 5,000 people surveyed each year are representative of the entire U.S. population. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  7. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008–2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were −2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m² (95% CI: −3.803 to −1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was −3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m² (95% CI: −5.730 to −1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 μg/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  8. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  9. National survey of the Portuguese elderly nutritional status: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Teresa; Peixoto-Plácido, Catarina; Goulão, Beatriz; Mendonça, Nuno; Alarcão, Violeta; Santos, Nuno; de Oliveira, Rita Machado; Yngve, Agneta; Bye, Asta; Bergland, Astrid; Lopes, Carla; Nicola, Paulo; Santos, Osvaldo; Clara, João Gorjão

    2016-07-16

    Worldwide we are facing a serious demographic challenge due to the dramatic growth of the population over 60 years. It is expected that the proportion of this population will nearly double from 12 to 22 %, between 2015 and 2050. This demographic shift comes with major health and socio-economic concerns. Nutrition is a fundamental determinant of both health and disease and its role in extending a healthy lifespan is the object of considerable research. Notably, malnutrition is one of the main threats to health and quality of life among the elderly. Therefore, knowledge about nutritional status among the elderly is essential for the promotion and maintenance of healthy ageing and to support the development of health protection policies and equity in elderly health care. This is a nationwide nutrition survey of the Portuguese population over 65 years old, with data collection through face-to-face interviews. A representative and random sample of community dwelling elderly and nursing homes residents will be obtained by multistage sampling stratified per main Portuguese regions, sex and age groups. Minimum sample size was estimated to be 2077 elderly (979 in the community and 1098 in nursing homes). Data will be collected on food habits and eating patterns, nutritional status, food insecurity, lifestyle, self-rated general health status and self-reported diseases, functionality, loneliness, cognitive function, emotional status and demographic and socio-economic characterization. This is the first national survey to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition of the Portuguese population above 65 years old, including those living in nursing homes. It will allow the identification of population subgroups of elderly with increased odds of malnutrition and nutritional risk. In addition, this survey will contribute to the identification of psychosocial and clinical predictors of malnutrition among elderly, which is an important risk factor for other

  10. Vertigo and stroke: a national database survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huon, Leh-Kiong; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Fang, Te-Yung; Chuang, Li-Ju; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the association between vertigo and stroke in Taiwan using the Bureau of National Health Insurance research database. Information on adult patients with an index vertigo attack in 2006 was retrieved from Bureau of National Health Insurance research database. All patients with specific diagnostic codes for vertigo were included. Occurrence of stroke during a 1-year follow-up period was identified. Risk factors for stroke were examined. Using χ test, t test, and a multilevel logistic regression model, patients with vertigo were categorized into stroke and nonstroke groups for comparative analyses. An age- and sex- matched control cohort was prepared for comparison. Patients with vertigo (n = 527,807) (mean age, 55.1 yr) accounted for 3.1% of the general Taiwanese adult population. The prevalence of stroke among vertigo patients of 0.5% (mean age, 67.8 yr) was slightly higher than that of the control group (0.3%; mean age, 72.3 yr; p vertigo had higher prevalence of comorbid conditions (p diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, or atrial fibrillation had a higher prevalence of stroke (p vertigo had higher chance to develop stroke than the control group. Some strokes may initially manifest as peripheral vertigo, and some central vertigo may eventually evolve into a stroke. Middle aged male, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and atrial fibrillation are risk factors for subsequent stroke in vertigo patients.

  11. Multinational Population-Based Health Surveys Linked to Outcome Data: An Untapped Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Fisher

    2017-04-01

    This study provides initial support for the methodological feasibility of pooling linked population health surveys however, challenges introduced by dissimilarities will require the use of innovative methodologies, and discussions regarding how to manage jurisdictional data restrictions and privacy issues are needed. Pooled population health data has the potential to improve national and international health surveillance and public health.

  12. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Romero-Martínez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. Results. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. Conclusions. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on over­weight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  13. National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    The 2015 National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (NSDDAB) is the third in a series of telephone surveys on distracted driving providing data to help further the understanding of driving behavior and to contribute to the developm...

  14. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  15. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  16. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is an annual survey designed to collect statistical information on the numbers and characteristics of all known...

  17. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  18. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  19. National Youth Survey US: Wave V (NYS-1980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the fifth wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this collection. The first wave of this survey was conducted in 1976, the second wave in...

  20. National Youth Survey US: Wave IV (NYS-1979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the fourth wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection. The first wave of this survey was conducted in 1976, the second...

  1. A Danish national survey of women operated with mid-urethral slings in 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammendrup, Astrid Cecilie; Jørgensen, Anette; Sander, Pia

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a national survey on self-reported cure, satisfaction and complications four years after mid-urethral sling (MUS) for urinary stress incontinence in Danish women operated in 2001. DESIGN: A postal questionnaire survey. POPULATION: All Danish women who received an MUS operation...

  2. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses II. Status of Nurses: November 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Barbara S.; And Others

    This report provides data describing the nursing population as determined by the second national sample survey of registered nurses. A brief introduction is followed by a chapter that presents an overview of the survey methodology, including details on the sampling design, the response rate, and the statistical reliability. Chapter 3 provides a…

  3. BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS IN INDONESIA: NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD HEALTH SURVEY 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs, which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was one of the study instruments. The 'WHO Step 1 questionnaire' was adapted with some modifications. Samples of NHHS, morbidity survey was sub-sample of module sample of National Social Economic Survey (NSES 2001. A sample of 15,148 people aged 10 years+ were analyzed to identify their behavior regarding smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. These findings are a representation of the national figures, which were presented by characteristics of the population such as: sex, age, residence, region and economic status. Economic status was divided into 5 strata, which were calculated from a quintile of household expenditure. The results showed that 29.7% of the population aged 10 years+ are daily smokers. This is more prevalent in males than females (58.9% vs. 3.7%. This behavior increases by age group, except for the oldest; there are slightly more smokers in rural areas than urban areas (31% vs. 28%, and no difference among regions (30-31%. Those with better economic status are less likely to smoke than poorer ones. Alcohol consumption is reportedly very low (2.7%, more prevalent in males than females (4.9% vs. 0.8%, and higher in rural areas than urban areas (3.1% vs. 2.1%. Eastern Indonesia, was higher than Sumatra, Java and Bali (6.3%, 4.7%, and 1.2% respectively. There were no differences in alcohol consumption according to economic status'.' Physical inactivity is very high (68%, more prevalent in females than males (73% vs. 63%, and higher in

  4. Journal Articles Applying National Aquatic Resource Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) data are being used and applied above and beyond the regional and national assessments. This page includes a list of recent journal articles that reference NARS data.

  5. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : 1997 customer satisfaction survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-13

    In 1995, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted its first Customer Satisfaction Survey in response to the requirements of the National Performance Review and Executive Order 12862. An independent research organization, S...

  6. Like a virgin (mother): analysis of data from a longitudinal, US population representative sample survey

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Amy H; Attard, Samantha M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Joyner, William H; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of self report of pregnancy without sexual intercourse (virgin pregnancy) and factors related to such reporting, in a population representative group of US adolescents and young adults. Design Longitudinal, population representative sample survey. Setting Nationally representative, multiethnic National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, United States. Participants 7870 women enrolled at wave I (1995) and completing the most recent wave of data collect...

  7. Comparison of the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC in the elderly population: a long-term mortality analysis from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh DK

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dong Kyu Oh,1 Seunghee Baek,2 Sei Won Lee,1 Jae Seung Lee,1 Sang-Do Lee,1 Yeon-Mok Oh1 1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Background and objective: Despite the ongoing intense debate on the definition of airflow limitation by spirometry in the elderly population, there have only been few studies comparing the fixed ratio and the Z-score of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC in terms of long-term mortalities. In this study, we aimed to identify the proper method for accurately defining the airflow limitation in terms of long-term mortality prediction in the elderly population. Methods: Data were collected from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. Non-Hispanic Caucasians aged 65–80 years were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of both methods were plotted and compared for 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities. Results: Of 1,331 subjects, the mean age was 71.7 years and 805 (60.5% were males. For the 10-year all-cause mortality, the area under the curve (AUC of the fixed ratio was significantly greater than that of the Z-score of FEV1/FVC, but both showed poor prediction performance (0.633 vs 0.616, p<0.001. For the 10-year respiratory and COPD mortalities, both the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC showed comparable prediction performance with greater AUCs (0.784 vs 0.778, p=0.160, and 0.896 vs 0.896, p=0.971, respectively. Interestingly, the conventional cutoff of 0.7 in the fixed ratio was consistently higher than the optimal for the 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities (0.70 vs 0.69, 0.62, and 0.61, respectively

  8. Early-stage chronic kidney disease, insulin resistance, and osteoporosis as risk factors of sarcopenia in aged population: the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J E; Lee, Y-H; Huh, J H; Kang, D R; Rhee, Y; Lim, S-K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcopenia means the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with aging. In this study, we found that insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease stage 3, and osteoporosis at the femur neck were closely associated with sarcopenia in elderly men. These conditions modified to slow down the progression of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is known to have multiple contributing factors; however, its modifiable risk factors have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the most influential and modifiable risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study using data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008-2009. This study included 940 men and 1,324 women aged 65 years and older who completed a body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height(2) of less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group. Using univariate analysis, age, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, high-risk drinking, family income, osteoporosis, daily energy, and protein intake were associated with sarcopenia in men; age, BMI, limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, occupation, osteoporosis at the total hip, and daily energy intake were associated with sarcopenia in women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR ≥2.5 (odds ratio [OR] for sarcopenia, 2.27; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.25), chronic kidney disease stage 3 (OR, 3.13; 95 % CI, 1.14-8.61), and osteoporosis at the femur neck (OR, 6.83; 95 % CI, 1.08-43.41) were identified as risk factors for sarcopenia in men. Insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease, and osteoporosis at the femur neck should be modified to prevent the acceleration of skeletal muscle

  9. National health interview surveys in Europe: an overview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupkens, C.L.H.; Berg, J. van den; Zee, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the value of national health interview surveys for national and international research and policy activities, this paper examines the existence and content of recent and future health interview surveys in the 15 member states of the European Union (EU), Norway, Iceland and

  10. National Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime across the United States that generates significant economic impacts to both local economies and to the nation. In...

  11. National Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime across the United States that generates significant economic impacts to both local economies and to the nation. In...

  12. Pseudo-populations a basic concept in statistical surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Quatember, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes that artificial or pseudo-populations play an important role in statistical surveys from finite universes in two manners: firstly, the concept of pseudo-populations may substantially improve users’ understanding of various aspects in the sampling theory and survey methodology; an example of this scenario is the Horvitz-Thompson estimator. Secondly, statistical procedures exist in which pseudo-populations actually have to be generated. An example of such a scenario can be found in simulation studies in the field of survey sampling, where close-to-reality pseudo-populations are generated from known sample and population data to form the basis for the simulation process. The chapters focus on estimation methods, sampling techniques, nonresponse, questioning designs and statistical disclosure control.This book is a valuable reference in understanding the importance of the pseudo-population concept and applying it in teaching and research.

  13. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  14. National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s wetlands. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the publi...

  15. Documentation of the Danish National Travel Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hjalmar

    The basic aim of TU is to survey the transport behaviour of Danes residing in Denmark. The survey is managed by DTU Transport on behalf of a group of Danish authorities and organisa-tions. Thus, we focus on the needs arising from this group: • A stable, continuous, operational, reliable, easy-to-...

  16. Spatially disaggregated population estimates in the absence of national population and housing census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, N. A.; Jochem, W. C.; Bird, T. J.; Chamberlain, H. R.; Clarke, D.; Kerr, D.; Bengtsson, L.; Juran, S.; Seaman, V.; Tatem, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Population numbers at local levels are fundamental data for many applications, including the delivery and planning of services, election preparation, and response to disasters. In resource-poor settings, recent and reliable demographic data at subnational scales can often be lacking. National population and housing census data can be outdated, inaccurate, or missing key groups or areas, while registry data are generally lacking or incomplete. Moreover, at local scales accurate boundary data are often limited, and high rates of migration and urban growth make existing data quickly outdated. Here we review past and ongoing work aimed at producing spatially disaggregated local-scale population estimates, and discuss how new technologies are now enabling robust and cost-effective solutions. Recent advances in the availability of detailed satellite imagery, geopositioning tools for field surveys, statistical methods, and computational power are enabling the development and application of approaches that can estimate population distributions at fine spatial scales across entire countries in the absence of census data. We outline the potential of such approaches as well as their limitations, emphasizing the political and operational hurdles for acceptance and sustainable implementation of new approaches, and the continued importance of traditional sources of national statistical data. PMID:29555739

  17. Health risk behavior among Thai youth: national survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.

  18. Autorreporte de accidentes de tránsito en una encuesta nacional en la población urbana de Perú Self-reporting of road traffic accidents in a national survey of urban population in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Wong

    2010-06-01

    accidents in the previous year in the general population and to determine the associated factors. Materials and methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of the data of the III National Survey of Drug Use in the General Population of Peru, 2006. We measured socio-demographical variables: age, gender, place of origin, educational level and marital status. We also evaluated the use of legal, illegal and medical drugs. The independent variable was the self-reporting of a road traffic accident. We performed the descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis of the socio-demographical variables and the drug use (legal and illegal, together with the self-reporting of the traffic accident. Results. The frequency of reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year according to the survey was 2.93% (95%CI: 2.92-2.94. The associated factors for self-reporting of a road traffic accident were: to live in the jungle areas (OR: 2.03; 95%CI:1.55-2.65, male gender (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.46-2.22, legal drugs use in the last year (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.53-2.55, alcohol consumption in the last year (OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.44-2.32 and medical drugs use in the last year (OR: 2,45, 95%CI 1,63-3,68. Conclusions. The prevalence of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year was very high compared to similar studies and other reporting sources. The variables associated with having had a traffic accident were: living in the jungle area, being male, legal drug use in the last month, especially alcohol and medical drug use in the last month. It is necessary to think carefully about the information system of the road traffic accidents in order to achieve a better picture of the problem putting emphasis in the legal drugs use.

  19. The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique genetic ... The feral goats from Tankwa Karoo National Park in the Northern Cape, South Africa, ... Park and former Tankwa goats, now kept on a private farm were genotyped, ...

  20. A systematic review of childhood maltreatment assessments in population-representative surveys since 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdestad, Wendy; Campeau, Aimée; Potter, Dawn; Tonmyr, Lil

    2015-01-01

    Population-representative surveys that assess childhood maltreatment and health are a valuable resource to explore the implications of child maltreatment for population health. Systematic identification and evaluation of such surveys is needed to facilitate optimal use of their data and to inform future research. To inform researchers of the existence and nature of population-representative surveys relevant to understanding links between childhood maltreatment and health; to evaluate the assessment of childhood maltreatment in this body of work. We included surveys that: 1) were representative of the non-institutionalized population of any size nation or of any geopolitical region ≥ 10 million people; 2) included a broad age range (≥ 40 years); 3) measured health; 4) assessed childhood maltreatment retrospectively; and 5) were conducted since 1990. We used Internet and database searching (including CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice: January 1990 to March 2014), expert consultation, and other means to identify surveys and associated documentation. Translations of non-English survey content were verified by fluent readers of survey languages. We developed checklists to abstract and evaluate childhood maltreatment content. Fifty-four surveys from 39 countries met inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 1,287-51,945 and response rates from 15%-96%. Thirteen surveys assessed neglect, 15 emotional abuse; 18 exposure to family violence; 26 physical abuse; 48 sexual abuse. Fourteen surveys assessed more than three types; six of these were conducted since 2010. In nine surveys childhood maltreatment assessments were detailed (+10 items for at least one type of maltreatment). Seven surveys' assessments had known reliability and/or validity. Data from 54 surveys can be used to explore the population health relevance of child maltreatment. Assessment of childhood maltreatment is not comprehensive but there is

  1. Home mechanical ventilation in Canada: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McKim, Douglas A; Katz, Sherri L; Leasa, David; Nonoyama, Mika; Pedersen, Cheryl; Goldstein, Roger S; Road, Jeremy D

    2015-05-01

    No comprehensive Canadian national data describe the prevalence of and service provision for ventilator-assisted individuals living at home, data critical to health-care system planning for appropriate resourcing. Our objective was to generate national data profiling service providers, users, types of services, criteria for initiation and monitoring, ventilator servicing arrangements, education, and barriers to home transition. Eligible providers delivering services to ventilator-assisted individuals (adult and pediatric) living at home were identified by our national provider inventory and referrals from other providers. The survey was administered via a web link from August 2012 to April 2013. The survey response rate was 152/171 (89%). We identified 4,334 ventilator-assisted individuals: an estimated prevalence of 12.9/100,000 population, with 73% receiving noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and 18% receiving intermittent mandatory ventilation (9% not reported). Services were delivered by 39 institutional providers and 113 community providers. We identified variation in initiation criteria for NIV, with polysomnography demonstrating nocturnal hypoventilation (57%), daytime hypercapnia (38%), and nocturnal hypercapnia (32%) as the most common criteria. Various models of ventilator servicing were reported. Most providers (64%) stated that caregiver competency was a prerequisite for home discharge; however, repeated competency assessment and retraining were offered by only 45%. Important barriers to home transition were: insufficient funding for paid caregivers, equipment, and supplies; a shortage of paid caregivers; and negotiating public funding arrangements. Ventilatory support in the community appears well-established, with most individuals managed with NIV. Although caregiver competency is a prerequisite to discharge, ongoing assessment and retraining were infrequent. Funding and caregiver availability were important barriers to home transition. Copyright © 2015

  2. National health interview surveys in Europe: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupkens, C L; van den Berg, J; van der Zee, J

    1999-05-01

    In order to study the value of national health interview surveys for national and international research and policy activities, this paper examines the existence and content of recent and future health interview surveys in the 15 member states of the European Union (EU), Norway, Iceland and Switzerland. National health interview surveys are performed in most countries, but not in Greece (only regional surveys), Luxembourg, Ireland and Iceland (only multi-purpose surveys). The health interview surveys in the other 14 countries provide regular data on the main health topics. Of the 14 health topics that are examined in this inventory seven are measured in all countries. Questions on health status (e.g. self-assessed health, long-term physical disability, and height and weight) and medical consumption (e.g. consultations with the general practitioner, GP) are often included. Lifestyle topics are less often included, except smoking habits, information about which is sought in all countries. Topics like diet and drugs/narcotics are more often included in special surveys than in general health interview surveys. Despite differences in the content, frequency and methodology of national health interview surveys in different countries, these surveys are a valuable source of information on the health of Europeans.

  3. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  4. Population coverage of artemisinin-based combination treatment in children younger than 5 years with fever and Plasmodium falciparum infection in Africa, 2003-2015: a modelling study using data from national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Adam; Bisanzio, Donal; Yukich, Joshua O; Mappin, Bonnie; Fergus, Cristin A; Lynch, Michael; Cibulskis, Richard E; Bhatt, Samir; Weiss, Daniel J; Cameron, Ewan; Gething, Peter W; Eisele, Thomas P

    2017-04-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the most effective treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. A commonly used indicator for monitoring and assessing progress in coverage of malaria treatment is the proportion of children younger than 5 years with reported fever in the previous 14 days who have received an ACT. We propose an improved indicator that incorporates parasite infection status (as assessed by a rapid diagnostic test [RDT]), which is available in recent household surveys. In this study we estimated the annual proportion of children younger than 5 years with fever and a positive RDT in Africa who received an ACT in 2003-15. Our modelling study used cross-sectional data on treatment for fever and RDT status for children younger than 5 years compiled from all nationally available representative household surveys (the Malaria Indicator Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys) across sub-Saharan Africa between 2003 and 2015. Estimates for the proportion of children younger than 5 years with a fever within the previous 14 days and P falciparum infection assessed by RDT who received an ACT were incorporated in a generalised additive mixed model, including data on ACT distributions, to estimate coverage across all countries and time periods. We did random effects meta-analyses to examine individual, household, and community effects associated with ACT coverage. We obtained data on 201 704 children younger than 5 years from 103 surveys (22 MIS, 61 DHS, and 20 MICS) across 33 countries. RDT results were available for 40 of these surveys including 40 261 (20%) children, and we predicted RDT status for the remaining 161 443 (80%) children. Our results showed that ACT coverage in children younger than 5 years with a fever and P falciparum infection increased across sub-Saharan Africa in 2003-15, but even in 2015, only 19·7% (95% CI 15·6-24·8) of children younger than 5 years

  5. NODC Standard Format Herring Survey Population Density and Distribution (F057) Data (1976-1977) (NODC Accession 0014189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data type contains data from aircraft surveys of herring schools. These data were collected to provide information on herring population density and...

  6. Measuring and exposures from National Media Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    2000-01-01

    Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media ...... surveys themselves that might invalidate or give unreliable measures, both when measuring a single exposure and accumulated exposures. Four media types will be discussed: TV, radio, print and the internet.......Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media...

  7. The prevalence of hypertension in relation with the normal albuminuria range in type 2 diabetes mellitus within the South Korean population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Koh-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Han, Kyung-Do; Park, Yong-Gyu; Kim, Do-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    The coexistence of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. In some studies, normal albuminuria has also been associated with cardiovascular disease and HTN. Therefore, we examined the relationships between albuminuria and the prevalence of HTN and its control rate in type 2 DM patients. We analyzed data from the 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 1188 subjects with type 2 DM were included in the study. We divided albuminuria into 3 albuminuria tertiles (T): T1: hypertension had more ACR T3 (odds ratio=2.018, 95% confidence interval=1.445-2.818) than subjects without HTN. Subjects with controlled HTN had less ACR T3 than subjects without controlled HTN (odds ratio=0.566, 95% confidence interval=0.384-0.836). When, we redivided albuminuria by Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bisphenol-A and Sleep Adequacy among Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, Hind A.; Beydoun, May A.; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Zonderman, Alan B.; Eid, Shaker M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate bisphenol-A (BPA) level and its relationship to sleep adequacy in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whereby data were collected using in-person interviews, physical examination and laboratory testing. BPA level was measured in urine samples and analyzed as loge-transformed variable and in quartiles ( 8 h); (Bisphenol-A and sleep adequacy among adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. SLEEP 2016;39(2):467–476. PMID:26446109

  9. Results of a national survey on nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, A.R.; Gatica, N.A.; Melis, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina carried out a compilation of data on radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine procedures. Its aim was to get information on the radiopharmaceuticals that are used in different procedures and the activity administered to the patient, to assess the radiation exposure of the population and to contribute to a global survey of medical radiation usage and exposures conducted by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), by sending information of the country. The data compiled were analysed, and for the most frequent procedures, the mean activity administered, the standard deviation, the distribution of the number of procedures for different age groups, sex and radiopharmaceuticals were assessed. The radiation exposure for children and adults was estimated. For the main diagnostic examinations, the results of the survey were compared with specific values published in the Basic Safety Standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Safety Series No. 115, 1996). As a conclusion, it may be point out the importance of continuing with the compilation of this kind of information in order to identify emerging trends on the use of nuclear medicine procedures in Argentina and the activity of radiopharmaceuticals administered to the patients. (author) [es

  10. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Heo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level nested within schools (2nd level to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  11. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S V; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  12. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - National Immunization Survey (Breastfeeding)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes breastfeeding data from the National Immunization Survey (NIS). This data is used for DNPAO's Data, Trends, and Maps database, which provides...

