WorldWideScience

Sample records for national petroleum reserve

  1. Seismic Lines in National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska, NPR-A

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a part of U.S. Geological Survey Central Region Energy Resources Team National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska, Legacy Data Archive. The National Petroleum...

  2. Engineering geology studies in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachadoorian, R.; Crory, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been charged with the responsibility of evaluating the petroleum potential of the national Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). To help fulfill its responsibility, the USGS in February 1977 started an engineering geology program to provide the geotechnical support necessary for the exploration program. The USGS requested the U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station (WES) at Vicksburg, Mississippi, and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) at Hanover, New Hampshire, to conduct studies to obtain the physical parameters required to evaluate and solve some of the geotechnical and engineering problems. All of the NPRA is underlain by permafrost, and thus virtually all of the engineering and geotechnical problems encountered during the construction of the well sites and subsequent drilling were associated with permafrost. The widespread occurrence of permafrost containing large amounts of near-surface ground ice in the form of wedges, masses, and intergranular ice required that construction activity not disturb the thermal regime of the ground surface, because such disturbance could lead to thawing of permafrost. Once the permafrost was thawed, ground subsidence, sediment flow, and impassable conditions would result. Construction problems were compounded by the necessity that all construction in the NPRA be done during the winter months to meet the environmental requirements. Therefore, the engineering geology program consistently addressed the impact of the environment on the facilities and the effect of the facilities on the environment.

  3. 78 FR 59952 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and... National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale bid opening for tracts in the National Petroleum... Detailed Statement of Sale for the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 will...

  4. Engineering geology studies in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Crory, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Engineering geology studies were conducted in direct support of the exploration program in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska. The studies included laboratory and field tests and observations to address design and construction problems of airfields, roads, drill pads and foundations, and to evaluate their actual performance. Permafrost containing large amounts of near surface ground ice as wedges, masses, and intergranular ice, required that all construction activity not disturb the thermal regime of the ground surface, which could lead to thaw of permafrost and ground subsidence. Summer activity, therefore was not allowable, yet the winter climate was so harsh that winter work was slow and inefficient. To allow summer operations at well sites planned for all year activity, it was necessary to adapt existing techniques for arctic construction and to devise new ones. The design and construction of facilities at the deep exploration wells at Inigok, Tunalik, and Lisburne posed the greatest challenge. These sites, requiring a year or more to drill, could only be attempted if continuous access to drilling and logistic supplies could be assured throughout the year, including the possibility of bringing in another drill rig, in the event of a blowout. Thus all-seasons airstrips were required at these wells. Sufficient quantities of local gravel were not readily available at the Inigok and Tunalik sites to construct the airstrips with the required 6 feet or more of gravel to prevent the underlying permafrost from thawing. Therefore, insulation was used to maintain the subbase of local sands in a continuously frozen state, which in turn was overlain by 15 inches of gravel or sandy gravel. Tests at the U.S. Army Waterways Experimental Station defined the minimum thickness of gravel required above the insulation to provide the desired bearing capacity for the C-130 type aircraft without crushing the insulation. Field testing also included the evaluation of another design

  5. Engineering geology studies in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Crory, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Engineering geology studies were conducted in direct support of the exploration program in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska. The studies included laboratory and field tests and observations to address design and construction problems of airfields, roads, drill pads and foundations, and to evaluate their actual performance. Permafrost containing large amounts of near surface ground ice as wedges, masses, and intergranular ice, required that all construction activity not disturb the thermal regime of the ground surface, which could lead to thaw of permafrost and ground subsidence. Summer activity, therefore was not allowable, yet the winter climate was so harsh that winter work was slow and inefficient. To allow summer operations at well sites planned for all year activity, it was necessary to adapt existing techniques for arctic construction and to devise new ones. The design and construction of facilities at the deep exploration wells at Inigok, Tunalik, and Lisburne posed the greatest challenge. These sites, requiring a year or more to drill, could only be attempted if continuous access to drilling and logistic supplies could be assured throughout the year, including the possibility of bringing in another drill rig, in the event of a blowout. Thus all-seasons airstrips were required at these wells. Sufficient quantities of local gravel were not readily available at the Inigok and Tunalik sites to construct the airstrips with the required 6 feet or more of gravel to prevent the underlying permafrost from thawing. Therefore, insulation was used to maintain the subbase of local sands in a continuously frozen state, which in turn was overlain by 15 inches of gravel or sandy gravel. Tests at the U.S. Army Waterways Experimental Station defined the minimum thickness of gravel required above the insulation to provide the desired bearing capacity for the C-130 type aircraft without crushing the insulation. Field testing also included the evaluation of another design

  6. Brookian structural plays in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA), two structural plays were assessed in thrust-faulted and folded Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Brookian megasequence. These are the Brookian Topset Structural Play and the Torok Structural Play, located in the Brooks Range foothills and the southern part of the coastal plain, within the Tertiary-age frontal part of the Jurassic to Tertiary Brooks Range orogenic belt. A new regional structural interpretation, developed through regional seismic analyses, reconnaissance field investigations, and new thermal constraints, guided the geologic evaluation and risking of these plays. Volumetric parameters were derived from seismic reflection data, well data and oil and gas field analogs. The fundamental elements of the Brookian Topset Structural Play, exemplified by the undeveloped Umiat oil field, include: (1) reservoirs in Nanushuk Group and uppermost Torok Formation shallow-marine to nonmarine sandstones draped over anticlines caused by structural thickening in underlying Torok mudstones; (2) seals provided by overlying shale drapes in the Nanushuk, and locally by thrust faults; (3) Torok, gamma-ray-zone (GRZ) or pebble shale source rocks; (4) remigration of hydrocarbons from early formed (Late Cretaceous) stratigraphic traps disrupted by 60 Ma thrusting, into newly formed structural traps. The 60 Ma thrusting was probably accompanied by new generation and migration of natural gas resulting from late structural thickening and tectonic loading. Subsurface data from the Umiat field and other seismic reflection data within the play area indicate that the structural traps are commonly compartmentalized by thrust faults. The fundamental elements of the Torok Structural Play, exemplified by the undeveloped East Kurupa gas accumulation just south of NPRA, include: (1) reservoirs in lower Torok Formation basin-floor sandstones, and perhaps in

  7. 2011, 2010 petroleum resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska: GIS play maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides digital geographic information systems (GIS) files of maps for each of the 24 plays considered in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2010 updated petroleum resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) (Houseknecht and others, 2010). These are the sample plays evaluated in a previous USGS assessment of the NPRA (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002a), maps of which were released in pdf format (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002b). The 2010 updated assessment of the NPRA evaluated each of the previously used 24 plays based on new geologic data available from exploration activities and scientific research. Quantitative assessments were revised for 11 plays, and no revisions were made for 9 plays. Estimates of the volume of technically recoverable, undiscovered oil, and nonassociated gas resources in these 20 plays are reported elsewhere (Houseknecht and others, 2010). Four plays quantitatively assessed in 2002 were eliminated from quantitative assessment for reasons explained by Houseknecht and others (2010). The NPRA assessment study area includes Federal and native onshore land and adjacent State offshore areas. A map showing the areal extent of each play was prepared by USGS geologists as a preliminary step in the assessment process. Boundaries were drawn on the basis of a variety of information, including seismic reflection data, results of exploration drilling, and regional patterns of rock properties. Play boundary polygons were captured by digitizing the play maps prepared by USGS geologists.

  8. The 1978 35mm aerial photography program in National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the aerial photography program in 1978 National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska. The study areas, methods, results are provided.

  9. 76 FR 68502 - National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 in the National Petroleum... National Petroleum Reserve- Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 will be available to the public...

  10. Investigations of interior Arctic coastal plain avifauna in National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska: 1977 Singiluk final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document covers the investigations of interior Arctic coastal plains avifauna in national petroleum reserve of Alaska. The effects of petroleum development on...

  11. 77 FR 61022 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and... notifies the public that it will hold a National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale bid... Reserve-- Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 will be available to the public immediately after...

  12. Gravity Data for the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (53,520 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received...

  13. 78 FR 13080 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the National Petroleum Reserve... (ROD) for the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) Final Integrated Activity Plan (IAP). The... Final IAP/EIS on December 19, 2012. The ROD provides opportunities for oil and gas leasing...

  14. 78 FR 33103 - Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas... Bureau of Land Management Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  15. 75 FR 39579 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and... Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale bid opening for tracts in the Northeast Planning Area. The United... Petroleum Reserve- Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 will be available to the public immediately...

  16. Evaluation of techniques used to study vegetation and avifauna in National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska: 1976 NPRA final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report covers the evaluation of techniques used to study vegetation and avifauna in National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska. This is the 1976 NPRA final report. The...

  17. 77 FR 28617 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas lease sale. Available tracts are within the Northeast and Northwest... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  18. 76 FR 36145 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Reserve--Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas lease sale. Available tracts are within the Northeast and Northwest... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve--Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  19. Sequence stratigraphy of the Kingak Shale (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous), National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Beaufortian strata (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) are a focus of exploration since the 1994 discovery of the nearby Alpine oil field (>400 MMBO). These strata include the Kingak Shale, a succession of depositional sequences influenced by rift opening of the Arctic Ocean Basin. Interpretation of sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies from a regional two-dimensional seismic grid and well data allows the definition of four sequence sets that each displays unique stratal geometries and thickness trends across NPRA. A Lower to Middle Jurassic sequence set includes numerous transgressive-regressive sequences that collectively built a clastic shelf in north-central NPRA. Along the south-facing, lobate shelf margin, condensed shales in transgressive systems tracts downlap and coalesce into a basinal condensed section that is likely an important hydrocarbon source rock. An Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sequence set, deposited during pulses of uplift on the Barrow arch, includes multiple transgressive-regressive sequences that locally contain well-winnowed, shoreface sandstones at the base of transgressive systems tracts. These shoreface sandstones and overlying shales, deposited during maximum flooding, form stratigraphic traps that are the main objective of exploration in the Alpine play in NPRA. A Valanginian sequence set includes at least two transgressive-regressive sequences that display relatively distal characteristics, suggesting high relative sea level. An important exception is the presence of a basal transgressive systems tract that locally contains shoreface sandstones of reservoir quality. A Hauterivian sequence set includes two transgressive-regressive sequences that constitute a shelf-margin wedge developed as the result of tectonic uplift along the Barrow arch during rift opening of the Arctic Ocean Basin. This sequence set displays stratal geometries suggesting incision and synsedimentary collapse of the shelf

  20. Importance of the national petroleum reserve-alaska for aquatic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Platte, Robert M; Andres, Brad; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, James A; Larned, William

    2013-12-01

    We used data from aerial surveys (1992-2010) of >100,000 km(2) and ground surveys (1998-2004) of >150 km(2) to estimate the density and abundance of birds on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). In the ground surveys, we used double sampling to estimate detection ratios. We used the aerial survey data to compare densities of birds and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), the major nest predator of birds, on the North Slope, in Prudhoe Bay, and in nearby areas. We partitioned the Prudhoe Bay oil field into 2 × 2 km plots and determined the relation between density of aquatic birds and density of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure in these plots. Abundance and density (birds per square kilometer) of 3 groups of aquatic birds-waterfowl, loons, and grebes; shorebirds; and gulls, terns, and jaegers-were highest in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) and lowest in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Six other major wetlands occur in the Arctic regions of Canada and Russia, but the largest population of aquatic birds was in the NPRA. Aquatic birds were concentrated in the northern part of the NPRA. For example, an area that covered 18% of the NPRA included 53% of its aquatic birds. The aerial surveys showed that bird density was not lower and fox density was not higher in Prudhoe Bay than in surrounding areas. Density of infrastructure did not significantly affect bird density for any group of species. Our results establish that the NPRA is one of the most important areas for aquatic birds in the Arctic. Our results and those of others also indicate that oil production, as practiced in Prudhoe Bay, does not necessarily lead to substantial declines in bird density or productivity in or near the developed areas. Prioridades para la Conservación de Aves en el Norte de Alaska.

  1. Temperatures and interval geothermal-gradient determinations from wells in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D.C.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    Temperature and related records from 28 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) although somewhat constrained from accuracy by data gathering methods, extrapolate to undisturbed formation temperatures at specific depths below permafrost, and lead to calculated geothermal gradients between these depths. Tabulation of the results show that extrapolated undisturbed temperatures range from a minimum of 98?F (37?C) at 4,000 feet (1,220 m) to a maximum of 420?F (216?C) at 20,260 feet (6,177 m) and that geothermal gradients range from 0.34?F/100' (6?C/km) between 4,470 feet to 7,975 feet (Lisburne (1) and 3.15?F/100? (57?C/km) between 6,830 feet to 7,940 feet (Drew Point #1). Essential information needed for extrapolations consists of: time-sequential 'bottom-hole' temperatures during wire-line logging of intermediate and deep intervals of the bore hole; the times that circulating drilling fluids had disturbed the formations; and the subsequent times that non-circulating drilling fluids had been in contact with the formation. In several wells presumed near direct measures of rock temperatures recorded from formation fluids recovered by drill stem tests (DST) across thin (approx. 10-20 foot) intervals are made available. We believe that the results approach actual values close enough to serve as approximations of the thermal regimes in appropriate future investigations. Continuous temperature logs obtained at the start and end of final logging operations, conductivity measurements, and relatively long-term measurements of the recovery from disturbance at shallow depths in many of the wells will permit refinements of our values and provide determination of temperatures at other depths.

  2. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  4. Caribou distribution during calving in the northeast National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, June 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn E. Noel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti of the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd (TCH inhabit the western portion of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain within the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska (NPR-A. Alaska's North Slope communities, management agencies, and private industry are interested in this herd because of its importance as a subsistence resource and location relative to potential petroleum development. From 1998 through 2000, we monitored caribou distribution during the calving period within the Northeast Planning Area of the NPR-A using systematic strip-transect aerial surveys, as well as VHF and satellite telemetry for cow caribou. Aerial survey and telemetry data indicated cows with calves were distributed around Teshekpuk Lake, with a concentration south of the lake in 1999 and 2000. Inconsistencies in weather conditions, survey timing (both strip-transect and VHF surveys, 100% coverage survey areas, and small sample sizes confound interpretations of our results. However, several patterns were apparent. Later transect survey timing (7—12 June versus 4—7 and 5—8 June resulted in more cow/calf pairs recorded. Our 18% coverage area, originally based on VHF telemetry data for the extent of TCH calving, covered a consistently high proportion (95% to 100% of the annual calving ranges (95% kernel utilization distributions, but accounted for only 24% to 46% of the adult cows in the TCH based on the current Alaska Department of Fish and Game population estimate (1999 and average 1998¬2000 herd composition. It appears that either our transect survey methodology significantly underestimated the true number of caribou cows in the study area, many cows calved outside the area or moved into the area and calved after our surveys, or we have over estimated the number of reproductive cows in the herd. Our 100% coverage transect areas covering oil and gas lease areas, contained 38% of the calving range with 23% of TCH cows in 1999; and 18% of

  5. 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Attanasi, E.D.; Garrity, C.P.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Pollastro, R.M.; Cook, T.A.; and Klett, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 53 trillion cubic feet (TCFG) of nonassociated natural gas in conventional, undiscovered accumulations within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent State waters. The estimated volume of undiscovered oil is significantly lower than estimates released in 2002, owing primarily to recent exploration drilling that revealed an abrupt transition from oil to gas and reduced reservoir quality in the Alpine sandstone 15-20 miles west of the giant Alpine oil field. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has been the focus of oil exploration during the past decade, stimulated by the mid-1990s discovery of the adjacent Alpine field-the largest onshore oil discovery in the United States during the past 25 years. Recent activities in NPRA, including extensive 3-D seismic surveys, six Federal lease sales totaling more than $250 million in bonus bids, and completion of more than 30 exploration wells on Federal and Native lands, indicate in key formations more gas than oil and poorer reservoir quality than anticipated. In the absence of a gas pipeline from northern Alaska, exploration has waned and several petroleum companies have relinquished assets in the NPRA. This fact sheet updates U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates of undiscovered oil and gas in NPRA, based on publicly released information from exploration wells completed during the past decade and on the results of research that documents significant Cenozoic uplift and erosion in NPRA. The results included in this fact sheet-released in October 2010-supersede those of a previous assessment completed by the USGS in 2002.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey 2002 Petroleum Resource Assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA): GIS Play Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    This report provides digital GIS files of maps for each of the 24 plays evaluated in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2002 petroleum resource assessment of the NPRA (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002a). These are the same maps released in pdf format by Bird and Houseknecht (2002b). The USGS released in 2002 a summary of the estimated volume of technically recoverable, undiscovered oil and nonassociated gas resources for 24 plays in NPRA (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002b). The NPRA assessment study area includes Federal and Native onshore land and adjacent State offshore areas. A map showing the areal extent of each play was prepared by USGS geologists as a preliminary step in the assessment process. Boundaries were drawn on the basis of a variety of information, including seismic reflection data, results of previous exploration drilling, and regional patterns of rock properties. Play boundary polygons were captured by digitizing the play maps prepared by USGS geologists. Federal, Native, and State areas were later clipped from the play boundary polygons, allowing for acreages to be calculated for entire plays and for various subareas within plays.

  7. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the national petroleum reserve alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Beck, R.A.; Schmutz, J.A.; Winston, B.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  9. Evaluation of gas production potential from gas hydrate deposits in National Petroleum Reserve Alaska using numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandanwar, Manish S.; Anderson, Brian J.; Ajayi, Taiwo; Collett, Timothy S.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of the gas production potential of Sunlight Peak gas hydrate accumulation in the eastern portion of the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) of Alaska North Slope (ANS) is conducted using numerical simulations, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gas hydrate Life Cycle Assessment program. A field scale reservoir model for Sunlight Peak is developed using Advanced Processes & Thermal Reservoir Simulator (STARS) that approximates the production design and response of this gas hydrate field. The reservoir characterization is based on available structural maps and the seismic-derived hydrate saturation map of the study region. A 3D reservoir model, with heterogeneous distribution of the reservoir properties (such as porosity, permeability and vertical hydrate saturation), is developed by correlating the data from the Mount Elbert well logs. Production simulations showed that the Sunlight Peak prospect has the potential of producing 1.53 × 109 ST m3 of gas in 30 years by depressurization with a peak production rate of around 19.4 × 104 ST m3/day through a single horizontal well. To determine the effect of uncertainty in reservoir properties on the gas production, an uncertainty analysis is carried out. It is observed that for the range of data considered, the overall cumulative production from the Sunlight Peak will always be within the range of ±4.6% error from the overall mean value of 1.43 × 109 ST m3. A sensitivity analysis study showed that the proximity of the reservoir from the base of permafrost and the base of hydrate stability zone (BHSZ) has significant effect on gas production rates. The gas production rates decrease with the increase in the depth of the permafrost and the depth of BHSZ. From the overall analysis of the results it is concluded that Sunlight Peak gas hydrate accumulation behaves differently than other Class III reservoirs (Class III reservoirs are composed of a single layer of hydrate with no

  10. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  11. Strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a government-owned stockpile of crude oil intended to serve as a buffer against possible oil market disruptions. The overall purpose of this project is to develop and apply improved models and tools for SPR management. Current project efforts emphasize developing new modeling tools to explicitly and flexibly portray oil market uncertainty and SPR planning risk.

  12. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal... Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The meeting is open to the...

  13. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The...

  14. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is open to the public. The...