  13. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  14. National Geochemical Survey Locations and Results for Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with other state and federal agencies, industry, and academia, is conducting a National Geochemical...

  15. National Youth Survey US: Wave II (NYS-1977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the second wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection. The first wave was conducted in 1976. Youths were interviewed in...

  16. National Youth Survey US: Wave I (NYS-1976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains parent and youth data for the National Youth Survey. Youths and one of their parents or legal guardians were interviewed in early 1977 about...

  17. National Youth Survey US: Wave VII (NYS-1987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the seventh wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this collection. This research project, designed to gain a better understanding of both...

  18. National Youth Survey US: Wave VI (NYS-1983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the sixth wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this collection. This research project, which was designed to gain a better understanding...

  19. National Youth Survey US: Wave III (NYS-1978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the third wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection, which includes data for youth interviewed in 1979 about events and...

  20. Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzarino, AI; Mindell, JS

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subseq...

  1. Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzarino, A. I.; Mindell, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subse...

  2. Men in Midwifery: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Adriane Ellis, Simon; McFarlane, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Midwifery in the United States suffers from a lack of diversity. More than 91% of midwives are white, and more than 98% are women. Little research has explored the experiences of midwives who are men or transgender. Invitation to an Internet survey was sent to the membership of the American College of Nurse-Midwives. Thirty-one participants who identified as men or transgender completed the survey, which included quantitative and open-ended questions about the impact of gender on education and practice. Data analysis of qualitative responses used qualitative description methodology to identify common themes. Four themes described participating men's experiences of education and practice of midwifery. Challenges included feeling singled out as different and being excluded. Supportive factors came from the social support of family, friends, colleagues, and patients, as well as from taking pride in one's work as a midwife. Midwives who identify as transgender described the challenges of others' confusion about their gender, having to hide their true gender identity, and struggling with the resulting loneliness. This survey highlights the challenges faced by midwives who are men or transgender in education and practice. Midwifery values of respect and acceptance for all women and families need to be applied internally to all members of the profession. This will support increased diversity and openness in midwifery. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  3. Comparison of NIS and NHIS/NIPRCS vaccination coverage estimates. National Immunization Survey. National Health Interview Survey/National Immunization Provider Record Check Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D L; Ezzati-Rice, T M; Stokley, S; Zhao, Z

    2001-05-01

    The National Immunization Survey (NIS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) produce national coverage estimates for children aged 19 months to 35 months. The NIS is a cost-effective, random-digit-dialing telephone survey that produces national and state-level vaccination coverage estimates. The National Immunization Provider Record Check Study (NIPRCS) is conducted in conjunction with the annual NHIS, which is a face-to-face household survey. As the NIS is a telephone survey, potential coverage bias exists as the survey excludes children living in nontelephone households. To assess the validity of estimates of vaccine coverage from the NIS, we compared 1995 and 1996 NIS national estimates with results from the NHIS/NIPRCS for the same years. Both the NIS and the NHIS/NIPRCS produce similar results. The NHIS/NIPRCS supports the findings of the NIS.

  4. Results From the 2014 National Wilderness Manager Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Ghimire; Ken Cordell; Alan Watson; Chad Dawson; Gary T. Green

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of managers was developed to support interagency wilderness strategic planning. The focus was on major challenges, perceived needs for science and training, and accomplishments of 1995 Strategic Plan objectives. The survey was administered to managers at the four federal agencies with wilderness management responsibilities: the Bureau of Land...

  5. Teaching Psychiatry Residents to Teach: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…

  6. Diet in Saudi Arabia: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Afshin, Ashkan; Daoud, Farah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-04-01

    No recent original studies on the pattern of diet are available for Saudi Arabia at the national level. The present study was performed to describe the consumption of foods and beverages by Saudi adults. The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) was conducted in 2013. Data were collected through interviews and anthropometric measurements were done. A diet history questionnaire was used to determine the amount of consumption for eighteen food or beverage items in a typical week. The study was a household survey in all thirteen administrative regions of Saudi Arabia. Participants were 10 735 individuals aged 15 years or older. Mean daily consumption was 70·9 (se 1·3) g for fruits, 111·1 (se 2·0) g for vegetables, 11·6 (se 0·3) g for dark fish, 13·8 (se 0·3) g for other fish, 44·2 (se 0·7) g for red meat, 4·8 (se 0·2) g for processed meat, 10·9 (se 0·3) g for nuts, 219·4 (se 5·1) ml for milk and 115·5 (se 2·6) ml for sugar-sweetened beverages. Dietary guideline recommendations were met by only 5·2 % of individuals for fruits, 7·5 % for vegetables, 31·4 % for nuts and 44·7 % for fish. The consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages was high in young adults. Only a small percentage of the Saudi population met the dietary recommendations. Programmes to improve dietary behaviours are urgently needed to reduce the current and future burden of disease. The promotion of healthy diets should target both the general population and specific high-risk groups. Regular assessments of dietary status are needed to monitor trends and inform interventions.

  7. Estimating trends in alligator populations from nightlight survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Cherkiss, Michael; Jeffery, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Nightlight surveys are commonly used to evaluate status and trends of crocodilian populations, but imperfect detection caused by survey- and location-specific factors makes it difficult to draw population inferences accurately from uncorrected data. We used a two-stage hierarchical model comprising population abundance and detection probability to examine recent abundance trends of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in subareas of Everglades wetlands in Florida using nightlight survey data. During 2001–2008, there were declining trends in abundance of small and/or medium sized animals in a majority of subareas, whereas abundance of large sized animals had either demonstrated an increased or unclear trend. For small and large sized class animals, estimated detection probability declined as water depth increased. Detection probability of small animals was much lower than for larger size classes. The declining trend of smaller alligators may reflect a natural population response to the fluctuating environment of Everglades wetlands under modified hydrology. It may have negative implications for the future of alligator populations in this region, particularly if habitat conditions do not favor recruitment of offspring in the near term. Our study provides a foundation to improve inferences made from nightlight surveys of other crocodilian populations.

  8. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), conducted June 15 through 26, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with ANL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ANL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S ampersand A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S ampersand A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the S ampersand A results will be incorporated into the Argonne National Laboratory Environmental Survey findings for inclusion in the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 75 refs., 24 figs., 60 tabs

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), conducted June 15 through 26, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with ANL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ANL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the Argonne National Laboratory Environmental Survey findings for inclusion in the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 75 refs., 24 figs., 60 tabs.

  10. Problem neurology residents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabby, David S; Majeed, Muhammed H; Schwartzman, Robert J

    2011-06-14

    Problem residents are found across most medical specialties at a prevalence of about 10%. This study was designed to explore the prevalence and causes of problem neurology residents and to compare neurology programs' responses and outcomes. Directors of 126 US neurology residency programs were sent an electronic survey. We collected data on demographics, first and all "identifiers" of problem residents, and year of training in which the problem was found. We asked about observable signs, etiology, and who performed remediation. We asked what resources were used and what outcomes occurred. Ninety-five program directors completed surveys (75% response rate). Almost all neurology programs have problem residents (81%). Age, sex, marital status, being a US native, or attending a US medical school had no effect on problem status. Being a parent carried a lower likelihood of problems (32%). Most commonly the problem is acted on during the first year of training. Faculty members without defined educational roles were the most frequent first identifiers. Program directors were the most common remediators. The most common remediation techniques were increasing supervision and assigning a faculty mentor. Graduate medical education office and psychiatric or psychological counseling services were most often used. Eleven percent of problem residents required a program for impaired physicians and 14% required a leave of absence. Sixteen percent were dismissed from their programs. The prevalence of problem residents in neurology is similar to other disciplines, and various resources are available to remediate them.

  11. Nigeria's National Population Policy and its Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's National Population Policy and its Implications for Sustainable Development. Good Wilson. Abstract. Given the prevailing view that population policy has the potentials to reduce pressure of population on development and the attendant improvement of the welfare of people in society now and in the future, ...

  12. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), conducted September 14 through 25, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Fermilab. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Fermilab, and interviews with site personnel. 110 refs., 26 figs., 41 tabs

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), conducted September 14 through 25, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Fermilab. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Fermilab, and interviews with site personnel. 110 refs., 26 figs., 41 tabs.

  14. Predictors of medication use in the Roma population in Spain: a population-based national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, M; Hernández Barrera, V; López de Andrés, A; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; Jiménez-García, R; Carrasco-Garrido, P

    2015-05-01

    To describe the prevalence of prescribed and self-medicated use of medication in the Spanish Roma population, and identify the associated factors. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data from the first National Health Survey conducted on the Roma population in Spain were used. The sample comprised 1000 Spanish Roma adults of both sexes aged ≥16 years. Answers (yes/no) to the question, 'In the last two weeks have you taken the following medicines [in reference to a list of medicines that might be used by the population] and were they prescribed for you by a doctor?' were used to ascertain 'medication use'. 'Self-medication' referred to use of these medicines without medical prescription. Using multivariate logistic regression models, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to identify associated factors. The overall prevalence of medication use in the Roma population for both sexes was 69.1%, and 38.7% was self-medicated. Females reported higher use of medication than males (75.1% vs 62.3%); however, self-medication was higher among males. Analgesics and antipyretics were used most often (35.8%). Among males, the variables that were independently and significantly associated with a higher probability of medication use were: age; negative perception of health; presence of chronic disease (OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.67-4.73); and medical visits (OR 4.51; 95% CI 2.54-8.01). The variables were the same among females, except for age. A high percentage of the Spanish Roma population use medication, and a significant proportion of them self-medicate. The presence of chronic diseases, a negative perception of health and medical consultations were associated with increased use of medication in the study population. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Personality Disorders Associated with Full and Partial Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the U.S. Population: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Background While it is well known that personality disorders are associated with trauma exposure and PTSD, limited nationally representative data are available on DSM-IV personality disorders that co-occur with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and partial PTSD. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 34,653 adults participating in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographics and additional psychiatric comorbidity evaluated associations of PTSD and partial PTSD with personality disorders. Results Prevalence rates of lifetime PTSD and partial PTSD were 6.4% and 6.6%, respectively. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and additional psychiatric comorbidity, respondents with full PTSD were more likely than trauma controls to meet criteria for schizotypal, narcissistic, and borderline personality disorders (ORs=2.1–2.5); and respondents with partial PTSD were more likely than trauma controls to meet diagnostic criteria for borderline (OR=2.0), schizotypal (OR=1.8), and narcissistic (OR=1.6) PDs. Women with PTSD were more likely than controls to have obsessive-compulsive PD. Women with partial PTSD were more likely than controls to have antisocial PD; and men with partial PTSD were less likely than women with partial PTSD to have avoidant PD. Conclusions PTSD and partial PTSD are associated with borderline, schizotypal, and narcissistic personality disorders. Modestly higher rates of obsessive-compulsive PD were observed among women with full PTSD, and of antisocial PD among women with partial PTSD. PMID:20950823

  16. 76 FR 22714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... questions with inquiries into the communication channels through which understanding is being obtained, and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment... content of the survey will focus on understanding the degree to which members of the general population...

  17. Estimating population sizes for elusive animals: the forest elephants of Kakum National Park, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, L S; Eggert, J A; Woodruff, D S

    2003-06-01

    African forest elephants are difficult to observe in the dense vegetation, and previous studies have relied upon indirect methods to estimate population sizes. Using multilocus genotyping of noninvasively collected samples, we performed a genetic survey of the forest elephant population at Kakum National Park, Ghana. We estimated population size, sex ratio and genetic variability from our data, then combined this information with field observations to divide the population into age groups. Our population size estimate was very close to that obtained using dung counts, the most commonly used indirect method of estimating the population sizes of forest elephant populations. As their habitat is fragmented by expanding human populations, management will be increasingly important to the persistence of forest elephant populations. The data that can be obtained from noninvasively collected samples will help managers plan for the conservation of this keystone species.

  18. Monitoring the health of transgender and other gender minority populations: validity of natal sex and gender identity survey items in a U.S. national cohort of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Conron, Kerith J; Tardiff, Laura Anatale; Jarvi, Stephanie; Gordon, Allegra R; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-11-26

    A barrier to monitoring the health of gender minority (transgender) populations is the lack of brief, validated tools with which to identify participants in surveillance systems. We used the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), a prospective cohort study of U.S. young adults (mean age = 20.7 years in 2005), to assess the validity of self-report measures and implement a two-step method to measure gender minority status (step 1: assigned sex at birth, step 2: current gender identity). A mixed-methods study was conducted in 2013. Construct validity was evaluated in secondary data analysis of the 2010 wave (n = 7,831). Cognitive testing interviews of close-ended measures were conducted with a subsample of participants (n = 39). Compared to cisgender (non-transgender) participants, transgender participants had higher levels of recalled childhood gender nonconformity age gender nonconformity and were more likely to have ever identified as not completely heterosexual (p gender minority participants. Assigned sex at birth was interpreted as sex designated on a birth certificate; transgender was understood to be a difference between a person's natal sex and gender identity. Participants were correctly classified as male, female, or transgender. The survey items performed well in this sample and are recommended for further evaluation in languages other than English and with diverse samples in terms of age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

  19. Ophthalmology resident surgical competency: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binenbaum, Gil; Volpe, Nicholas J

    2006-07-01

    To describe the prevalence, management, and career outcomes of ophthalmology residents who struggle with surgical competency and to explore related educational issues. Fourteen-question written survey. Fifty-eight program directors at Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education-accredited, United States ophthalmology residency programs, representing a total of 2179 resident graduates, between 1991 and 2000. Study participants completed a mailed, anonymous survey whose format combined multiple choice and free comment questions. Number of surgically challenged residents, types of problems identified, types of remediation, final departmental decision at the end of residency, known career outcomes, and residency program use of microsurgical skills laboratories and applicant screening tests. One hundred ninety-nine residents (9% overall; 10% mean per program) were labeled as having trouble mastering surgical skills. All of the programs except 2 had encountered such residents. The most frequently cited problems were poor hand-eye coordination (24%) and poor intraoperative judgment (22%). Most programs were supportive and used educational rather than punitive measures, the most common being extra practice-laboratory time (32%), scheduling cases with the best teaching surgeon (23%), and counseling (21%). Nearly one third (31%) of residents were believed to have overcome their difficulties before graduation. Other residents were encouraged to pursue medical ophthalmology (22%) or to obtain further surgical training through a fellowship (21%) or a supervised practice setting (12%); these residents were granted a departmental statement of satisfactory completion of residency for Board eligibility. Twelve percent were asked to leave residency. Of reported career outcomes, 92% of residents were practicing ophthalmology, 65% as surgical and 27% as medical ophthalmologists. Ninety-eight percent of residency programs had microsurgical practice facilities, 64% had a formal

  20. Young adult smoking behavior: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

  1. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) conducted April 6 through 17, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with BNL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at BNL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the BNL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the BNL Survey. 80 refs., 24 figs., 48 tabs.

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) conducted April 6 through 17, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with BNL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at BNL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the BNL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the BNL Survey. 80 refs., 24 figs., 48 tabs

  4. Abundance, distribution and population trends of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.; Jakarasi, J.; Westhuizen, van der H.; Muvengwi, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an iconic or keystone species in many aquatic ecosystems. In order to understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of Nile crocodiles in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeastern Zimbabwe, we carried out 4 annual aerial surveys, using

  5. Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Shuper, Paul A; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that adult per-capita alcohol consumption, as estimated from self-reports of nationally representative surveys, underestimates 'true' consumption, as measured as the sum of recorded and unrecorded consumption. The proportion of total adult alcohol per capita reported in representative surveys is usually labelled 'coverage'. The aim of the present paper was to estimate coverage for South Africa under different scenarios of alcohol use assessment and 'true' consumption. Five nationally representative surveys from South Africa were used to estimate the prevalence of drinking and the grams per day among current drinkers. All surveys used a complex multi-stage sampling frame that was accounted for by using survey weights. The total (recorded and unrecorded), the recorded and the adjusted total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa served as different estimates of the 'true' consumption. South Africa. Alcohol use information was assessed on a total of 8115, 16 398 and 13 181 adults (15 years or older) in surveys from the years 2003, 2005 and 2008, respectively. Two surveys in 2012 included 27 070 and 18 688 adults. Coverage of the alcohol use reported in the surveys was calculated, compared with the 'true' adult per-capita alcohol. The survey data covered between 11.8% [2005; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) = 9.3-16.2%)] and 19.4% (2003; 95% UI = 14.9-24.2%) of the total alcohol used per capita. The highest coverage of 27.9% (95% UI = 22.4-36.8%) was observed when looking only at recorded alcohol in 2003. Evidence from five nationally representative surveys assessing alcohol use suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Emergency radiology in Canada: a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreggiani, W.C.; Nicolaou, S.; Lyburn, I.D.; Harris, A.C.; Buckley, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    To document the existing radiology services available to emergency physicians in hospitals across Canada and to preview future trends and needs. Questionnaires (n = 130) regarding the type, availability and satisfaction with radiology services were distributed to radiologists and emergency physicians at 65 hospitals across Canada. Fifty-three (41%) questionnaires were returned, and 45 (35%) completed questionnaires from 35 hospitals were used for analysis (24 from radiologists and 21 from emergency physicians). Plain radiographs were available in all hospitals at all times. Ultrasonography, intravenous pyleograms and computed tomography (CT) were available in all departments during normal working hours; after hours, CT was unavailable in 1 hospital and ultrasonography was unavailable in 2. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) was routinely performed for blunt abdominal trauma in 6 centres, and 10 centres had teleradiology services. Regarding the quality of emergency service, 7 of 45 responded 'poor,' 4 'average,' 14 'good,' and 17 of 45 rated service 'excellent.' Interestingly, most radiologists answered 'good' or 'excellent,' and most of the 'poor' responses came from emergency physicians. Regarding staff coverage after 5 pm, 34 hospitals provided CT services, 20 had ultrasonography staff available, and there was radiology nursing coverage in 14 hospitals. Clinical details on requisitions were generally rated 'adequate' or 'poor.' Although most radiograph reports were available within 48 hours, some took longer. Hot-seat reporting was available in 11 centres. During normal working hours, radiologists were the first to read films in 5 of 35 hospitals. After hours, emergency physicians were the first to read films in all hospitals, but only 14 hospitals indicated they were 'formally' trained to do so. This survey documents the strengths and weaknesses of the radiology services available to emergency physicians. The perceptions of emergency physicians

  7. National Survey of Radionuclide Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A House

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was mailed to all institutions in Canada licensed to use radiopharmaceuticals. Questions addressed meal type; mode of preparation; and means, ranges and SD of emptying times. Seventy-eight per cent of 222 facilities responded, including all 55 teaching centres. Eighty-five per cent of teaching and 56% of nonteaching centres perform solid phase gastric emptying studies (GES. The majority use 99mTc sulphur colloid (Tc-SC added to eggs before cooking as the standard meal. Twenty-five per cent of teaching and 21% of nonteaching centres perform liquid phase GES. Most use a watery solution of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Gastric emptying for solid phase GES, expressed as time for 50% emptying (mean t½, varied from 42 to 105 mins for centres using the Tc-SC egg meal. Twenty-eight per cent of teaching centres used ±2 SD to define their normal range, 26% used ±1 SD, 6% used ±1.5 SD, and 40% did not know the number of SD used. Twenty per cent of non-teaching centres used ±2 SD, 12% used ±1 SD and 68% did not know how many SD were used. For liquid phase GES, mean t½ varied from 20 to 60 mins. Eighteen per cent of centres used healthy volunteers to establish or validate normal ranges. There is substantial variability among the normal ranges for radionuclide solid and liquid phase GES in both teaching and nonteaching centres across Canada. A minority of facilities have established or validated their own normal ranges in healthy volunteers. There is a need for a more standardized protocol and range of normal, with internal validation by each institution.

  8. Single-Phase Mail Survey Design for Rare Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, J. Michael; Andrews, William R.; Mathiowetz, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Although using random digit dialing (RDD) telephone samples was the preferred method for conducting surveys of households for many years, declining response and coverage rates have led researchers to explore alternative approaches. The use of address-based sampling (ABS) has been examined for sampling the general population and subgroups, most…

  9. National Survey of Burnout among US General Surgery Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Leisha C; Jeffe, Donna B; Jin, Linda; Awad, Michael M; Turnbull, Isaiah R

    2017-01-01

    Background Burnout is a complex syndrome of emotional distress that can disproportionately affect individuals who work in healthcare professions. Study Design For a national survey of burnout in US general surgery residents, we asked all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited general surgery program directors to email their general surgery residents an invitation to complete an anonymous, online survey. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory; total scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA) subscales were calculated. Burnout was defined as having a score in the highest tertile for EE or DP or lowest tertile for PA. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to test associations between burnout tertiles for each subscale and various resident and training-program characteristics as appropriate. Results From April–December, 2014, 665 residents actively engaged in clinical training had data for analysis; 69% met the criterion for burnout on at least one subscale. Higher burnout on each subscale was reported by residents planning private practice compared with academic careers. A greater proportion of women than men reported burnout on EE and PA. Higher burnout on EE and DP was associated with greater work hours per week. Having a structured mentoring program was associated with lower burnout on each subscale. Conclusions The high rates of burnout among general surgery residents are concerning given the potential impact of burnout on the quality of patient care. Efforts to identify at-risk populations and to design targeted interventions to mitigate burnout in surgical trainees are warranted. PMID:27238875

  10. National Survey of Yoga Practitioners: Mental and Physical Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives to describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. Design a cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys Setting 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n = 18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Outcome Measures Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Age: 19 to 87 years (M = 51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor’s degree). Mean years of yoga practice = 11.4 (± 7.5). BMI = 12.1–49.4 (M = 23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M = 6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8 %), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Conclusions Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. PMID:23876562

  11. Relationship between parents' occupational characteristics and untreated dental caries in offspring: A population-based study of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Shil; Kim, Byurira; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Song, Je Seon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Jang, Sung-In

    2018-05-01

    Objectives We investigated the association between parents' occupational characteristics and untreated dental caries in their children. Methods We analyzed the data of 4764 and 5862 children merged with data of their mothers and fathers, respectively, derived from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2015. Dentists assessed untreated dental caries, and occupational characteristics were self-reported. The associations between untreated dental caries in children and their parents' occupational characteristics were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of untreated dental caries was 18.58% and 16.39% in the mother- and father-matched data, respectively. Compared to children whose mothers worked regular hours, those whose mothers worked overtime had increased odds of untreated dental caries [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.39]. Children of female self-employed workers/employers/unpaid family workers had higher odds of untreated dental caries than those of wage earners (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.39). The OR of untreated dental caries was higher among children with shift-working parents than those whose parents worked daytime hours (mother: OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.51; father: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.18-1.58). Conclusions The children of non-white-collar workers, non-wage earners, and workers working overtime or doing shift work had higher odds of untreated dental caries. The effects of parental occupational characteristics on untreated dental caries differed by sex (mother versus father). Public health programs targeting the prevention of dental caries among children should consider parental occupational characteristics.