  15. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  16. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  17. Constraining the age and magnitude of uplift in the northern National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)-apatite fission-track analysis of samples from three wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.; O'Sullivan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A broad, post-mid-Cretaceous uplift is defined in the northern National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) by regional truncation of Cretaceous strata, thermal maturity patterns, and amounts of exhumation estimated from sonic logs. Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis of samples from three wells (South Meade No. 1, Topagoruk No. 1, and Ikpikpuk No. 1) across the eastern flank of the uplift indicates Tertiary cooling followed by Quaternary heating. Results from all three wells indicate that cooling, presumably caused by uplift and erosion, started about 75-65 Ma (latest Cretaceous-earliest Tertiary) and continued through the Tertiary Period. Data from South Meade indicate more rapid cooling after about 35-15 Ma (latest Eocene-middle Miocene) followed by a significant increase in subsurface temperature during the Quaternary, probably the result of increased heat flow. Data from Topagoruk and Ikpikpuk include subtle evidence of accelerated cooling starting in the latest Eocene-middle Miocene and possible evidence of increased temperature during the Quaternary. Subsurface temperature perturbations related to the insulating effect of permafrost may have been responsible for the Quaternary temperature increase at Topagoruk and Ikpikpuk and may have been a contributing factor at South Meade. Multiple lines of geologic evidence suggest that the magnitude of exhumation resulting from uplift and erosion is 5,000-6,500 ft at South Meade, 4,000-5,500 ft at Topagoruk, and 2,500-4,000 ft at Ikpikpuk. The results from these wells help to define the broad geometry of the uplift, which increases in magnitude from less than 1,000 ft at the Colville River delta to perhaps more than 7,000 ft along the northwestern coast of NPRA, between Point Barrow and Peard Bay. Neither the origin nor the offshore extent of the uplift, west and north of the NPRA coast, have been determined.

  18. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  19. 77 FR 2714 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Renewal... that the National Petroleum Council has been renewed for a two-year period, beginning January 12, 2012...

  20. 75 FR 48320 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory...

  1. US Department of Energy Naval petroleum reserve number 1. Financial statement audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the United States taxpayer. NPOSR was established by a series of Executive Orders in the early 1900s as a future source of liquid fuels for the military. NPOSR remained largely inactive until Congress, responding to the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74, passed the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976. The law authorized production for six years. Thereafter, NPOSR production could be reauthorized by the President in three-year increments. Since enactment of the law, every President has determined that continuing NPOSR production is in the nation`s best interest. NPOSR currently is authorized to continue production through April 5, 2000.

  2. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  3. The role of the national petroleum company in petroleum development market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.J. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The present century started with the creation of national petroleum companies, and it ends with those national petroleum companies exerting various types of efforts to increase the efficiency of their management. Especially, the efforts of these national petroleum companies are ever intensifying to adapt to new trends in the world petroleum market such as intensified competition, ever-deepening price unstableness, separation of structure between upstream and downstream portions, rapid development of petroleum development technologies, change of political systems and the demise of national borders, ever-increasing consciousness of environmental preservation, etc. Korea cannot be exempt from management rationalization efforts of national petroleum companies. Especially, Korea established its own national petroleum company in order to actively deal with these as its supply system is very weak. Therefore, the national petroleum company should create as many successful petroleum development businesses by actively carrying out petroleum development businesses domestically and overseas in order to establish a stable supply system of petroleum and to support the petroleum development businesses of civilian enterprises more effectively. The national petroleum company must, first of all, replace the bureaucracy with entrepreneurship. Esp., in order to enhance the efficiency of management, short- term outcome should not be emphasized over long-term tenure of petroleum development businesses, and excessive interference of government on the national petroleum company should be excluded. The entrepreneurship of the national petroleum company should be pursued in Positive-sum way, and its public image should be actively promoted through this. 35 refs., 11 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. The role of the national petroleum company in petroleum development market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.J. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The present century started with the creation of national petroleum companies, and it ends with those national petroleum companies exerting various types of efforts to increase the efficiency of their management. Especially, the efforts of these national petroleum companies are ever intensifying to adapt to new trends in the world petroleum market such as intensified competition, ever-deepening price unstableness, separation of structure between upstream and downstream portions, rapid development of petroleum development technologies, change of political systems and the demise of national borders, ever-increasing consciousness of environmental preservation, etc. Korea cannot be exempt from management rationalization efforts of national petroleum companies. Especially, Korea established its own national petroleum company in order to actively deal with these as its supply system is very weak. Therefore, the national petroleum company should create as many successful petroleum development businesses by actively carrying out petroleum development businesses domestically and overseas in order to establish a stable supply system of petroleum and to support the petroleum development businesses of civilian enterprises more effectively. The national petroleum company must, first of all, replace the bureaucracy with entrepreneurship. Esp., in order to enhance the efficiency of management, short- term outcome should not be emphasized over long-term tenure of petroleum development businesses, and excessive interference of government on the national petroleum company should be excluded. The entrepreneurship of the national petroleum company should be pursued in Positive-sum way, and its public image should be actively promoted through this. 35 refs., 11 figs., 32 tabs.

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual report for calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was established in 1975 as an emergency response to the 1973 Arab oil embargo. It is authorized by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), and by the comprehensive energy plans of all Administrations since 1975, in recognition of the long-term dependence of the US on imported crude oil and petroleum products. Section 165 of EPCA requires the Secretary of Energy to submit an Annual Report to the President and the Congress. On May 13, 1998, the Department published a Statement of Administration Policy which reaffirmed its commitment to maintain a Government-owned and controlled, centrally located Strategic Petroleum Reserve of crude oil. The Reserve is to be used solely for responding to the types of severe oil supply interruptions presently contemplated in EPCA. Over the past twenty years, the Reserve has grown as large as 592 million barrels--a peak reached in 1994. From 1994 to 1996, nearly 28 million barrels were sold to raise revenues for the U S Treasury. As of December 31, 1998, the crude oil inventory was 561,108,127 barrels which equated to 60 days of net oil imports during 1998. The US now relies on a combination of both the Reserve and private stocks to meet its oil storage obligations to the International Energy Agency.

  6. Analyzing the layout of China's strategic petroleum reserve base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Huiqing; Zhang, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    With the development of China's economy, its dependence on foreign oil increases every year. Therefore, oil reserves play a vital role in ensuring China's energy security. The selection of a base site for the construction of strategic oil reserves is a priority. This study analyzes the status quo as well as future development trends for oil processing conditions, pipeline transportation conditions, consumption and production in the base radiation area, crude oil loading and unloading capacity of the port, reserve modes, and other factors. Preliminary planning of the spatial layout of the petroleum strategic reserve base is also detailed in this study. Strategic oil reserve bases can be positioned at the Pearl River Delta, the crude oil pipelines of Central and Southwest China and the large refineries and locations near the crude oil port terminals. Meanwhile, ground and underground reserve modes should be combined.

  7. An organizational survey of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), an Organizational Survey (OS), identical to the one that has been used prior to Tiger Team Assessments at other Department Energy facilities, was administered at SPR independent of a Tiger Team Assessment. The OS measured employees` opinions on subjects such as organizational culture, communication, commitment, group cohesion, coordination, safety, environmental issues, and job satisfaction. The result of this work was a quantitative measure of these variables at the SPR site. SPR management intends to utilize these results in their self-assessment process in preparation for an upcoming Tiger Team Assessment. This report presents these results and discusses their interpretation.

  8. 30 CFR 218.101 - Royalty and rental remittance (naval petroleum reserves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty and rental remittance (naval petroleum... INCENTIVES Oil and Gas, Onshore § 218.101 Royalty and rental remittance (naval petroleum reserves). Remittance covering payments of royalty or rental on naval petroleum reserves must be accomplished by...

  9. 1989 Annual environmental report for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This report, provided annually, summarizes monitoring data collected to assess Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts on the environment. The report serves as a management tool for mitigating such impacts, thus serving the public interest by ensuring environmentally sound operation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Included is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1989. The active permits and the results of the environmental monitoring program (i.e., air, surface water, groundwater, and waste discharges) are discussed by site. The quality assurance program is presented which includes results from laboratory and field audits and studies performed internally and by regulatory agencies. In general, no significant adverse environmental impact resulted from SPR activities during 1989, except for a brine release from a pipeline perforation south of the Bryan Mound site adversely affecting a small area of marsh vegetation which is recovering at this time. 22 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. The petroleum reserves: a peak oil or a plate?; Les reserves de petrole: pic ou plateau?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-09-15

    With 1100 to 1200 Gbl of proved petroleum reserves, the world can still consume petroleum for 35 to 40 years; if we add 1000 to 1200 Gbl of reserves potentially recoverable and if the politico economical conditions allow it, it is 35 supplementary years that can be considered. In this context and while hydrocarbons will still represent 50% of the world 'energetic mixing' in 2030, the production capacity will reach its maximum at about 100 Mbl/day in 2020-2030 with a potential problem in 2015 due to the investment delays resulting of the crisis. Nevertheless, the detection, exploitation and disposal of these resources will imply non only gigantic investments (about 6000 milliards of dollars from now to 2030) but advanced experts and technologies too. (O.M.)

  11. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  12. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colordao, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR-3) located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 1 (NOSR-1) and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 (NOSR-3) located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 (NOSR-2) located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment.

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report, (July 1, 1990--September 30, 1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-15

    This November 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990. 4 tabs.

  14. RESEARCH ON THE FLOATING OIL STORAGE SYSTEM FOR STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-long

    2004-01-01

    The problem of petroleum safety is closely related to national politics and economics security and becomes one of key for discussion in China. The floating oil storage system has been proposed as a new facility for Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in our country. There are some differences in solving this problem. Although many of domestic research institutions are studying the project of SPR, the research is separate, and lack of comprehensive consideration, and fails to make a complete and scientific demonstration in many aspects, such as oil storage capacity, selection of storage sites, storage facilities, technologic and economic feasibility, risk assessment, etc. Therefore, no mature and systematic petroleum reserve theories have been formed up to now. Peoples argue the issue of objective of SPR, function, mode, cost, effect, etc. There are still many bifurcations, so, it is necessary to make more detailed demonstration, and provide some scientific decision-making strategy for the governments. In this paper, several significant problems are solved, for instance, the option of SPR facilities, the research on the principal characteristics of floating oil storage vessels, the analysis of mooring system for oil storage vessels, the design of breakwater and the calculation of failure probability, the risk assessment of floating oil storage system, etc.

  15. Strategic Petroleum Reserve site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The SER, provided annually in accordance with DOE order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the SPR impacts the environment. The SER provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a describe of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1997. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island site, involving the disposition of 11.6 million m{sup 3} (73 million barrels) of crude oil inventory, as well as the degasification of over 12.6 million m{sup 3} (79.3 million barrels) of crude oil inventory at the Big Hill and Bryan Mound facilities.

  16. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Moo Yul (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-01

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-31

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994.

  18. Strategic petroleum reserve site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-31

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1995. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of 3 the weeks Island facility, involving the disposition of 11.6 million m{sup 3} (73 million barrels) of crude oil inventory, as well as the degasification of over 4.5 million m{sup 3} (30 million barrels) of crude oil inventory at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Transfer of Weeks Island oil began in November, 1995 with 2.0 million m{sup 3} (12.5 million barrels) transferred by December 31, 1995. Degasifying the crude oil is a major pollution prevention initiative because it will reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements by three or more orders of magnitude. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. There were only two reportable oil and three reportable brine spills during 1995, down from a total of 10 reportable spills in 1994. Total volume of oil spilled in 1995 was 56.3 m{sup 3} (354 barrels), and the total volume of brine spilled was 131.1 m{sup 3} (825 barrels). The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to five in 1995. All of the spills were reported to appropriate agencies and immediately cleaned up, with no long term impacts observed.

  19. Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

  20. Geomechanical Simulation of Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve - Model Calibration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A finite element numerical analysis model has been constructed that consists of a realistic mesh capturing the geometries of Bayou Choctaw (BC) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site and multi - mechanism deformation ( M - D ) salt constitutive model using the daily data of actual wellhead pressure and oil - brine interface. The salt creep rate is not uniform in the salt dome, and the creep test data for BC salt is limited. Therefore, the model calibration is necessary to simulate the geomechanical behavior of the salt dome. The cavern volumetric closures of SPR caverns calculated from CAVEMAN are used for the field baseline measurement. The structure factor, A 2 , and transient strain limit factor, K 0 , in the M - D constitutive model are used for the calibration. The A 2 value obtained experimentally from the BC salt and K 0 value of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt are used for the baseline values. T o adjust the magnitude of A 2 and K 0 , multiplication factors A2F and K0F are defined, respectively. The A2F and K0F values of the salt dome and salt drawdown skins surrounding each SPR cavern have been determined through a number of back fitting analyses. The cavern volumetric closures calculated from this model correspond to the predictions from CAVEMAN for six SPR caverns. Therefore, this model is able to predict past and future geomechanical behaviors of the salt dome, caverns, caprock , and interbed layers. The geological concerns issued in the BC site will be explained from this model in a follow - up report .

  1. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).

  2. CHINA NATIONAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION Notice for Third Round of Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    @@ Authorized by the Government of the People's Republic of China, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)hereby announces the commencement of the Third Round of Bidding for the Exploration of Land Petroleum Resources of P.R. China in Cooperation with Foreign Enterprises. 12 exploration blocks with a total area of 112 739 square kilometers are on offer.

  3. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  4. Environmental Assessment for decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island site is one of five underground salt dome crude oils storage facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in Iberia Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of the proposed action is to decommission the Weeks Island crude oil storage after the oil inventory has been transferred to other SPR facilities. Water intrusion into the salt dome storage chambers and the development of two sinkholes located near the aboveground facilities has created uncertain geophysical conditions. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed decommissioning operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. 75 FR 37730 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY... air pollutants from heat exchange systems at petroleum refineries. These requirements were published as amendments to the national emission standards for petroleum refineries. In this notice, we are...

  6. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  7. Mexican petroleum and US national security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagen, R.R.

    US vulnerability to energy supplies is reviewed in terms of action taken by the Organizaion of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) during the 1970s and the outlook for supply and price disruptions in the 1980s. The US position is then related to the Mexican petroleum boom and the benefits that increasing exports from a non-OPEC country like Mexico can have on world oil trade. US political and security interests will encourage a rapid increase in Mexican production, and the US will be concerned with how Mexico develops its relationships with the US and with other oil-producing countries. Changing economic and social relationships are inevitable and could lead to serioUS political unrest over questions of equity and immigrations. The difficulty of articulating US security interests without interfering in Mexican domestic affairs will require careful diplomacy.

  8. Completion of petroleum reserve base in the eastern part of Tomakomai. Tomakomai tobu sekiyu bichiku kichi zenmen kansei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The construction of a petroleum reserve base in the eastern part of Tomakomai (called Tomakomai Base hereafter) was started in 1981 as a part of the national petroleum reserve business, and the base of 2.74 million{sup 2} was completed in November 1990. This report introduces the whole aspect of the base; from the selection of its location to the construction processes and the facilities. The Tomakomai Base is a corporation capitalized at 10 billion yen and main stock holders of the corporation are the Japan National Oil Corporation and petroleum corporations. After some modifications during construction, 57 tanks (114.8 thousand kl {times} 55 tanks, and 42.7 thousand kl {times} 2 tanks) of 6,400 thousand kl capacity were completed. The base is conveniently located on the coast 20km from the Chitose Airport. The climate here is comparatively warm for Hokkaido, and it snows little. The construction work went on smoothly with the unstinted cooperation of local organizations, one city and three towns. With the consolidation of the life environment and the work environment of the workers there, a continuous 1200 hour record of no accidents was attained. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 financial statements September 30, 1997 and 1996 (with independent auditors` report thereon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. As required by the 1996 National Defense Authorization Act, the Department of Energy offered NPR-1 for sale during FY 1997. DOE structured the sale so as to offer two types of ownership segments: one operatorship segment, consisting of 74% of the US interest in NPR-1, and 13 nonoperating segments, each consisting of 2% of the US interest. Potential purchasers could bid on one, some, or all of the segments. If a single purchaser wanted to buy all of the Government`s interest, then its bid would have to exceed the total of the highest bids for all of the individual segments. Bids were due October 1, 1997, at which time DOE received 22 bids from 15 parties acting alone or in concert. The report and management letter present the results of the independent certified public accountants` audits of the Department of Energy`s Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1) financial statements as of, and for the years ended, September 30, 1997 and 1996.

  10. U.S. strategic petroleum reserve Big Hill 114 leak analysis 2012.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent well integrity issues related to cavern 114 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. DM Petroleum Operations, M&O contractor for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, recognized an apparent leak in Big Hill cavern well 114A in late summer, 2012, and provided written notice to the State of Texas as required by law. DM has since isolated the leak in well A with a temporary plug, and is planning on remediating both 114 A- and B-wells with liners. In this report Sandia provides an analysis of the apparent leak that includes: (i) estimated leak volume, (ii) recommendation for operating pressure to maintain in the cavern between temporary and permanent fixes for the well integrity issues, and (iii) identification of other caverns or wells at Big Hill that should be monitored closely in light of the sequence of failures there in the last several years.

  11. Report to the Congress on alternative methods for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to fulfill the requirements of Public Law No. 101-46, approved June 30, 1989. The study describes and evaluates alternative methods for financing the future expansion of the Strategic petroleum Reserve (SPR), both to the current target level of 750 million barrels and to potential future levels of up to one billion barrels.

  12. 75 FR 983 - Notice of Re-Establishment of the National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... of Re-Establishment of the National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Re-Establishment of the National Petroleum Council. Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2... Administration, notice is hereby given that the National Petroleum Council has been re-established for a two-year...

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), located in Louisiana and Texas, and conducted in two segments from November 30 through December 11, 1987, and February 1 through 10, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SPR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involved the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SPR, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team has developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the SPR Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. The Summary Report will reflect the final determinations of the SPR Survey and the other DOE site-specific Surveys. 200 refs., 50 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. Bryan Mound InSAR Analysis U.S. Strategic petroleum Reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, Anna C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a stockpile of emergency crude oil to be tapped into if a disruption in the nation's oil supply occurs. The SPR is comprised of four salt dome sites. Subsidence surveys have been conducted either annually or biennially at all four sites over the life of the program. Monitoring of surface behavior is a first line defense to detecting possible subsurface cavern integrity issues. Over the life of the Bryan Mound site, subsidence rates over abandoned Cavern 3 have continuously been the highest at the site. In an effort to try and understand the subsurface dynamics, specifically over Bryan Mound Cavern 3, historic interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data was acquired and processed by TRE Altamira. InSAR involves the processing of multiple satellite synthetic aperture radar scenes acquired across the same location of the Earth's surface at different times to map surface deformation. The analysis of the data has the ability to detect millimeters of motion spanning days, months, year and decades, across specific sites. The intent in regards to the Bryan Mound site was (1) to confirm the higher subsidence rates recorded over abandoned Cavern 3 indicated by land survey and (2) understand the regional surface behavior. This report describes the InSAR analysis results, how those results compare to the historical collection of land survey data, and what additional information the data has provided towards understanding the response recorded at the surface.

  15. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  16. 77 FR 54612 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is... Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF...

  17. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun; Yi

    2008-01-01

      Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.……

  18. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.

  19. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  20. Analysis of Multi-Arm Caliper Data for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) has an increasing reliance on mul t i - arm caliper surveys to assess the integrity of casing for cavern access wells and to determine priorities for casing remediation. Multi - arm caliper (MAC) surveys provide a view of well casing deformation by reporting radial measurements of the inner cas ing wall as the tool is drawn through the casing. Over the last several years the SPR has collected a large number of modern MAC surveys. In total, these surveys account for over 100 million individual measurements. The surveys were collected using diff ering survey vendors and survey hardware. This has resulted in a collection of disparate data sets which confound attempts to make well - to - well or time - dependent evaluations. In addition, the vendor supplied MAC interpretations often involve variables wh ich are not well defined or which may not be applicable to casings for cavern access wells. These factors reduce the usability of these detailed data sets. In order to address this issue and provide an independent analysis of multi - arm caliper survey data, Sandia National Labs has developed processing techniques and analysis variables which allow for the comparison of MAC survey data regardless of the source of the survey data. These techniques use the raw radial arm information and newly developed analysis variables to assess the casing status and provide a means for well - to - well and time - dependent analyses. Well - to - well and t ime - dependent investigation of the MAC survey data provide s information to prioritize well remediation activities and identify wells with integrity issues. This paper presents the challenges in using disparate MAC survey data, techniques developed to address these challenges and some o f the insights gained from these new techniques.

  1. Analysis of Multi-Arm Caliper Data for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) has an increasing reliance on mul t i - arm caliper surveys to assess the integrity of casing for cavern access wells and to determine priorities for casing remediation. Multi - arm caliper (MAC) surveys provide a view of well casing deformation by reporting radial measurements of the inner cas ing wall as the tool is drawn through the casing. Over the last several years the SPR has collected a large number of modern MAC surveys. In total, these surveys account for over 100 million individual measurements. The surveys were collected using diff ering survey vendors and survey hardware. This has resulted in a collection of disparate data sets which confound attempts to make well - to - well or time - dependent evaluations. In addition, the vendor supplied MAC interpretations often involve variables wh ich are not well defined or which may not be applicable to casings for cavern access wells. These factors reduce the usability of these detailed data sets. In order to address this issue and provide an independent analysis of multi - arm caliper survey data, Sandia National Labs has developed processing techniques and analysis variables which allow for the comparison of MAC survey data regardless of the source of the survey data. These techniques use the raw radial arm information and newly developed analysis variables to assess the casing status and provide a means for well - to - well and time - dependent analyses. Well - to - well and t ime - dependent investigation of the MAC survey data provide s information to prioritize well remediation activities and identify wells with integrity issues. This paper presents the challenges in using disparate MAC survey data, techniques developed to address these challenges and some o f the insights gained from these new techniques.

  2. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; partial withdrawal... Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final notice of the partial withdrawal. DATES: As of August 17... signed a final rule amending the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum...

  3. Studies on Co-opetition among National Petroleum Companies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Yu-Ying; Huang Chang-Sheng; Li Ning

    2013-01-01

    This study is trying to find the co-opetition basic strategy among domestic similar companies and focus on the strategy system of the formation of complementary advantages force and competitive energy when the China national petroleum corps in opening up the international market. With the obviously increasing dependence on petroleum in China and the entering of advanced international petroleum companies in China's market, the competition in petroleum industry becomes more serious than before....

  4. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, Casper, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW) conducted June 6 through 17, 1988. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Wyoming, the Naval Oil Shale Reserves No. 1 and 3 (NOSR-1 and NOSR-3) in Colorado and the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Utah. NOSR-2 was not included in the Survey because it had not been actively exploited at the time of the on-site Survey. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, lead and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NPOSR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NPOSR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team has developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified at NOSR-3 during the on-site Survey. There were no findings associated with either NPR-3 or NOSR-1 that required Survey-related sampling and Analysis. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Summary report. The Summary Report will reflect the final determinations of the NPOSR-CUW Survey and the other DOE site-specific Surveys. 110 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Update of assessment of geotechnical risks, strategic petroleum reserve, Weeks Island site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, S.J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a critical reassessment of the geotechnical risks of continuing oil storage at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. It reviews all previous risk abatement recommendations, subsequent mitigative actions, and new information. Of increased concern, due to the discovery of a surface levels, is the long term maintainability of the mine as an oil storage repository. Mine operational changes are supported in order to facilitate monitoring of water entry diagnostics. These changes are also intended to minimize the volume in the mine available for water entry. Specific recommendations are made to implement the mine changes.

  6. An analysis of increasing the size of the strategic petroleum reserve to one billion barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Emergency Policy and Evaluation requested that the Energy Information Administration complete an analysis of the proposed expansion in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) from its currently planned size of 750 million barrels to 1000 million barrels. Because the SPR contains only 580 million barrels at this point in time, the benefits and costs of increasing the SPR from 600 to 750 million barrels were also estimated. This report documents the assumptions, methodology, and results of the analysis. 17 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. 76 FR 2083 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... requirement and sets a course for successful implementation of the goals and objectives of the Reserve. Since... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Estuarine Research Reserve System AGENCY: Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean...

  8. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  9. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. Production Company (CPDN). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo rat, Tipton kangaroo rat, and Hoover`s wooly-star. All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is ``...the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.`` DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPRC is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during fiscal year 1993.

  10. Expansion analyses of strategic petroleum reserve in Bayou Choctaw : revised locations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes a series of three-dimensional simulations for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The U.S. Department of Energy plans to leach two new caverns and convert one of the existing caverns within the Bayou Choctaw salt dome to expand its petroleum reserve storage capacity. An existing finite element mesh from previous analyses is modified by changing the locations of two caverns. The structural integrity of the three expansion caverns and the interaction between all the caverns in the dome are investigated. The impacts of the expansion on underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity are quantified. Two scenarios were used for the duration and timing of workover conditions where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric pressure. The three expansion caverns are predicted to be structurally stable against tensile failure for both scenarios. Dilatant failure is not expected within the vicinity of the expansion caverns. Damage to surface structures is not predicted and there is not a marked increase in surface strains due to the presence of the three expansion caverns. The wells into the caverns should not undergo yield. The results show that from a structural viewpoint, the locations of the two newly proposed expansion caverns are acceptable, and all three expansion caverns can be safely constructed and operated.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC or Elk Hills), which is responsible for operations of NPR-1 and NPR-2; the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserve in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW), which is responsible for operations of NPR-3, NOSR-1, 2, and 3 and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC); and NPOSR Headquarters in Washington, DC, which is responsible for overall program direction. Each participant shares in the unit costs and production of hydrocarbons in proportion to the weighted acre-feet of commercially productive oil and gas formations (zones) underlying the respective surface lands as of 1942. The participating shares of NPR-1 as of September 30, 1996 for the US Government and Chevron USA, Inc., are listed. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve equation of state model development : current performance against measured data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-07-01

    This report documents the progression of crude oil phase behavior modeling within the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve vapor pressure program during the period 2004-2009. Improvements in quality control on phase behavior measurements in 2006 coupled with a growing body of degasification plant operations data have created a solid measurement baseline that has served to inform and significantly improve project understanding on phase behavior of SPR oils. Systematic tuning of the model based on proven practices from the technical literature have shown to reduce model bias and match observed data very well, though this model tuning effort is currently in process at SPR and based on preliminary data. The current report addresses many of the steps that have helped to build a strong baseline of data coupled with sufficient understanding of model features so that calibration is possible.

  13. U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Vapor Pressure Committee 2009 annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Ray (Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX); Eldredge, Lisa (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); DeLuca, Charles (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); Mihalik, Patrick (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); Maldonado, Julio (U.S. Department of Energy, Harahan, LA); Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Berndsen, Gerard (U.S. Department of Energy, Harahan, LA)

    2010-05-01

    This report comprises an annual summary of activities under the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Vapor Pressure Committee in FY2009. The committee provides guidance to senior project management on the issues of crude oil vapor pressure monitoring nd mitigation. The principal objectives of the vapor pressure program are, in the event of an SPR drawdown, to minimize the impact on the environment and assure worker safety and public health from crude oil vapor emissions. The annual report reviews key program areas ncluding monitoring program status, mitigation program status, new developments in measurements and modeling, and path forward including specific recommendations on cavern sampling for the next year. The contents of this report were first presented to SPR senior anagement in December 2009, in a deliverable from the vapor pressure committee. The current SAND report is an adaptation for the Sandia technical audience.

  14. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC), Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Naval Petroleum Reserves 1 (NPR-1) and 2 (NPR-2) in California (NPRC), conducted May 9--20, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NPRC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involved the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NPRC, and interviews with site personnel. 120 refs., 28 figs., 40 tabs.

  15. Occurrence and distribution of special status plant species on the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.C.; Cypher, B.L.; Holmstead, G.L.; Hammer, K.L.; Frost, N.

    1994-10-01

    Several special status plant species occur or potentially occur at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). Special status species are defined as those species that are either federally listed as endangered or threatened, or candidate taxa. Candidate species are classified as Category 1 or Category 2. Category 1 taxa are those species for which there is sufficient evidence to support listing, while Category 2 taxa are those species for which listing may possibly be appropriate, but for which sufficient data are lacking to warrant immediate listing. Determining the presence and distribution of these species on NPRC is necessary so that appropriate conservation or protection measures can be implemented. In the spring of 1988, a survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) was conducted to determine the occurrence of Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri), Kern Mallow (Eremalche kemensis), San Joaquin wooly-threads (Lembertia congdonii), and California jewelflower (Caulanthus califonicus), all listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as Category 2 species at that time. Of the four species, only Hoover`s wooly-star was found. It was concluded that Kern mallow and San Joaquin wooly-threads could potentially be found on NPR-1, but habitat for California jewelflower did not occur on NPR-1 and its occurrence was unlikely. As part of an ongoing effort to document the presence or absence of sensitive plant species on NPRC, surveys for species other than Hoover`s wooly-star were conducted in the spring of 1993. Abundant spring rains in 1993 created favorable growing conditions for annual forbs. Surveys in 1993 focused on potential habitat of several endangered and candidate species. The results of those surveys are presented in this report.

  16. Three-dimensional representations of salt-dome margins at four active strategic petroleum reserve sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Stein, Joshua S.

    2003-01-01

    Existing paper-based site characterization models of salt domes at the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been converted to digital format and visualized using modern computer software. The four sites are the Bayou Choctaw dome in Iberville Parish, Louisiana; the Big Hill dome in Jefferson County, Texas; the Bryan Mound dome in Brazoria County, Texas; and the West Hackberry dome in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. A new modeling algorithm has been developed to overcome limitations of many standard geological modeling software packages in order to deal with structurally overhanging salt margins that are typical of many salt domes. This algorithm, and the implementing computer program, make use of the existing interpretive modeling conducted manually using professional geological judgement and presented in two dimensions in the original site characterization reports as structure contour maps on the top of salt. The algorithm makes use of concepts of finite-element meshes of general engineering usage. Although the specific implementation of the algorithm described in this report and the resulting output files are tailored to the modeling and visualization software used to construct the figures contained herein, the algorithm itself is generic and other implementations and output formats are possible. The graphical visualizations of the salt domes at the four Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites are believed to be major improvements over the previously available two-dimensional representations of the domes via conventional geologic drawings (cross sections and contour maps). Additionally, the numerical mesh files produced by this modeling activity are available for import into and display by other software routines. The mesh data are not explicitly tabulated in this report; however an electronic version in simple ASCII format is included on a PC-based compact disk.

  17. Updated United Nations Framework Classification for reserves and resources of extractive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blaise, J.R.; Blystad, P.; Kelter, D.; Gabrielyants, G.; Heiberg, S.; Martinez, A.; Ross, J.G.; Slavov, S.; Subelj, A.; Young, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The United Nations have studied how the oil and gas resource classification developed jointly by the SPE, the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) could be harmonized with the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Solid Fuel and Mineral Resources (1). The United Nations has continued to build on this and other works, with support from many relevant international organizations, with the objective of updating the UNFC to apply to the extractive industries. The result is the United Nations Framework Classification for Energy and Mineral Resources (2) that this paper will present. Reserves and resources are categorized with respect to three sets of criteria: ??? Economic and commercial viability ??? Field project status and feasibility ??? The level of geologic knowledge The field project status criteria are readily recognized as the ones highlighted in the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification system of 2000. The geologic criteria absorb the rich traditions that form the primary basis for the Russian classification system, and the ones used to delimit, in part, proved reserves. Economic and commercial criteria facilitate the use of the classification in general, and reflect the commercial considerations used to delimit proved reserves in particular. The classification system will help to develop a common understanding of reserves and resources for all the extractive industries and will assist: ??? International and national resources management to secure supplies; ??? Industries' management of business processes to achieve efficiency in exploration and production; and ??? An appropriate basis for documenting the value of reserves and resources in financial statements.

  18. The Road of USA Strategic Petroleum Reserve%美国战略石油储备之路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柳钦

    2012-01-01

    USA strategic petroleum reserve is the product of wisdom that experience bought by suffering teaches. The general thinking for USA to set up and ensure strategic petroleum reserve is: storing high-quality crude oil with lowest cost, reducing the disadvantageous influence upon international and domestic market to the lowest extent when enlarging strategic petroleum reserve. USA strategic petroleum reserve has the characteristics such as general adoption of the market principle in operational mode, readjusting the scale at the right moment, reserve mode suiting local conditions and so on.%美国的战略石油储备是“吃一堑长一智”的产物。美国建立和确保战略石油储备的总体思路是:以最低的成本,储备高质量的原油;在扩大战略石油储备时,把它对国际国内市场的不利影响减少到最低程度。美国战略石油储备具有运作模式市场化、规模适时调整、储备方式因地制宜等特征。

  19. Environmental assessment of oil degasification at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve facilities in Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to treat gassy oil at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage sites to lower the gas content of the stored crude oil and help ensure safe transfer of the oil during drawdown. The crude oil is stored underground in caverns created in salt domes. The degree of gassiness of the oil varies substantially among sites and among caverns within a site. This environmental assessment describes the proposed degasification operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. The need for degasification has arisen because over time, gases, principally methane and nitrogen, have migrated into and become dissolved in the stored crude oil. This influx of gas has raised the crude oil vapor pressure above limits required by safety and emission guidelines. When oil is drawn from the caverns, excess gases may come out of solution. Based on preliminary data from an ongoing sampling program, between 200 and 350 million of the 587 million barrels of crude oil stored at these four sites would require processing to remove excess gas. Degasification, a commonly used petroleum industry process, would be done at four crude oil storage facilities: Bryan Mound and Big Hill in Texas, and West Hackberry and Bayou Choctaw in Louisiana. DOE would use a turnkey services contract for engineering, procurement, fabrication, installation, operation and maintenance of two degasification plants. These would be installed initially at Bryan Mound and West Hackberry. Degasification would be complete in less than three years of continuous operations. This report summarizes the environmental impacts of this gasification process.

  20. The distribution of petroleum reserves in basins of the South Atlantic margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, M.P. [Ries-Coward Associates Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). T.H. Huxley School of the Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering; Purdy, E.G. [PetroQuest International Inc., Weybridge (United Kingdom); Ries, A.C. [Ries-Coward Associates Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Smith, D.G. [Petroconsultants (UK) Ltd, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The opening of the South Atlantic created a series of passive margin basins on both sides of the new ocean. This paper reviews the distribution of petroleum reserves in these basins in terms of their tectono-stratigraphic position within the framework of the rift-drift succession. Seven megasequences are recognised. Three are in the drift succession, three are in the rift succession and one comprises the pre-rift succession. Ninety-three per cent of the presently discovered recoverable hydrocarbons are reservoired in the drift succession, 6% are located in the rift succession and 1% is associated with the pre-rift units. The basins group geographically into seven sectors within which both margins share some common features. Sixty-five per cent of the reserves are contained in Sector V which is dominated by the Niger Delta, and 28% are positioned in Sector III, which includes the Campos and Lower Congo Basins. The new deepwater giant discoveries of Angola, which are located in Sector III, are the Africa counterparts of the earlier deepwater Campos Basin discoveries. In general sectors III-V, located between the Walvis Ridge and the Equatorial Atlantic transforms, are most favourable as they are characterized by the most prolific source rocks at all horizons.

  1. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report for December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-22

    Research programs from the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) are briefly described. Topics include enhanced recovery, studies on reservoir rock, microbial EOR, development of analytical techniques for petroleum analysis, and imaging techniques applied to fluids study in porous media. (CBS)

  2. China National Petroleum Corporation Notice for the Second Round of Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    @@ Authorized by the Government of the People's Republic of China, China National petroleum Corporation (CNPC) hereby announces the commencement of the Second Round of Bidding for the Exploitation of Land Petroleum Resources of P.R. China in Cooperation with Foreign Enterprises.

  3. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.

  4. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions. The production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, Model Purpose; Chapter 3, Model Overview and Rationale; Chapter 4, Model Structure; Appendix A, Inventory of Input Data, Parameter Estimates, and Model Outputs; Appendix B, Detailed Mathematical Description of the Model; Appendix C, Bibliography; Appendix D, Model Abstract; Appendix E, Data Quality; Appendix F, Estimation methodologies; Appendix G, Matrix Generator documentation; Appendix H, Historical Data Processing; and Appendix I, Biofuels Supply Submodule.

  5. China's Petroleum Consumption and Petroleum Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunguang

    2004-01-01

    Petroleum consumption and petroleum security in China can directly affect the development of national economy. This article briefs the conditions in world's developed countries with respect to oil consumption and strategic oil reserves. Taking into account the quick increase in China's oil consumption this article proposes to increase the oil resources along with consumption reduction and avoidance of risks in order to safeguard China's oil supplies.

  6. Oil atlas: National Petroleum Technology Office activities across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A.

    1998-03-01

    Petroleum imports account for the largest share of the US trade deficit. Over one-third of the 1996 merchandise trade deficit is attributed to imported oil. The good news is that substantial domestic oil resources, both existing and yet-to-be-discovered, can be recovered using advanced petroleum technologies. The Energy Information Agency estimates that advanced technologies can yield 10 billion additional barrels, equal to $240 billion in import offsets. The US Department of Energy`s National Petroleum Technology Office works with industry to develop advanced petroleum technologies and to transfer successful technologies to domestic oil producers. This publication shows the locations of these important technology development efforts and lists DOE`s partners in this critical venture. The National Petroleum Technology Office has 369 active technology development projects grouped into six product lines: Advanced Diagnostics and Imaging Systems; Advanced Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation; Reservoir Life Extension and Management; Emerging Processing Technology Applications; Effective Environmental Protection; and Crosscutting Program Areas.

  7. Final sitewide environmental assessment for continued development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), Natrona County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Secretary of Energy is required by law to explore, prospect, conserve, develop, use, and operate the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. The Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), requires that the Naval Petroleum Reserves be produced at their maximum efficient rate (MER), consistent with sound engineering practices, for a period of six years. To fulfill this mission, DOE is proposing continued development activities which would include the drilling of approximately 250 oil production and injection (gas, water, and steam) wells, the construction of between 25 and 30 miles of associated gas, water, and steam pipelines, the installation of several production and support facilities, and the construction of between 15 and 20 miles of access roads. These drilling and construction estimates include any necessary activities related to the operation of the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). The purpose of RMOTC will be to provide facilities and necessary support to government and private industry for testing and evaluating new oilfield and environmental technologies, and to transfer these results to the petroleum industry through seminars and publications. Continued development activities either have no potential to result in adverse environmental impacts or would only result in adverse impacts that could be readily mitigated. The small amounts of disturbed surface area will be reclaimed to its original natural state when production operations terminate. The preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 73 refs.

  8. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Michigan Basin Province (063) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Wyoming Thrust Belt Province (036) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Appalachian Basin Province (067) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Illinois Basin Province (064) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Eastern Great Basin Province (019) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hanna, Laramie, Shirley Basins Province (030) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Bighorn Basin (5034) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Florida Peninsula Province (050) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Wind River Basin Province (035) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Eastern Oregon-Washington Province (005) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Sacramento Basin Province (009) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Anadarko Basin Province (058) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Basin Province (065) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Williston Basin Province (031) Total Petroleum System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Southwestern Wyoming Province (037) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Denver Basin Province (039) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Yukon Flats Tertiary Composite (002) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  8. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Western Oregon-Washington Province (004) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  10. Geomechanical analysis to predict the oil leak at the wellbores in Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon

    2014-02-01

    Oil leaks were found in wellbores of Caverns 105 and 109 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. According to the field observations, two instances of casing damage occurred at the depth of the interbed between the caprock bottom and salt top. A three dimensional finite element model, which contains wellbore element blocks and allows each cavern to be configured individually, is constructed to investigate the wellbore damage mechanism. The model also contains element blocks to represent interface between each lithology and a shear zone to examine the interbed behavior in a realistic manner. The causes of the damaged casing segments are a result of vertical and horizontal movements of the interbed between the caprock and salt dome. The salt top subsides because the volume of caverns below the salt top decrease with time due to salt creep closure, while the caprock subsides at a slower rate because the caprock is thick and stiffer. This discrepancy yields a deformation of the well. The deformed wellbore may fail at some time. An oil leak occurs when the wellbore fails. A possible oil leak date of each well is determined using the equivalent plastic strain failure criterion. A well grading system for a remediation plan is developed based on the predicted leak dates of each wellbore.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report, provided annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, summarizes monitoring data collected to assess Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts on the environment. The report serves as a management tool for mitigating such impacts, thus serving the public interest by ensuring environmentally sound operation of the SPR. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1992. The active permits and the results of the environmental monitoring program (i.e., air, surface water, ground water, and water discharges) are discussed within each section by site. The quality assurance program is presented which includes results from laboratory and field audits and studies performed internally and by regulatory agencies. In general, no significant adverse environmental impact resulted from any SPR activities during 1992. Environmental areas of concern, such as potential ground water contamination, are fully addressed in the applicable section by site. The SPR continues to maintain an overall excellent environmental record.