  12. An epidemiological analysis of potential associations between C-reactive protein, inflammation, and prostate cancer in the male US population using the 2009 - 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Hill, Catherine; Lutfiyya, M. Nawal

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in US males, yet much remains to be learned about the role of inflammation in its etiology. We hypothesized that preexisting exposure to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents or inflammatory diseases increase the risk of prostate cancer. Using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relationships between demographic variables, inflammation, infection, circulating plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of occurrence of prostate cancer in US men over 18 years of age. Using IBM SPSS, we performed bivariate and logistic regression analyses using high CRP values as the dependent variable and five study covariates including prostate cancer status. From 2009 - 2010, an estimated 5,448,373 men reported having prostate cancer of which the majority were Caucasian (70.1%) and were aged 40 years and older (62.7%). Bivariate analyses demonstrated that high CRP was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Greater odds of having prostate cancer were revealed for men that had inflammation related to disease (OR = 1.029, CI 1.029-1.029) and those who were not taking drugs to control inflammation (OR = 1.330, CI 1.324-1.336). Men who did not have inflammation resulting from non-infectious diseases had greater odds of not having prostate cancer (OR = 1.031, CI 1.030-1.031). Logistic regression analysis yielded that men with the highest CRP values had greater odds of having higher household incomes and lower odds of having received higher education, being aged 40 years or older, being of a race or ethnicity different from other, and of having prostate cancer. Our results show that chronic inflammation of multiple etiologies is a risk factor for prostate cancer and that CRP is not associated with this increased risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between inflammation and prostate cancer.

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the Department of Energy (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), conducted December 1 through 19, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with LLNL. The Survey covers all environmental media all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at LLNL, and interviews with site personnel. A Sampling and Analysis Plan was developed to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during performance of on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the LLNL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LLNL Survey. 70 refs., 58 figs., 52 tabs.,

  14. National Training Center Fort Irwin expansion area aquatic resources survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    Biologists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were requested by personnel from Fort Irwin to conduct a biological reconnaissance of the Avawatz Mountains northeast of Fort Irwin, an area for proposed expansion of the Fort. Surveys of vegetation, small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and aquatic resources were conducted during 1995 to characterize the populations and habitats present with emphasis on determining the presence of any species of special concern. This report presents a description of the sites sampled, a list of the organisms found and identified, and a discussion of relative abundance. Taxonomic identifications were done to the lowest level possible commensurate with determining the status of the taxa relative to its possible listing as a threatened, endangered, or candidate species. Consultation with taxonomic experts was undertaken for the Coleoptera ahd Hemiptera. In addition to listing the macroinvertebrates found, the authors also present a discussion related to the possible presence of any threatened or endangered species or species of concern found in Sheep Creek Springs, Tin Cabin Springs, and the Amargosa River.

  15. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories Livermore (SNLL), located at Livermore, California. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The SNLL Survey is a portion of the larger, comprehensive DOE Environmental Survey encompassing all major operating facilities of DOE. The DOE Environmental Survey is one of a series of initiatives announced on September 18, 1985, by Secretary of Energy, John S. Herrington, to strengthen the environmental, safety, and health programs and activities within DOE. The purpose of the Environmental Survey is to identify, via a ''no fault'' baseline Survey of all the Department's major operating facilities, environmental problems and areas of environmental risk. The identified problem areas will be prioritized on a Department-wide basis in order of importance in 1989. The findings in this report are subject to modification based on the results from the Sampling and Analysis Phase of the Survey. The findings are also subject to modification based on comments from the Albuquerque Operations Office concerning the technical accuracy of the findings. The modified preliminary findings and any other appropriate changes will be incorporated into an Interim Report. The Interim Report will serve as the site-specific source for environmental information generated by the Survey, and ultimately as the primary source of information for the DOE-wide prioritization of environmental problems in the Survey Summary Report. 43 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs

  16. National Survey of the Education of Teachers. Bulletin, 1933, No. 10. Volume V: Special Survey Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Benjamin W.; Betts, Gilbert L.; Greenleaf, Walter J.; Waples, Douglas; Dearborn, Ned H.; Carney, Mabel; Alexander, Thomas

    1935-01-01

    The Seventy-first Congress authorized a survey of the education of teachers on a Nation-wide scope, conducted during the last 3 years. After the work of the survey was organized it was apparent that only a limited number of studies could be undertaken with the time and funds available. It was decided, therefore, to cooperate whenever possible with…

  17. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results

  18. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results.

  19. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Lakes – National Lake Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  20. Population Policy and National Development in the 21st Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the concern by multi-lateral organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) about the problems of high population growth and food supply especially in the developing countries, population policy has become an integral part of their overall development policies as ...

  1. Population structure of Han nationality in Central-Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ling; Chen, Ye-Fei; He, Xin; Shi, Yan-Wei; Wu, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Hu; Lu, De-Jian

    2017-07-01

    Knowledge of population structure is very important for forensic genetics. However, the population substructure in Central-Southern China Han nationality has still not been fully described. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of 15 forensic autosomal STR loci from 6879 individuals in 12 Han populations subdivided by administrative provinces in Central-Southern China. The statistical analysis of genetic variation showed that genetic differentiation among these populations was very small with a F st value of 0.0009. The Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) showed that there were no obvious population clusters in Central-Southern China Han population. In practice, the population structure effect in Central-Southern China Han population can be negligible in forensic identification and paternity testing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, Bruno M. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santiago, Basílio X. [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Girardi, Léo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osservatorio Astronomica di Padova-INAF, Padova (Italy); Camargo, Julio I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Balbinot, Eduardo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); da Costa, Luiz N. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maia, Marcio A. G. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Makler, Martin [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ogando, Ricardo L. C. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pellegrini, Paulo S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramos, Beatriz [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); de Simoni, Fernando [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Armstrong, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Bertin, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Desai, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kuropatkin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lin, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mohr, J. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Tucker, D. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  3. Junior Radiologists' Forum (JRF): National trainee survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, S.; Beatie, A.; Pettet, G.; Kharay, A.; Hedayati, V.; Hameed, S.; McCleery, M.A.; Papadakos, N.; Chari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To gather information in order to highlight areas within training that could be improved and share ideas of good practice and, in addition, to compare national results with those of local training schemes. Materials and methods: A request to participate in the survey was emailed to 1158 radiology trainees across 36 UK training schemes in October 2012. The electronic replies were anonymous. The survey remained active for 6 weeks. The data were collated and analysed by members of the JRF. The survey itself was divided into seven sections, covering a diverse range of topics. Results: Six hundred and four trainees from 36 UK training schemes completed the survey, resulting in a response rate of 52%. - Highlights: • First Radiology specific national survey, written by trainees. • Training schemes can benchmark their performance against a national average. • Also can share areas of good practice; and highlight those that need improvement. • Summary of the results, highlighting the most pertinent findings from each section

  4. The National Nursing Assistant Survey: Improving the Evidence Base for Policy Initiatives to Strengthen the Certified Nursing Assistant Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, Marie R.; Remsburg, Robin E.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.; Bercovitz, Anita; Rosenoff, Emily; Han, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces the first National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a major advance in the data available about certified nursing assistants (CNAs) and a rich resource for evidence-based policy, practice, and applied research initiatives. We highlight potential uses of this new survey using select population estimates as examples of…

  5. A National Survey of Female Counselors: Psychological and Behavioral Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Richard W.; And Others

    A national sample of female counselors (N=377) was surveyed regarding their psychological health and distress, work pressure and support, personal history (including erotic sexual contact with clients), personal traits, burnout and stress, personal work satisfaction, and professional concerns. Results revealed a wide variety of endorsed concerns.…

  6. Life and Work Values of Counselor Trainees: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busacca, Louis A.; Beebe, Ronald S.; Toman, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    This national web-based study used the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1994) and Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised (Zytowski, n.d.) to identify general life and work value orientations of 674 female and male entry-level counselor trainees residing in 27 states. In general, trainees emphasized benevolence, self-direction, and achievement and…

  7. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  8. Self-reported physical activity among blacks: estimates from national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Taylor, Wendell C; Heath, Gregory W; Macera, Caroline A

    2007-11-01

    National surveillance data provide population-level estimates of physical activity participation, but generally do not include detailed subgroup analyses, which could provide a better understanding of physical activity among subgroups. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of self-reported regular physical activity among black adults using data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n=19,189), the 2004 National Health Interview Survey (n=4263), and the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=3407). Analyses were conducted between January and March 2006. Datasets were analyzed separately to estimate the proportion of black adults meeting national physical activity recommendations overall and stratified by gender and other demographic subgroups. The proportion of black adults reporting regular PA ranged from 24% to 36%. Regular physical activity was highest among men; younger age groups; highest education and income groups; those who were employed and married; overweight, but not obese, men; and normal-weight women. This pattern was consistent across surveys. The observed physical activity patterns were consistent with national trends. The data suggest that older black adults and those with low education and income levels are at greatest risk for inactive lifestyles and may require additional attention in efforts to increase physical activity in black adults. The variability across datasets reinforces the need for objective measures in national surveys.

  9. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no in...

  10. 2012 national survey on bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior : traffic tech : technology transfer series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In 2012, NHTSA conducted a national telephone survey to obtain a status report on attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to outdoor walking and bicycling. This study updates national telephone survey data collected by NHTSA in 2002. The survey ad...

  11. Assessment of the use in adults of four vaccines: a population survey in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vizzotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the most effective strategies for disease prevention. Argentina initiated the transition from child vaccination to family vaccination through the incorporation of an adult schedule. One of the difficulties with this last group is to assess the percentage of use (PU of the vaccines. With the aim of determining the PU of adult vaccines in Argentina, a vaccination module was included in the National Survey of Risk Factors carried out in 2013 by the National Ministry of Health. The sampling had a stratified multistage design. A total of 32 365 people = 18 year-old were surveyed about the use of four vaccines included in the National Vaccination Calendar: hepatitis B, tetanus, influenza, and pneumococcus. The entire population was surveyed for tetanus and hepatitis B while certain groups at risk were evaluated for influenza and pneumococcus, according to current recommendations. PU varied according to the vaccine analyzed: tetanus 49.8%, hepatitis B 21.7%, influenza 51.6% and pneumococcus 16.2%. The main information sources on adult vaccination were media (television, internet, etc. followed by health personnel (70.8% and 27.9%, respectively. The survey is a suitable tool to assess the use of vaccines by adults, identify low coverage populations, and to plan and implement strategies to improve coverage

  12. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in France 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaijk, Paul; Durand, Yvonnick

    2015-06-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Program is to promote and facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of PV power systems. Task 1 activities support the broader PVPS objectives: to contribute to cost reduction of PV power applications, to increase awareness of the potential and value of PV power systems, to foster the removal of both technical and non-technical barriers and to enhance technology co-operation. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual Trends in photovoltaic applications report. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. The PVPS web site www.iea-pvps.org also plays an important role in disseminating information arising from the program, including national information. This document is the French National Survey Report on photovoltaics for the year 2014

  13. National Survey Report of Photovoltaic Power Applications in France 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaijk, Paul; Durand, Yvonnick

    2016-06-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Program is to promote and facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of PV power systems. Task 1 activities support the broader PVPS objectives: to contribute to cost reduction of PV power applications, to increase awareness of the potential and value of PV power systems, to foster the removal of both technical and non-technical barriers and to enhance technology co-operation. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual report Trends in Photovoltaic Applications. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. The PVPS web site www.iea-pvps.org also plays an important role in disseminating information arising from the program, including national information. This document is the French National Survey Report on photovoltaics for the year 2015

  14. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

    2014-02-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou.

  15. Measurement of sedentary behaviour in population health surveys: a review and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Prince

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this review was to determine the most valid and reliable questions for targeting key modes of sedentary behaviour (SB in a broad range of national and international health surveillance surveys. This was done by reviewing the SB modules currently used in population health surveys, as well as examining SB questionnaires that have performed well in psychometric testing. Methods Health surveillance surveys were identified via scoping review and contact with experts in the field. Previous systematic reviews provided psychometric information on pediatric questionnaires. A comprehensive search of four bibliographic databases was used to identify studies reporting psychometric information for adult questionnaires. Only surveys/studies published/used in English or French were included. Results The review identified a total of 16 pediatric and 18 adult national/international surveys assessing SB, few of which have undergone psychometric testing. Fourteen pediatric and 35 adult questionnaires with psychometric information were included. While reliability was generally good to excellent for questions targeting key modes of SB, validity was poor to moderate, and reported much less frequently. The most valid and reliable questions targeting specific modes of SB were combined to create a single questionnaire targeting key modes of SB. Discussion Our results highlight the importance of including SB questions in survey modules that are adaptable, able to assess various modes of SB, and that exhibit adequate reliability and validity. Future research could investigate the psychometric properties of the module we have proposed in this paper, as well as other questionnaires currently used in national and international population health surveys.

  16. Examining national trends in worker health with the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Sestito, John P

    2013-12-01

    To describe data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), both the annual core survey and periodic occupational health supplements (OHSs), available for examining national trends in worker health. The NHIS is an annual in-person household survey with a cross-sectional multistage clustered sample design to produce nationally representative health data. The 2010 NHIS included an OHS. Prevalence rates of various health conditions and health behaviors among workers based on multiple years of NHIS core data are available. In addition, the 2010 NHIS-OHS data provide prevalence rates of selected health conditions, work organization factors, and occupational exposures among US workers by industry and occupation. The publicly available NHIS data can be used to identify areas of concern for various industries and for benchmarking data from specific worker groups against national averages.

  17. On sustainable development of population and national economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1995-01-01

    This article offers a strategy for achieving sustainable development of population and the national economy in China. It is argued that economic growth and population growth must be in balance and coordinated. In 1993 it was estimated that a national economic growth rate of 4.03-4.60% was needed in order to balance the natural population growth rate of 1.15% at the existing standard of living. When the national economy grows faster than population in the life expectancy time period, overpopulation can be checked. Population must be balanced with sufficient means for subsistence. The key measure of sustainable development is the ratio between the size of the working-age population and the means of production. The number of people in the labor force is positively related to fixed assets and negatively related to the labor force's technical equipment. China's problems include weak industrial fixed assets, a surplus labor force, and slow growth in industrial and agricultural productivity. Potential solutions are to shift employment from a cultivation-oriented rural economy to a diversified rural economy, to increase the pace of change to an industrial and commercial economy, and to increase the pace of change to nonmaterial production and to raising employment efficiency. Solutions are dependent upon improvement in the quality of population, which means increased levels of education. China still has 181,610,00 people who are illiterate or semi-illiterate among the working-age population. Sustainable development also relies on active promotion of social support for the elderly by a pension system, family support, and reemployment of the elderly. Surplus labor should be absorbed by the service industry. Population structure and economic development are more advanced in coastal areas that have 41% of total population. Inland areas should develop labor-intensive, technology-intensive, and investment-intensive industries. Northwest areas need an educated population

  18. Econometric studies of urban population density: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, J F

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the 1st reasonably comprehensive survey of empirical research of urban population densities since the publication of the book by Edmonston in 1975. The survey summarizes contributions to empirical knowledge that have been made since 1975 and points toward possible areas for additional research. The paper also provides a brief interpretative intellectual history of the topic. It begins with a personal overview of research in the field. The next section discusses econometric issues that arise in the estimation of population density functions in which density is a function only of a distance to the central business district of the urban area. Section 4 summarizes the studies of a single urban area that went beyond the estimation of simple distance-density functions, and Section 5 discusses studies that sought to explain the variations across urban areas in population density patterns. McDonald refers to the standard theory of urban population density throughout the paper. This basic model is presented in the textbook by Mills and Hamilton and it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the model.

  19. Immunization coverage among Hispanic ancestry, 2003 National Immunization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y

    2005-12-01

    The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.

  20. 2007 national roadside survey of alcohol and drug use by drivers : drug results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report presents the first national prevalence estimates for drug-involved driving derived from the recently : completed 2007 National Roadside Survey (NRS). The NRS is a national field survey of alcohol- and drug-involved : driving conducted pri...

  1. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G [UCSB

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories Livermore (SNLL), located at Livermore, California. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The SNLL Survey is a portion of the larger, comprehensive DOE Environmental Survey encompassing all major operating facilities of DOE. The DOE Environmental Survey is one of a series of initiatives announced on September 18, 1985, by Secretary of Energy, John S. Herrington, to strengthen the environmental, safety, and health programs and activities within DOE. The purpose of the Environmental Survey is to identify, via a no fault'' baseline Survey of all the Department's major operating facilities, environmental problems and areas of environmental risk. The identified problem areas will be prioritized on a Department-wide basis in order of importance in 1989. The findings in this report are subject to modification based on the results from the Sampling and Analysis Phase of the Survey. The findings are also subject to modification based on comments from the Albuquerque Operations Office concerning the technical accuracy of the findings. The modified preliminary findings and any other appropriate changes will be incorporated into an Interim Report. The Interim Report will serve as the site-specific source for environmental information generated by the Survey, and ultimately as the primary source of information for the DOE-wide prioritization of environmental problems in the Survey Summary Report. 43 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  4. Mapping the Risk of Snakebite in Sri Lanka - A National Survey with Geospatial Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileepa Senajith Ediriweera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of robust epidemiological data on snakebite, and data available from hospitals and localized or time-limited surveys have major limitations. No study has investigated the incidence of snakebite across a whole country. We undertook a community-based national survey and model based geostatistics to determine incidence, envenoming, mortality and geographical pattern of snakebite in Sri Lanka.The survey was designed to sample a population distributed equally among the nine provinces of the country. The number of data collection clusters was divided among districts in proportion to their population. Within districts clusters were randomly selected. Population based incidence of snakebite and significant envenoming were estimated. Model-based geostatistics was used to develop snakebite risk maps for Sri Lanka. 1118 of the total of 14022 GN divisions with a population of 165665 (0.8%of the country's population were surveyed. The crude overall community incidence of snakebite, envenoming and mortality were 398 (95% CI: 356-441, 151 (130-173 and 2.3 (0.2-4.4 per 100000 population, respectively. Risk maps showed wide variation in incidence within the country, and snakebite hotspots and cold spots were determined by considering the probability of exceeding the national incidence.This study provides community based incidence rates of snakebite and envenoming for Sri Lanka. The within-country spatial variation of bites can inform healthcare decision making and highlights the limitations associated with estimates of incidence from hospital data or localized surveys. Our methods are replicable, and these models can be adapted to other geographic regions after re-estimating spatial covariance parameters for the particular region.

  5. Recommended core items to assess e-cigarette use in population-based surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Hitchman, Sara C; Brose, Leonie S; Bauld, Linda; Glasser, Allison M; Villanti, Andrea C; McNeill, Ann; Abrams, David B; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Background: A consistent approach using standardized items to assess e-cigarette use in both youth and adult populations will aid cross-survey and cross-national comparisons of the effect of e-cigarette (and tobacco) policies and improve our understanding of the population health impact of e-cigarette use. Focusing on adult behavior, we propose a set of e-cigarette use items, discuss their utility and potential adaptation, and highlight e-cigarette constructs that researchers should avoid wit...

  6. An Overview of Food Patterns and Diet Quality in Qatar: Findings from the National Household Income Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Thani, Mohammed; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Al-Mahdi, Nasser; Al-Kareem, Hefzi; Barakat, Darine; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Tawfik, Afaf; Akram, Hammad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population?s dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first?attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. Methods Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatari HH and 1897 non-Qatari ...

  7. The National Map Customer Requirements: Findings from Interviews and Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Larry; Coray, Kevin E.; Poore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to receive customer feedback and to understand data and information requirements for The National Map. This report provides results and findings from interviews and surveys and will guide policy and operations decisions about data and information requirements leading to the development of a 5-year strategic plan for the National Geospatial Program. These findings are based on feedback from approximately 2,200 customers between February and August 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted more than 160 interviews with 200 individuals. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) and the International Map Trade Association (IMTA) surveyed their memberships and received feedback from over 400 members. The Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) received feedback from over 1,600 of its U.S.-based software users through an online survey sent to customers attending the ESRI International User Conference in the summer of 2008. The results of these surveys were shared with the USGS and have been included in this report.

  8. Arecibo pulsar survey using ALFA. III. Precursor survey and population synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiggum, J. K.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bates, S. D.; Senty, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Champion, D. J.; Lazarus, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ransom, S. M. [NRAO, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Ellis, J.; Allen, B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee WI 53211 (United States); Bhat, N. D. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Crawford, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604-3003 (United States); Deneva, J. S. [Arecibo Observatory, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo (32° ≲ ℓ ≲ 77° and 168° ≲ ℓ ≲ 214°) close to the Galactic plane (|b| ≲ 5°) for pulsars. The PALFA survey is sensitive to sources fainter and more distant than have previously been seen because of Arecibo's unrivaled sensitivity. In this paper we detail a precursor survey of this region with PALFA, which observed a subset of the full region (slightly more restrictive in ℓ and |b| ≲ 1°) and detected 45 pulsars. Detections included 1 known millisecond pulsar and 11 previously unknown, long-period pulsars. In the surveyed part of the sky that overlaps with the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey (36° ≲ ℓ ≲ 50°), PALFA is probing deeper than the Parkes survey, with four discoveries in this region. For both Galactic millisecond and normal pulsar populations, we compare the survey's detections with simulations to model these populations and, in particular, to estimate the number of observable pulsars in the Galaxy. We place 95% confidence intervals of 82,000 to 143,000 on the number of detectable normal pulsars and 9000 to 100,000 on the number of detectable millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk. These are consistent with previous estimates. Given the most likely population size in each case (107,000 and 15,000 for normal and millisecond pulsars, respectively), we extend survey detection simulations to predict that, when complete, the full PALFA survey should have detected 1000{sub −230}{sup +330} normal pulsars and 30{sub −20}{sup +200} millisecond pulsars. Identical estimation techniques predict that 490{sub −115}{sup +160} normal pulsars and 12{sub −5}{sup +70} millisecond pulsars would be detected by the beginning of 2014; at the time, the PALFA survey had detected 283 normal pulsars and 31 millisecond pulsars, respectively. We attribute the deficiency in normal pulsar

  9. A review of sugar consumption from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world

    OpenAIRE

    Newens, K. J.; Walton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Government and health organisations worldwide have recently reviewed the evidence on the role of dietary sugars in relation to health outcomes. Hence, it is timely to review current intakes of dietary sugars with respect to this guidance and as a benchmark for future surveillance. Methods This review collates data from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world and reports estimates of intakes of total and added sugars, and sucrose in different population s...

  10. Concurrent and Simultaneous Drug and Alcohol Use: Results of the 2000 National Alcohol Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Midanik, Lorraine T.; Tam, Tammy W.; Weisner, Constance

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates the prevalence, assesses predictors and evaluates factors associated with concurrent and simultaneous use of drugs and alcohol in the United States population. Using data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey (n = 7,612), respondents were asked if they used specific drugs in the last 12 months. Current drinkers who reported using each type of drug were asked if they used alcohol and the drug at the same time. Approximately 10% reported using marijuana in the last 12 month...