  12. Endangered species and cultural resources program Naval petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In FY96, Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc. (EASI) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on federal properties. Population monitoring activities were conducted for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. Kit fox abundance and distribution was assessed by live-trapping over a 329-km{sup 2} area. Kit fox reproduction and mortality were assessed by radiocollaring and monitoring 22 adults and two pups. Reproductive success and litter size were determined through live-trapping and den observations. Rates and sources of kit fox mortality were assessed by recovering dead radiocollared kit foxes and conducting necropsies to determine cause of death. Abundance of coyotes and bobcats, which compete with kit foxes, was determined by conducting scent station surveys. Kit fox diet was assessed through analysis of fecal samples collected from live-trapped foxes. Abundance of potential prey for kit foxes was determined by conducting transect surveys for lagornorphs and live-trapping small mammals.

  13. Interface modeling to predict well casing damage for big hill strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2012-02-01

    Oil leaks were found in well casings of Caverns 105 and 109 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. According to the field observations, two instances of casing damage occurred at the depth of the interface between the caprock and top of salt. This damage could be caused by interface movement induced by cavern volume closure due to salt creep. A three dimensional finite element model, which allows each cavern to be configured individually, was constructed to investigate shear and vertical displacements across each interface. The model contains interfaces between each lithology and a shear zone to examine the interface behavior in a realistic manner. This analysis results indicate that the casings of Caverns 105 and 109 failed by shear stress that exceeded shear strength due to the horizontal movement of the top of salt relative to the caprock, and tensile stress due to the downward movement of the top of salt from the caprock, respectively. The casings of Caverns 101, 110, 111 and 114, located at the far ends of the field, are predicted to be failed by shear stress in the near future. The casings of inmost Caverns 107 and 108 are predicted to be failed by tensile stress in the near future.

  14. Naval Petroleum Reserves in California site environmental report for calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This summary for Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) is divided into NPR-1 and NPR-2. Monitoring efforts at NPR-1 include handling and disposal of oilfield wastes; environmental preactivity surveys for the protection of endangered species and archaeological resources; inspections of topsoil stockpiling; monitoring of revegetated sites; surveillance of production facilities for hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions; monitoring of oil spill prevention and cleanup; and monitoring of wastewater injection. No major compliance issues existed for NPR-1 during 1989. Oil spills are recorded, reviewed for corrective action, and reported. Environmental preactivity surveys for proposed projects which may disturb or contaminate the land are conducted to prevent damage to the federally protected San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Tipton kangaroo rat and the giant kangaroo rat. Projects are adjusted or relocated as necessary to avoid impact to dens, burrows, or flat-bottomed drainages. A major revegetation program was accomplished in 1989 for erosion control enhancement of endangered species habitat. The main compliance issue on NPR-2 was oil and produced water discharges into drainages by lessees. An additional compliance issue on NPR-2 is surface refuse from past oilfield operations. 17 refs.

  15. Final state of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOLECKE,MARTIN A.

    2000-02-01

    This report documents the decommissioning and abandonment activities at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site, Iberia Parish, Louisiana, that were concluded in 1999. These activities required about six years of intense operational, engineering, geotechnical, and management support efforts, following initiation of site abandonment plans in 1994. The Weeks Island SPR mine stored about 72.5 million bbl of crude oil following oil fill in 1980--1982, until November 1995, when the DOE initiated oil drawdown procedures, with brine refill and oil skimming, and numerous plugging and sealing activities. About 98% of the crude oil was recovered and transferred to other SPR facilities in Louisiana and Texas; a small amount was also sold. This document summarizes recent pre- and post-closure: conditions of surface features at the site, including the sinkholes, the freeze wall, surface subsidence measurements and predictions; conditions within the SPR mine, including oil recovery, brine filling, and the Markel Wet Drift; risk assessment evaluations relevant to the decommissioning and long-term potential environmental impacts; continuing environmental monitoring activities at the site; and, an overview on the background and history of the Weeks Island SPR facility.

  16. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  17. Final state of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOLECKE,MARTIN A.

    2000-02-01

    This report documents the decommissioning and abandonment activities at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site, Iberia Parish, Louisiana, that were concluded in 1999. These activities required about six years of intense operational, engineering, geotechnical, and management support efforts, following initiation of site abandonment plans in 1994. The Weeks Island SPR mine stored about 72.5 million bbl of crude oil following oil fill in 1980--1982, until November 1995, when the DOE initiated oil drawdown procedures, with brine refill and oil skimming, and numerous plugging and sealing activities. About 98% of the crude oil was recovered and transferred to other SPR facilities in Louisiana and Texas; a small amount was also sold. This document summarizes recent pre- and post-closure: conditions of surface features at the site, including the sinkholes, the freeze wall, surface subsidence measurements and predictions; conditions within the SPR mine, including oil recovery, brine filling, and the Markel Wet Drift; risk assessment evaluations relevant to the decommissioning and long-term potential environmental impacts; continuing environmental monitoring activities at the site; and, an overview on the background and history of the Weeks Island SPR facility.

  18. Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

  19. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    In the Autumn of 1996, consumers and Members of Congress from the Northeast expressed concern about high prices for heating oil and historically low levels of inventories. Some Members of Congress advocated building a Federal inventory of heating oil as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Regional reserves are authorized as part of the SPR for import dependent regions by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In response, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed a series of studies related to heating fuels, including a study of the desirability, feasibility, and cost of creating a Federal reserve containing distillate fuel. This report documents that study.

  20. Use of microbes for paraffin cleanup at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiacomo, L.; Khatib, A.

    1995-12-31

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), also known as Teapot Dome, is a government-owned oil field in Natrona County, Wyoming. It is an asymmetrical anticline located on the western edge of the Powder River Basin, just south of the Salt Creek Anticline. Production started in 1922, and today the field is a marginally economic stripper field with average production of less than 3 BOPD (0.5 m{sup 3}/D) per well. Total field production is about 1,800 BOPD (286 m{sup 3}/D). The Second Wall Creek Formation was waterflooded from 1979 until June 1992 with poor results due to the extensive natural fracture system in this sandstone unit. Since water injection ceased, reservoir pressure has declined to very low levels. Liquids extraction and reinjection of the gas produced from high-GOR wells along the gas-oil contact continues, but the average gas cap pressure has fallen to approximately 150 psi (1.03 MPa) from an original pressure of 1,120 psi (7.72 MPa). Since the oil is highly paraffinic, wax deposition in the hydraulic fractures and the perforations has become a serious production problem. Microbial treatment was considered as a possible low-cost solution. Four wells were selected in the Second Wall Creek Reservoir with severe paraffin problems and production rates high enough to economically justify the treatment. Problems were experienced with the production of thick oil after approximately three months. This was interpreted to be a result of previously immobile paraffin being cleaned up. A slight decrease in the decline rate was seen in the wells, although some external factors cloud the interpretation. Microbial treatments were discontinued because of marginal economics. Three of the four wells produced additional oil and had a positive incremental cash flow. Oil viscosity tests did indicate that some positive microbial thinning was occurring, and changes to the treatment procedure may potentially yield more economic results in the future.

  1. Field testing results for the strategic petroleum reserve pipeline corrosion control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, R.G.; Maestas, L.M.; Hinkebein, T.E.

    1998-02-01

    Results of two studies conducted as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Pipeline Corrosion Control Program are reported. These studies focused on evaluation of rotary-applied concrete materials for internal pipeline protection against the erosive and corrosive effects of flowing brine. The study also included evaluation of liners applied by hand on pipe pieces that cannot be lined by rotary methods. Such pipe pieces include tees, elbows and flanged pipe sections. Results are reported from a corrosion survey of 17 different liner formulations tested at the-Big-Rill SPR Site. Testing consisted of electrochemical corrosion rate measurements made on lined pipe sections exposed, in a test manifold, to flowing SPR generated fluids. Testing also involved cumulative immersion exposure where samples were exposed to static site-generated brine for increasing periods of time. Samples were returned to the laboratory for various diagnostic analyses. Results of this study showed that standard calcium silicate concrete (API RP10E) and a rotary calcium aluminate concrete formulation were excellent performers. Hand-lined pipe pieces did not provide as much corrosion protection. The focus of the second part of the study was on further evaluation of the calcium silicate, calcium aluminate and hand-applied liners in actual SPR equipment and service. It was a further objective to assess the practicality of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for field corrosion monitoring of concrete lined pipe compared to the more well-known linear polarization technique. This study showed that concrete linings reduced the corrosion rate for bare steel from 10 to 15 mils per year to 1 mil per year or less. Again, the hand-applied liners did not provide as much corrosion protection as the rotary-applied liners. The EIS technique was found to be robust for field corrosion measurements. Mechanistic and kinetic corrosion rate data were reliably obtained.

  2. Conservation plan for protected species on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otten, M.R.M.; Cypher, B.L.

    1997-07-01

    Habitats in and around Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) support populations of various vertebrates and plants, including a number of threatened and endangered species. Adequate conservation of habitats and species, particularly protected species, can be facilitated through development and implementation of management plans. This document provides a comprehensive plan for the conservation of protected species on NPR-1, through compliance with terms and conditions expressed in Biological Opinions rendered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for NPR-1 activities. Six conservation strategies by which threatened and endangered species have been, and will be, protected are described: population monitoring, mitigation strategies, special studies, operating guidelines and policies, information transfer and outreach, and the endangered species conservation area. Population monitoring programs are essential for determining population densities and for assessing the effects of oil field developments and environmental factors on protected species. Mitigation strategies (preactivity surveys and habitat reclamation) are employed to minimize the loss of important habitats components and to restore previously disturbed lands to conditions more suitable for species` use. A number of special studies were undertaken between 1985 and 1995 to investigate the effectiveness of a variety of population and habitat management techniques with the goal of increasing the density of protected species. Operating guidelines and policies governing routine oil field activities continue to be implemented to minimize the potential for the incidental take of protected species and minimize damage to wildlife habitats. Information transfer and outreach activities are important means by which technical and nontechnical information concerning protected species conservation on NPR-1 is shared with both the scientific and non-scientific public.

  3. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC.

  4. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

  5. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  6. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Combined Financial Statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and Management Overview and Supplemental Financial and Management Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1994 statements. Their reports on the NPOSR internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations, and management letter on addressing needed improvements are also provided. NPOSR consists of petroleum reserves in California and Wyoming, and oil shale reserves in Colorado and Utah. The Government`s interests in NPOSR are managed by the Department through its headquarters office in Washington, D.C. In addition, the Department has site offices in both California and Wyoming that are responsible for contractor oversight functions. Daily operations are conducted under contract by two management and operating contractors. By law, NPOSR was authorized to produce crude oil at the maximum efficient rate for six years. The law allowed production to be extended for three year periods, provided that the President of the United States certified that continued maximum production was in the best interest of the nation. The current three year period ends on April 5, 1997. Additional information about NPOSR is provided in the overview and notes to the financial statements.

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Northern Alaska Gas Hydrate Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  8. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  9. Hexahedral Finite Element Mesh Capturing Realistic Geometries of Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B. Y.; Roberts, B. L.; Sobolik, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) stores crude oil in 60 caverns located at four sites located along the Gulf Coast. As a matter of normal operation of caverns in a salt dome, the continuous mechanical creep of salt, along with the change in internal cavern and casing pressure due to cavern closure and fluid exchanges, impose several mechanical conditions on the skin, well, and casing of a cavern that could potentially create damage. Sandia, on behalf of DOE, is evaluating the structural integrity of the salt surrounding existing caverns in the Bayou Choctaw (BC) salt dome in Louisiana. In reality, the geometry, spacing, and depths of the caverns are irregular. It is not easy to realize the naturally and artificially formed cavern and salt dome for numerical analysis. It is harder to convert the geometries into the meshed mass consisting of only hexahedral finite elements. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element mesh capturing realistic geometries of the Bayou Choctaw site has been constructed using the seismic and sonar survey data obtained from the field (see Figures below). The mesh consists of hexahedral elements because the salt constitutive model is coded using hexahedral elements. Techniques to reduce the number of elements as much as possible to save on computer run time while maintaining computational accuracy are also developed. These methodologies could also be applied to construct computational meshes for the Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry SPR sites. The methodology could be applied to the complicated shape masses for not only various civil and geological structures but also biological applications such as artificial limbs. The newly developed mesh is expected to provide more accurate solutions of geotechnical concerns that arise due to the close proximity of the caverns to each other or to the edge of salt. Also, there are nine abandoned caverns, one of which is believed to be in a quasi-stable condition. Stability issues for these

  10. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  11. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research 1989 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Research programs on reservoir rocks petroleum, and enhanced recovery are briefly presented. Topics include: Geotechnology; reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS Research Support; three phase relative permeability; static pore structure analysis of reservoir rocks; effects of pore structure on oil/contaminants ganglia distribution; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved surfactant flooding systems; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; development of improved mobility-control methods; gas miscible displacement; development of improved immiscible gas displacement methodology; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; an application of natural isotopes in groundwater for solving environmental problems; processing and thermodynamics research; thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds; in situ hydrogenation; and fuel chemistry.

  12. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the strategic petroleum reserve : hydrodynamics experiments with simulant liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Shollenberger, Kim Ann (California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA); Torczynski, John Robert; Cote, Raymond O.; Barney, Jeremy; O' Hern, Timothy John

    2003-10-01

    An experimental program is being conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal is to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. This report documents the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids are used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward from a tube into brine. The experiment consists of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil injection process at the SPR. An oil layer is floated on top of a brine layer. Silicon oil (Dow Corning 200{reg_sign} Fluid, 5 cSt) is used as the simulant for crude oil to allow visualization of the flow and to avoid flammability and related concerns. Sodium nitrate solution is used as the simulant for brine because it is not corrosive and it can match the density ratio between brine and crude oil. The oil is injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine interface. Flow rates are determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface is deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Two different diameter injection tubes were used (1/2-inch and 1-inch OD) to vary the scaling. Use of the 1-inch injection tube also assured that turbulent pipe flow was achieved, which was questionable for lower flow rates in the 1/2-inch tube. In addition, a 1/2-inch J-tube was used to direct the buoyant jet upwards rather than downwards to determine whether flow redirection could substantially reduce the oil-plume size and the

  13. Feasibility report on alternative methods for cooling cavern oils at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Bruce L.; Lord, David L.; Hadgu, Teklu

    2005-06-01

    Oil caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are subjected to geothermal heating from the surrounding domal salt. This process raises the temperature of the crude oil from around 75 F upon delivery to SPR to as high as 130 F after decades of storage. While this temperature regime is adequate for long-term storage, it poses challenges for offsite delivery, with warm oil evolving gases that pose handling and safety problems. SPR installed high-capacity oil coolers in the mid-1990's to mitigate the emissions problem by lowering the oil delivery temperature. These heat exchanger units use incoming raw water as the cooling fluid, and operate only during a drawdown event where incoming water displaces the outgoing oil. The design criteria for the heat exchangers are to deliver oil at 100 F or less under all drawdown conditions. Increasing crude oil vapor pressures due in part to methane intrusion in the caverns is threatening to produce sufficient emissions at or near 100 F to cause the cooled oil to violate delivery requirements. This impending problem has initiated discussion and analysis of alternative cooling methods to bring the oil temperature even lower than the original design basis of 100 F. For the study described in this report, two alternative cooling methods were explored: (1) cooling during a limited drawdown, and (2) cooling during a degas operation. Both methods employ the heat exchangers currently in place, and do not require extra equipment. An analysis was run using two heat transfer models, HEATEX, and CaveMan, both developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For cooling during a limited drawdown, the cooling water flowrate through the coolers was varied from 1:1 water:oil to about 3:1, with an increased cooling capacity of about 3-7 F for the test cavern Bryan Mound 108 depending upon seasonal temperature effects. For cooling in conjunction with a degas operation in the winter, cavern oil temperatures for the test cavern Big Hill 102

  14. FY-09 Summary Report to the Office of Petroleum Reserves on the Western Energy Corridor Initiative Activities and Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R. Wood

    2010-01-01

    To meet its programmatic obligations under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Office of Naval Petroleum and Shale Oil Reserves (NPSOR) has initiated the Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI). The WECI will implement the Unconventional Strategic Fuels Task Force recommendations for accelerating and promoting the development of domestic unconventional fuels to help meet the nations’ energy needs. The mission of the WECI is to bolster America’s future fuel security by facilitating socially and environmentally responsible development of unconventional fuels resources in the Western Energy Corridor, using sound engineering principles and science-based methods to define and assess benefits, impacts, uncertainties, and mitigation options and to resolve impediments. The Task Force proposed a three-year program in its commercialization plan. The work described herein represents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of the DOE’s WECI. This effort represents an interim phase of work, designed to initiate only select portions of the initiative, limited by available funding resources within NPOSR. Specifically, the work presented here addresses what was accomplished in FY-09 with the remaining carryover (~$420K) from NPOSR FY-08 funds. It was the intent of the NPOSR program to seek additional funding for full implementation of the full scope of work; however, the original tasks were reduced in scope, terminated, or eliminated (as noted below). An effort is ongoing to obtain funding to continue the tasks initiated under this project. This study will focus on the integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon-neutral and environmentally acceptable manner. Emphasis will be placed on analyses of the interrelationships of various energy-resource development plans and the infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal, and economic demands placed on the region as a result of various development scenarios. The interactions at build

  15. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  16. Final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-2, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) in Kern County, California. The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase I Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NPR-2 include the following: royalty income from producing oil and gas leases, rental income from non-producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for sheep grazing (10,044 acres), and town lots for residential or commercial development (16.7 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  17. 76 FR 14376 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Reserve and the Georgia Coastal Management Program. The National Estuarine Research Reserve evaluation... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office...

  18. An organizational survey of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. [Organizational survey in preparation for an upcoming Tiger Team Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), an Organizational Survey (OS), identical to the one that has been used prior to Tiger Team Assessments at other Department Energy facilities, was administered at SPR independent of a Tiger Team Assessment. The OS measured employees' opinions on subjects such as organizational culture, communication, commitment, group cohesion, coordination, safety, environmental issues, and job satisfaction. The result of this work was a quantitative measure of these variables at the SPR site. SPR management intends to utilize these results in their self-assessment process in preparation for an upcoming Tiger Team Assessment. This report presents these results and discusses their interpretation.

  19. Shell Petroleum exploration and production 1980 to 1998: production profits, reserves analysis and key financial statistics in money and in real terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents tables of Shell's earnings from oil and gas exploration and producing activities for the eastern and western hemispheres giving details of sales and net proceeds; Shell earnings analysis money of the day for worldwide oil and gas production between 1980 and 1998; key financial ratios for 1980-1998 for Shell petroleum exploration and production; Shell oil and natural gas liquids reserves changes by technical category (1980-1998); Shell natural gas reserves changes by technical category for 1989-1998; and finally Shell's petroleum exploration and production wells for 1980-1998.

  20. Natural Gas Hydrate as a Storage Mechanism for Safe, Sustainable and Economical Production from Offshore Petroleum Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Kezirian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Century Fathom presents an innovative process to utilize clathrate hydrates for the production, storage and transportation of natural gas from off-shore energy reserves in deep ocean environments. The production scheme was developed by considering the preferred state of natural gas in the deep ocean and addressing the hazards associated with conventional techniques to transport natural gas. It also is designed to mitigate the significant shipping cost inherent with all methods. The resulting proposed scheme restrains transport in the hydrate form to the ocean and does not attempt to supply energy to the residential consumer. Instead; the target recipients are industrial operations. The resulting operational concept is intrinsically safer by design; environmentally sustainable and significantly cost-effective compared with currently proposed schemes for the use of natural gas hydrates and has the potential to be the optimal solution for new production of reserves; depending on the distance to shore and capacity of the petroleum reserve. A potential additional benefit is the byproduct of desalinated water.

  1. Greybull Sandstone Petroleum Potential on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A.

    2002-05-13

    The focus of this project was to explore for stratigraphic traps that may be present in valley-fill sandstone at the top of the Lower Cretaceous Kootenai Formation. This sandstone interval, generally known as the Greybull Sandstone, has been identified along the western edge of the reservation and is a known oil and gas reservoir in the surrounding region. The Greybull Sandstone was chosen as the focus of this research because it is an excellent, well-documented, productive reservoir in adjacent areas, such as Elk Basin; Mosser Dome field, a few miles northwest of the reservation; and several other oil and gas fields in the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin.