  11. National Survey Report of Photovoltaic Power Applications in France 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaijk, Paul; Mehl, Celine; Carrere, Tristan

    2017-06-01

    The objective of Task 1 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Program is to promote and facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of PV power systems. Task 1 activities support the broader PVPS objectives: to contribute to cost reduction of PV power applications, to increase awareness of the potential and value of PV power systems, to foster the removal of both technical and non-technical barriers and to enhance technology co-operation. An important deliverable of Task 1 is the annual 'Trends in photovoltaic applications' report. In parallel, National Survey Reports are produced annually by each Task 1 participant. This document is France National Survey Report for the year 2016. Information from this document will be used as input to IEA's annual Trends in photovoltaic applications report

  12. Breastfeeding Support in Neonatal Intensive Care: A National Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Bojesen, Susanne Nordby; Kronborg, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of breastfeeding of preterm infants is affected by the support provided at the hospital and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, policies and guidelines promoting breastfeeding vary both nationally and internationally. Objectives: The aim of this survey...... was to describe breastfeeding support in Danish NICUs, where approximately 98% of mothers initiate lactation. Methods: A national survey of all 19 Danish NICUs was conducted in 2009. Four NICUs were at designated Baby-Friendly hospitals, and 5 had a lactation consultant. In all NICUs, it was possible for some...... parents to stay overnight; 2 units had short restrictions on parents' presence. Five NICUs had integrated postpartum care for mothers. Breastfeeding policies, written guidelines, and systematic breastfeeding training for the staff were common in most NICUs. Seventeen NICUs recommended starting breast milk...

  13. E-cigarette use and associated changes in population smoking cessation: evidence from US current population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Wong, Shiushing; Cummins, Sharon E; Tedeschi, Gary J

    2017-07-26

    Objective  To examine whether the increase in use of electronic cigarettes in the USA, which became noticeable around 2010 and increased dramatically by 2014, was associated with a change in overall smoking cessation rate at the population level. Design  Population surveys with nationally representative samples. Setting  Five of the US Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplement (CPS-TUS) in 2001-02, 2003, 2006-07, 2010-11, and 2014-15. Participants  Data on e-cigarette use were obtained from the total sample of the 2014-15 CPS-TUS (n=161 054). Smoking cessation rates were obtained from those who reported smoking cigarettes 12 months before the survey (n=23 270). Rates from 2014-15 CPS-TUS were then compared with those from 2010-11 CPS-TUS (n=27 280) and those from three other previous surveys. Main outcome measures  Rate of attempt to quit cigarette smoking and the rate of successfully quitting smoking, defined as having quit smoking for at least three months. Results  Of 161 054 respondents to the 2014-15 survey, 22 548 were current smokers and 2136 recent quitters. Among them, 38.2% of current smokers and 49.3% of recent quitters had tried e-cigarettes, and 11.5% and 19.0% used them currently (every day or some days). E-cigarette users were more likely than non-users to attempt to quit smoking, 65.1% v 40.1% (change=25.0%, 95% confidence interval 23.2% to 26.9%), and more likely to succeed in quitting, 8.2% v 4.8% (3.5%, 2.5% to 4.5%). The overall population cessation rate for 2014-15 was significantly higher than that for 2010-11, 5.6% v 4.5% (1.1%, 0.6% to 1.5%), and higher than those for all other survey years (range 4.3-4.5%). Conclusion  The substantial increase in e-cigarette use among US adult smokers was associated with a statistically significant increase in the smoking cessation rate at the population level. These findings need to be weighed carefully in regulatory policy making regarding e-cigarettes and in planning tobacco

  14. Mortality patterns in Vietnam, 2006: Findings from a national verbal autopsy survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair Timothy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate nationally representative statistics on total and cause-specific mortality in Vietnam are lacking due to incomplete capture in government reporting systems. This paper presents total and cause-specific mortality results from a national verbal autopsy survey conducted first time in Vietnam in conjunction with the annual population change survey and discusses methodological and logistical challenges associated with the implementation of a nation-wide assessment of mortality based on surveys. Verbal autopsy interviews, using the WHO standard questionnaire, were conducted with close relatives of the 6798 deaths identified in the 2007 population change survey in Vietnam. Data collectors were health staff recruited from the commune health station who undertook 3-day intensive training on VA interview. The Preston-Coale method assessed the level of completeness of mortality reporting from the population change survey. The number of deaths in each age-sex grouping is inflated according to the estimate of completeness to produce an adjusted number of deaths. Underlying causes of death were aggregated to the International Classification of Diseases Mortality Tabulation List 1. Leading causes of death were tabulated by sex for three broad age groups: 0-14 years; 15-59 years; and 60 years and above. Findings Completeness of mortality reporting was 69% for males and 54% for females with substantial regional variation. The use of VA has resulted in 10% of deaths being classified to ill-defined among males, and 15% among females. More ill-defined deaths were reported among the 60 year or above age group. Incomplete death reporting, wide geographical dispersal of deaths, extensive travel between households, and substantial variation in local responses to VA interviews challenged the implementation of a national mortality and cause of death assessment based on surveys. Conclusions Verbal autopsy can be a viable tool to identify cause

  15. Can roads be used as transects for primate population surveys?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, Renato R; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Chiarello, Adriano G; Mourthé, Italo

    2012-01-01

    Line transect distance sampling (LTDS) can be applied to either trails or roads. However, it is likely that sampling along roads might result in biased density estimates. In this paper, we compared the results obtained with LTDS applied on trails and roads for two primate species (Callithrix penicillata and Callicebus nigrifrons) to clarify whether roads are appropriate transects to estimate densities. We performed standard LTDS surveys in two nature reserves in south-eastern Brazil. Effective strip width and population density were different between trails and roads for C. penicillata, but not for C. nigrifrons. The results suggest that roads are not appropriate for use as transects in primate surveys, at least for some species. Further work is required to fully understand this issue, but in the meantime we recommend that researchers avoid using roads as transects or treat roads and trails as covariates when sampling on roads is unavoidable. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Head teacher professional networks in Italy: preliminary results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurissens Isabel de

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the preliminary results of a national survey conducted by INDIRE on head teachers communities and professional networks. About one-fourth of the total population of Italian public school leaders participated in the survey. One of the main intents of this research is to contribute to understanding of the phenomenon of professional networks frequented by school leaders and to pave the way for a further reflection on how to use such networks for head teachers’ training so as to support their daily professional practice conducted too often in isolation.

  17. Bone scintigraphy in prostate cancer: a French national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneu, A.; Corone, C.; Giammarile, F.; Lumbroso, J.; Resche, I.

    1997-01-01

    A national survey has been performed in France concerning bone scan in prostatic carcinoma. Its aim was to define methods of performing examinations, criteria of analysis of imaging results and indications of radionuclide imaging in initial evaluation and post-therapeutic follow-up of the disease. Replies are given and recommendations are proposed in order to improve imaging quality, optimize interpretation and rationalize prescription of bone scintigraphy in case of prostatic carcinoma. (authors)

  18. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-09-13

    The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the experiences of deaf people who use ASL. The final HINTS

  19. National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM: household survey component methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotero Serrate Mengue

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methodological aspects of the household survey National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM related to sampling design and implementation, the actual obtained sample, instruments and fieldwork. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study with probability sampling in three stages of the population living in households located in Brazilian urban areas. Fieldwork was carried out between September 2013 and February 2014. The data collection instrument included questions related to: information about households, residents and respondents; chronic diseases and medicines used; use of health services; acute diseases and events treated with drugs; use of contraceptives; use of pharmacy services; behaviors that may affect drug use; package inserts and packaging; lifestyle and health insurance. RESULTS In total, 41,433 interviews were carried out in 20,404 households and 576 urban clusters corresponding to 586 census tracts distributed in the five Brazilian regions, according to eight domains defined by age and gender. CONCLUSIONS The results of the survey may be used as a baseline for future studies aiming to assess the impact of government action on drug access and use. For local studies using a compatible method, PNAUM may serve as a reference point to evaluate variations in space and population. With a comprehensive evaluation of drug-related aspects, PNAUM is a major source of data for a variety of analyses to be carried out both at academic and government level.

  20. A survey of the dog population in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Moazzem; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Marma, Aung Swi Prue; Hossain, Sohrab; Ali, Mohammad Azmat; Shamsuzzaman, Abul Khair Mohammad; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Globally, Bangladesh ranks third in the number of human deaths from rabies. Although dogs are the principal known transmitters of rabies and knowledge of dog populations is essential for effective national control and proper planning, dog control programs are scarce in Bangladesh. Our objective was to count dogs in a rural area to understand the dog population of the country. For this purpose we selected six unions of Raipura upazila in Narsingdi district. Dog counting was done by direct observation following accepted guidelines. We determined the mean density of the dog population in Bangladesh to be 14 dog/km(2) (95% CI 3.7, 24) and the human:dog ratio to be 120 (95% CI 55, 184). Our paper contribute to the literature which shows great variation in the human:dog ratio across regions of the developing world. The human:dog ratio depends on the area's human (as well as dog) population, whereas dog density per unit area indicates the true number of dogs. We propose that extrapolating from the human:dog ratios of other regions not be relied upon for estimating dog populations, unless the ratios can be supplemented by actual counts of dogs within the target area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. People's willingness to accept overdetection in cancer screening: population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bruel, Ann; Jones, Caroline; Yang, Yaling; Oke, Jason; Hewitson, Paul

    2015-03-03

    To describe the level of overdetection people would find acceptable in screening for breast, prostate, and bowel cancer and whether acceptability is influenced by the magnitude of the benefit from screening and the cancer specific harms from overdetection. Online survey. Women were presented with scenarios on breast and bowel cancer, men with scenarios on prostate and bowel cancer. For each particular cancer, we presented epidemiological information and described the treatment and its consequences. Secondly, we presented two different scenarios of benefit: one indicating a 10% reduction in cancer specific mortality and the second indicating a 50% reduction. Online survey of the population in the United Kingdom. Respondents were part of an existing panel of people who volunteer for online research and were invited by email or online marketing. We recruited 1000 respondents, representative for age and sex for the UK population. Number of cases of overdetection people were willing to accept, ranging from 0-1000 (complete screened population) for each cancer modality and each scenario of benefit. There was large variability between respondents in the level of overdetection they would find acceptable, with medians ranging from 113 to 313 cases of overdetection per 1000 people screened. Across all scenarios, 4-7% of respondents indicated they would accept no overdetection at all compared with 7-14% who thought that it would be acceptable for the entire screened population to be overdetected. Acceptability in screening for bowel cancer was significantly lower than for breast and prostate cancer. People aged 50 or over accepted significantly less overdetection, whereas people with higher education levels accepted more; 29% of respondents had heard of overdetection before. Acceptability of overdetection in cancer screening is variable. Invitations for screening should include clear information on the likelihood and consequences of overdetection to allow people to make an

  2. The Jamaica asthma and allergies national prevalence survey: rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Nancy C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a significant public health problem in the Caribbean. Prevalence surveys using standardized measures of asthma provide valid prevalence estimates to facilitate regional and international comparisons and monitoring of trends. This paper describes methods used in the Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey, challenges associated with this survey and strategies used to overcome these challenges. Methods/Design An island wide, cross-sectional, community-based survey of asthma, asthma symptoms and allergies was done among adults and children using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey Questionnaire for adults and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 2, 163 adults aged 18 years and older and 2, 017 children aged 2-17 years for the survey. The Kish selection table was used to select one adult and one child per household. Data analysis accounted for sampling design and prevalence estimates were weighted to produce national estimates. Discussion The Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey is the first population- based survey in the Caribbean to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergies both in adults and children using standardized methods. With response rates exceeding 80% in both groups, this approach facilitated cost-effective gathering of high quality asthma prevalence data that will facilitate international and regional comparison and monitoring of asthma prevalence trends. Another unique feature of this study was the partnership with the Ministry of Health in Jamaica, which ensured the collection of data relevant for decision-making to facilitate the uptake of research evidence. The findings of this study will provide important data on the burden of asthma and allergies in Jamaica and contribute to evidence-informed planning of comprehensive asthma management and education programs.

  3. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. When is a species declining? Optimizing survey effort to detect population changes in reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sewell

    Full Text Available Biodiversity monitoring programs need to be designed so that population changes can be detected reliably. This can be problematical for species that are cryptic and have imperfect detection. We used occupancy modeling and power analysis to optimize the survey design for reptile monitoring programs in the UK. Surveys were carried out six times a year in 2009-2010 at multiple sites. Four out of the six species--grass snake, adder, common lizard, slow-worm -were encountered during every survey from March-September. The exceptions were the two rarest species--sand lizard and smooth snake--which were not encountered in July 2009 and March 2010 respectively. The most frequently encountered and most easily detected species was the slow-worm. For the four widespread reptile species in the UK, three to four survey visits that used a combination of directed transect walks and artificial cover objects resulted in 95% certainty that a species would be detected if present. Using artificial cover objects was an effective detection method for most species, considerably increased the detection rate of some, and reduced misidentifications. To achieve an 85% power to detect a decline in any of the four widespread species when the true decline is 15%, three surveys at a total of 886 sampling sites, or four surveys at a total of 688 sites would be required. The sampling effort needed reduces to 212 sites surveyed three times, or 167 sites surveyed four times, if the target is to detect a true decline of 30% with the same power. The results obtained can be used to refine reptile survey protocols in the UK and elsewhere. On a wider scale, the occupancy study design approach can be used to optimize survey effort and help set targets for conservation outcomes for regional or national biodiversity assessments.

  5. Design, Data Collection, Monitoring, Interview Administration Time, and Data Editing in the 1993 National Household Education Survey (NHES:93). Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, J. Michael; Collins, Mary A.; Nolin, Mary Jo; Davies, Elizabeth; Feibus, Mary L.

    The National Household Education Survey (NHES) is a data collection system of the National Center for Education Statistics that collects and publishes data on the condition of education in the United States. It is a telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized population of the country, and it focuses on issues that are best studied through…

  6. Are immigrants and nationals born to immigrants at higher risk for delayed or no lifetime breast and cervical cancer screening? The results from a population-based survey in Paris metropolitan area in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Rondet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare breast cancer screening (BCS and cervical cancer screening (CCS practices of French women born to French parents with those of immigrants and nationals born to immigrants, taking their socioeconomic status into account. METHODS: The study is based on data collected in 2010 in the Paris metropolitan area among a representative sample of 3000 French-speaking adults. For women with no history of breast or cervical cancer, multivariate logistic regressions and structural equation models were used to investigate the factors associated with never having undergone BCS or CCS. RESULTS: We confirmed the existence of a strong gradient, with respect to migration origin, for delaying or never having undergone BCS or CCS. Thus, being a foreign immigrant or being French of immigrant parentage were risk factors for delayed and no lifetime screening. Interestingly, we found that this gradient persisted (at least partially after adjusting for the women's socioeconomic characteristics. Only the level of income seemed to play a mediating role, but only partially. We observed differences between BCS and CCS which suggest that organized CCS could be effective in reducing socioeconomic and/or ethnic inequities. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status partially explained the screening nonparticipation on the part of French women of immigrant origin and foreign immigrants. This was more so the case with CCS than with BCS, which suggests that organized prevention programs might reduce social inequalities.

  7. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions.

  8. A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare; Scherer, Christian; Rosenlund, Christina

    A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database......A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database...

  9. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chonde, Timothy M.; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M.; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G.; Egwaga, Saidi M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. METHODS:

  10. Eczema Is Associated with Childhood Speech Disorder: A Retrospective Analysis from the National Survey of Children's Health and the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Mark A; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-01-01

    To determine if eczema is associated with an increased risk of a speech disorder. We analyzed data on 354,416 children and adolescents from 19 US population-based cohorts: the 2003-2004 and 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health and 1997-2013 National Health Interview Survey, each prospective, questionnaire-based cohorts. In multivariate survey logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographics and comorbid allergic disease, eczema was significantly associated with higher odds of speech disorder in 12 of 19 cohorts (P speech disorder in children with eczema was 4.7% (95% CI 4.5%-5.0%) compared with 2.2% (95% CI 2.2%-2.3%) in children without eczema. In pooled multivariate analysis, eczema was associated with increased odds of speech disorder (aOR [95% CI] 1.81 [1.57-2.05], P speech disorder. History of eczema was associated with moderate (2.35 [1.34-4.10], P = .003) and severe (2.28 [1.11-4.72], P = .03) speech disorder. Finally, significant interactions were found, such that children with both eczema and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity or sleep disturbance had vastly increased risk of speech disorders than either by itself. Pediatric eczema may be associated with increased risk of speech disorder. Further, prospective studies are needed to characterize the exact nature of this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An affordable proxy of representative national survey on radon concentration in dwellings: Design, organisation and preliminary evaluation of representativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antignani, Sara; Carelli, Vinicio; Cordedda, Carlo; Zonno, Fedele; Ampollini, Marco; Carpentieri, Carmela; Venoso, Gennaro; Bochicchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Representative national surveys in dwellings are important to unbiasedly evaluate the exposure of the general population to radon. In Italy, a representative national survey was conducted from 1989 to 1996, which involved about 5600 dwellings in 232 towns. Later on, some Regions carried out more detailed surveys, but a new national survey in dwellings is necessary in order to obtain a more thorough estimate of radon concentration distribution over the Italian territory. The need to make this survey in an affordable way led to implement a new approach based on the collaboration between the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and a national company with workplaces and employees' homes throughout the country. The intent is to carry out a proxy of a population representative survey by measuring radon concentration in the homes of a random sample of the company employees. The realisation of this survey was affordable, thanks to the availability of corporate e-mail for each employee, intranet service, and company internal mail service. A dedicated web procedure and e-questionnaires allowed to automatically manage the contact with employees and to collect their data, which were both cost- and time-saving. Using this e-mail contact approach, 53% of contacted employees consented to participate in the survey. Radon concentration passive measuring devices were distributed to about 7000 dwellings, using about 14000 CR-39 detectors (two measured rooms per dwelling). In order to reduce costs, the devices were exposed for 12 months instead of two consecutive 6-month periods (as with the former national survey). A first checking of the actual representativeness of the sample was done by comparing characteristics of dwellings and occupants in the sample with corresponding data from the latest National Census. This was accomplished thanks to the fact that the questions in the survey questionnaire were tailored to the categories adopted for the Census questionnaire. A preliminary

  12. Large Country-Lot Quality Assurance Sampling : A New Method for Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation of Health, Nutrition and Population Programs at Sub-National Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Hedt, Bethany L.; Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello; Valadez, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    Sampling theory facilitates development of economical, effective and rapid measurement of a population. While national policy maker value survey results measuring indicators representative of a large area (a country, state or province), measurement in smaller areas produces information useful for managers at the local level. It is often not possible to disaggregate a national survey to obt...

  13. Breast cancer screening among shift workers: a nationwide population-based survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Heesook; Kang, Youngmi

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to examine the association between shift work types and participation in breast cancer screening (BCS) programs by comparing rates of participation for BCS among regular daytime workers and alternative shift workers using data from a nationally representative, population-based survey conducted in Korea. In addition, the results were analyzed according to sociodemographic factors, including occupation, education, income, private health insurance, age, and number of working hours a week. This secondary cross-sectional analysis used data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The target population included women aged ≥ 40 years who responded as to whether they had undergone BCS in the previous year. Accordingly, we analyzed survey data for a total of 1,193 women and used a multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate the differences in factors affecting BCS between regular daytime and alternative shift workers. A logistic regression analysis was performed considering private health insurance as a significant sociodemographic factor for BCS among regular daytime shift workers. In contrast, none of the tested variables could significantly predict adherence to BCS among alternative shift workers. The results of this study suggest the need for the development of comprehensive workplace breast cancer prevention programs by considering shift work types. More attention should be given to female workers with low education levels, those who are uninsured, and young workers to improve the participation rate for BCS at the workplace.

  14. Radiotherapy for Graves' orbitopathy: results of a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyd, R.; Zamboglou, N.; Heinrich Seegenschmiedt, M.; Strassmann, G.; Micke, O.; Makoski, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is a widely accepted indication for radiation therapy (RT). In conjunction with the German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy for Benign Diseases (GCG-BD), a national survey was conducted in order to assess whether or not there is a consensus on the indication for RT and various treatment factors which were studied. Material and Methods: A questionnaire was circulated to 190 RT institutions to obtain relevant data concerning the patients' workload, stage-dependent indication, and diagnostic procedures, which were considered to be necessary. Further questions addressed details on radiation technique and dose-fractionation schedules, the combined use of corticoids, and salvage RT after previous treatment failure following RT. Results: With a response rate of 152/190 (80%), the survey is nationally representative. Based on the case workload, an estimated annual number of 1,600 GO cases are treated in German radiotherapy departments. With an 88% consensus, stages II-V are the typical indications. 85% considered imaging studies necessary for indication and only 48% for laboratory tests. 76% of the institutions used total doses in the range of 15-20 Gy, and conventional fractionation was most common (57%). 82% used a face mask fixation and 67% CT-based treatment planning. Approximately 50% would prescribe salvage RT, and total doses in the range of 20-40 Gy were considered to be acceptable. Conclusions: The survey revealed a consensus concerning most of the factors studied. We recommend to review the patterns of care for RT of other entities of benign diseases and to implement a quality assurance program both on national and international levels. (orig.)

  15. [The heart of Italians. A population survey on the perception and evaluation of the National Health Service by citizens with heart disease and without heart disease (with special reference to cardiology)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottani, Filippo; La Vecchia, Luigi; Diamanti, Ilvo; Pozzati, Andrea; Gardani, Ludovico; Fresco, Claudio; Lettino, Maddalena; Cuccia, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect information to understand how citizens perceive the National Health System (NHS), and what is the degree of confidence they have in the NHS. We carried out an opinion poll with the Demos & Pi group on the perception of the NHS by Italian citizens, with particular reference to the activities related to cardiology, by interviewing 2311 people with a set of 33 questions, about the perception of their health status, lifestyles, the propensity to use public or private services, consideration of the level of the NHS, and the trust in the medical profession. The subjects included were also preliminarily stratified according to the presence or absence of heart disease. Overall, Italian citizens express a high level of satisfaction for the NHS (on average, 65% of approval rating), including the whole professional staff, hoping that the NHS will be kept appropriately funded. The result is even better in the subset of interviewed citizens, who suffered from cardiovascular disease. People also consider the NHS an essential requirement to ensure equity in access to medical treatment and to keep costs competitive, even compared to private healthcare. The NHS major weakness remains the waiting lists, which are considered too long for diagnostic procedures and ordinary interventions. There is a widespread positive feeling among Italian citizens concerning the role and functioning of the NHS. Such opinion, shared by the whole country, should be taken into account when the time will come to define strategies for health policy of the Italian society in the near future.

  16. National survey of indoor radon levels in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Katic, M.; Faj, Z.; Lukacevic, I.; Planinic, J.; Suveljak, B.; Faj, D.; Lukic, M.

    2006-01-01

    National survey of indoor radon was performed by a random sampling of thousand (782 realized) dwellings in Croatia. Radon concentrations were measured for one year with LR-115 SSNT detectors and arithmetic and geometric means of 68 and 50 Bq/m 3 were obtained, respectively. The arithmetic means of radon concentrations on 20 counties were from 33 to 198 Bq/m 3 . The percentage of dwellings with radon concentrations above 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 was 5.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The average annual effective dose of the indoor radon was estimated as 2.2 mSv. (author)

  17. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful.