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Bend Arch-Ft. Worth Basin Province (045) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province (041) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  4. Engaging National Guard and Reserve Families in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly D. Davis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study’s goal was to identify how to increase National Guard and Reserve military family participation in research. Compared to Active Duty, families of National Guard and Reserve members are more geographically dispersed and less connected to a military base which can prove problematic for research recruitment and participation. We conducted a focus group study with Service Members and spouses (N = 14 to ascertain their perspectives on (a whether National Guard and Reserve families would be interested in participating in research studies, (b potential effective strategies for recruitment, (c ideal data collection procedures, and (d how to retain these families in longitudinal studies. Information provided in the focus groups was assessed using open and axial coding for themes. The majority of participants indicated that National Guard and Reserve families would be interested and willing to participate in research. Participants delineated several perceived participation barriers, however. The most-cited obstacles were time constraints and limited proximity to research study locations. Service Members and spouses were unanimous in their noted preference for internet surveys and indicated that researchers need to build relationships with potential participants, particularly if they intend to retain military families in longitudinal studies.

  5. US Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements and management overview and supplemental financial and management information, September 30, 1995 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1995 statements. Their reports on the NPOSR internal control structure and compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  6. 77 FR 61786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on September 10, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications...

  7. 77 FR 14046 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on January 31, 2012, pursuant to Section... Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications...

  8. 76 FR 78044 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on November 1, 2011, pursuant to Section... Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications...

  9. 77 FR 28405 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on April 17, 2012, pursuant to Section 6... Act''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications...

  10. 76 FR 10338 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ...) National Estuarine Research Reserves (NERRs). Sections 312 and 315 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office...

  11. Final sitewide environmental assessment for preparation for transfer of ownership of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), Natrona County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Secretary of Energy is authorized to produce the Naval Petroleum Reserves No. 3 (NPR-3) at its maximum efficient rate (MER) consistent with sound engineering practices, for a period extending to April 5, 2000 subject to extension. Production at NPR-3 peaked in 1981 and has declined since until it has become a mature stripper field, with the average well yielding less than 2 barrels per day. The Department of Energy (DOE) has decided to discontinue Federal operation of NPR-3 at the end of its life as an economically viable oilfield currently estimated to be 2003. Although changes in oil and gas markets or shifts in national policy could alter the economic limit of NPR-3, it productive life will be determined largely by a small and declining reserve base. DOE is proposing certain activities over the next six years in anticipation of the possible transfer of NPR-3 out of Federal operation. These activities would include the accelerated plugging and abandoning of uneconomic wells, complete reclamation and restoration of abandoned sites including dismantling surface facilities, batteries, roads, test satellites, electrical distribution systems and associated power poles, when they are no longer needed for production, and the continued development of the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). DOE has prepared this environmental assessment that analyzes the proposed plugging and abandonment of wells, field restoration and development of RMOTC. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). The preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  12. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  14. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 quarterly financial statements, December 31, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-18

    The report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` review of the Department of Energy`s Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 interim financial statements as of December 31, 1996 and 1995. The review was done in accordance with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. A review of interim financial statements consists principally of inquiries of NPR-1 personnel and analytical procedures applied to financial data. It is substantially less in scope than an audit in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion regarding the financial statements take as a whole. Accordingly, the certified public accountants do not express such an opinion. The auditors have stated that, except for the omission of certain disclosures, they are not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the financial statements in order for them to be in conformity with the other comprehensive basis of accounting described in Note 1 to the financial statements.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 quarterly financial statements, March 31, 1997 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-17

    The report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` review of the Department of Energy`s Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 interim financial statements as of March 31, 1997 and 1996. The review was done in accordance with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. A review of interim financial statements consist principally of inquires of NPR-1 personnel and analytical procedures applied to financial data. It is substantially less in scope than an audit in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion regarding the financial statements taken as a whole. Accordingly, the certified public accountants do not express such an opinion. The auditors have stated that, except for the omission of certain disclosures, they are not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the financial statements in order for them to be in conformity with the other comprehensive basis of accounting described in Note 1 to the financial statements.

  16. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  17. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  18. Geologic technical assessment of the Chacahoula Salt Dome, Louisiana, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

    2006-03-01

    The Chacahoula salt dome, located in southern Louisiana, approximately 66 miles southwest of New Orleans, appears to be a suitable site for a 160-million-barrel-capacity expansion facility for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, comprising sixteen 10-million barrel underground storage caverns. The overall salt dome appears to cover an area of some 1800 acres, or approximately 2.8 square miles, at a subsea elevation of 2000 ft, which is near the top of the salt stock. The shallowest known salt is present at 1116 ft, subsea. The crest of the salt dome is relatively flatlying, outward to an elevation of -4000 ft. Below this elevation, the flanks of the dome plunge steeply in all directions. The dome appears to comprise two separate spine complexes of quasi-independently moving salt. Two mapped areas of salt overhang, located on the eastern and southeastern flanks of the salt stock, are present below -8000 ft. These regions of overhang should present no particular design issues, as the conceptual design SPR caverns are located in the western portion of the dome. The proposed cavern field may be affected by a boundary shear zone, located between the two salt spines. However, the large size of the Chacahoula salt dome suggests that there is significant design flexibility to deal with such local geologic issues.

  19. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  20. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-10-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  1. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

  2. Geologic technical assessment of the Richton salt dome, Mississippi, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant)

    2006-01-01

    Technical assessment and remodeling of existing data indicates that the Richton salt dome, located in southeastern Mississippi, appears to be a suitable site for expansion of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The maximum area of salt is approximately 7 square miles, at a subsurface elevation of about -2000 ft, near the top of the salt stock. Approximately 5.8 square miles of this appears suitable for cavern development, because of restrictions imposed by modeled shallow salt overhang along several sides of the dome. The detailed geometry of the overhang currently is only poorly understood. However, the large areal extent of the Richton salt mass suggests that significant design flexibility exists for a 160-million-barrel storage facility consisting of 16 ten-million-barrel caverns. The dome itself is prominently elongated from northwest to southeast. The salt stock appears to consist of two major spine features, separated by a likely boundary shear zone trending from southwest to northeast. The dome decreases in areal extent with depth, because of salt flanks that appear to dip inward at 70-80 degrees. Caprock is present at depths as shallow as 274 ft, and the shallowest salt is documented at -425 ft. A large number of existing two-dimensional seismic profiles have been acquired crossing, and in the vicinity of, the Richton salt dome. At least selected seismic profiles should be acquired, examined, potentially reprocessed, and interpreted in an effort to understand the limitations imposed by the apparent salt overhang, should the Richton site be selected for actual expansion of the Reserve.

  3. USA: Glacier National Park, Biosphere Reserve and GLORIA Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Lee, Cathy; Schaaf, Thomas; Simmonds, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The National Park Service of the United States has 388 designated protected areas and parks that include historic and cultural sites as well as ‘natural resource’ parks set aside for their unique and outstanding natural features. Early efforts to create parks were focused on areas of beauty or unusual features but later efforts increasingly aimed to protect biodiversity and intact ecosystems. Protected areas in the National Park Service are found in nearly all the fifty states from Florida to Alaska, with examples of preserved natural environments ranging from coral reefs to the icy summit of Mt. McKinley in Alaska, at 6,187 m. Many of the larger parks have been designated as Biosphere Reserves under the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Man and the Biosphere Programme.

  4. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Streams .110 xiii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2-1: U.S. Crude Oil Production and Imports 6 Figure 2-2: Average Annual Price of Crude Oil 9 Figure 2-3...be economically efficient. In general, it is economically preferable to import additional oil as 5 6 U.S. CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS BARRELS PER...U.S. allies and trading partners that the U.S. no longer had an), surge crude oil production capacity for use during possible oil supply disruptions

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-31

    reported in the Senate does not include this language. Purchases of Crude Oil With the expiration in the late 1980s of an agreement with Petroleos ... Mexicanos (PEMEX), the Defense Fuels Supply Center resumed making purchases for the SPR on behalf of DOE from the spot market until fill was suspended for

  6. Herpetofauna of Mount Qomolangma National Nature Reserve in Tibet, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hujun Pan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Qomolangma National Nature Reserve (QNNR in Tibet, China, is the highest nature reserve in the world and is characterized by a wide range in altitude. The QNNR was established to protect its vegetation, unique alpine ecosystem, and overall abundant biodiversity. Amphibians and reptiles are important components of its biodiversity, but are poorly understood. Thus, we surveyed amphibians and reptiles in the QNNR on 5 occasions between October 2010 and October 2012. This survey revealed 9 amphibian species, which belong to 6 genera, 3 families, and 1 order. All of these species belong to the Oriental Realm. We also recorded 11 reptile species belonging to 10 genera, 4 families, and 1 order. Among these species, 8 belong to the Oriental Realm and 3 to the Palearctic Realm. According to our records, the herptofauna of the QNNR is characterized by both endemic amphibian and reptile species with 2 endemic species and 6 quasi-endemic species in China. The estimated species richness of amphibians and reptiles in the reserve is likely to increase with further survey, especially along the southern slope of the Himalayas. A sharp dividing line between the Palearctic region and Oriental region in the QNNR occurs between 3,600–3,800 m a.s.l. with no transition zone.

  7. 77 FR 40086 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on June 8, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the...

  8. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Project No. 2011-01, Ultra Low Nutrient Control in Wastewater... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Petroleum Environmental...

  9. 75 FR 45156 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on June 2, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (``PERF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the...

  10. A scenario-based clean gasoline production strategy for China National Petroleum Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Haiyan; Yu Jianning; Fan Yu; Shi Gang; Bao Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    Facing increasingly strict environmental regulations on transportation fuels,China National Petroleum Corp.(CNPC),the second largest supplier of petroleum products in China,needs to upgrade its transportation fuels.Using the scenario-based analysis method,this paper analyzes how the emission related properties,including antiknock index,and sulfur,olefin,benzene and aromatics contents of gasoline produced by CNPC,vary with the change in the configuration of gasoline production units in the future 5-15 years.The results showed that for CNPC to upgrade its gasoline,the share of fluid catalytic cracking(FCC)naphtha must be reduced,but just increasing reformate or alkylate and isomerate will result in excessive increase in benzene and aromatics contents or a great loss of gasoline octane number.Therefore,CNPC should suitably control the capacity of its FCC units and increase the capacity of reformer,alkylation and isomerization units.Most importantly,CNPC should dramatically expand the capacity of its hydrotreating or non-hydrotreating gasoline upgrading units to decrease the olefin and sulfur contents in FCC gasoline that takes a dominant share of about 80% in the gasoline pool of China.

  11. 76 FR 23838 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...--Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on March 21, 2011, pursuant to Section 6... Act''), Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc. (``PIDX'') has filed written notifications... organization is: Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc., Houston, TX. The nature and scope of PIDX's standards...

  12. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  13. U.S. Geological Survey 2010 Petroleum Resource Assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA): GIS Play Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 2010 updated assessment of NPRA evaluated each of the 24 plays based on the availability of new geologic data available from exploration activities and...

  14. Environmental Survey preliminary report, National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), conducted February 29 through March 4, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Team members are being provided by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NIPER. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NIPER and interviews with site personnel. 35 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. 75 FR 8649 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean Service, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of intent...

  16. 75 FR 42068 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean Service, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Intent...

  17. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O' Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were

  18. The Study on Global Oil and Gas Supply and Demand undertaken by the National Petroleum Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slutz, James

    2007-07-01

    The National Petroleum Council (NPC) Study on Global Oil and Gas is one of the most comprehensive studies on global oil and gas supply and demand projections ever undertaken to date. This study comprises approximately 250 experts from industry, government, research institutions, academia, energy ministries from around the world, national oil companies, and non-government organizations. The NPC study team has collected and analyzed global data on supply and demand trends through the year 2030. While other studies have examined the economic, environmental, security and geo-policy implications of the oil and gas supply and demand picture, this study examines all three political priorities simultaneously. The multi-dimensional foundations of the policy recommendations, and the diverse expertise of study group members, results in findings which are truly unique, and separate this study from numerous previous studies on global oil and gas supply and demand. Although key findings and policy recommendations will not be released prior to the study's release in June of 2007, the following paper provides the scope of work and the detailed project plan that will result in an energy outlook that is differentiated from all recent studies.

  19. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover. © 2015 The Authors

  20. 78 FR 26617 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... changes in water quality. Since the last management plan, the reserve has built out its core programs and... the approval of this management plan, the Grand Bay Reserve will decrease their total acreage from 18... management plan, the Delaware Reserve will increase their total acreage from 4,930 acres to 6,206. The change...

  1. 78 FR 53732 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... changes in water quality. Since the last management plan, the reserve has built out its core programs and... the approval of this management plan, the Grand Bay Reserve will decrease their total acreage from 18... management plan, the Delaware Reserve will increase their total acreage from 4,930 acres to 6,206. The change...

  2. Migratory bird population of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A), 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four hundred and twenty square miles of aerial surveys were flown over 36,300 sq mi (94,000 sq km) of NPR-A during June through September. Twelve categories of...

  3. 32 CFR 101.8 - Reserve training in sovereign foreign nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PARTICIPATION IN RESERVE TRAINING PROGRAMS § 101.8 Reserve training in sovereign foreign nations. (a) The Secretaries of the Military Departments may authorize the conduct of... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve training in sovereign foreign...

  4. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  5. EIA model documentation: Petroleum market model of the national energy modeling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-28

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level.

  6. National Guard and Reserves: Air Force Needs to Consistently Assess Personnel Requirements to Appropriately Size Its Headquarters Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Headquarters Reserve Components Report to Congressional Committees August 2016 GAO-16-538 United States Government Accountability Office...United States Government Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-538, a report to congressional committees August 2016 NATIONAL...Report 114-49 included a provision for GAO to review DOD’s Army and Air Force Reserve Components’ headquarters. Among other things, this report (1

  7. City of Rocks National Reserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report, August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Geological and engineering data from Patrick Draw field and Almond outcrops have been electronically formatted for the initial data base on the Almond formation. In addition, a number of research areas are identified. An annotated bibliography of selected references on barrier islands, with emphasis on Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, WY, has been prepared. The bibliography contains more than 200 references on barrier island systems worldwide. The results of laboratory experiments indicate that surfactant-enhanced flooding has potential use for the recovery of oil from Naval Petroleum Reserve NPR No. 3 reservoirs. Because of the highly fractured nature of these reservoirs, chemical flooding is expected to be more efficient if gels are applied to improve reservoir conformance. FY92 experiments to determine surfactant/polymer interactions that might occur during field tests have been finalized. The results show that interactions do occur in mixtures containing both surfactant and polymer and that the interactions are characterized by inhomogeneity; however, this effect is not as severe in systems containing crude oil. Thermodynamic property measurements are now complete for the four-ring, nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds benzo[c]carbazole and benzo[c]phenanthridine. High-temperature heat capacity and critical property determinations by differential scanning calorimetry were started in August for a series of dimethylpyridines. Results of studies on the dimethylpyridines will provide a reliable basis for estimating the properties of a wide variety of substituted aromatic nitrogen compounds. Heat capacity and enthalpy measurements were completed for the four-ring naphthene compound, 5,6-dihydro-4H-benz[de]anthracene.

  9. 76 FR 40338 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... quality (non-point source pollution), invasive species, habitat loss and regional ecosystem impacts of... area dominated by mixed hardwoods. Incorporating these lands increases the size of the reserve to...

  10. 76 FR 16620 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... reserve related to water quality (non-point source pollution), invasive species, habitat loss and regional... Cornus sp.) and will become an area dominated by mixed hardwoods. Incorporating these lands increases...

  11. 75 FR 65613 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... ecological communities in support of the Bay's growing population: climate change, species interactions... Ocean Service, Estuarine Reserves Division, 1305 East-West Highway, N/ORM5, 10th floor, Silver...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Gulf Coast (Provinces 047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  13. Commission on the National Guard and Reserves: Transforming the National Guard and Reserves into a 21st-Century Operational Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-31

    Allen, Air National Guard Construction Mechanic Second Class José Quiroz , Navy Reserve Corporal Adrian Garza, Marine Corps Reserve Chief Petty Officer...Ike Puzon Lieutenant Colonel Peter J. Quinn Construction Mechanic Second Class Jose Quiroz Ms. Joyce Raezer Major General William M. Rajczak Petty

  14. Ebey's Landing NH Reserve National Reserve Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  15. Phase II - final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NOSR 1 & 3, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSR 1 and 3) in Garfield County, Colorado (Figure 0.1). The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase 1 Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NOSR 1 and 3 include the following: working interest income from producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for livestock grazing (56,577 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, gas prices, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  16. Office of Inspector General report on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1, independent accountant`s report on applying agreed-upon procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    On October 6, 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced it had agreed to sell all of the Government`s interest in Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1) to Occidental Petroleum Corporation for $3.65 billion. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` agreed-upon procedures work on the Preliminary Settlement Statement of the Purchase and Sale Agreement between DOE and Occidental. To fulfill their responsibilities, the Office of Inspector General contracted with the independent public accounting firm of KPMG Peat Marwick LLP to conduct the work for them, subject to their review. The work was done in accordance with the Statements on Standards for Attestation Engagements issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. As such, the independent certified public accountants performed only work that was agreed upon by DOE and Occidental. This report is intended solely for the use of DOE and Occidental and should not be used by those who have not agreed to the procedures and taken responsibility for the sufficiency of the procedures for their purposes. However, this report is a matter of public record, and its distribution is not limited. The independent certified public accountants identified over 20 adjustments to the Preliminary Settlement Statement that would result in a $10.8 million increase in the sale price.

  17. Phase II - final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NOSR 1 & 3, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSR 1 and 3) in Garfield County, Colorado (Figure 0.1). The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase 1 Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NOSR 1 and 3 include the following: working interest income from producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for livestock grazing (56,577 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, gas prices, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  18. 77 FR 60107 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... to address high priority issues within the 110,000 acre Reserve including land use changes affecting freshwater inflow, loss of native biodiversity, lack of public awareness and community involvement in... Environmental Learning Center provides excellent visitor education experiences and a connecting pedestrian...

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation. Physical Characteristics and National Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, Patricia Dreyer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joan, F. Hughes [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-09

    The topology, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions. The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR.

  20. Assessment of impacts and evaluation of restoration methods on areas affected by a well blowout, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrick, G.D.; Kato, T.T.; Phillips, M.V. [and others

    1996-12-01

    In June 1994, an oil well on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 blew-out and crude oil was deposited downwind. After the well was capped, information was collected to characterize the release and to assess effects to wildlife and plants. Oil residue was found up to 13.7 km from the well site, but deposition was relatively light and the oil quickly dried to form a thin crust on the soil surface. Elevated levels of hydrocarbons were found in livers collected from Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) from the oiled area but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (known carcinogens or mutagens) were not detected in the livers. Restoration techniques (surface modification and bioremediation) and natural recovery were evaluated within three portions of the oiled area. Herbaceous cover and production, and survival and vigor of desert saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa) were also monitored within each trapping grid.

  1. Study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, NOSR-2, Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant and authorized a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. The US owns 100% of the mineral rights and about 60% of the surface rights in NOSR-2. The Ute Indian Tribe owns the other 40% of the surface. This 88,890-acre tract was set aside as an oil shale reserve for the US Navy by an Executive Order of President Wilson in 1916. Management of NOSR-2 is the responsibility of DOE. No drilling for oil and gas has occurred on the property and no production has been established. No reserves are present, although the area is hypothesized to overlay gas resources. Mapping by the US Geological Survey and others has resulted in speculative seismic leads for structures that may or may not hold conventional oil and gas. All of the mineral rights (including oil shale) must be considered exploratory and the mineral rights must be valued accordingly. The opinion recommended to maximize value to the US is Option 4, sale of the interest of the US of all or part of NOSR-2. Evaluation of this option results in an estimated value which is more than three times greater than the next highest estimated value, for Option 2, transfer to the Department of the Interior for leasing.

  2. 15 CFR 921.3 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System biogeographic classification scheme and estuarine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... biogeographic classification scheme and estuarine typologies. (a) National Estuarine Research Reserves are... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National Estuarine Research Reserve System biogeographic classification scheme and estuarine typologies. 921.3 Section 921.3 Commerce...