  18. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Reasor, R. Scott [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Campbell, Claire L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes a 1-year small mammal biodiversity survey conducted on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The task was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division, interns in the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Higher Education Research Experiences Program, and ORNL Environmental Protection Services staff. Eight sites were surveyed reservation wide. The survey was conducted in an effort to determine species abundance and diversity of small mammal populations throughout the reservation and to continue the historical inventory of small mammal presence for biodiversity records. This data collection effort was in support of the approved Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, a major goal of which is to maintain and enhance wildlife biodiversity on the Reservation. Three of the sites (Poplar Creek, McNew Hollow, and Deer Check Station Field) were previously surveyed during a major natural resources inventory conducted in 1996. Five new sites were included in this study: Bearden Creek, Rainy Knob (Natural Area 21), Gum Hollow, White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. The 2009-2010 small mammal surveys were conducted from June 2009 to July 2010 on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The survey had two main goals: (1) to determine species abundance and diversity and (2) to update historical records on the OR Research Park. The park is located on the Department of Energy-owned Oak Ridge Reservation, which encompasses 13,580 ha. The primary focus of the study was riparian zones. In addition to small mammal sampling, vegetation and coarse woody debris samples were taken at certain sites to determine any correlations between habitat and species presence. During the survey all specimens were captured and released using live trapping techniques including

  19. Conservation landmarks: bureau of biological survey and national biological service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1995-01-01

    A century separates the recent development of the National Biological Service (NBS) and an early predecessor, the Bureau of Biological Survey (BBS). Both organizations were established at critical crossroads for the conservation of the nation's living biological resources and are conservation landmarks of their times. The BBS of the 192()'s was described as 'a government Bureau of the first rank, handling affairs of great scientific, educational, social, and above all, economic importance throughout the United States and its outlying possessions'' (Cameron 1929:144-145). This stature was achieved at a time of great social, economic, and ecological change. BBS had the vision to pioneer new approaches that led to enhanced understanding of the relation between people, other living things, and the environment. The NBS faces similar challenges to address the issues of the 1990's and beyond.

  20. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.; O'Colmain, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 112 Bq/m 3 and 100 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  1. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cork and Kerry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the third phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Cork and Kerry. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 76 Bq/m 3 and 70 Bq/m 3 . The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  2. A national survey of cardiac rehabilitation services in New Zealand: 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Geoff; Doolan-Noble, Fiona; Humphreys, Grace; Williams, Gina; O'Shaughnessy, Helen; Devlin, Gerry

    2016-05-27

    Guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes inform best practice. In Aotearoa NewZealand, little information exists about the structure and services provided by CR programmes and there is a poor understanding of how existing CR programmes are delivered with respect to evidence-based national guidelines. All 46 CR providers in New Zealand were invited to participate in a national survey in 2015. The survey sought information on the following: unit structure; referral processes; patient assessment; audit (including quality assurance activity); Phase 2 CR content; and support for special populations. Simple descriptive analysis of the responses was conducted, involving forming counts and percentages. Thirty-six distinct units completed the survey and 94% provided Phase 2. Assessment tools, Phase 2 educational components, and the methods of providing the exercise component varied. Most units audited their services, 25% audited their programme six-monthly or more frequently. Just over half of the units (56%) reported key performance indicators. The survey identified variations in delivery and content of CR in New Zealand, with poor understanding of the impact on patient outcomes. This is likely due to the absence of standardised audit practices and routine collection of key performance indicators on a national basis.

  3. Results of a national survey on natural radioactivity in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciocchetti, G.; Scacco, F.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper data are reported on the natural radiation environments in Italian mines and spas. The survey and relevant internal exposure assessment indicated that large groups of persons are chronically exposed to nonnegligible levels of radon and daughter products, which are always present in variable concentrations. Since the radiological environment of the spa is similar to that of mine one, there is the possibility of comparing two population groups living in different conditions, but similarly exposed, to evaluate the synergistic factors, if any

  4. Internet information-seeking in mental health: population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-09-01

    A major use of the of the internet is for health information-seeking. There has been little research into its use in relation to mental health. To investigate the prevalence of internet use for mental health information-seeking and its relative importance as a mental health information source. General population survey. Questions covered internet use, past psychiatric history and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Eighteen per cent of all internet users had used the internet for information related to mental health. The prevalence was higher among those with a past history of mental health problems and those with current psychological distress. Only 12% of respondents selected the internet as one of the three most accurate sources of information, compared with 24% who responded that it was one of the three sources they would use. The internet has a significant role in mental health information-seeking. The internet is used more than it is trusted.

  5. Results of the 2015 National Certified Pharmacy Technician Workforce Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Holmes, Erin R

    2017-07-01

    The results of the 2015 National Certified Pharmacy Technician Workforce Survey are described. A survey was e-mailed to a randomized sample of 5,000 certified pharmacy technicians (CPhTs) throughout the United States, with response reminders employed. Survey items eliciting demographic and work characteristics and work life attitudes were generated from the literature and qualitative interviews. This study aimed to describe job satisfaction, sources of stress, profession and employer commitment, education and training, and reasons for entry into the profession among CPhTs and determine relationships between those variables and CPhTs' level of involvement in various work activities, with particular attention paid to differences in practice setting. Frequency statistics, correlation analysis, and means testing were used to meet study objectives and identify significant differences. A total of 516 CPhTs currently working as a pharmacy technician responded to the survey. The CPhTs reported high levels of involvement in more traditional activities but less involvement in those that involve greater cognitive load. Respondents reported moderate levels of job satisfaction and commitment and somewhat high levels of stress overall. Most CPhTs chose to be a pharmacy technician because they desired to enter a healthcare field and help people and were recruited. CPhTs derived benefit from all aspects of education and training evaluated and most from on-the-job training. Perceived value of education and training was associated with higher satisfaction and commitment and with lower stress. There were a number of differences in these work life attitudes across practice settings and by involvement in various job functions. The results of the survey indicated that job satisfaction and commitment were moderate and that stress levels were somewhat high among CPhTs. There were a number of differences in work life attitudes across practice settings and by involvement in various job

  6. National Survey of Veterans, Active Duty Service Members, Demobilized National Guard and Reserve Members, Family Members, and Surviving Spouses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2010 National Survey of Veterans (NSV) is the sixth in a series of comprehensive nationwide surveys designed to help the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) plan...

  7. Knowledge of medical students on National Health Care System: A French multicentric survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral-Pierssens, A-L; Jannot, A-S

    2017-09-01

    Education on national health care policy and costs is part of our medical curriculum explaining how our health care system works. Our aim was to measure French medical students' knowledge about national health care funding, costs and access and explore association with their educational and personal background. We developed a web-based survey exploring knowledge on national health care funding, access and costs through 19 items and measured success score as the number of correct answers. We also collected students' characteristics and public health training. The survey was sent to undergraduate medical students and residents from five medical universities between July and November 2015. A total of 1195 students from 5 medical universities responded to the survey. Most students underestimated the total amount of annual medical expenses, hospitalization costs and the proportion of the general population not benefiting from a complementary insurance. The knowledge score was not associated with medical education level. Three students' characteristics were significantly associated with a better knowledge score: male gender, older age, and underprivileged status. Medical students have important gaps in knowledge regarding national health care funding, coverage and costs. This knowledge was not associated with medical education level but with some of the students' personal characteristics. All these results are of great concern and should lead us to discussion and reflection about medical and public health training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  9. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    mountain goat surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, whereas generally greater than 80 and greater than 60 percent of locations were within sampling units delineated in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks, respectively. Presence of GPS-collared mountain goats within the sampling frame of Olympic National Park varied by diurnal period (midday versus crepuscular), survey season (July versus September), and the interaction of diurnal period and survey season. Aerial surveys conducted in developing a sightability model for mountain goat aerial surveys indicated mean detection probabilities of 0.69, 0.76, and 0.87 in North Cascades, Olympic, and Mount Rainier National Parks, respectively. Higher detection probabilities in Mount Rainier likely reflected larger group sizes and more open habitat conditions than in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks. Use of sightability models will reduce biases of population estimates in each park, but resulting population estimates must still be considered minimum population estimates in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks because the current sampling frames do not encompass those populations completely. Because mountain goats were reliably present within the sampling frame in Mount Rainier National Park, we found no compelling need to adjust mountain goat survey boundaries in that park. Expanding survey coverage in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks to more reliably encompass the altitudinal distribution of mountain goats during summer would enhance population estimation accuracy in the future. Lowering the altitude boundary of mountain goat survey units by as little as 100 meters to 1,425 meters in Olympic National Park would increase mountain goat presence within the survey and reduce variation in counts related to movements of mountain goats outside the survey boundaries.

  10. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrou Francis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Methods Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001–2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. Results In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder – 31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%–33.8% and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%–35.3%. Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Conclusion Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher

  11. Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2009. Data from the National Health Interview Survey. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10, Number 249. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 2011-1577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleis, J. R.; Ward, B. W.; Lucas, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This report presents health statistics from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized adult population, classified by sex, age, race and ethnicity, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, marital status, and place and region of residence. Estimates are presented…

  12. A multinational population survey of intravaginal ejaculation latency time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Quinn, Paul; Dilleen, Maria; Mundayat, Rajiv; Schweitzer, Dave H; Boolell, Mitradev

    2005-07-01

    Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), defined as the time between the start of vaginal intromission and the start of intravaginal ejaculation, is increasingly used in clinical trials to assess the amount of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced ejaculation delay in men with premature ejaculation. Prospectively, stopwatch assessment of IELTs has superior accuracy compared with retrospective questionnaire and spontaneous reported latency. However, the IELT distribution in the general male population has not been previously assessed. To determine the stopwatch assessed-IELT distribution in large random male cohorts of different countries. A total of 500 couples were recruited from five countries: the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, and the United States. Enrolled men were aged 18 years or older, had a stable heterosexual relationship for at least 6 months, with regular sexual intercourse. The surveyed population were not included or excluded by their ejaculatory status and comorbidities. This survey was performed on a "normal" general population. Sexual events and stopwatch-timed IELTs during a 4-week period were recorded, as well as circumcision status and condom use. The IELT, circumcision status, and condom use. The distribution of the IELT in all the five countries was positively skewed, with a median IELT of 5.4 minutes (range, 0.55-44.1 minutes). The median IELT decreased significantly with age, from 6.5 minutes in the 18-30 years group, to 4.3 minutes in the group older than 51 years (PIELT varied between countries, with the median value for Turkey being the lowest, i.e., 3.7 minutes (0.9-30.4 minutes), which was significantly different from each of the other countries. Comparison of circumcised (N=98) and not-circumcised (N=261) men in countries excluding Turkey resulted in median IELT values of 6.7 minutes (0.7-44.1 minutes) in circumcised compared with 6.0 minutes (0.5-37.4 minutes) in not-circumcised men (not significant). The

  13. National survey of foodborne viruses in Australian oysters at production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Valeria; Hodgson, Kate; McLeod, Catherine; Tan, Jessica; Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison

    2018-02-01

    Internationally human enteric viruses, such as norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are frequently associated with shellfish related foodborne disease outbreaks, and it has been suggested that acceptable NoV limits based on end-point testing be established for this high risk food group. Currently, shellfish safety is generally managed through the use of indicators of faecal contamination. Between July 2014 and August 2015, a national prevalence survey for NoV and HAV was done in Australian oysters suitable for harvest. Two sampling rounds were undertaken to determine baseline levels of these viruses. Commercial Australian growing areas, represented by 33 oyster production regions in New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and Queensland, were included in the survey. A total of 149 and 148 samples were collected during round one and two of sampling, respectively, and tested for NoV and HAV by quantitative RT-PCR. NoV and HAV were not detected in oysters collected in either sampling round, indicating an estimated prevalence for these viruses in Australian oysters of oysters was consistent with epidemiological evidence, with no oyster-related foodborne viral illness reported during the survey period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. National supply-chain survey of drug manufacturer back orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, G S

    2001-07-01

    The impact of manufacturer back orders on the supply chain for pharmaceuticals in the institutional setting was studied. A questionnaire was distributed during May and June 2000 to 600 institutional pharmacies affiliated with a major national drug and supply group purchasing organization. The instrument included questions on basic institutional demographics, perceptions about the frequency of manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals, the quality of communication with manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders, the two most significant back orders that had occurred in the 12 months preceding the survey, and the reasons for and impact of back orders. A total of 170 usable surveys were returned (net response rate, 28.3%). Reported manufacturer back orders included an array of drug classes, including blood products, antimicrobials, antiarrhythmics, benzodiazepine antagonists, thrombolytics, corticosteroids, and antihypertensives. Respondents perceived significant back orders as increasing in frequency. Communication by manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders was reported to be relatively poor. A raw-material shortage was the most common reason given by manufacturers for back orders (36.5%), followed by a regulatory issue (23.2%). In most cases (92%), medical staff members had to be contacted, indicating an interruption in the normal drug distribution process. In over a third of instances, respondents stated that the back order resulted in less optimal therapy. A survey found that manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals were increasing in frequency and that information flow within the supply chain was insufficient to meet the needs of end users.

  15. Remediation of problematic residents--A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nasir I; Ahmed, Aadil; Stewart, Michael G; Miller, Robert H; Choi, Sukgi S

    2016-04-01

    Despite careful selection processes, residency programs face the challenge of training residents who fall below minimal performance standards. Poor performance of a resident can endanger both patient safety and the reputation of the residency program. It is important, therefore, for a program to identify such residents and implement strategies for their successful remediation. The purpose of our study was to gather information on evaluation and remediation strategies employed by different otolaryngology programs. Cross-sectional survey. We conducted a national survey, sending a questionnaire to the program directors of 106 otolaryngology residency programs. We collected information on demographics of the program, identification of problematic residents, and remediation strategies. The response rate was 74.5%, with a 2% cumulative incidence of problematic residents in otolaryngology programs during the past 10 years. The most frequently reported deficiencies of problematic residents were unprofessional behavior with colleagues/staff (38%), insufficient medical knowledge (37%), and poor clinical judgment (34%). Personal or professional stress was the most frequently identified underlying problem (70.5%). Remediation efforts included general counseling (78%), frequent feedback sessions (73%), assignment of a mentor (58%), and extra didactics (47%). These remediation efforts failed to produce improvement in 23% of the identified residents, ultimately leading to their dismissal. The apparent deficiencies, underlying causes, and remediation strategies vary among otolaryngology residency programs. Based on the results of this survey, we offer recommendations for the early identification of problematic residents and a standardized remediation plan. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. National seasonal influenza vaccination survey in Europe, 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mereckiene, J

    2008-10-23

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with the European Union (EU) Member States and Norway and Iceland to describe seasonal influenza immunisation in the 2006-7 season, in particular to identify country-specific recommendations for risk groups, obtain vaccine uptake information and allow comparison with global recommendations. A standardised questionnaire was completed electronically by each country\\'s project gatekeeper. Of the 29 countries surveyed, 28 recommended seasonal influenza vaccination for older age groups (22 for those aged > 65 years), and in one country vaccine was recommended for all age groups. All countries recommended vaccinating patients with chronic pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and most countries advised to immunise patients with haematologic or metabolic disorders (n=28), immunologic disorders (n=27) and renal disease (n=27), as well as residents of long-term care facilities (n=24). Most countries recommended vaccination for staff in hospitals (n=25), long-term care facilities (n=25) and outpatient clinics (n=23), and one-third had such recommendations for workers in essential (n=10), military (n=10) and veterinary services (n=10) and poultry industry (n=13). Eight countries recommended vaccine for pregnant women; and five advised to vaccinate children (with age limits ranging from 6 months to 5 years). Twenty countries measured influenza vaccine uptake among those aged > 65 years (range 1.8%-82.1%), seven reported uptake in healthcare workers (range 14%-48%) and seven assessed coverage in persons with underlying medical conditions (range 27.6%-75.2%). The data provided by this study can assist EU states to assess and compare their influenza vaccination programme performance with other countries. The information provides a comprehensive overview of policies and programmes and their outcomes and can be used to inform joint discussions on how the national policies in the EU might be standardised in the future to achieve optimal

  17. National seasonal influenza vaccination survey in Europe, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereckiene, J; Cotter, S; Nicoll, A; Levy-Bruhl, D; Ferro, A; Tridente, G; Zanoni, G; Berra, P; Salmaso, S; O'Flanagan, D; O Flanagan, D

    2008-10-23

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with the European Union (EU) Member States and Norway and Iceland to describe seasonal influenza immunisation in the 2006-7 season, in particular to identify country-specific recommendations for risk groups, obtain vaccine uptake information and allow comparison with global recommendations. A standardised questionnaire was completed electronically by each country's project gatekeeper. Of the 29 countries surveyed, 28 recommended seasonal influenza vaccination for older age groups (22 for those aged > 65 years), and in one country vaccine was recommended for all age groups. All countries recommended vaccinating patients with chronic pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and most countries advised to immunise patients with haematologic or metabolic disorders (n=28), immunologic disorders (n=27) and renal disease (n=27), as well as residents of long-term care facilities (n=24). Most countries recommended vaccination for staff in hospitals (n=25), long-term care facilities (n=25) and outpatient clinics (n=23), and one-third had such recommendations for workers in essential (n=10), military (n=10) and veterinary services (n=10) and poultry industry (n=13). Eight countries recommended vaccine for pregnant women; and five advised to vaccinate children (with age limits ranging from 6 months to 5 years). Twenty countries measured influenza vaccine uptake among those aged > 65 years (range 1.8%-82.1%), seven reported uptake in healthcare workers (range 14%-48%) and seven assessed coverage in persons with underlying medical conditions (range 27.6%-75.2%). The data provided by this study can assist EU states to assess and compare their influenza vaccination programme performance with other countries. The information provides a comprehensive overview of policies and programmes and their outcomes and can be used to inform joint discussions on how the national policies in the EU might be standardised in the future to achieve optimal

  18. Methods and introductory results of the Greek national health and nutrition survey - HYDRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Martimianaki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  According to a large prospective cohort study (with baseline examination in the 1990s and smaller studies that followed, the population in Greece has been gradually deprived of the favorable morbidity and mortality indices recorded in the 1960s. The HYDRIA survey conducted in 2013-14 is the first nationally representative survey, which collected data related to the health and nutrition of the population in Greece. Methods: The survey sample consists of 4011 males (47% and females aged 18 years and over. Data collection included interviewer-administered questionnaires on personal characteristics, lifestyle choices, dietary habits and medical history; measurements of somatometry and blood pressure; and, blood drawing. Weighting factors were applied to ensure national representativeness of results. Results: Three out of five adults in Greece reported suffering of a chronic disease, with diabetes mellitus and chronic depression being the more frequent ones among older individuals. The population is also experiencing an overweight/obesity epidemic, since seven out of 10 adults are either overweight or obese. In addition, 40% of the population bears indications of hypertension. Smoking is still common and among women the prevalence was higher in younger age groups. Social disparities were observed in the prevalence of chronic diseases and mortality risk factors (hypertension, obesity, impaired lipid profile and high blood glucose levels. Conclusion: Excess body weight, hypertension, the smoking habit and the population’s limited physical activity are the predominant challenges that public health officials have to deal with in formulating policies and designing actions for the population in Greece.

  19. Mass-casualty events at schools: a national preparedness survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James; Shirm, Steve; Liggin, Rebecca; Aitken, Mary E; Dick, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Recent school shootings and terrorist events have demonstrated the need for well-coordinated planning for school-based mass-casualty events. The objective of this study was to document the preparedness of public schools in the United States for the prevention of and the response to a mass-casualty event. A survey was mailed to 3670 school superintendents of public school districts that were chosen at random from a list of school districts from the National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education in January 2004. A second mailing was sent to nonresponders in May 2004. Descriptive statistics were used for survey variables, and the chi2 test was used to compare urban versus rural preparedness. The response rate was 58.2% (2137 usable surveys returned). Most (86.3%) school superintendents reported having a response plan, but fewer (57.2%) have a plan for prevention. Most (95.6%) have an evacuation plan, but almost one third (30%) had never conducted a drill. Almost one quarter (22.1%) have no disaster plan provisions for children with special health care needs, and one quarter reported having no plans for postdisaster counseling. Almost half (42.8%) had never met with local ambulance officials to discuss emergency planning. Urban school districts were better prepared than rural districts on almost all measures in the survey. There are important deficiencies in school emergency/disaster planning. Rural districts are less well prepared than urban districts. Disaster/mass-casualty preparedness of schools should be improved through coordination of school officials and local medical and emergency officials.

  20. Deafness among physicians and trainees: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Christopher J; Latimore, Darin; Sen, Ananda; Arato, Nora; Zazove, Philip

    2013-02-01

    To describe the characteristics of and accommodations used by the deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHoH) physician and trainee population and examine whether these individuals are more likely to care for DHoH patients. Multipronged snowball sampling identified 86 potential DHoH physician and trainee participants. In July to September 2010, a Web-based survey investigated accommodations used by survey respondents. The authors analyzed participants' demographics, accommodation and career satisfaction, sense of institutional support, likelihood of recommending medicine as a career, and current/anticipated DHoH patient population size. The response rate was 65% (56 respondents; 31 trainees and 25 practicing physicians). Modified stethoscopes were the most frequently used accommodation (n = 50; 89%); other accommodations included auditory equipment, note-taking, computer-assisted real-time captioning, signed interpretation, and oral interpretation. Most respondents reported that their accommodations met their needs well, although 2 spent up to 10 hours weekly arranging accommodations. Of 25 physicians, 17 reported primary care specialties; 7 of 31 trainees planned to enter primary care specialties. Over 20% of trainees anticipated working with DHoH patients, whereas physicians on average spent 10% of their time with DHoH patients. Physicians' accommodation satisfaction was positively associated with career satisfaction and recommending medicine as a career. DHoH physicians and trainees seemed satisfied with frequent, multimodal accommodations from employers and educators. These results may assist organizations in planning accommodation provisions. Because DHoH physicians and trainees seem interested in primary care and serving DHoH patients, recruiting and training DHoH physicians has implications for the care of this underserved population.

  1. Tracking Psychosocial Health in Adults with Epilepsy—Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, R; Cui, W; Kadima, N; Zack, MM; Sajatovic, M; Kaiboriboon, K; Jobst, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study provides population-based estimates of psychosocial health among U.S. adults with epilepsy from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Methods Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence of the following measures of psychosocial health among adults with and those without epilepsy: 1) the Kessler-6 scale of Serious Psychological Distress; 2) cognitive limitation; the extent of impairments associated with psychological problems; and work limitation; 3) Social participation; and 4) the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Global Health scale. Results Compared with adults without epilepsy, adults with epilepsy, especially those with active epilepsy, reported significantly worse psychological health, more cognitive impairment, difficulty in participating in some social activities, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Conclusions These disparities in psychosocial health in U.S. adults with epilepsy serve as baseline national estimates of their HRQOL, consistent with Healthy People 2020 national objectives on HRQOL. PMID:25305435

  2. The Intentions of Men 23 to 29 Years Old to Join the Military: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borack, Jules I.

    Since the population of 17-to-21-year-old males, the traditional source for military recruitment, will decline sharply during the 1980s, consideration is being given to recruiting males aged 23-29. A national survey was conducted to assess the interest of 23-to-29-year-old men in joining the military under present conditions and with monetary…

  3. Association between genotype and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in China in a national drug resistance survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; van den Hof, Susan; Wang, Shengfen; Pang, Yu; Zhao, Bing; Xia, Hui; Anthony, Richard; Ou, Xichao; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Yang; Song, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yanlin; van Soolingen, Dick

    2017-01-01

    We describe the population structure of a representative collection of 3,133 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, collected within the framework of a national resistance survey from 2007 in China. Genotyping data indicate that the epidemic strains in China can be divided into seven major complexes,

  4. Methods for estimating private forest ownership statistics: revised methods for the USDA Forest Service's National Woodland Owner Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton J. ​Dickinson; Brett J. Butler

    2013-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) is conducted to better understand the attitudes and behaviors of private forest ownerships, which control more than half of US forestland. Inferences about the populations of interest should be based on theoretically sound estimation procedures. A recent review of the procedures disclosed an error in...