  3. 75 FR 69399 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Chesapeake Bay (Maryland) National Estuarine Research Reserves. The Coastal Zone Management Program... Estuarine Research Reserves (NERRs). Sections 312 and 315 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (CZMA... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and...

  4. The Mobilization and Return of Undergraduate Students Serving in the National Guard and Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Some reserve and National Guard personnel are enrolled in college. Much like those who choose not to attend college, reservists and Guard members who are students are challenged by issues of separation from family and employment. However, members of the reserves and National Guard who are college students must also separate from their educational…

  5. Nation Needs to Reform Its Foreign Exchange Reserves Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬; 殷剑峰; 刘煜辉

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses both the domestic and external reasons for the occurrence of excessive liquidity.To solve the problem of excessive liquidity two different policy options are proposed;firstly the improvement of the structure of national income assignment and secondly the promotion of the structural diversification of foreign exchange assets.

  6. Relationship between Tourism Development and Ecological Protection in Songshan National Nature Reserve,Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays Songshan National Nature Reserve attracts a rapidly increasing number of tourists. However, the development of a tourist economy and the further exploitation of the natural landscape threaten the ecology and management of the reserve. Therefore, defining the relationship between ecological tourism and ecological protection can provide a framework for the management and exploitation of the reserve. Based on the analysis of current situation and questions of the reserve, this paper probes into the re...

  7. Reconnaissance investigation of petroleum products in soil and ground water at Longmire, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumioka, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    The removal of an underground waste-oil storage tank in Mount Rainier National Park, at Longmire, Washington, led to the discovery that soil surrounding the tank was saturated with unidentified petroleum hydrocarbons. Subsequent investigations by the National Park Service indicated that a petroleum product smelling like diesel oil was present in the unsaturated zone as far as 120 feet from the tank site. A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service to determine the extent to which the petroleum hydrocarbons have affected the unsaturated zone and ground water in the Longmire area. Measurements of water levels in wells and of water-surface elevations of the Nisqually River and a wetland west of Longmire indicate that ground water does not flow from the maintenance area to the river or to the wetland. Waste oil and diesel oil were detected in soil samples from the site closest to the waste-oil storage-tank site. Diesel oil was also detected in samples from a site about 200 feet northwest of the storage-tank site. Organic compounds of undetermined origin were detected in soil samples from all of the other sites. Waste oil was not conclusively detected in any of the ground-water samples. Diesel oil was detected in water samples from the well closest to the storage tank and from a well about 200 feet west of the storage-tank site. Ground-water samples from all of the other wells contained organic compounds of undetermined origin.

  8. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  9. OUTLOOK OF CHINA'S PETROLEUM EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xianzheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Oil and gas resource situation of China Overall discovered maturity of oil and gas resources not high According to all previous nationwide estimates of oilgas resources, the total resources is relatively abundant in China. The latest resource assessment results, performed by China's three national oil companies (CNPC, Sinopec and CNOOC), also indicate that petroleum exploration still has a solid resource base. According to the latest nationwide petroleum resource assessment results and the proved oil and gas geologic reserves at the end of 2004,the average discovery maturity of recoverable oil reserves is 20% in China, with 40% in east China, 14% in westcentral China and 14.5% in offshore China, reflecting that petroleum exploration is still in middle stage with considerable exploration potential.

  10. China's Strategy of Petroleum Industry Development Urged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Geng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Editor China National Petroleum Corporation(CNPC), as the No. 1producer and supplier of crude oil and natural gas as well as the No.1 producer and supplier of petroleum smelting and chemical products, has a wide business range covering prospect for petroleum and natural gas, petroleum smelting and chemical production,pipe transmission, sales of smelting and chemical products of petroleum and natural gas, service of petroleum project techniques, petroleum machinery processing and manufacturing, petroleum trade and so on. It has taken a leading role in the production and processing of China's petroleum and natural gas,as well as the market.

  11. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - biocell treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Biocells are engineered systems that use naturally occurring microbes to degrade fuels and oils into simpler, nonhazardous, and nontoxic compounds. Biocells are able to treat soils contaminated with petroleum based fuels and lubricants, including diesel, jet fuel, and lubricating and hydraulic oils. The microbes use the contaminants as a food source and thus destroy them. By carefully monitoring and controlling air and moisture levels, degradation rates can be increased and total treatment time reduced over natural systems.

  12. (National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research) monthly progress report, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Accomplishments for the month of July are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuel Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplement Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1. unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; analysis of the US oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil; DOE education initiative project; and technology transfer to independent producers.

  13. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Accomplishments for the month of July are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuel Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplement Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1. unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; analysis of the US oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil; DOE education initiative project; and technology transfer to independent producers.

  14. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report for June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Accomplishments for this period are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluid in porous media. Fuels research includes; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1, unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; and analysis of the U. S. oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil.

  15. (National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research) monthly progress report for June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Accomplishments for this period are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluid in porous media. Fuels research includes; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1, unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; and analysis of the U. S. oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil.

  16. Geologic technical assessment of the Stratton Ridge salt dome, Texas, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The Stratton Ridge salt dome is a large salt diapir located only some ten miles from the currently active Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site at Bryan Mound, Texas. The dome is approximately 15 miles south-southwest of Houston. The Stratton Ridge salt dome has been intensively developed, in the desirable central portions, with caverns for both brine production and product storage. This geologic technical assessment indicates that the Stratton Ridge salt dome may be considered a viable, if less-than-desirable, candidate site for potential expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Past development of underground caverns significantly limits the potential options for use by the SPR. The current conceptual design layout of proposed caverns for such an expansion facility is based upon a decades-old model of salt geometry, and it is unacceptable, according to this reinterpretation of salt dome geology. The easternmost set of conceptual caverns are located within a 300-ft buffer zone of a very major boundary shear zone, fault, or other structural feature of indeterminate origin. This structure transects the salt stock and subdivides it into an shallow western part and a deeper eastern part. In places, the distance from this structural boundary to the design-basis caverns is as little as 150 ft. A 300-ft distance from this boundary is likely to be the minimum acceptable stand-off, from both a geologic and a regulatory perspective. Repositioning of the proposed cavern field is possible, as sufficient currently undeveloped salt acreage appears to be available. However, such reconfiguration would be subject to limitations related to land-parcel boundaries and other existing infrastructure and topographic constraints. More broadly speaking, the past history of cavern operations at the Stratton Ridge salt dome indicates that operation of potential SPR expansion caverns at this site may be difficult, and correspondingly expensive. Although detailed information is

  17. Geologic technical assessment of the Stratton Ridge salt dome, Texas, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The Stratton Ridge salt dome is a large salt diapir located only some ten miles from the currently active Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site at Bryan Mound, Texas. The dome is approximately 15 miles south-southwest of Houston. The Stratton Ridge salt dome has been intensively developed, in the desirable central portions, with caverns for both brine production and product storage. This geologic technical assessment indicates that the Stratton Ridge salt dome may be considered a viable, if less-than-desirable, candidate site for potential expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Past development of underground caverns significantly limits the potential options for use by the SPR. The current conceptual design layout of proposed caverns for such an expansion facility is based upon a decades-old model of salt geometry, and it is unacceptable, according to this reinterpretation of salt dome geology. The easternmost set of conceptual caverns are located within a 300-ft buffer zone of a very major boundary shear zone, fault, or other structural feature of indeterminate origin. This structure transects the salt stock and subdivides it into an shallow western part and a deeper eastern part. In places, the distance from this structural boundary to the design-basis caverns is as little as 150 ft. A 300-ft distance from this boundary is likely to be the minimum acceptable stand-off, from both a geologic and a regulatory perspective. Repositioning of the proposed cavern field is possible, as sufficient currently undeveloped salt acreage appears to be available. However, such reconfiguration would be subject to limitations related to land-parcel boundaries and other existing infrastructure and topographic constraints. More broadly speaking, the past history of cavern operations at the Stratton Ridge salt dome indicates that operation of potential SPR expansion caverns at this site may be difficult, and correspondingly expensive. Although detailed information is

  18. ASSESSMENT OF RESISTANCE OF THE BROWN TYPICAL SOIL OF THE UTRISH NATIONAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mospanenko A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an assessment of resistance of the brown typical soil of the Utrish national reserve to pollution with heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil on biological indicators

  19. Metals in New Jersey's Pinelands National Reserve Sediments, Surface Water and Biota: An Emphasis on Mercury

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Technical data on the nature and extent of chemical contaminants in sediments and biota of the streams comprising the Pinelands National Reserve (Pinelands) in New...

  20. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this effort was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in the St. Thomas East End Reserves or STEER, as part of a larger...

  1. Petroleum Exploration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guangding

    2003-01-01

    @@ Over the past 50 years, China has experienced a dramatic turn in its petroleum production. Today, our country is facing the same challenge it met 50 years ago. Therefore, we have to renew our once high vigor to seek more petroleum deposits in order to meet the needs of national develop-ment in the new century.

  2. WHEN DO COSTA RICA NATIONAL BANKS RESPOND TO RESERVE REQUIREMENT CHANGES?

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance Jalbert; Jonathan Stewart; Mercedes Jalbert

    2012-01-01

    The process of changing reserve requirements in Costa Rica is a three step process. First the central bank makes the decision to change reserve requirements. Several days to several weeks later, the change is announced in the official newspaper. The actual reserve requirement change takes place from several weeks to several months later. Previous studies have limited their analysis to an examination of the decision and the announcement dates. The research shows that Costa Rica national banks ...

  3. What's working, what's not: The monitoring and reporting system for Tasmania's national parks and reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenys Jones

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the Australian State of Tasmania's management effectiveness Monitoring and Reporting System for national parks and reserves. This jurisdictional performance measurement system is designed to provide all interested parties with reliable factual information and measured evidence about reserve management achievements, progress and challenges. Key...

  4. Analysis of a commitment period reserve at national and global levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missfeldt, F.; Haites, E.

    2002-01-01

    To reduce the risk of overselling in the context of international greenhouse gas trading under the Kyoto Protocol, Parties have agreed to a commitment period reserve requirement. The commitment period reserve requires each Annex B Party to hold in its national registry quota equal to the lower...

  5. Serologic survey for disease in endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, inhabiting the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCue, P.M.; O' Farrell, T.P.

    1986-07-01

    Serum from endangered San Joaquin kit foxes, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and sympatric wildlife inhabiting the Elk Hills Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, and Elkhorn Plain, San Luis Obispo County, California, was collected in 1981 to 1982 and 1984, and tested for antibodies against 10 infectious disease pathogens. Proportions of kit fox sera containing antibodies against diseases were: canine parvovirus, 100% in 1981 to 1982 and 67% in 1984; infectious canine hepatitis, 6% in 1981 to 1982 and 21% in 1984; canine distemper, 0 in 1981 to 1982 and 14% in 1984; tularemia, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 31% in 1984; Brucella abortus, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 3% in 1984; Brucella canis, 14% in 1981 to 1982 and 0 in 1984; toxoplasmosis, 6% in 1981 to 1982; coccidioidomycosis, 3% in 1981 to 1982; and plague and leptospirosis, 0 in 1981 to 1982. High population density, overlapping home ranges, ability to disperse great distances, and infestation by ectoparasites were cited as possible factors in the transmission and maintenance of these diseases in kit fox populations.

  6. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  7. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-18

    This report contains the following: Bibliography; Petroleum Market Model abstract; Data quality; Estimation methodologies (includes refinery investment recovery thresholds, gas plant models, chemical industry demand for methanol, estimation of refinery fixed costs, estimation of distribution costs, estimation of taxes gasoline specifications, estimation of gasoline market shares, estimation of low-sulfur diesel market shares, low-sulfur diesel specifications, estimation of regional conversion coefficients, estimation of SO{sub 2} allowance equations, unfinished oil imports methodology, product pipeline capacities and tariffs, cogeneration methodology, natural gas plant fuel consumption, and Alaskan crude oil exports); Matrix generator documentation; Historical data processing; and Biofuels supply submodule.

  8. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    Accomplishments for the month of May are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels Research covers: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteratom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program covers: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; field application of foams for oil production symposium; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; and chemical EOR workshop.

  9. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report for July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Brief progress reports are presented under the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental Government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels research covers; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region: Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade PBO crude oil database; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; chemical EOR workshop; and organization of UNITAR 6th International conference of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands.

  10. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report, January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    Accomplishments for the month of January are briefly described for the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORI research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modifications, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluid in porous media. Fuel research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen and diheteroatom containing compounds. supplemental Government program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; field application of foams for oil production symposium; technology transfer to independent producers; and compilations and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations.

  11. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research], monthly progress report for March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Accomplishments for the month of April are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nigrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process- engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; field application of foams of oil production symposium; technology transfer to independent producers; compilations and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; and horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs.

  12. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report for August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Brief progress reports are presented under the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental Government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels research covers; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government program includes: feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region: Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade PBO crude oil database; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; chemical EOR workshop; and organization of UNITAR 6th International conference of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands.

  13. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    Accomplishments for the month of May are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels Research covers: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteratom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program covers: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; field application of foams for oil production symposium; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; and chemical EOR workshop.

  14. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. 24 CFR 203.43j - Eligibility of mortgages on Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians. 203.43j Section 203.43j Housing and Urban Development... Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians. A mortgage on a leasehold estate covering a one- to four-family residence located on the Allegany Reservation of the Seneca Nation of Indians in the State of New York...

  16. 24 CFR 203.439a - Mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians authorized by section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians authorized by section 203(q) of the National Housing Act. 203.439a... Reservation of Seneca Indians § 203.439a Mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation...

  17. Petroleum geoscience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rasoul Sorkhabi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Successful textbooks educate generations,and in a way define generations of scientists. As science and technology advance,textbooks become old and outdated. Nevertheless, each textbook serves as a foundation for the next, and thus a series of textbooks on a particular subject reflects the evolution of concepts, methods and data on the subject. As I write this review, there are eight textbooks on petroleum geology on my bookshelf: D. Hager's Practical Oil Geology (1915) (the first textbook of its kind); W.H. Emmons' Geology of Petroleum (1921), Cecil Lalicker's Principles of Petroleum Geology (1949); William Russell's Principles of Petroleum Geology (1951); Kenneth Landes' Petroleum Geology (1951); A. I. Levorsen's Geology of Petroleum (2nd ed., 1967); F. K. North's Petroleum Geology (1985); and Richard Selley's Elements of Petroleum Geology (2nd ed., 1998). Petroleum Geoscience by Gluyas and Swarbrick is a welcome addition to this list although its authors do not mention their predecessors.

  18. Important Step to Rapidly Develop West China Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yirong

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corp.(CNPC) and Japan National Oil Corp. (JNOC),and Japan Energy Corp., Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd., Indonesia Petroleum Ltd., Sumitomo Corp. signed an agreement of geological survey and a petroleum contract for cooperative exploring petroleum resources for Misalieyi Block of Bachu Uplift in Tarim Basin,respectively in Beijing on July 23, 1997.

  19. Helicopter Based Magnetic Detection Of Wells At The Teapot Dome (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Oilfield: Rapid And Accurate Geophysical Algorithms For Locating Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Veloski, G.; Hodge, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this study Airborne magnetic data was collected by Fugro Airborne Surveys from a helicopter platform (Figure 1) using the Midas II system over the 39 km2 NPR3 (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3) oilfield in east-central Wyoming. The Midas II system employs two Scintrex CS-2 cesium vapor magnetometers on opposite ends of a transversely mounted, 13.4-m long horizontal boom located amidships (Fig. 1). Each magnetic sensor had an in-flight sensitivity of 0.01 nT. Real time compensation of the magnetic data for magnetic noise induced by maneuvering of the aircraft was accomplished using two fluxgate magnetometers mounted just inboard of the cesium sensors. The total area surveyed was 40.5 km2 (NPR3) near Casper, Wyoming. The purpose of the survey was to accurately locate wells that had been drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood to enhance oil recovery, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells that are missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The well location method used combined an input dataset (for example, leveled total magnetic field reduced to the pole), combined with first and second horizontal spatial derivatives of this input dataset, which were then analyzed using focal statistics and finally combined using a fuzzy combination operation. Analytic signal and the Shi and Butt (2004) ZS attribute were also analyzed using this algorithm. A parameter could be adjusted to determine sensitivity. Depending on the input dataset 88% to 100% of the wells were located, with typical values being 95% to 99% for the NPR3 field site.

  20. Strategic petroleum reserve, Byran Mound Salt Dome, Brazoria County, Texas. Final environmental impact statement (final supplement to FEA FES 76/77-6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    On January 7, 1977, the Federal Energy Administration issued a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the development of the Bryan Mound salt dome as a storage site for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (FES 76/77-6). On October 1, 1977, the U.S. Department of Energy was created and the programs of the Federal Energy Administration were transferred to the new Department. As such, this final supplement is being issued by the Department of Energy. The salt dome is located in Brazoria County, Texas. Since the EIS was published, it has been determined that this arrangement would be inadequate to meet the long term requirements for filling and withdrawing oil at the site, although the disposal of brine to Dow Chemical would be utilized to the maximum extent possible. Therefore, on July 15, 1977, a Draft Supplement to FES 76/77-6 was issued addressing the environmental impacts of construction and operation of two types of brine disposal systems and a new water supply system. This final supplement addresses a brine injection well system and a water intake system. Construction of this new system component would cause temporary disruption to land use, water quality, air quality, and terrestrial and aquatic ecology. The new facilities would permanently change 17 acres of land from its present use. Operation of the systems would have relatively small, short-term impacts. Use of the brine surge pit could adversely affect air quality by emitting hydrocarbon vapors (maximum rate of 51.4 tons per year). Operation of the disposal wells would increase the salinity of an already saline aquifer. All operational impacts would be relatively minor and short-term, occurring only during periods of fill or withdrawal of the storage facility.

  1. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kato, T.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  2. Offshore oceanographic and environmental monitoring services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume I. Appendices. Annual report for the Bryan Mound Site, September 1982-August 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began leaching the Bryan Mound salt dome and discharging brine into the coastal waters offshore of Freeport, Texas on March 10, 1980. This report describes the findings of a team of Texas A and M University scientists and engineers who have conducted a study to evaluate the effects of the Bryan Mound brine discharge on the marine environment. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos and data management. It focuses on the period from September 1982 through August 1983. The ambient physical environment and its temporal and spatial variability were studied by means of continuously recording in situ current/conductivitiy/temperature meters and twelve, one-day synoptic hydrographic cruises. The quarterly water and sediment quality data show a small increase in salinity, sodium and chloride ions occurs in the bottom waters and sediment pore waters near the diffuser relative to those values measured at stations farther away. Data from the brine plume study for this reporting study show the largest areal extent within the +1 o/oo above ambient salinity contour was 40.0 km/sup 2/ which occurred on August 11, 1983. It appears that brine disposal at Bryan Mound has had neglible if any influence on the nekton community surrounding the diffuser. The benthic quarterly data from 26 stations, including 7 collections made after the diffuser outflow rate was increased to 1,000,000 barrels/day, show the total numbers of species at the diffuser station were higher than most other nearfield stations as well as many farfield stations in both the pre- and post-1,000,000 barrels/day brine flow periods. 138 references, 175 figures, 53 tables.

  3. Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-3 Natrona County, Wyoming. Addendum to 22 August 1996 study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and surface rights in 9,321-acre NPR-3. This property comprises the Teapot Dome oil field and related production, processing and other facilities. Discovered in 1914, this field has 632 wells producing 1,807 barrels of oil per day. Production revenues are about $9.5 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 1.3 million barrels of oil. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present.

  4. Prevalence and risk indicators of smoking among on-reserve First Nations youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Thompson, Adam; Moraros, John; Tempier, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    To determine the current prevalence of smoking among First Nations youth living on reserve within the Saskatoon Tribal Council, and to determine the independent risk indicators associated with smoking among First Nations youth. Students in grades 5 to 8 attending school within the Saskatoon Tribal Council were asked to complete a youth health survey. Of 271 eligible students, 204 completed the consent protocol and the school survey, yielding a response rate of 75.3%; 26.5% of youth were defined as current smokers. Regression analysis indicated that older age, not having a happy home life, suicide ideation and having three or more friends who smoke cigarettes were independent risk indicators of smoking in First Nations youth. Smoking prevalence among on-reserve First Nations youth is quite high. The identification of four main risk indicators should assist with the design of youth smoking prevention and cessation programs.