  5. A preliminary survey of the National Wetlands Inventory as mapped for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, N.L.; Rope, R.C.; Glennon, J.M.; Moor, K.S.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately 135 areas within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been mapped as wetland habitat as part of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). A preliminary survey of these wetlands was conducted to examine their general characteristics and status, to provide an estimation of relative ecological importance, to identify additional information needed to complete ecological characterization of important INEL wetlands, and to identify high priority wetland areas on the INEL. The purpose of the survey was to provide information to support the preparation of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Information characterizing general vegetation, hydrology, wildlife use, and archaeology was collected at 105 sample sites on the INEL. Sites representing NWI palustrine, lacustrine, and riverine wetlands (including manmade), and areas unmapped or unclassified by the NWI were included in the sample. The field information was used to develop a preliminary ranking of relative ecological importance for each wetland visited during this survey. Survey limitations are identified

  6. Methods of the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Metodología de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Resano-Pérez; Ignacio Méndez-Ramírez; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Juan A Rivera; Jaime Sepúlveda-Amor

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99) is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. The NNS-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of Mexico. The last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. The study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years), and women of chi...

  7. Resource allocation in public health practice: a national survey of local public health officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nancy M; DesRoches, Catherine; Campbell, Eric G; Goold, Susan Dorr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an empirical understanding of the types of allocation decisions local health officials (LHOs) make and the factors that influence those allocation decisions. We conducted a national survey of LHOs in the United States in 2008 to 2009. The sample was stratified by the size of the population served by the department. We merged our data with data from the 2008 National Association of County and City Health Officials Profile survey. Descriptive statistics were generated using weighted data. Our final sample size was 608 respondents, with an average of 10 years experience. The LHOs reported little shifting of resources among population groups but greater capacity to redirect staffing time. Less than half of LHOs reported using economic analyses or conducting needs assessments when setting priorities. Having sole provider status in a community strongly influenced LHOs' allocation decisions. In addition, the effectiveness of activities, previous budget allocations, and input from boards of health were influential factors in allocation decisions. Public expectations were moderately to very influential, but direct public input had a low impact on allocation decisions. Survey findings provide a clearer understanding of how LHOs fulfill their obligations as stewards of public health resources and ensure effective activities and access to needed services. It may be useful to assess the value of more structured allocation methods (eg, decision frameworks) in the allocation process. Expanding opportunities for public engagement in priority setting may also be valuable for difficult allocation decisions.

  8. THE SUBSTELLAR POPULATION OF {sigma} ORIONIS: A DEEP WIDE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejar, V. J. S.; Rebolo, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martin, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Crta. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Caballero, J. A.; Barrado, D. [Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Mundt, R.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L., E-mail: vbejar@iac.es, E-mail: mosorio@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: ege@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: rrl@iac.es, E-mail: caballero@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: barrado@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: mundt@mpia.de, E-mail: calj@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-10

    We present a deep I, Z photometric survey covering a total area of 1.12 deg{sup 2} of the {sigma} Orionis cluster and reaching completeness magnitudes of I = 22 and Z = 21.5 mag. From I, I - Z color-magnitude diagrams we have selected 153 candidates that fit the previously known sequence of the cluster. They have magnitudes in the range I = 16-23 mag, which corresponds to a mass interval from 0.1 down to 0.008 M{sub Sun} at the most probable age of {sigma} Orionis (2-4 Myr). Using J-band photometry, we find that 124 of the 151 candidates within the completeness of the optical survey (82%) follow the previously known infrared photometric sequence of the cluster and are probably members. We have studied the spatial distribution of the very low mass stars and brown dwarf population of the cluster and found that there are objects located at distances greater than 30 arcmin to the north and west of {sigma} Orionis that probably belong to different populations of the Orion's Belt. For the 102 bona fide {sigma} Orionis cluster member candidates, we find that the radial surface density can be represented by a decreasing exponential function ({sigma}={sigma}{sub 0}e{sup -r/r{sub 0}}) with a central density of {sigma}{sub 0} = 0.23 {+-} 0.03 objects arcmin{sup -2} and a characteristic radius of r{sub 0} = 9.5 {+-} 0.7 arcmin. From a statistical comparison with Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that the spatial distribution of the objects located at the same distance from the center of the cluster is compatible with a Poissonian distribution and, hence, that very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are not mainly forming aggregations or sub-clustering. Using near-infrared JHK-band data from Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey and mid-infrared data from Infrared Array Camera/Spitzer, we find that about 5%-9% of the brown dwarf candidates in the {sigma} Orionis cluster have K-band excesses and 30% {+-} 7% of them show mid-infrared excesses at

  9. Nasal allergies in the Latin American population: results from the Allergies in Latin America survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffen, Hugo; Mello, Joao F; Sole, Dirceu; Naspitz, Charles K; Dodero, Alberto Eduardo; Garza, Héctor León; Guerra, Edgard Novelo; Baez-Loyola, Carlos; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Allergies in Latin America is the first cross-national survey that describes the symptoms, impact, and treatment of nasal allergies (NAs) in individuals >or=4 years old in Latin America (LA). In total, 22,012 households across the Latin American countries of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela were screened for children, adolescents, and adults with a diagnosis of NA and either symptoms or treatment in the past 12 months. A total of 1088 adults and 457 children and adolescents were included and the sample was probability based to ensure valid statistical inference to the population. Approximately 7% of the LA population was diagnosed with NAs with two of three respondents stating that their allergies were seasonal or intermittent in nature. A general practice physician or otolaryngologist diagnosed the majority of individuals surveyed. Nasal congestion was the most common and bothersome symptom of NAs. Sufferers indicated that their symptoms affected productivity and sleep and had a negative impact on quality of life. Two-thirds of patients reported taking some type of medication for their NAs, with a roughly equal percentage of patients reporting taking over-the-counter versus prescription medications. Changing medications was most commonly done in those reporting inadequate efficacy. The most common reasons cited for dissatisfaction with current medications were related to inadequate effectiveness, effectiveness wearing off with chronic use, failure to provide 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects (e.g., unpleasant taste and retrograde drainage into the esophagus). Findings from this cross-national survey on NAs have confirmed a high prevalence of physician-diagnosed NAs and a considerable negative impact on daily quality of life and work productivity as well as substantial disease management challenges in LA. Through identification of disease impact on the LA population and further defining treatment gaps, clinicians in

  10. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2001 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lola Jean; Owings, Maria F; Hall, Margaret J

    2004-06-01

    This report presents 2001 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Admission source and type, collected for the first time in the 2001 National Hospital Discharge Survey, are shown. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2001, data were collected for approximately 330,000 discharges. Of the 477 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 448 (94 percent) responded to the survey. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code numbers. Rates are computed with 2001 population estimates based on the 2000 census. The appendix includes a comparison of rates computed with 1990 and 2000 census-based population estimates. An estimated 32.7 million inpatients were discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals in 2001. They used 159.4 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.9 days. Common first-listed discharge diagnoses included delivery, psychoses, pneumonia, malignant neoplasm, and coronary atherosclerosis. Males had higher rates for procedures such as cardiac catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft, and females had higher rates for procedures such as cholecystectomy and total knee replacement. The rates of all cesarean deliveries, primary and repeat, rose from 1995 to 2001; the rate of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery dropped 37 percent during this period.

  11. Explaining discrepancies in reproductive health indicators from population-based surveys and exit surveys: a case from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, D; Ogada, E A

    2001-06-01

    Reproductive health programmes often need exit surveys and population-based surveys for monitoring and evaluation. This study investigates why such studies produce discrepant estimates of condom use, sexual behaviour and condom brand knowledge, and discusses the implications for future use of exit surveys for programme monitoring. Logistic regression is used to explain differences between a household survey of 1295 persons and an exit survey among a random sample of 2550 consumers at retail outlets in RWANDA: Discrepancies in ever use of condoms and risky sexual behaviours are due to differences in socioeconomic status of the two samples. After controls, exit surveys at most outlet types have the same results as the household survey. Only exit surveys at bars, nightclubs and hotels yield significantly different estimates. However, the above-average knowledge of Prudence Plus condoms in the exit interviews is not attributable to socioeconomic or demographic variables, most likely because respondents have seen the product at the outlets. Information about condom use and sexual behaviour obtained from exit surveys appears as accurate as that obtained through household surveys. Nevertheless, exit surveys must be used cautiously. Because exit surveys may include wealthier and better-educated respondents, they are not representative of the general population. The composition of exit survey samples should be validated through existing household surveys. Comparisons across survey types are generally unadvisable, unless they control for sample differences. When generalizing to the population at large is not needed (e.g. for studies aimed at identifying the characteristics and behaviour of users of particular products or services), exit surveys can provide an appropriate alternative to household surveys.

  12. National sample survey to assess the new case disease burden of leprosy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Katoch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A national sample survey of leprosy was undertaken in partnership with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR institutions, National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP, Panchayati Raj members, and treated leprosy patients to detect new cases of leprosy in India. The objectives of the survey were to estimate the new leprosy case load; record both Grade 1 and Grade 2 disabilities in the new cases; and to assess the magnitude of stigma and discrimination prevalent in the society. A cluster based, cross-sectional survey involving all States was used for the door-to-door survey using inverse sampling methodology. Rural and urban clusters were sampled separately. The population screened for detecting 28 new cases in rural and 30 in urban clusters was enumerated, recorded and analyzed. Data capture and analysis in different schedules were the main tools used. For quality control three tiers of experts were utilized for the confirmation of cases and disabilities. Self-stigma was assessed in more than half of the total new patients detected with disabilities by the approved questionnaire. A different questionnaire was used to assess the stigma in the community. A population of 14,725,525 (10,302,443 rural; 4,423,082 urban was screened and 2161 new cases - 1300 paucibacillary (PB and 861 multibacillary (MB were detected. New case estimates for leprosy was 330,346 (95% Confidence limits, 287,445-380,851. Disabilities observed in these cases were 2.05/100,000 population and 13.9 per cent (302/2161 in new cases. Self-stigma in patients with disabilities was reduced, and the patients were well accepted by the spouse, neighbour, at workplace and in social functions.

  13. Comparing cancer screening estimates: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ann Goding; Liu, Benmei; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Fedewa, Stacey A

    2018-01-01

    Cancer screening prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), designed to provide state-level estimates, and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), designed to provide national estimates, are used to measure progress in cancer control. A detailed description of the extent to which recent cancer screening estimates vary by key demographic characteristics has not been previously described. We examined national prevalence estimates for recommended breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening using data from the 2012 and 2014 BRFSS and the 2010 and 2013 NHIS. Treating the NHIS estimates as the reference, direct differences (DD) were calculated by subtracting NHIS estimates from BRFSS estimates. Relative differences were computed by dividing the DD by the NHIS estimates. Two-sample t-tests (2-tails), were performed to test for statistically significant differences. BRFSS screening estimates were higher than those from NHIS for breast (78.4% versus 72.5%; DD=5.9%, pNHIS, each survey has a unique and important role in providing information to track cancer screening utilization among various populations. Awareness of these differences and their potential causes is important when comparing the surveys and determining the best application for each data source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in retiree health benefits: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lissovoy, G; Kasper, J D; Di Carlo, S; Gabel, J

    1990-01-01

    Employers are increasingly concerned by the cost of health benefits provided to retired workers. One reason is that the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the organization that establishes "generally accepted accounting principles," has proposed altering the way firms report expenditures for retiree medical coverage on financial statements. We recently completed a national survey of business firms offering retiree health benefits to address three issues: 1) What is the current structure of retiree health benefit plans? 2) What changes are firms planning to implement in the structure of their retiree health benefits? 3) To what extent are these changes due to the FASB proposal? The FASB reporting proposal is only one factor underlying these changes. More important is the real financial pressure on firms due to the accelerating cost of retiree health care.

  15. National survey describing and quantifying students with communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andzik, Natalie R; Schaefer, John M; Nichols, Robert T; Chung, Yun-Ching

    2018-01-01

    Research literature has yet to quantify and describe how students with complex communication needs are supported in the classroom and how special educators are being prepared to offer support. This study sought out special educators to complete a survey about their students with complex communication needs. Over 4,000 teachers representing 50 states reported on the communicative and behavioral characteristics of 15,643 students. Teachers described the training they have received and instructional approaches they used. The majority of students were reported to use speech as their primary communication mode. Over half of students utilizing alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) were reported to have non-proficient communication. Teacher training varied across respondents as well as the supports they used to support these students in the classroom. The majority of students with disabilities using AAC when communicating across the nation are not proficiently communicating. Implications and recommendations will be discussed.

  16. The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A; Gaetz, Stephen; O'Grady, Bill

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population. This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators. Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]). This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.

  17. Measurement of sexual health in the U.S.: an inventory of nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovich, Megan B; Leichliter, Jami S; Douglas, John M

    2013-01-01

    To identify opportunities within nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems to measure indicators of sexual health, we reviewed and inventoried existing data systems that include variables relevant to sexual health. We searched for U.S. nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems that provided individual-level sexual health data. We assessed the methods of each data system and catalogued them by their measurement of the following domains of sexual health: knowledge, communication, attitudes, service access and utilization, sexual behaviors, relationships, and adverse health outcomes. We identified 18 U.S.-focused, nationally representative data systems: six assessing the general population, seven focused on special populations, and five addressing health outcomes. While these data systems provide a rich repository of information from which to assess national measures of sexual health, they present several limitations. Most importantly, apart from data on service utilization, routinely gathered, national data are currently focused primarily on negative aspects of sexual health (e.g., risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes) rather than more positive attributes (e.g., healthy communication and attitudes, and relationship quality). Nationally representative data systems provide opportunities to measure a broad array of domains of sexual health. However, current measurement gaps indicate the need to modify existing surveys, where feasible and appropriate, and develop new tools to include additional indicators that address positive domains of sexual health of the U.S. population across the life span. Such data can inform the development of effective policy actions, services, prevention programs, and resource allocation to advance sexual health.

  18. Simulation in Canadian postgraduate emergency medicine training - a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Hall, Andrew Koch; Hagel, Carly; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Dagnone, Jeffrey Damon; Howes, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Simulation-based education (SBE) is an important training strategy in emergency medicine (EM) postgraduate programs. This study sought to characterize the use of simulation in FRCPC-EM residency programs across Canada. A national survey was administered to residents and knowledgeable program representatives (PRs) at all Canadian FRCPC-EM programs. Survey question themes included simulation program characteristics, the frequency of resident participation, the location and administration of SBE, institutional barriers, interprofessional involvement, content, assessment strategies, and attitudes about SBE. Resident and PR response rates were 63% (203/321) and 100% (16/16), respectively. Residents reported a median of 20 (range 0-150) hours of annual simulation training, with 52% of residents indicating that the time dedicated to simulation training met their needs. PRs reported the frequency of SBE sessions ranging from weekly to every 6 months, with 15 (94%) programs having an established simulation curriculum. Two (13%) of the programs used simulation for resident assessment, although 15 (94%) of PRs indicated that they would be comfortable with simulation-based assessment. The most common PR-identified barriers to administering simulation were a lack of protected faculty time (75%) and a lack of faculty experience with simulation (56%). Interprofessional involvement in simulation was strongly valued by both residents and PRs. SBE is frequently used by Canadian FRCPC-EM residency programs. However, there exists considerable variability in the structure, frequency, and timing of simulation-based activities. As programs transition to competency-based medical education, national organizations and collaborations should consider the variability in how SBE is administered.

  19. Breastfeeding support in neonatal intensive care: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Kronborg, Hanne; Hallström, Inger

    2012-08-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding of preterm infants is affected by the support provided at the hospital and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, policies and guidelines promoting breastfeeding vary both nationally and internationally. The aim of this survey was to describe breastfeeding support in Danish NICUs, where approximately 98% of mothers initiate lactation. A national survey of all 19 Danish NICUs was conducted in 2009. Four NICUs were at designated Baby-Friendly hospitals, and 5 had a lactation consultant. In all NICUs, it was possible for some parents to stay overnight; 2 units had short restrictions on parents' presence. Five NICUs had integrated postpartum care for mothers. Breastfeeding policies, written guidelines, and systematic breastfeeding training for the staff were common in most NICUs. Seventeen NICUs recommended starting breast milk expression within 6 hours after birth, and mothers were encouraged to double pump. Most NICUs aimed to initiate skin-to-skin contact the first time the parents were in the NICU, and daily skin-to-skin contact was estimated to last for 2-4 hours in 63% and 4-8 hours in 37% of the units. The use of bottle-feeding was restricted. The Danish NICUs described the support of breastfeeding as a high priority, which was reflected in the recommended policies for breast milk pumping, skin-to-skin contact, and the parents' presence in the NICU, as well as in the restricted use of bottle-feeding. However, support varied between units, and not all units supported optimal breastfeeding.

  20. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Napping and associated factors: a Japanese nationwide general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Ryuji; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Jike, Maki; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate napping habits and their associated factors in the Japanese adult general population. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2007 for subjects selected randomly from among 300 districts throughout Japan. Data from 7664 people (3527 men and 4137 women), aged 20-99 years, were analyzed. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on frequency and duration of napping. The percentage of responders for high-frequency napping, four or more days per week, was 21.2% among men and 17.1% among women. The percentage of responders for long-duration napping, 2 h or more per one nap, was 2.9% among men and 2.6% among women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that men, older age, smoking, insomnia symptoms, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and having sufficient rest obtained by sleep were positively associated with high-frequency napping, whereas alcohol drinking showed a negative association. Older age was negatively associated with long-duration napping whereas living in a large community, smoking, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and psychological stress showed a positive association. These findings provide important data for future studies aimed at improvement of sleep habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  3. Mortality of Stroke and Its Subtypes in China: Results from a Nationwide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenghong; Jiang, Bin; Ru, Xiaojuan; Sun, Haixin; Sun, Dongling; Liu, Xiangtong; Li, Yichong; Li, Di; Guo, Xiuhua; Wang, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    In China, stroke is the leading cause of death and contributes to a heavy disease burden. However, a nationwide population-based survey of the mortality of stroke and its subtypes is lacking for this country. Data derived from the National Epidemiological Survey of Stroke in China, which was a multistage, stratified clustering sampling-designed, cross-sectional survey, were analyzed. Mortality rate analyses were performed for 476,156 participants ≥20 years old from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2013. Of the 476,156 participants in the investigated population, 364 died of ischemic stroke, 373 of hemorrhagic stroke, and 21 of stroke of undetermined pathological type. The age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person-years among those aged ≥20 years were 114.8 for total stroke, 56.5 for ischemic stroke, and 55.8 for hemorrhagic stroke. The age-standardized mortality rates of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke were all higher in rural areas than those in urban areas. The stroke mortality rate was higher in the northern regions than in the south. An estimated 1.12 million people aged ≥20 years in China died of stroke during the period from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2013. The burden of stroke in China is still heavy. Greater attention should be paid to improve strategies for preventing stroke. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Bozeman National Topographic Map, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Bozeman National Topographic Map NL12-8 are presented in Volume I and II of this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  5. Intoxicated workers: findings from a national Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke

    2011-09-01

    To identify prevalence of alcohol and drug use and intoxication at work. A total of 9,828 Australian workers ≥14 years old. Australia 2007. Work-place alcohol use and drug use, intoxication at work, industry and occupation of employment. Secondary analysis of a large nationally representative survey involving descriptive and weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Differential patterns were identified by drug type, worker characteristics and occupational setting, controlling for demographic variables. Nearly 9% of workers surveyed (8.7%) usually drank alcohol at work and 0.9% usually used drugs at work. Attending work under the influence of alcohol was more prevalent (5.6%) than attending work under the influence of drugs (2.0%), and significantly more likely among young, male, never married workers with no dependent children. Hospitality industry workers were 3.5 times more likely than other workers to drink alcohol and two to three times more likely to use drugs at work or attend work under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Other high-risk industries and occupations included construction, financial services, tradespersons and unskilled workers. More than one in 20 Australian workers admit to having worked under the influence of alcohol and almost one in 50 report attending work under the influence of psychoactive drugs. The rates are higher for some industries, such as the hospitality industry, than others. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Lander National Topographic Map, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Lander National Topographic Map NK12-6 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  7. Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Penman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. Materials and Methods: To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 respondents completed the survey. Sixty overseas respondents and 1265 yoga teachers (to be reported separately were excluded, leaving 2,567 yoga practitioner respondents. Results: The typical yoga survey respondent was a 41-year-old, tertiary educated, employed, health-conscious female (85% women. Asana (postures and vinyasa (sequences of postures represented 61% of the time spent practicing, with the other 39% devoted to the gentler practices of relaxation, pranayama (breathing techniques, meditation and instruction. Respondents commonly started practicing yoga for health and fitness but often continued practicing for stress management. One in five respondents practiced yoga for a specific health or medical reason which was seen to be improved by yoga practice. Of these, more people used yoga for stress management and anxiety than back, neck or shoulder problems, suggesting that mental health may be the primary health-related motivation for practicing yoga. Healthy lifestyle choices were seen to be more prevalent in respondents with more years of practice. Yoga-related injuries occurring under supervision in the previous 12 months were low at 2.4% of respondents. Conclusions: Yoga practice was seen to assist in the management of specific health issues and medical conditions. Regular yoga practice may also exert a healthy lifestyle effect including vegetarianism, non-smoking, reduced alcohol consumption, increased exercise and reduced stress with resulting cost benefits

  8. Malpractice liability and defensive medicine: a national survey of neurosurgeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian V Nahed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of American neurosurgeons' perceptions of malpractice liability and defensive medicine practices. METHODS: A validated, 51-question online-survey was sent to 3344 practicing U.S. neurosurgeon members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, which represents 76% of neurosurgeons in academic and private practices. RESULTS: A total of 1028 surveys were completed (31% response rate by neurosurgeons representing diverse sub-specialty practices. Respondents engaged in defensive medicine practices by ordering additional imaging studies (72%, laboratory tests (67%, referring patients to consultants (66%, or prescribing medications (40%. Malpractice premiums were considered a "major or extreme" burden by 64% of respondents which resulted in 45% of respondents eliminating high-risk procedures from their practice due to liability concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Concerns and perceptions about medical liability lead practitioners to practice defensive medicine. As a result, diagnostic testing, consultations and imaging studies are ordered to satisfy a perceived legal risk, resulting in higher healthcare expenditures. To minimize malpractice risk, some neurosurgeons have eliminated high-risk procedures. Left unchecked, concerns over medical liability will further defensive medicine practices, limit patient access to care, and increase the cost of healthcare delivery in the United States.

  9. Malpractice liability and defensive medicine: a national survey of neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahed, Brian V; Babu, Maya A; Smith, Timothy R; Heary, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of American neurosurgeons' perceptions of malpractice liability and defensive medicine practices. A validated, 51-question online-survey was sent to 3344 practicing U.S. neurosurgeon members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, which represents 76% of neurosurgeons in academic and private practices. A total of 1028 surveys were completed (31% response rate) by neurosurgeons representing diverse sub-specialty practices. Respondents engaged in defensive medicine practices by ordering additional imaging studies (72%), laboratory tests (67%), referring patients to consultants (66%), or prescribing medications (40%). Malpractice premiums were considered a "major or extreme" burden by 64% of respondents which resulted in 45% of respondents eliminating high-risk procedures from their practice due to liability concerns. Concerns and perceptions about medical liability lead practitioners to practice defensive medicine. As a result, diagnostic testing, consultations and imaging studies are ordered to satisfy a perceived legal risk, resulting in higher healthcare expenditures. To minimize malpractice risk, some neurosurgeons have eliminated high-risk procedures. Left unchecked, concerns over medical liability will further defensive medicine practices, limit patient access to care, and increase the cost of healthcare delivery in the United States.

  10. Language awareness in the bilingual healthcare setting: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gwerfyl Wyn; Irvine, Fiona Elizabeth; Jones, Peter Reece; Spencer, Llinos Haf; Baker, Colin Ronald; Williams, Cen

    2007-09-01

    The significance of effective interpersonal communication in healthcare is well established, as is the importance of overcoming language barriers. This has a particular bearing for minority language speakers, where denying language choice can compromise the quality of healthcare provision. Nevertheless, there is limited empirical research exploring language awareness in healthcare and the factors that influence language choice for minority language speakers. This paper reports on the nurses, midwives and health visitors (NMHV) data set of the first phase of a large-scale national study, commissioned by the Welsh Assembly Government, to examine the nature and extent of Welsh language awareness amongst healthcare professionals in Wales, UK. The study involved a questionnaire survey of healthcare professionals working in the public, private and voluntary sectors of healthcare. A stratified random sample of 3358 healthcare professionals was surveyed, of which 1842 (55%) were nurses, midwives and health visitors. The researcher-designed self-administered questionnaire was distributed by post to participants between July and September 2003. A total of 1042 (57%) NMHV returned their questionnaires for analysis. A strong positive correlation is identified between the NMHV use of the Welsh language in practice and their Welsh language proficiency (planguage attitudes (planguage region (planguage attitude scores are more positive than expected, particularly amongst those with limited Welsh language proficiency and those working in regions with the lowest proportions of Welsh speakers. In view of the universal drive for culturally and linguistically appropriate healthcare practice, the findings have important implications for bilingual and multilingual healthcare settings worldwide. The evidence emerging from this survey confirms that cross-cultural communication is enhanced by NMHV language attitudes as well as their proficiency levels. Language awareness training is

  11. Japanese practicing physicians' relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%, received drug samples (85% and stationery (96%, and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME events at the workplace (80% and outside the workplace (93%. Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49% and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%. Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to

  12. Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Stephen; Cohen, Marc; Stevens, Philip; Jackson, Sue

    2012-07-01

    The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 respondents completed the survey. Sixty overseas respondents and 1265 yoga teachers (to be reported separately) were excluded, leaving 2,567 yoga practitioner respondents. The typical yoga survey respondent was a 41-year-old, tertiary educated, employed, health-conscious female (85% women). Asana (postures) and vinyasa (sequences of postures) represented 61% of the time spent practicing, with the other 39% devoted to the gentler practices of relaxation, pranayama (breathing techniques), meditation and instruction. Respondents commonly started practicing yoga for health and fitness but often continued practicing for stress management. One in five respondents practiced yoga for a specific health or medical reason which was seen to be improved by yoga practice. Of these, more people used yoga for stress management and anxiety than back, neck or shoulder problems, suggesting that mental health may be the primary health-related motivation for practicing yoga. Healthy lifestyle choices were seen to be more prevalent in respondents with more years of practice. Yoga-related injuries occurring under supervision in the previous 12 months were low at 2.4% of respondents. Yoga practice was seen to assist in the management of specific health issues and medical conditions. Regular yoga practice may also exert a healthy lifestyle effect including vegetarianism, non-smoking, reduced alcohol consumption, increased exercise and reduced stress with resulting cost benefits to the community.

  13. A national survey on health department capacity for community engagement in emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch-Spana, Monica; Selck, Frederic W; Goldberg, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Limited systematic knowledge exists about how public health practitioners and policy makers can best strengthen community engagement in public health emergency preparedness ("CE-PHEP"), a top priority for US national health security. To investigate local health department (LHD) adoption of federally recommended participatory approaches to PHEP and to identify LHD organizational characteristics associated with more intense CE-PHEP. National survey in 2012 of LHDs using a self-administered Web-based questionnaire regarding LHD practices and resources for CE-PHEP ("The Community Engagement for Public Health Emergency Preparedness Survey"). Differences in survey responses were examined, and a multivariate analysis was used to test whether LHD organizational characteristics were associated with differences in CE-PHEP intensity. A randomized sample of 754 LHDs drawn from the 2565 LHDs that had been invited to participate in the 2010 National Profile of LHDs. Sample selection was stratified by the size of population served and geographic location. Emergency preparedness coordinators reporting on their respective LHDs. CE-PHEP intensity as measured with a scoring system that rated specific CE-PHEP practices by LHD according to the relative degrees of public participation and community capacity they represented. Survey response rate was 61%. The most common reported CE-PHEP activity was disseminating personal preparedness materials (90%); the least common was convening public forums on PHEP planning (22%). LHD characteristics most strongly associated with more intense CE-PHEP were having a formal CE-PHEP policy, allocating funds for CE-PHEP, having strong support from community-based organizations, and employing a coordinator with prior CE experience. Promising ways to engage community partners more fully in the PHEP enterprise are institutionalizing CE-PHEP objectives, employing sufficient and skilled staff, leveraging current community-based organization support, and

  14. The role of national system of radiological survey in short, intermediate and long term monitoring the environment radioactivity and health status in uranium industry areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Alina; Milu, C.

    2000-01-01

    The environment radioactivity survey in Romania is performed by CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) national network. The health status survey of population is carried out by national network of Health Ministry which comprises 23 laboratories. The tasks of the these networks are the following: assessment of natural and artificial irradiation of occupationally exposed personnel and population, as well as goods used by them; determination of population irradiation, survey of environment, food and human internal contamination; survey of health status of the population exposed to radiation, monitoring the medical checkups of the occupationally exposed personnel as well as their dosimetric monitoring; specific enactment, authorization and supervision of nuclear facilities, sanitary expertise and medical examinations; educational activities related to hygiene, radiotoxicology, radioecology and radiobiology. (authors)

  15. The Italian national survey on radon indoors run by several different regional laboratories: Sampling strategy, realization and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, F.; Risica, S.; Piermattei, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper outlines the criteria and organization adopted by the Italian National Institutions in carrying out a representative national survey to evaluate the distribution of radon concentration and the exposure of the Italian population to natural radiation indoors. The main items of the survey - i.e. sampling design, choice of the sample size (5000 dwellings), organization, analysis of the actual sample structure, questionnaire to collect data about families and their dwellings, experimental set up and communication with the public - are discussed. Some results, concerning a first fraction of the total sample, are also presented. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Trends in prevalence of leisure time physical activity and inactivity: results from Australian National Health Surveys 1989 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Josephine; Chey, Tien; Burks-Young, Sarah; Engelen, Lina; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-12-01

    To examine trends in leisure time physical activity and inactivity in Australians aged 15 years or older from 1989 to 2011. We used data from six Australian National Health Surveys conducted from 1989/90 to 2011/12 in which physical activity was assessed using comparable questions. Analyses examined trends in the prevalence of sufficient physical activity (≥150 minutes/week moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and of inactivity (benefits from sufficient physical activity. Maintenance of consistent physical activity questions in future National Health Surveys will facilitate long term tracking of physical activity levels in the Australian population. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Sub-national population policy: the case of North Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1989-04-01

    Since the 1970s, Indonesia has placed increasing emphasis on the development of stronger planning capacity at the regional level; however, the concept of regional autonomy is still viewed with suspicion given Indonesia's history of regional separatist movements. This fact has implications for the need for national population policy to be formulated and implemented with a view toward the varying conditions faced by different provinces and regions. The author presents a case study of fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization, and the development of human capital in 1 Indonesian province--North Sulawesi--to illustrate that special characteristics and internal diversity can demand individualized responses by policy makers. In terms of these 5 areas, the following observations can be made about conditions in North Sulawesi: 1) mortality rates are already below the national average, although infant mortality remains unacceptably high; 2) fertility rates are also well below the national average and approaching replacement level without any aggressive family planning outreach activities, but there remains a need to identify the ultimate fertility target and the extent to which intervention is required; 3) there is little scope for absorbing transmigrants, but there are some major issues regarding population redistribution within the province; 4) although there are no large cities, the increasing dominance of Manado is a concern; and 5) the quality of education and an employment structure to match the well-educated labor force are more important than an expansion of these services. A central concern is the ability of North Sulawesi to prevent "brain drain" to Jakarta; however, the province's capacity to do so is dependent on decisions made in Jakarta about the allocation of revenue, regulations regarding the processing of copra and cloves, new air routes, and the extent of regional autonomy to be tolerated in decisions affecting provincial growth.

  18. Serologic survey in a chamois population of Abruzzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gentile

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of the Abruzzo National Park wildlife health management program, serum samples from 62 free-living and captive Abruzzo chamois, Rupicapra (pyrenaica ornata, were tested to estimate antibody presence to some pathogenous agents. The serum, drawn during chemical immobilisations for introductions or population study programs, were tested for: bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1, parainfluenza virus (PI3, pesti virus, foot and mouth disease virus (FMD type O-A-C, bovine leukemia virus (BLV, ovicaprini lentivirus, encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, S-phase brucellae, leptospira interrogans, mycobacterium paratuberculosis, chlamydia psittaci, coxiella burnetii, rickettsia mooseri and conori and toxoplasrna gondii. Twenty-three subjects were found positive to BHV-1 (7/62, pestivirus (6/62, EMCV (8/62, leptospira (5/62 and toxoplasma (4/62. Results did not indicate any active infection but only contact with some pathogenic agents.

  19. Conducting Anonymous, Incentivized, Online Surveys With Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents: Lessons Learned From a National Polyvictimization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzing, Paul R; Gartner, Rachel E; McGeough, Briana L

    2018-03-01

    Sexual and gender minority adolescents represent an understudied and hard-to-reach population who experience higher rates of mental and behavioral health problems in comparison to their cisgender, heterosexual peers. Online surveys and the proliferation of Internet-connected devices among adolescents offer an exciting opportunity for researchers to begin addressing research gaps and past methodological limitations with these hard-to-reach populations. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance to researchers who are designing and implementing anonymous, incentivized, online surveys by examining the following critical domains-(a) recruitment and engagement: means of leveraging social media and videos to recruit and engage a more nationally representative sample; (b) safety and protection: strategies for administering informed consent and protecting participant anonymity and well-being; and (c) data integrity: mechanisms to detect dishonest and repeat responders. To facilitate discussion of these aims, concrete examples are used from SpeakOut-a 3-year, national study funded by the National Institute of Justice that utilized an anonymous, incentivized, online survey with a large sample of sexual and gender minority adolescents ( N = 1,177) to identify the prevalence, incidence, and correlates of polyvictimization. The article concludes with lessons learned from this national study and recommendations for technological innovations and future research that will strengthen the utility of anonymous, incentivized, online surveys to study sexual and gender minority adolescents and other hard-to-reach populations.

  20. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey: report of methods and population surveyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, J A; Wilby, K; McMullen, E; Laporte, K

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of health risk due to environmental contaminants depends upon accurate estimates of the distribution of population exposures. Exposure assessment, in turn, requires information on the time people spend in micro-environments and their activities during periods of exposure. This paper describes preliminary results including study methodology and population sampled in a large Canadian survey of time-activity patterns. A 24-hour diary recall survey was performed in 2381 households (representing a 65% response rate) to describe in detail the timing, location and activity pattern of one household member (the adult or child with the next birthday). Four cities (Toronto, Vancouver, Edmonton and Saint John, NB) and their suburbs were sampled by random-digit dialling over a nine-month period in 1994/1995. Supplemental questionnaires inquiring about sociodemographic information, house and household characteristics and potential exposure to toxins in the air and water were also administered. In general, the results show that respondents spend the majority of their time indoors (88.6%) with smaller proportions of time outdoors (6.1%) and in vehicles (5.3%). Children under the age of 12 spend more time both indoors and outdoors and less time in transit than do adults. The data from this study will be used to define more accurately the exposure of Canadians to a variety of toxins in exposure assessment models and to improve upon the accuracy of risk assessment for a variety of acute and chronic health effects known or suspected to be related to environmental exposures.

  1. Methodology of the National School-based Health Survey in Malaysia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings. © 2014 APJPH.

  2. [Alcohol's impact on children and families. A population survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florenzano, Ramón; Echeverría, Ángela; Sieverson, Catalina; Barr, Michelle; Fernández, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is widely used among young families, and leisure time is frequently family time. Heavy alcohol consumption can adversely affect children. The objective of this work is to measure the harm to others in Chile. This descriptive and probabilistic study forms part of a collaborative research funded by Thai Health and WHO. The survey was adapted by co-researchers and applied to a nationally representative sample of 1500 Chileans over 18years of age. A total of 408 respondents (27.2%) lived with children at home. Of this total, 10.5% felt that the use of alcohol by any member of the family had adversely affected a child. The most common adverse effects were verbal violence (29.7%), domestic violence (23.1%), unsupervised homes (18.7%), lack of money to provide basic needs of the child (14.3%), and physical violence (7.7%). Furthermore, in 6.6% of the cases child or family services agencies became involved. In almost half of the cases (46.3%), the drinker was the father, mother or step-parents. This was followed by other relatives (24.4%) and brothers (4.9%), or guardian of the child (2.4%). These data support the clinical observation that alcohol is common in Chilean homes. Its consumption not only damages the physical and mental health of the drinker but also those around him. Verbal violence and witnessing serious physical violence are frequent issues, as well as economic problems that end up with the inability to provide the child with its basic needs. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. [''Liva"--population survey of female sexual habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Munk, Christian; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger

    2010-11-22

    Sexual and contraceptive habits, e.g. early age at first intercourse, multiple sexual partners and non-use of condoms, are well-established risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy. The aim was to examine if and how educational level and degree of urbanization are related to age at first intercourse, lifetime number of sexual partners and condom use. We used data from a large population-based questionnaire survey conducted during 2004-2005, including a random sample of 20,478 women (18-45 years) (participation rate: 81.4%). We used multiple logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (OR) of early sexual debut (≤ 15 years old), having had > 5 lifetime sexual partners and never-use of condoms associated with educational level and degree of urbanization. The OR of having had an early sexual debut was almost twofold higher among women with a lower educational level (OR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.73-2.15) than among women with higher educational level, and the OR of having had > 5 lifetime sexual partners was highest among women in the capital centre (OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 2.16-2.57) compared with women in the small provincial town areas. Furthermore, the OR of never-use of condoms was 2.53 (95% CI: 2.15-2.97) for women with a lower educational level compared with those with a higher educational level (mutually adjusted for age, degree of urbanization and educational level). Low educational level is associated with young age at first sexual intercourse and never-use of condoms, and living in an area of high urbanization is associated with a higher lifetime number of sexual partners. This information may be of importance for prevention in relation to women's reproductive health.

  4. Prevalence of dementia-associated disability among Chinese older adults: results from a national sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-03-01

    Due to rapid population aging and a tidal wave of dementia, dementia has become an urgent public health issue in China. Few large-scale surveys on dementia have been conducted in China and little was known about the magnitude of dysfunction and disability caused by dementia. In this study, using national sample survey data, we aimed to describe the prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability, its associated factors, and daily activities and social functions of people with dementia-associated disability in Chinese older adults. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification for dementia was based on consensus manuals. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted numbers, weighted prevalence, and the odd ratios (ORs) were calculated. The prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability was 4.64% (95% CI: 4.26-5.01) and it accounted for 41.03% of mental disability among Chinese older adults. Urban residence (OR: 1.33 [1.12-1.57]), older age (80+ years) (OR: 4.12 [3.38-.03]), illiteracy (OR: 1.79 [1.27-2.53]), and currently not married (OR: 1.15 [1.00-1.32]) were associated with increased risk of dementia-associated disability. Compared with those with mental disability of other causes and those with other types of disabilities, older adults with dementia-asscoiated disability were more likely to have severe or extreme difficulty in daily activities and social functions. Countermeasures are warranted to obtain a more precise overview of dementia in China, and strategies on enhancing early identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed for people with dementia. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic gastritis in China: a national multi-center survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiqi; Bai, Yu; Xie, Pei; Fang, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaozhong; Hou, Xiaohua; Tian, Dean; Wang, Chengdang; Liu, Yandi; Sha, Weihong; Wang, Bangmao; Li, Yanqing; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Yan; Shi, Ruihua; Xu, Jianming; Li, Youming; Huang, Minghe; Han, Shengxi; Liu, Jie; Ren, Xu; Xie, Pengyan; Wang, Zhangliu; Cui, Lihong; Sheng, Jianqiu; Luo, Hesheng; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Dai, Ning; Nie, Yuqiang; Zou, Yiyou; Xia, Bing; Fan, Zhining; Chen, Zhitan; Lin, Sanren; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2014-02-07

    Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR = 4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy.

  6. Chronic gastritis in China: a national multi-center survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. Methods A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Results Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR = 4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. Conclusions The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy. PMID:24502423

  7. Internal migration and the health of the returned population: a nationally representative study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Guoying; Wu, Shaolong

    2015-07-28

    China had 236 million internal migrants in 2012 and the majority of them migrated from rural to urban areas. The research based on medical and epidemical records found that the migrants had worse health than the urban residents, but the household and working place investigations reported better health status. The sick or unhealthy migrants are likely to return to their hometowns, which in turn may cause a report bias or over-estimation of the health status of rural-to-urban migrants in China. This paper explores the association of migration status and the physical and psychological health of Chinese internal migrants. Nationally representative household survey data from the China Labor-force Dynamics Survey 2012 (CLDS) were used to analyze the association between the migration status and the health status of internal migrants in China. Migration status of the respondents was measured by hukou status and migration experience and all respondents were divided into four groups: returned population, migrant population, urban residents, and rural residents. Health status of respondents was measured by self-reported physical and psychological health. Migration experience was associated with the physical health of the returned population. The physical health of the returned population was worse than the migrant population and was distinguished by age and sex. The physical health status of migrant population was significantly better than rural residents, but not significantly better than urban residents. However, the association between migration status and psychological health was not statistically significant. Besides migration status, the socioeconomic status (SES) had a positive correlation with both physical and psychological health status, while occupational hazards exerted negative influence. The results indicate a tight association between migration experience and health status. The internal unhealthy migrants were more likely to return to their hometown and the

  8. The Influence of Israel Health Insurance Law on the Negev Bedouin Population — A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of universal health service insurance to national populations is a relatively new phenomenon. Since 1995, the Israeli National Health Insurance Law (NHIL has provided universal health services to every resident, but the effect of this law on health and health services among minorities has not been examined sufficiently. The goals of this study were to track some of the first changes engendered by the NHIL among the Negev Bedouin Arabs to examine the effects of universal health care services. Methods included analysis of historical and health policy documents, three field appraisals of health care services (1994, 1995, 1999, a region-wide interview survey of Negev Bedouins (1997, and key informant interviews. For the interview survey, a sample of 515 households was chosen from different Bedouin localities representing major sedentarization stages. Results showed that prior to the NHIL, a substantial proportion of the Negev Bedouins were uninsured with limited, locally available health service. Since 1995, health services, particularly primary care clinics and health manpower, have dramatically expanded. The initial expansion appears to have been a marketing ploy, but real improvements have occurred. There was a high level of health service utilization among the Bedouins in the Negev, especially private medical services, hospitals, and night ambulatory medical services. The NHIL brought change to the structure of health services in Israel, namely the institution of a national health system based on proportional allocation of resources (based on size and age and open competition in the provision of quality health care. The expansion of the pool of potential members engendered by the new universal coverage had profound effects on the Health Funds' attitudes towards Negev Bedouins. In addition, real consumer choice was introduced for the first time. Although all the health care needs of this rapidly growing population have yet to be met

  9. The National Eutrophication Survey: lake characteristics and historical nutrient concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stachelek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical ecological surveys serve as a baseline and provide context for contemporary research, yet many of these records are not preserved in a way that ensures their long-term usability. The National Eutrophication Survey (NES database is currently only available as scans of the original reports (PDF files with no embedded character information. This limits its searchability, machine readability, and the ability of current and future scientists to systematically evaluate its contents. The NES data were collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency between 1972 and 1975 as part of an effort to investigate eutrophication in freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Although several studies have manually transcribed small portions of the database in support of specific studies, there have been no systematic attempts to transcribe and preserve the database in its entirety. Here we use a combination of automated optical character recognition and manual quality assurance procedures to make these data available for analysis. The performance of the optical character recognition protocol was found to be linked to variation in the quality (clarity of the original documents. For each of the four archival scanned reports, our quality assurance protocol found an error rate between 5.9 and 17 %. The goal of our approach was to strike a balance between efficiency and data quality by combining entry of data by hand with digital transcription technologies. The finished database contains information on the physical characteristics, hydrology, and water quality of about 800 lakes in the contiguous US (Stachelek et al.(2017, https://doi.org/10.5063/F1639MVD. Ultimately, this database could be combined with more recent studies to generate meta-analyses of water quality trends and spatial variation across the continental US.

  10. The National Eutrophication Survey: lake characteristics and historical nutrient concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelek, Joseph; Ford, Chanse; Kincaid, Dustin; King, Katelyn; Miller, Heather; Nagelkirk, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Historical ecological surveys serve as a baseline and provide context for contemporary research, yet many of these records are not preserved in a way that ensures their long-term usability. The National Eutrophication Survey (NES) database is currently only available as scans of the original reports (PDF files) with no embedded character information. This limits its searchability, machine readability, and the ability of current and future scientists to systematically evaluate its contents. The NES data were collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency between 1972 and 1975 as part of an effort to investigate eutrophication in freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Although several studies have manually transcribed small portions of the database in support of specific studies, there have been no systematic attempts to transcribe and preserve the database in its entirety. Here we use a combination of automated optical character recognition and manual quality assurance procedures to make these data available for analysis. The performance of the optical character recognition protocol was found to be linked to variation in the quality (clarity) of the original documents. For each of the four archival scanned reports, our quality assurance protocol found an error rate between 5.9 and 17 %. The goal of our approach was to strike a balance between efficiency and data quality by combining entry of data by hand with digital transcription technologies. The finished database contains information on the physical characteristics, hydrology, and water quality of about 800 lakes in the contiguous US (Stachelek et al.(2017), https://doi.org/10.5063/F1639MVD). Ultimately, this database could be combined with more recent studies to generate meta-analyses of water quality trends and spatial variation across the continental US.

  11. Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2013-08-01

    Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ≥19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised.

  12. The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and human exposure to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M

    2012-02-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in using human biomonitoring - the measurement of chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in biological specimens/body fluids - for investigating exposure to environmental chemicals. General population human biomonitoring programs are useful for investigating human exposure to environmental chemicals and an important tool for integrating environment and health. One of these programs, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), conducted in the United States is designed to collect data on the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized, civilian U.S. population. NHANES includes a physical examination, collecting a detailed medical history, and collecting biological specimens (i.e., blood and urine). These biological specimens can be used to assess exposure to environmental chemicals. NHANES human biomonitoring data can be used to establish reference ranges for selected chemicals, provide exposure data for risk assessment, and monitor exposure trends. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. A national-wide survey of radon and gamma radiation levels in Australian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langaroo, M.K.; Wise, K.N.; Duggleby, J.K.; Kotler, L.H.