  5. 江苏油田未动用石油储量综合价值分级方法研究%Classification of comprehensive value of undeveloped petroleum reserves in Jiangsu Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红昌; 刘桂玲; 王凯宏; 刘登科

    2015-01-01

    江苏油田已探明未动用储量占已探明储量的17.8%。对未动用储量进行综合价值分级是行之有效的方法。该方法突出石油储量的经济效益和战略价值,以储量经济性为主要分级依据,兼顾储量规模等战略因素,全面系统地反映了石油储量的综合价值。结合江苏油田未动用储量的油藏、地质及规模特点,研究推导了石油地质储量综合价值分级模型以及江苏油田石油地质储量综合价值分级方案,为油田开发部署乃至战略规划的制定提供了参考。%In Jiangsu Oilfield,the undeveloped proved reserves accounts for 17.8% of the proved reserves.Classifica-tion of comprehensive value of undeveloped petroleum reserve is an effective method to evaluate the undeveloped reserve. The method highlights the economic and strategic value of oil reserves,with the economy of reserve as the main basis for classification,taking account of reserve scale strategic factors,comprehensively and systematically displaying the compre-hensive value of oil reserves.According to the characteristics of reservoir,geology and scale of the undeveloped reserves in Jiangsu Oilfield,it was derived that the grading model and the classification scheme for comprehensive value of petroleum geological reserves,providing references for oilfield development and planning.

  6. Best Practices in Marine and Coastal Science Education: Lessons Learned from a National Estuarine Research Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Janice D.

    The Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JC NERR) program has successfully capitalized on human fascination with the ocean by using the marine environment to develop interest and capability in science. The Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences, as the managing agency of the JC NERR, makes its faculty, staff resources, and…

  7. 75 FR 43145 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Ridge Environmental Center at Presque Isle, Room 112, 301 Peninsula Drive, Erie, Pennsylvania. ADDRESSES.../Winyah Bay (South Carolina) National Estuarine Research Reserve and the Pennsylvania Coastal Resources... Discovery Center, 22 Hobcaw Road, Georgetown, South Carolina. The Pennsylvania Coastal Resources Management...

  8. 78 FR 13618 - Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; Elk Late-Successional Reserve Enhancement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Forest Service Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; Elk Late-Successional Reserve Enhancement...; increasing resiliency to natural events such as drought, insect and disease infestations and high severity... Siskiyou County, California on the McCloud Ranger District of the Shasta McCloud Management Unit,...

  9. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  10. Conditions of petroleum in Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Yasuyuki

    1988-09-01

    As the economy of Libya is, like other OPEC countries, greatly dependent on petroleum, its account is now in the red owing to the recent decrease of petroleum income. Petroleum development in Libya was started in 1955, and more than 3 million barrels of petroleum came to be produced per day in 1970 thanks to the light and low-sulfur quality of the petroleum. As a result of the nationalizing policy of petroleum undertakings after the revolution, the government's participation rate became 60.7% in 1974. The USA began sanction on Libya in 1981 and the export to the USA decreased suddenly, but Libya maintained the export amount of 1 million barrels per day with the exports to Western Europe and with flexible export policies. These flexible policies, in a way, accelerated the adverse development in the market and caused the decrease of petroleum income. The constructions of petroleum factories have been postponed or stopped because of the low petroleum income, and the recent export amount of manufactured petroleum is only about 130,000 barrels per day. libya is, therefore, to push the diversification of undertakings and to develop gas resources and the like in the future. In connection with the diversification of undertakings, Libya is actively pushing into the foreign petroleum markets and joining hands with foreign petroleum companies. (6 figs, 8 tabs)

  11. 国际战略石油储备的层次分析%Analysis of International Strategic Petroleum Reserved at Different Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李尔博王; 杨希峰

    2011-01-01

    国家战略石油储备在石油安全体系中具有基础性作用.本文将战略石油储备的主体、管理和时间分层,以美、日、德、法等国家作为研究对象,指出不同层次的具体特点,找出其中的共同特点和各国特色.这对于找到适合我国石油储备的运作模式、管理流程和动用方式具有借鉴意义.%Strategic petroleum storage is provided with importance in petroleum security system. This paper introduces the petroleum security system to be classified by Principle, management and timing. The United States, Japan, Germany and French are the object for analysis. It indicates the common and special characteristics. This is helpful for us to find operation modes, administrative procedures, mode of delivery for Strategic petroleum storage.

  12. A preliminary study on designing ecological corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve with 3S techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the fieldwork in Xishuang-banna Natioanl Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province of China. GPS data of Asian elephants were collected and analyzed with the remote sensing satellite photos of the region to estimate the landform physiognomy of different colors. We also analyzed a series of ecological factors includ-ing altitude, landform, relief, villages and roads which affected the distribution and movement of Asian elephants. The results suggested the possibility of designing and estab-lishing corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve to protect the population of wild elephants in the region.

  13. Petroleum Geology of Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, D. [13 York House, Courtlands, Sheen Road, Richmond, Surrey TW10 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Libya has the largest petroleum reserves of any country in Africa and since production began in 1961 over 20 billion barrels of oil have been produced. Libya is scheduled to reach the mid-point of depletion of reserves in 2001 and this provides a timely point at which to review the state of petroleum exploration in Libya. A large amount of data has been published on the geology of Libya, but it is scattered through the literature; much of the older data has been superceded, and several of the key publications, especially those published in Libya, are difficult to find. This book represents the first attempt to produce a comprehensive synthesis of the petroleum geology of Libya. It is based exclusively on published data, supplemented by the author's experience gained during ten years work in Libya. The aim of the book is to systematically review the plate tectonics, structural evolution, stratigraphy, geochemistry, and petroleum systems of Libya, and provides valuable new data on fields, production, and reserves. This volume will provide a ready source of reference to individuals and companies who wish to obtain an overview of the petroleum geology of Libya, and will save them the laborious task of sifting through hundreds of publications to find the data they require. The book includes 148 newly drawn figures.

  14. PROSPECT FOR CHINA'S PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cha Quanheng

    2001-01-01

    @@ Many people show concerns over the prospect forChina's petroleum industry.They may raise the question about whether the country's resources are on the brink of exhaustion. Such questions should be answered only by the exploration results because petroleum production is based on the reserves.

  15. Preparation of reserve and player selection for the national basketball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezmylov Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of selecting athletes to the national basketball team was substantiated taking into consideration the specific features of competitive activity and the age of athletes. The issue of the selection and training of basketball reserve for the national team of the country is discussed. The need was demonstrated for the use of multi-stage model of the selection of elite players for the national team, which includes: 1 preliminary selection; 2 intermediate selection; and 3 main selection. To evaluate athlete’s performance, the system of informative criteria and indicators was proposed. The features of the selection of the players of different age groups to club and national teams were described. The necessity for continuous and gradual upgrade of team roster was justified.

  16. Jianghan Petroleum Administration Grows Fast in Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Guanghui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Jianghan Petroleum Administration (JHP) is a large,comprehensive enterprise of China National Petroleum Corporation and was classified as "AAA" enterprise in credit rating evaluation by the Industry and Commerce Bank of China.

  17. An outbreak of anthrax in endangered Rothschild’s giraffes in Mwea National Reserve, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitho T

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Titus Kaitho,1 David Ndeereh,1 Bernard Ngoru21Veterinary, Capture and Captive Wildlife Management Department, Wildlife Conservation Division, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Ecological Monitoring, Bio-Prospecting and Biodiversity Information Management Department, Biodiversity Research and Monitoring Division, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, KenyaAbstract: An anthrax outbreak occurred at the Mwea National Reserve between May 2011 and July 2011. This outbreak affected endangered Rothschild’s giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis ssp. rothschildi. Eleven giraffe carcasses were found during the 3-month period. One lesser kudu (Ammelaphus imberbis, the only one of its species in the national reserve, also succumbed to the illness. An investigation was carried out, and the presence of anthrax was rapidly confirmed using bacteriological methods. To stop the occurrence of more deaths of this endangered species, a total of 20 giraffes were vaccinated against anthrax and black quarter. The giraffe carcasses that were found were completely burned; this was done to decontaminate the environment. For a period of 2 years postvaccination, no anthrax-related mortalities in Rothschild’s giraffes were reported at the Mwea National Reserve.Keywords: anthrax outbreak, burning of carcasses, Rothschild’s giraffes, vaccination

  18. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Human Activities in Nature Reserves Based on Nighttime Light Remote Sensing and Microblogging Data - by the Case of National Nature Reserves in Jiangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F.; Li, X.; Xu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The study used the mainstream social media in china - Sina microblogging data combined with nighttime light remote sensing and various geographical data to reveal the pattern of human activities and light pollution of the Jiangxi Provincial National Nature Reserves. Firstly, we performed statistical analysis based on both functional areas and km-grid from the perspective of space and time, and selected the key areas for in-depth study. Secondly, the relationship between microblogging data and nighttime light remote sensing, population, GDP, road coverage, road distance and road type in nature reserves was analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient method, so the distribution pattern and influencing factors of the microblogging data were explored. Thirdly, a region where the luminance value was greater than 0.2 was defined as a light region. We evaluated the management status by analyzing the distribution of microblogging data in both light area and non-light area. Final results showed that in all nature reserves, the top three were the Lushan Nature Reserve, the Jinggangshan Nature Reserve, the Taohongling National Nature Reserve of Sikas both on the total number and density of microblogging ; microblogging had a significant correlation with nighttime light remote sensing , the GDP, population, road and other factors; the distribution of microblogging near roads in protected area followed power laws; luminous radiance of Lushan Nature Reserve was the highest, with 43 percent of region was light at night; analysis combining nighttime light remote sensing with microblogging data reflected the status of management of nature reserves.

  20. Analysis of Fire and Explosion Accidence of Reserving Tank of Liquefied Petroleum Gas%液化石油气储罐火灾爆炸事故分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浩; 杨光; 尹达; 雷孝平

    2001-01-01

    Some possible factors which can lead to fire and explosion accidence of reserving tank of liquefied petroleum gas is analyzed quantitatively by using the fuzzy fault tree analysis method based on distribution of possibility.%应用基于可能性分布的模糊事故树分析法,对引发液化石油气储罐发生火灾爆炸事故的可能因素进行了定量分析。

  1. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  2. 24 CFR 203.666 - Processing defaulted mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing defaulted mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians. 203.666 Section 203.666 Housing and Urban... Indians § 203.666 Processing defaulted mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation...

  3. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve has the highest biotic diversity of habitats and offer a reserve of food resources and commercially significant species. Rapid human civilization has led to accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in estuaries. The Grand Bay National Estuarin...

  4. Spiders (Araneae of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve (Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Machač

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve were investigated during the year 2011. Several capture methods were used during the vegetation season (from April to November in many various habitats of this territory. Altogether, 92 species from 27 families were recorded, including very rare and remarcable species. Majority of such species prefer thermophilous habitats: Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Dysdera czechica Řezáč, in prep., Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831, Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875, Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837 and Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837. Some species are also listed in the Red List of threatened species in the Czech Republic: Cheiracanthium elegans Thorell, 1875 in category endangered (EN, Cozyptila blackwalli (Simon, 1875 and Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846 in category vulnerable (VU. Altogether, 144 spider species are now known from the reserve; they represent 16.6% of araneofauna of the Czech Republic.

  5. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  6. Oil Reserve Project Picks Up Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China will ratchet up its efforts to construct the second phase of the national crude oil reserve base project in 2011, as part of the country's endeavor to secure strategically important natural resources and stabilize the petroleum market."We will accelerate the construction pace of the project and ensure its quality, aiming to put it into operation as early as possible," the National Energy Administration (NEA) said in its annual energy work target for 2011.The agency, which is under China's top economic planner, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), will strengthen supervision to guarantee the safe operation of oil reserve bases.

  7. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122476 Bao Yunjie ( Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,Wuxi 214151,China );Wang Shuyi Reservoir Diagenesis of 3rd Member of Feixianguan Formation,Jiannan Gas Field ( Petroleum Geology & Experiment,ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151 / TE,33 ( 6 ), 2011,p.564-568,2 il-lus.,1plate,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:carbonate reservoirs,diagenesis,Chongqing,Hubei Province

  8. Species diversity and conservation of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizhen Tian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available All known wild species of Orchidaceae are listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. However, species diversity of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, China, is not well known. Based on field work, inspection of herbarium specimens, and previous records, 121 species in 49 genera of Orchidaceae are listed for the reserve. Of these, 75 species are terrestrial, 40 are epiphytic and 6 are saprophytic. Species fall mainly within genera such as Bulbophyllum (10 species, Calanthe (10 species, Goodyera (10 species, Liparis (8 species, Habenaria (7 species and Cymbidum (6 species. A few species are widespread showing great abundance in the reserve, but most are rather rare having narrow distributions. Tropical type genera tend to dominate, although temperate orchids are more common at the species level. This indicates that the orchid flora is rather complex, being amix of tropic Asian types and East Asian types, particularly of Sino-Japan kind. Thus the orchid flora of Nanling N. N. R has an obvious subtropical character, with affinities to that of Taiwan. We appeal for reasonable plan on establishing power stations and related rule of law should be found to control the illegal trade of the wild orchids in Nanling N. N. R.

  9. Assessing ecotourism from a multi-stakeholder perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF INDIRECT USE VALUES OF FOREST BIODIVERSITY IN YAOLUOPING NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE, ANHUI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; QIAN Yi; ZHENG Lin; PENG Bu-zhuo

    2003-01-01

    Direct use values of forest ecosystem have been recognized apparently due to its easy and convenient assessment, while indirect use values are usually neglected because they are not easy to be recognized by the public.For a nature reserve with forest ecosystem, the most important economic values are the indirect use values, which pro-vide human beings and other living things with beneficial services through ecological processes and functions. In this case study, a quantifying framework to estimate the annual indirect use values of forest ecosystem has been established in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve based on alternative cost method and opportunity cost method. The ecological functions assessed in the study relate to six aspects: soil protection, water conservation, CO2 fixation, nutrient cycling,pollutant decomposition and disease and pest control. These ecological functions provide an economic value of 86.1 x 106 yuan (RMB) per year (US$ 10.37x 106 ), which is 25 times higher than the opportunity cost for regular timber production. This study can contribute to the monetary assessment of indirect use values of forest biodiversity and to thec onservation and sustainable use of nature reserves.

  11. Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  12. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  13. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  14. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  15. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  16. 3 CFR 8415 - Proclamation 8415 of September 14, 2009. National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... support and flexibility, employers across the country bolster the efforts of members of the Guard and Reserve. Employers often make financial and organizational sacrifices in the interest of our national...

  17. Status and Prospects of Petroleum Exploration and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiping

    2008-01-01

    A new system facing petroleum industry market has been initially established after the recognition and institutional shift of three oil giants, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec) and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) in 1998.

  18. Study on the Current Situation and Protection Countermeasures of Wild Plant Resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the current situation and protection countermeasures of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve. [Method] The current situation of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve was researched by means of route survey, sample plot survey and literature survey, and then the main impact factors of wild plant resources were analyzed by using participatory rural appraisal and problem tree analysis, finally protection countermeasures were put ...

  19. Returning birth: the politics of midwifery implementation on First Nations reserves in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Rachel; Couchie, Carol

    2013-08-01

    to explore the role of midwives in the implementation of an elective birthing programme in one remote First Nation community in Canada, and to identify current barriers and challenges to the practice of midwifery in these settings the study is a multisited ethnography based on 15 months of fieldwork in Manitoba, Canada. Thirty-nine individual qualitative, semi-structured interviews were completed. The data from the interviews were coded into themes and presented in the paper. the study focuses on one First Nation community and their process of implementation of midwifery services. This case study is used to address broader themes of midwifery and policy at a national level. participants included Aboriginal midwives from across Canada, policy makers from provincial and federal jurisdictions, medical professionals involved in Aboriginal health care, Aboriginal political leadership, and Aboriginal women and their families. national policy and issues of jurisdiction among levels of government were shown to be a barrier to midwifery implementation. the current policy of evacuation in most Aboriginal communities does not effectively address the Millennium Development Goal of having a skilled birth attendant at every birth. The role of midwifery is central to the process of returning birth to Aboriginal communities, and steps must be taken at both the policy and clinical level to ensure that midwifery implementation and education can become an option for all Aboriginal communities in Canada. when considering midwifery implementation in communities, midwives must engage in both political and clinical negotiations to ensure their ability to practice effectively. Understanding the complexity of the policy discourse, along with the place of midwifery within the existing clinical guidelines is integral to the success of this process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacteria in drinking water sources of a First Nation reserve in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenhorst, Annemieke; Li, Ru; Jahan, Musarrat; Tun, Hein Min; Mi, Ruidong; Amarakoon, Inoka; Kumar, Ayush; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 20% of the 600 First Nations reserves across Canada are under a drinking water advisory, often due to unacceptable levels of bacteria. In this study, we detected fecal bacteria at an alarmingly high frequency in drinking water sources in a fly-in First Nations community, most notably in buckets/drums of homes without running water where Escherichia coli levels ranged from 20 to 62,000CFU/100mL. The water leaving the water treatment plant was free of E. coli and its free residual chlorine concentration (0.67mg/L) was within the range typically observed for treated water in Canada. Water samples from taps in homes served by cisterns, and those sampled from the water truck and community standpipe, always showed unacceptable levels of E. coli (1 to 2100CFU/100mL) and free residual chlorine concentrations below the 0.2mg/L required to prevent bacterial regrowth. Samples from taps in homes served by piped water had lower levels of E. coli (0 to 2CFU/100mL). DNA- and RNA-based 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing demonstrated that piped and cisterns water distribution systems showed an abundance of viable cells of Alphaproteobacteria indicative of biofilm formation in pipes and cisterns. The alpha diversity, based on observed OTUs and three other indices, was lowest in water truck samples that supplied water to the cistern and the low free residual chlorine concentration (0.07mg/L) and predominance of Betaproteobacteria (63% of viable cells) that were immediately detected after the truck had filled up at the water treatment plant was indicative of contamination by particulate matter. Given these findings, First Nation residents living without running water and relying on inadequate water distribution systems are at higher risk of contracting water-born illnesses. We urge all governments in Canada to expand their investments in supporting and sustaining water as a human right in Canada's First Nations communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Petroleum geology of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, D.S. [ed.] [BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd., Jakarta (Indonesia); Moody, R.T.J. [ed.] [Moody-Sandman Associates, Kingston (United Kingdom); Clark-Lowes, D.D. [ed.] [University of London (United Kingdom). Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

    1998-12-31

    North Africa contains some 4% of the world`s remaining oil and gas reserves, and is now one of the most active exploration areas. This volume represents the first attempt at a compilation of the petroleum geology of North Africa, documenting a series of papers collected on the petroleum geology of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the western part of Egypt. The main objectives of this book are to increase the level of documentation towards that appropriate for such major petroleum provinces and to facilitate the application of analogues between North African countries and beyond. (author)

  2. Continuously Enlarging Development Space of CNPC Daqing Petroleum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ CNPC Daqing Petroleum, a wholly owned subsidiary of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) headquartered in Daqing City of Heilongjiang Province in northeast China, is a super-large state-owned enterprise group with business centering on petroleum engineering services such as petroleum exploration and development,petrochemical complex and oilfield construction, and is accelerating its expansion to economic frontiers.