    1990-04-01

    A nation-wide survey of Australian homes has been conducted to determine the average annual doses to the Australian population from exposure to radon and gamma radiation. The exposure to radon was measured using solid state track detectors (SSTD) whilst the gamma radiation dose was concurrently determined using thermoluminescent dosimetry. Dosemeters were placed in approximately 3400 randomly distributed homes (representing about 1 in 1400 occupied dwellings) for twelve months. The measured annual average radon concentration in Australian homes is 12 Bq m -3 . Using appropriate conversion factors, the annual average effective dose equivalents to the Australian population were determined to be 0.6 mSv and 0.9 mSv for radon and gamma radiation respectively. 20 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  14. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) - NMVCCS XML Case Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  15. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 4-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 8-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the 8-year 2002-2009 data...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 2-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Carson National Forest, New Mexico, Part of Rio Arriba County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Misperceptions of "light" cigarettes abound: National survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many smokers believe that "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, which is at variance with the scientific evidence. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC aims to address this problem in Article 11 which deals with misleading labelling of tobacco products. In this study we aimed to determine smokers' use and beliefs concerning "light" and "mild" cigarettes ("lights", including in relation to ethnicity, deprivation and other socio-demographic characteristics. Methods The New Zealand (NZ arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project uses as its sampling frame the NZ Health Survey. This is a national sample with boosted sampling of Maori, Pacific peoples and Asians. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376 about use and beliefs relating to "light" cigarettes. We assessed the associations with smoking "lights" after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, and smoking-related behaviours and beliefs. Results Many smokers of "lights" believed that smoking "lights" made it easier to quit smoking (25%, that "lights" are less harmful (42%, and that smokers of "lights" take in less tar (43%. Overall most "lights" smokers (60% had at least one of these three beliefs, a proportion significantly higher than for smokers of "regular" cigarettes at 45% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.29 – 2.96. While "lights" smokers had significantly lower tobacco consumption and were more aware of smoking harms, they were no more likely to be intending to quit or have made a previous quit attempt. By ethnicity, both Maori and Pacific people were less likely to smoke "lights" than Europeans (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.35 – 0.80 and aOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05 – 0.40 respectively. In contrast there was no significant difference by level of deprivation. Roll-your-own (RYO tobacco smokers were less likely to smoke "light" forms of RYO tobacco while both older and women

  1. National roadside survey of child restraint system use in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Roynard; Peter, Silverans; Yvan, Casteels; Philippe, Lesire

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011 the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI) conducted its first roadside survey of child restraint system (CRS) use and misuse. The aim of this study was to obtain population-bases estimates of the prevalence of use and misuse of CRS and to identify predictors of misuse on the basis of observations in real traffic conditions. The survey was conducted on randomly selected sites across the country, stratified across various types of journeys. The principal parameters analysed were: the characteristics of the children and the car drivers, type of journey, types of CRS and types of misuse. The sample consisted of 1461 children (under 135cm) for whom the conditions of restraint were observed in detail and the driver was interviewed. At least 50% of the children were not correctly restrained and 10% were not restrained at all. The most significant factors associated with CRS use were the use of a seatbelt by the driver (31% of unrestrained children for unbelted drivers, compared to 7% for belted drivers - only 32% of correctly restrained children for unbelted drivers compared to 54% for belted drivers), whether the CRS was bought in a specialized shop (only 27% of misuse compared to 45% of misuse for CRS both in supermarkets) and the age of the children. The proportion of correctly restrained children (appropriate without misuse, the bottom category in the figure) has a roughly curvilinear relation with age; decreasing from 75% at age 0 to 24% at age 8 and going back up to 63% at age 10. Although the sample of ISOFIX users was small (n=76), it appears that the ISOFIX system reduced misuse significantly. Most of the drivers were ignorant of their own errors concerning the inappropriateness and/or misuse of the CRS or they were remiss and underestimated the risk. The three main reasons given by the drivers to explain or justify the misuse noticed were: low attention level to safety (inattention, time pressure, and short distance), the child's resistance to

  2. Nutritional status and its correlates in Equatorial Guinean preschool children: results from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Estefanía; Descalzo, Miguel Angel; Roche, Jesús; Sánchez, Ignacio; Molina, Laura; Lwanga, Magdalena; Bernis, Cristina; Villamor, Eduardo; Baylin, Ana

    2008-03-01

    In Equatorial Guinea, as a result of the recent growth of the oil industry, there is an opportunity to address important public health problems through public and private initiatives. To propose effective nutrition and public health strategies, it is important first to have reliable information on the nutritional status of the population and the underlying factors affecting it. To assess the nutritional status and the prevalence of anemia among Equatoguinean children in a nationally representative sample and to identify the risk factors associated with the nutritional problems detected. The study was a cross-sectional survey using a multistaged, stratified, cluster-selected sample. The survey included a sociodemographic, health, and dietary questionnaire and measurement of hematocrit and anthropometric features, from which nutritional indicators based on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference and the World Health Organization (WHO) standards were calculated. Logistic regression models were used for the multivariate analysis. A total of 552 children aged 0 to 60 months were surveyed. The overall prevalence of stunting (hemoglobin hemoglobin education, should be undertaken.

  3. Drug resistance in Mexico: results from the National Survey on Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez-Chapela, I; Bäcker, C E; Orejel, I; López, A; Díaz-Quiñonez, A; Hernández-Serrato, M I; Balandrano, S; Romero, M; Téllez-Rojo Solís, M M; Castellanos, M; Alpuche, C; Hernández-Ávila, M; López-Gatell, H

    2013-04-01

    To present estimations obtained from a population-level survey conducted in Mexico of prevalence rates of mono-, poly- and multidrug-resistant strains among newly diagnosed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), as well as the main factors associated with multidrug resistance (combined resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin). Study data came from the National Survey on TB Drug Resistance (ENTB-2008), a nationally representative survey conducted during 2008-2009 in nine states with a stratified cluster sampling design. Samples were obtained for all newly diagnosed cases of pulmonary TB in selected sites. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed for anti-tuberculosis drugs. DST results were obtained for 75% of the cases. Of these, 82.2% (95%CI 79.5-84.7) were susceptible to all drugs. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was estimated at 2.8% (95%CI 1.9-4.0). MDR-TB was associated with previous treatment (OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.1-9.4). The prevalence of drug resistance is relatively low in Mexico. ENTB-2008 can be used as a baseline for future follow-up of drug resistance.

  4. A national survey of the prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths in Malaŵi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaba Bina

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past estimates have put the prevalence of schistosomiasis between 40% and 50% in the Malawi population overall based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. More recent surveys in known high risk areas find similar levels. However control measures, changing ecology and migration may have led to changes in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in different parts of Malawi. A national schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH survey was undertaken to measure the distribution, prevalence and intensity of infection in November 2002. Methods A school was selected randomly from a random sample of 30 Traditional Authorities stratified by six distinct ecological zones, and 1,664 year 3 pupils (9–10 year olds were questioned about recent illnesses and "red urine". Samples of urine and faeces were examined for the presence of eggs using the standard Kato-Katz technique for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal schistosomiasis and urine samples using the filtration technique for Schistosoma haematobium. Results The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is 0.4% (95% CI 0–1.3%, S. haematobium 6.9% (95% CI 1.9 – 11.9%, hookworm 1.3% (95% CI 0.4–2.3%, Ascariasis 0.5% (95% CI 0.1–1.0% and trichuriasis 0% in year 3 pupils (modal age 10 years of age. Intensity of infection is low for all infections except for 2.5% who have high intensity S. haematobium infection. The "red urine" question is 67% sensitive and 80% specific for positive S. haematobium microscopy. Conclusions The reduction in prevalences may be real as a result of recent control measures, or false if historical results were based on surveys of high risk populations. Another explanation is that this survey used an unrepresentative sample of schools. Detailed analysis suggests this is unlikely. Recommendations include the use of a 30% positive threshold for the "red urine" screening question to be used in schoolchildren in high prevalence areas. This survey

  5. Measuring the Health of an Invisible Population: Lessons from the Colorado Transgender Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Robin; Mellies, Amy Anderson; Bui, Alison Grace; Lee, Rita; Kattari, Leo; Gray, Courtney

    2018-05-15

    Transgender people, those whose gender identity does not match their sex assigned at birth, face barriers to receiving health care. These include discrimination, prohibitive cost, and difficulty finding transgender-inclusive providers. As transgender identities are not typically recognized in public health research, the ability to compare the health of the transgender population to the overall population is limited. The Colorado Transgender Health Survey sought to explore current disparities and their effects on the health of transgender people in Colorado. The Colorado Transgender Health Survey, based on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), was developed by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, transgender advocates, and transgender community members. Outreach was targeted to transgender-inclusive events and organizations. Responses to the 2014 Colorado Transgender Health Survey were compared side by side to Colorado 2014 BRFSS data. Results from 406 transgender or gender-nonconforming adults who live in Colorado were included in the analysis. Forty percent of respondents report delaying medical care due to cost, inadequate insurance, and/or fear of discrimination. Respondents report significant mental health concerns, with 43% reporting depression, 36% reporting suicidal thoughts, and 10% attempting suicide in the past year. Respondents with a transgender-inclusive provider were more likely to receive wellness exams (76 versus 48%), less likely to delay care due to discrimination (24 versus 42%), less depressed (38 versus 54%), and less likely to attempt suicide (7 versus 15%) than those without. The transgender community in Colorado faces significant disparities, especially around mental health. However, a transgender-inclusive provider is associated with improved mental and physical health and health behaviors. Further population-level research and provider education on transgender health should to be incorporated into

  6. Fossil energy versus nuclear, wind, solar and agricultural biomass: Insights from an Italian national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicia, Gianni; Cembalo, Luigi; Del Giudice, Teresa; Palladino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In Italy there has been considerable political debate around the new energy policy, which is specifically designed to contribute to climate change mitigation. While there is renewed interest in nuclear energy generation, there has been heated debate concerning wind farms that have rapidly expanded and are dramatically changing the landscape in many rural areas. Finally, interest has also increased in biomass as an energy source. However, in this case, a significant part of the population is worried about landscape change and primary crop reduction. In this study we report the results from a nation-wide survey (=504 households) in Italy undertaken during summer 2009. A Latent Class Choice Experiment was used to quantify household preferences over different energy sources. Our results show that Italian households can be split into three segments with homogeneous preferences. The first segment (35% of the population) shows strong preference for wind and solar energy and dislikes both biomass and nuclear. The second (33% of the population) shows moderate preference for solar and wind energy and, as with the first segment, dislikes both nuclear and biomass. The third (32% of the population) shows a strong preference for green energy (solar, wind and biomass) and is very much against nuclear energy. The three segments were also characterized in terms of household socio-economic characteristics. - Highlights: ► We quantify Italian household preferences over different energy sources. ► Results come from a nation-wide survey undertaken during summer 2009. ► Energy sources tested: fossil fuel, nuclear, wind, solar and agricultural biomass. ► A latent class choice experiment was used. ► Italians can be split into three segments with different energy source preferences.

  7. DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, H U; Zhao, S; Kessler, R C; Eaton, W W

    1994-05-01

    Nationally representative general population data are presented on the current, 12-month, and lifetime prevalence of DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as well as on risk factors, comorbidity, and related impairments. The data are from the National Comorbidity Survey, a large general population survey of persons aged 15 to 54 years in the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States. DSM-III-R GAD was assessed by lay interviewers using a revised version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Generalized anxiety disorder was found to be a relatively rare current disorder with a current prevalence of 1.6% but was found to be a more frequent lifetime disorder affecting 5.1% of the US population aged 15 to 45 years. Generalized anxiety disorder was twice as common among women as among men. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being older than 24 years, separated, widowed, divorced, unemployed, and a homemaker are significant correlates of GAD. Consistent with studies in treatment samples, we found that GAD was frequently associated with a wide spectrum of other mental disorders, with a lifetime comorbidity among 90.4% of the people who had a history of GAD. Contrary to the traditional view that GAD is a mild disorder, we found that the majority of people with GAD, whether they were comorbid or not, reported substantial interference with their life, a high degree of professional help seeking, and a high use of medication because of their GAD symptoms. Although lifetime GAD is highly comorbid, the proportion of current GAD that is not accompanied by any other current diagnosis is high enough to indicate that GAD should be considered an independent disorder rather than exclusively a residual or prodrome of other disorders.

  8. Do patient surveys work? The influence of a national survey programme on local quality-improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R; Seccombe, I

    2008-12-01

    To assess current attitudes towards the national patient survey programme in England, establish the extent to which survey results are used and identify barriers and incentives for using them. Qualitative interviews with hospital staff responsible for implementing the patient surveys (survey leads). National Health Service (NHS) hospital organisations (trusts) in England. Twenty-four patient survey leads for NHS trusts. Perceptions of the patient surveys were mainly positive and were reported to be improving. Interviewees welcomed the surveys' regular repetition and thought the questionnaires, survey methods and reporting of results, particularly inter-organisational benchmark charts, were of a good standard. The survey results were widely used in action planning and were thought to support organisational patient-centredness. There was variation in the extent to which trusts disseminated survey findings to patients, the public, staff and their board members. The most common barrier to using results was difficulty engaging clinicians because survey findings were not sufficiently specific to specialties, departments or wards. Limited statistical expertise and concerns that the surveys only covered a short time frame also contributed to some scepticism. Other perceived barriers included a lack of knowledge of effective interventions, and limited time and resources. Actual and potential incentives for using survey findings included giving the results higher weightings in the performance management system, financial targets, Payment by Results (PbR), Patient Choice, a patient-centred culture, leadership by senior members of the organisation, and boosting staff morale by disseminating positive survey findings. The national patient surveys are viewed positively, their repetition being an important factor in their success. The results could be used more effectively if they were more specific to smaller units.

  9. Nursing procedures during continuous renal replacement therapies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Benelli, Sonia; Barbarigo, Fabio; Cocozza, Giulia; Pettinelli, Noemi; Di Luca, Emanuela; Mettifogo, Mariangela; Toniolo, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The current role of nurses in the management of critically ill patients needing continuous renal replacement therapies is clearly fundamental. The care of these complex patients is typically shared by critical care and dialysis nurses: their precise duties may vary from country to country. To clarify this issue we conducted a national-level survey at a recent Italian course on nursing practices during continuous renal replacement therapies. A total of 119 questionnaires were analysed. The participants, who were equally divided between critical care and dialysis nurses, came from 44 different hospitals and 35 Italian cities. Overall, 23% of participants answered that "the dialysis staff" were responsible for continuous renal replacement therapies in the Intensive Care Unit, while 39% answered "the critical care nurse", and 38% "a shared organization". Interestingly, less than the half of participants claimed specific continuous renal replacement therapies training was provided to employees before handling an acute dialysis machine. Finally, about 60% of participants had experience of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation machines used in conjunction with continuous renal replacement therapies. Workload coordination and management of critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapies in Italy is not standardized. At present, the duties of critical care and dialysis nurses vary significantly across the country. They frequently overlap or leave gaps in the assistance received by patients. The role of nurses involved in the care of continuous renal replacement therapies patients in Italy currently requires better organization, possibly starting with intensive standardized training and educational programs.

  10. Contextualizing educational differences in "vaccination uptake": A thirty nation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarovs, Kirils; Achterberg, Peter

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses the issue of public acceptance of vaccination with specific attention being paid to the role of education in vaccine uptake. Using Flash Eurobarometer 287 (2009) survey data and exploring it through the lens of Beck's reflexive modernization and Roger's protection motivation theories we examined how individual-level factors affect intention to get vaccinated, particularly aimed at examining whether higher education predicts more or less vaccination intention in different societies. The empirical results support an idea that at least for seasonal flu educational differences in vaccination uptake are contextual upon the reflexivity of the society in which respondent happens to live. Educated people living in more reflexive modernized countries tend to oppose vaccination against seasonal flu more that those highly educated living in less advanced societies, indicating that skeptical attitude towards science that is intrinsic to the modern post-industrial nations induces the immunization opposition among most informed and distrustful social group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [French residents' training in instrumental deliveries: A national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, C; Raimond, E; Dupont, A; Pelissier, A; Bonneau, S; Gabriel, R; Graesslin, O

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate French residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology's training in instrumental deliveries in 2015. We conducted a national descriptive survey among 758 residents between December 2014 and January 2015. Respondents were invited by email to specify their University Hospital, their current university term, the number of instrumental deliveries performed by vacuum extractor, forceps or spatulas, and whether they made systematic ultrasound exams before performing the extraction. Response rate was 34.7 % (n=263). There were important differences between regions in terms of type of instruments used. Vacuum extractor was the most commonly used instrument for instrumental deliveries by French residents (56.9 %), more than forceps (25.2 %) and spatulas (17.9 %). At the end of the residency, all the residents had been trained in instrumental deliveries with at least two instruments. The training of difficult techniques as well as their perfect control is required for instrumental deliveries. Yet, we are forced to note that there are substantial differences in the French residents' training in instrumental deliveries depending on their region. So, teaching at least two techniques seems essential as well as improving the training capacities and standardizing practices. A greater systematization of the teaching of the mechanics and obstetric techniques might be a solution to be considered too. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Media education in pediatric residencies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Frintner, Mary Pat; Mulligan, Deborah A; Fuld, Gilbert L; Olson, Lynn M

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the current state of residency education with respect to counseling parents about media usage and whether trainees consider it to be adequate. A national survey of graduating pediatric residents was conducted in the United States to determine the amount of training they receive on traditional and new media, their perceptions of its quality, and their self-reported practices regarding talking to families about media usage. A 58% response rate was achieved with no evidence of response bias based on age or gender. Only 38% rated their residency program as "very good" or "excellent" in preparing them to provide anticipatory guidance on the effects of media on children and adolescents. In logistic regression analyses, controlling for demographic characteristics, more training on media issues was a significant predictor for usually/always advising families on traditional, passive media (adjusted odds ratio = 3.29; 95% confidence interval 2.26-4.81) and usually/always advising families on new, interactive media use (adjusted odds ratio = 3.96; 95% confidence interval 2.61-6.00) during well-child visits. The majority of residents believe their training on children in media is inadequate. Enhanced training on media is needed in US pediatric residencies. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perspectives on global health amongst obstetrician gynecologists: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Sarah Rae; Raglan, Greta B; Little, Sarah E; Schulkin, Jay; Robinson, Julian N

    2018-02-01

    Objective To characterize contemporary attitudes toward global health amongst board-certified obstetricians-gynecologists (Ob-Gyns) in the US. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Respondents were stratified by interest and experience in global health and group differences were reported. Results A total of 202 of 400 (50.5%) surveys were completed; and 67.3% ( n = 136) of respondents expressed an interest in global health while 25.2% ( n = 51) had experience providing healthcare abroad. Personal safety was the primary concern of respondents (88 of 185, 47.6%), with 44.5% (57 of 128) identifying 2 weeks as an optimal period of time to spend abroad. The majority (113 of 186, 60.8%) cited hosting of local physicians in the US as the most valuable service to developing a nation's healthcare provision. Conclusion Despite high interest in global health, willingness to spend significant time abroad was limited. Concerns surrounding personal safety dovetailed with the belief that training local physicians in the US provides the most valuable service to international efforts. These attitudes and concerns suggest novel solutions will be required to increase involvement of Ob-Gyns in global women's health.

  14. Nonprobability Web Surveys to Measure Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes in the General Population: A Comparison With a Probability Sample Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. Objective The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Methods Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. Results For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Conclusions Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web

  15. Elephant population growth in Kruger National Park, South Africa, under a landscape management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M. Ferreira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks manage landscapes rather than numbers of elephants (Loxodonta africana to mitigate the effects that elephants may have on biodiversity, tourism and stakeholder conservation values associated with protected areas. This management philosophy imposes spatial variability of critical resources on elephants. Restoration of such ecological processes through less intensive management predicts a reduction in population growth rates from the eras of intensive management. We collated aerial survey data since 1995 and conducted an aerial total count using a helicopter observation platform during 2015. A minimum of 17 086 elephants were resident in the Kruger National Park (KNP in 2015, growing at 4.2% per annum over the last generation of elephants (i.e. 12 years, compared to 6.5% annual population growth noted during the intensive management era ending in 1994. This may come from responses of elephants to density and environmental factors manifested through reduced birth rates and increased mortality rates. Authorities should continue to evaluate the demographic responses of elephants to landscape scale interventions directed at restoring the limitation of spatial variance in resource distribution on elephant spatiotemporal dynamics and the consequences that may have for other conservation values. Conservation implications: Conservation managers should continue with surveying elephants in a way that allows the extraction of key variables. Such variables should focus on measures that reflect on how theory predicts elephants should respond to management interventions.

  16. [National survey of blindness and avoidable visual impairment in Honduras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Doris; Rivera, Belinda; Lagos, Luis; Ochoa, Mayra; Starkman, Ivette; Castillo, Mariela; Flores, Eduardo; Lansingh, Van C; Limburg, Hans; Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Honduras, its causes and the response by the health services to growing demand. A cross-sectional population study was conducted between June and December 2013 using the standard methodology of the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness. A random sample survey was done in 63 clusters of 50 individuals aged ≥ 50, representative of the country as a whole. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed using a Snellen eye chart, and the condition of the lens and posterior pole was examined by direct ophthalmoscopy. Cataract surgical coverage was calculated and an assessment made of its quality, the causes of VA 20/60 with available correction. The main barriers against cataract surgery were cost (27.7%) and the lack of availability or difficulty of geographical access to the treatment (24.6%). The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Honduras is similar to that of other Latin American countries. 67% of cases of blindness could be resolved by improving the response capacity of the ophthalmological services, especially of cataract surgery, improving optician services and incorporating eye care in primary health care.

  17. Population Density Modeling for Diverse Land Use Classes: Creating a National Dasymetric Worker Population Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, N.; Weber, E.; Moehl, J.

    2017-12-01

    Many studies invoke dasymetric mapping to make more accurate depictions of population distribution by spatially restricting populations to inhabited/inhabitable portions of observational units (e.g., census blocks) and/or by varying population density among different land classes. LandScan USA uses this approach by restricting particular population components (such as residents or workers) to building area detected from remotely sensed imagery, but also goes a step further by classifying each cell of building area in accordance with ancillary land use information from national parcel data (CoreLogic, Inc.'s ParcelPoint database). Modeling population density according to land use is critical. For instance, office buildings would have a higher density of workers than warehouses even though the latter would likely have more cells of detection. This paper presents a modeling approach by which different land uses are assigned different densities to more accurately distribute populations within them. For parts of the country where the parcel data is insufficient, an alternate methodology is developed that uses National Land Cover Database (NLCD) data to define the land use type of building detection. Furthermore, LiDAR data is incorporated for many of the largest cities across the US, allowing the independent variables to be updated from two-dimensional building detection area to total building floor space. In the end, four different regression models are created to explain the effect of different land uses on worker distribution: A two-dimensional model using land use types from the parcel data A three-dimensional model using land use types from the parcel data A two