  3. RARE COMPONENT OF THE FISH FAUNA OF THE SULINSKY NATIONAL LANDSCAPE RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudik-Leuska Natalia Jaroslavivna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of biological diversity is the main task of modern biology. At the legislative level, Ukraine has pledged its support in ratifying the Convention on the conservation of biological diversity. As part of the implementation of environmental policy in Ukraine preservation of rare fish fauna component is the most problematic aspect. The basic conservation lists acting in Ukraine are: Red List of threatened animals of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ukrainian Red Book, Annex III of the Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES, Washington, 1973. On the territory of Sula Bay located two objects of nature reserve fund - a landscape national reserve Sulinsky and National Park Nizhnesulsky that emphasizes the importance of this area for fish fauna reproduction. Its territory are spawning areas for almost all lower and middle parts of the Kremenchuk reservoir, ensuring more than half of total commercial catch of the Dnieper cascade. The article describes the species composition of the fish fauna, introduced in protected lists of different levels. The existence of seven such species was established. They belong to four families: four species - for cyprinids and one each - to sturgeon, loaches and catfishes. But we must remember that the priority activities should concern species with the highest conservation status. At the same time, four of them are only protected by Annex III of the Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats as poorly studied. These species require a more thorough study and not necessarily threatened with extinction. Remaining three species are under a real danger of extinction and are protected by the IUCN Red List and Ukrainian Red Book. Starlet also protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES. Environmental

  4. Factors Affecting Tufa Degradation in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water and tufa samples were collected from Arrow Bamboo Lake, the stream from Panda Lake to Five-Color Lake, Pearl Shoal and Shuzheng Lakes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China, between October 2013 and September 2014, to investigate tufa growth rate and water environment (water temperature, pH, electric conductivity, major ions and nutrients, and analyzed to explore the main causes of tufa degradation. The mean annual rate of tufa growth was low and varied within lakes, with the maximum deposit thickness of 332 μm/y. The calcite saturation index ranged from 0.65 to 0.83. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the tufa deposits had non-isopachous structures, and diatoms were the dominant microorganisms that participated in tufa deposition. Porous and crystalline structures of deposits were linked with a high tufa growth and small amounts of diatoms. Conversely, tufa deposits with amorphous and loose structures showed a low crystal growth rate and a high number of diatoms. A one-way analysis of variance and a least significant difference test were applied to identify site differences in water chemistry. Linear correlations indicated that nitrate, phosphate and sulfate inhibit tufa growth (p < 0.05. Increased nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations that originate mainly from atmospheric pollution and tourist activities at scenic attractions could trigger excessive diatom growth, which inhibits tufa precipitation. A series of measures should be implemented (e.g., the visitor number and vehicles should be regulated and controlled to minimize tufa degradation in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve.

  5. Research on snow leopards (Panthera uncia using camera-trapping in Wolong National Nature Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November 2013 and March 2016, twenty Ltl-6210MC infrared-triggered camera-traps were installed in Wolong National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China, to monitor snow leopards(Panthera uncia and other wildlife. A total of 7,056 camera-days of data were collected, including approximately 120,000 photos and video clips. The effective number of snow leopard samples collected by the infrared cameras was 43, and the calculated relative abundance index (RAI for this species was 6.09. During the 28 months of continuous data collection using infrared cameras, records of snow leopards, including leopard cubs, demonstrated that Wolong National Nature Reserve is a relatively hospitable environment for this species. The analytical results indicate that the annual activity peaked in January, and the daily activity peaked between the hours of 18:00–20:00, and daily activity patterns showed seasonal variations. When considering environmental factors, the preferred habitat is the alpine scree where snow leopards appeared most in the ridge areas and the range of preferred reference temperatures for snow leopard activity was found between –10℃ and –3℃. In addition, the lunar-phase relative abundance index was originally created to assess the appearance of wildlife under different night lightness levels. It was found that the snow leopard is fairly active at night, and the lunar-phase has a significant impact on its level of nocturnal activity (P < 0.01. We provided primary sources for further protection and research of snow leopards and the other wildlife. This study could be utilized to comprehensively learn the ecological characteristics and assess snow leopard habitat.

  6. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

  8. RARE COMPONENT OF THE FISH FAUNA OF THE 'SULINSKY' NATIONAL LANDSCAPE RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ja. Rudik-Leuska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of biological diversity is the main task of modern biology. At the legislative level, Ukraine has pledged its support in ratifying the "Convention on the conservation of biological diversity." As part of the implementation of environmental policy in Ukraine preservation of rare fish fauna component is the most problematic aspect. The basic conservation lists acting in Ukraine are: Red List of threatened animals of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ukrainian Red Book, Annex III of the "Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats", the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES, Washington, 1973. On the territory of Sula Bay located two objects of nature reserve fund - a landscape national reserve "Sulinsky" and National Park "Nizhnesulsky" that emphasizes the importance of this area for fish fauna reproduction. Its territory are spawning areas for almost all lower and middle parts of the Kremenchuk reservoir, ensuring more than half of total commercial catch of the Dnieper cascade. The article describes the species composition of the fish fauna, introduced in protected lists of different levels. The existence of seven such species was established. They belong to four families: four species - for cyprinids and one each - to sturgeon, loaches and catfishes. But we must remember that the priority activities should concern species with the highest conservation status. At the same time, four of them are only protected by Annex III of the "Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats" as poorly studied. These species require a more thorough study and not necessarily threatened with extinction. Remaining three species are under a real danger of extinction and are protected by the IUCN Red List and Ukrainian Red Book. Starlet also protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES. Environmental

  9. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2000 • 2004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  10. Water quality data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP), 1996 - 1998 (NCEI Accession 0000789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality data in 22 reserves in the United States and...

  11. Changing stakeholder relationships in nature reserve management: a case study on Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Ziyan; Lassoie, James; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lixin

    2014-12-15

    The number and total area of nature reserves in China has increased rapidly over the past couple of decades; however, the ability to effectively manage these reserves has not kept pace and conflicts between conservation efforts and economic development have emerged. The Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve (SILMNNR) currently is experiencing the challenges of balancing conservation with local community development. This paper uses components analysis of human ecosystems (HEC) to examine conflicts arising from the management of the nature reserve and uses a stakeholder analysis to identify and better understand stakeholder inter-relationships in the SILMNNR-HEC. The goal of this study is to identify critical factors influencing stakeholder relationships in order to find ways of relieving conflicts between the reserve management and development. The stakeholder analysis revealed that the key stakeholders in the SILMNNR-HEC are natural resources, the Liaoning SILMNNR Authority, local residents, and enterprise developers; however, there was unequal power among stakeholders in the decision making process affecting the nature reserve. The paper evaluated the conditions and processes of SILMNNR-HEC through a framework of stakeholder relationships where critical factors, such as policy, finance, technology, and labor, and their respective strengths and feedbacks among stakeholders, were assessed and showed unequal flows of power among stakeholders. Two approaches are provided for transforming the unbalanced relationships into a stable and sustainable framework to sustainably manage the nature reserve: the first is by changing stakeholder relationships from opposition to cooperation; and the second by enhancing feedbacks and dynamics among stakeholders. The analysis used in this paper can be used as a model to assess conflicts around other protected areas in China and elsewhere.

  12. Landscape changes in the Mullica River basin of the Pinelands National Reserve, New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, John F; Zampella, Robert A; Lathrop, Richard G; Bognar, John A

    2003-06-01

    In 1979, the Pinelands Commission was established as a regional land-use planning and regulatory agency charged with the implementation of a Comprehensive Management Plan (CMP) for the Pinelands National Reserve (New Jersey, USA). The CMP was created to balance land preservation and development interests in the Reserve. Because water-quality degradation from developed and agricultural landscapes is associated with changes in the composition of biological communities, monitoring landscape changes provides one of the most direct measures of the impact of land-use policies on the Pinelands ecosystem. In this study, we prepared detailed, land-cover maps within randomly selected aerial-photograph plots for a major watershed in the Reserve. We used these land-cover maps to quantify changes in landscape composition and structure (i.e., patch size, patch area, and number of patches) and characterize land-cover transitions in the basin between 1979 and 1991. Because the study period represented the first 12 years of the regional-planning effort in the Reserve, we evaluated the relationship between land-cover transitions and Commission management-area designations which permit different land-use intensities. Although the landscape composition was similar in 1979 and 1991, we found an increase in the total area and number of developed-land, managed-grassland, and barren-land patches. An increase in the number of patches and a decrease in the total area and median and third-quartile patch sizes for forest land and for all patches regardless of cover type indicated that fragmentation of forest land and the landscape as a whole occurred during the study period. The major land-cover transitions that occurred during the period were the loss of forest land to development and associated cover types and the conversion of one agricultural type to another. Overall, land-cover transitions during the period were found to be consistent with the Commission management-area designations

  13. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang

    2014-01-01

    The case deals with the rather tumultuous executive leadership changes of British Petroleum (BP) over the past decade from 2005 to 2014 in the wake of two dramatic incidents: The Texas City refinery explosion in 2005 and the explosion of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon in the Mexican Gulf in 2010...

  14. Anger problems and posttraumatic stress disorder in male and female National Guard and Reserve Service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Miranda; Rathod, Sujit D; Cohen, Gregory; Sampson, Laura; Ursano, Robert; Gifford, Robert; Fullerton, Carol; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    Anger is a common problem among veterans and has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to improve understanding of how anger and PTSD co-occur by examining gender differences and differences by whether the triggering traumatic event is deployment-related vs. civilian-related in current service members. A representative cohort of Reserve and National Guard service personnel (n = 1293) were interviewed to assess for deployment- or civilian-related traumas, PTSD, and anger. The prevalence of self-reported anger problems was estimated among male (n = 1036) and female (n = 257) service members. Log Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to estimate the associations of problems with anger with PTSD and PTSD symptom severity for men and women. Self-reported anger problems were common among male (53.0%) and female (51.3%) service members. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) showed associations between anger and PTSD connected to both civilian- and deployment-related traumas (PR were 1.77 (95% CI 1.52-2.05) and 1.85 (95% CI 1.62-2.12), respectively). PTSD symptom severity was also associated with anger. This study was cross-sectional and so a causal relationship between PTSD and anger cannot be established. Problems with anger are common among male and female current Guard and Reserve members. These findings suggest that anger treatment should be made available to current service members and that clinicians should assess anger problems irrespective of gender. Future research should examine the effectiveness of anger treatment protocols by gender.

  15. Wild Ungulate Distribution in the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Treydte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia´s tropical forests harbour a unique diversity of wildlife but species and numbers are rapidly declining under current land use. To improve conservation strategies in these biodiversity hotspots, knowledge of animal species present and their distribution is crucial. We wanted to identify the ungulate community composition and distribution of a ‘Man and Biosphere’ reserve, the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve (NRWNNR, Yunnan, Southwest China. Using camera traps, transects, and spoor-plots we identified wild ungulate species and corresponding habitat properties. We compared two study sites of different protection status – the buffer and experimental zones – on an overall transect length of 32 km and analysed relationships between wildlife activity, forest vegetation structure, and human disturbance. We documented six ungulate species, all of which occurred in the buffer zone while only three species were found in the experimental zone. Wild boar sign density was about 10 times higher in the buffer than in the experimental zone. Overall wildlife sign density increased with distance away from human settlements and closer to the core zone. Hence, human disturbance strongly influenced wild ungulate abundance but the NRWNNR was found to host a diverse ungulate community, considering its small size and compared to other conservation areas in the region. The combination of various methods proved to be successful in identifying and locating forest wildlife. The NRWNNR, particularly the more strongly protected zones, could greatly contribute to future ecotourism activities in Yunnan if a strict preservation of buffer and core zones can be maintained.

  16. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  17. Classification and evaluation of coalbed methane resources/reserves based on the Petroleum Resources Management System (PRMS) rules%基于P RMS准则的煤层气资源/储量划分与评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    法贵方; 衣艳静; 刘娅昭; 原瑞娥; 王忠生

    2015-01-01

    介绍了基于国际通用准则“石油资源管理系统”( PRMS)的各级煤层气资源/储量的定义及分类要求,从资产所有权、政府监管与项目审批条件、井控程度、测试程度、基础设施和销售市场、开发与生产时间以及经济参数这7个方面详细分析煤层气各级储量的划分依据。结合煤层气地质条件和工程条件、现行经济条件、操作条件以及政府相关政策等,初步制定了煤层气3P 储量和条件储量的确定原则并进行实例分析,为合理评估煤层气储量提供重要参考。%This paper introduces a set of definitions and classification requirements for coalbed methane ( CBM) resources/reserves based on the Petroleum Resources Management System (PRMS). General requirements for the classification of CBM reserves are outlined from seven perspectives: ownership considerations, governmental regulatory and project approval considerations, drilling requirements, testing requirements, infrastructure and market considerations, timing of production and development, and economic requirements. Combined with the geological and engineering conditions, current economics, operating conditions and government policies of CBM, the principles used to classify Proved, Probable, and Possible (3P) reserves and contingent resources were for⁃mulated, and demonstrated by a case analysis. These data provide important reference points for the reasonable assessment of CBM reserves.

  18. SODAR DATA FROM OYSTER BAY AT WINYAH BAY NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.; Kohn, J.; Rigas, N.; Boessneck, E.; Kress, E.; Gayes, P.

    2013-04-29

    The SecondWind Triton® is a SODAR (SOnic Detection And Ranging) sonic wind profiler (Triton® sodar) system capable of profiling the wind characteristics up to 200m above the instrument. SODAR systems transmit acoustic chirps into the atmosphere and measure the backscattered signal returned to the device. The primary source of acoustic scattering is variations in air temperature, which cause changes in the refractive index of sound. By measuring the Doppler-shifted frequency of these returned signals, the Triton® can calculate the wind’s speed and direction for the volume of air above the instrument, measured at ten fixed heights, known as station heights. The Triton® is specifically designed for the purpose of wind energy resource assessment as it can remotely capture wind data at heights above ground where wind turbine rotors operate. The measurements made include horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and turbulence. Other integrated sensors provide time and location via GPS, barometric pressure, humidity, and the tilt of the instrument. The study area is located east of Georgetown, South Carolina in North Inlet - Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The monitoring period for data in this report begins 5/14/2009 9:30:00 AM EST and ends 8/2/2010 11:40:00 AM EST.

  19. Species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes in Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi-Sha; Yan, Shu-Zhen; Dai, Jun-Yong; Chen, Shuang-Lin

    2013-12-01

    The species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes on 4 vegetation types in the Tianmu Mountain National Natural Reserve, eastern China, was examined from 2011 to 2012. A total of 1440 moist chamber cultures were prepared with bark samples, which yielded several hundred collections representing 42 species in 20 genera. It was found that 79% of cultures produced some evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies) of myxomycetes. Eight species (Comatricha elegans, Cribraria confusa, Licea pusilla, Cribraria microcarpa, Collaria arcyrionema, Licea biforis, Arcyria cinerea, and Clastoderma debaryanum) were abundant (exceeding 3% of all records), but about a third of all species were classified as rare. Species richness (S = 33) and diversity (exp[H'] = 16.60, S/G = 1.74) of corticolous myxomycetes were the most diverse in the deciduous broadleaf forest. The species recorded from coniferous forest showed the lowest species richness (S = 21) but the highest evenness (J' = 0.91). The cluster analyses were based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix, and the results indicated that corticolous myxomycete assemblages were distributed by a seasonal and annual pattern. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that season and pH were key factors in determining species distribution.

  20. [Spatial distribution of soil total nitrogen in Liangshui National Nature Reserve based on local model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zhen; Guo, Zhi-ying; Zhao, Ying-hui; Li, Feng-ri; Wei, Qing-bin

    2016-02-01

    Based on LiDAR data of Liangshui National Nature Reserve, digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed and both primary terrain attributes (slope, aspect, profile curvature, etc.) and secondary terrain attributes (wetness index, sediment transport index, relative stream power index, etc.) were extracted. According to the theory of soil formation, geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to predict soil total nitrogen (TN) of the area, and the predicted results were compared with those of three traditional interpolation methods including inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary Kriging (OK) and universal Kriging (UK). Results showed that the prediction accuracy of GWR (77.4%) was higher than that of other three interpolation methods and the accuracy of IDW (69.4%) was higher than that of OK (63.5%) and UK (60.6%). The average of TN predicted by GWR reached 4.82 g . kg-1 in the study area and TN tended to be higher in the region with higher elevation, bigger wetness index and stronger relative stream power index than in other areas. Further, TN also varied partly with various aspects and slopes. Thus, local model using terrain attributes as independent variables was effective in predicting soil attribute distribution.

  1. Ubiquity, diversity and physiological characteristics of Geodermatophilaceae in Shapotou National Desert Ecological Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Min; Zhang, Tao; Yu, Li-Yan; Sen, Keya; Zhang, Yu-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain insight into the diversity of culturable actinobacteria in desert soil crusts and to determine the physiological characteristics of the predominant actinobacterial group in these crusts. Culture-dependent method was employed to obtain actinobacterial strains from desert soil samples collected from Shapotou National Desert Ecological Reserve (NDER) located in Tengger Desert, China. A total of 376 actinobacterial strains were isolated and 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis indicated that these isolates belonged to 29 genera within 18 families, among which the members of the family Geodermatophilaceae were predominant. The combination of 16S rRNA gene information and the phenotypic data allowed these newly-isolated Geodermatophilaceae members to be classified into 33 "species clusters," 11 of which represented hitherto unrecognized species. Fermentation broths from 19.7% of the isolated strains showed activity in at least one of the six screens for antibiotic activity. These isolates exhibited bio-diversity in enzymatic characteristics and carbon utilization profiles. The physiological characteristics of the isolates from different types of crusts or bare sand samples were specific to their respective micro-ecological environments. Our study revealed that members of the family Geodermatophilaceae were ubiquitous, abundant, and diverse in Shapotou NDER, and these strains may represent a new major group of potential functional actinobacteria in desert soil.

  2. Recovery dynamics of secondary forests with different disturbance intensity in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the underlying processes of secondary forest recovery after disturbances such as logging is essential for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem rehabilitation. We surveyed 12 forest plots (1 ha in size with different extents of anthropogenic disturbances in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve and explored the community dynamics of secondary forest recovery by applying multivariate statistical analysis. We found significant differences in community composition among various recovery phases, whereas high similarities of community composition were observed within the same recovery phase. No significant difference in species richness was observed among recovery stages, but species richness tended to increase during the recovery process. Species evenness in Chinese fir forests was relatively low whereas no significant difference occurred in other forests. The main differences in community composition and species diversity were found in the canopy layer. Respective indicator species were found in shrubs and regeneration layers during different recovery phases. The most representative indicator species were deciduous shrubs or heliophilous trees for plantation forests of Chinese fir, evergreen shrubs or small trees for young secondary forests, sub-canopy evergreen trees for old secondary forests, and canopy species for old-growth forests, respectively. Overall, species diversity recovered rigorously. Also the life-form composition of saplings in the same recovery phase presented consistent trends in spite of complex and unpredictable changes in species composition during the recovery process.

  3. Geologic Map and Digital Data Base of the Almo Quadrangle and City of Rocks National Reserve, Cassia County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Armstrong, Richard L.; Bedford, David R.; Davis, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map describes the geology of the City of Rocks National Reserve and environs, located in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho. The most prominent geologic features of the Reserve are the spectacular rock spires that attracted visitors, beginning with commentary in the journals of travelers to California during the Gold Rush of 1849. The tectonic history is outlined, and descriptions of landscape processes, a newly discovered Quaternary fault, and features of the pinnacles are presented.

  4. Architectural/historical assessment of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Reservation, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carver, M.; Slater, M.

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, as amended, to identify any properties under its jurisdiction that are included in or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (National Register). In March 1993 Duvall & Associates, Inc., was engaged to survey the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a DOE facility located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee, and to prepare a determination of National Register eligibility for all ORNL properties. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of research into the historical context of ORNL and at to identify historic properties at ORNL that are included in present or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. The identification of archaeological properties at ORNL that are included and eligible for inclusion in the National Register Clinton is addressed in a separate report.

  5. Prebiotic Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  6. Fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of Carnivora and Artiodactyla in Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigao; SONG Yanling; MA Yingtai; WANG Xifeng; WU Xuntao; XIE Zhenfeng; SHAO Jianbin; LI Chunning

    2007-01-01

    Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve (NNR,108°45'-109°04'E,33°47'-33°56'N)is located on the eastern range of the Qinling Mountains in Shannxi Province,China and spans the southern and northern slopes of Mt.Qiuling.A transect survey and investigation were carried out in NNR to determine the fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of carnivora and artiodactyla from May 2003 to August 2004.The NNR has 18 mammals (carnivore and artiodactyl),two of which belong to the first class and seven to the second class of state key protected wildlife in China.The results of this study indicated that ungulates were abundant in the NNR,as all ungulates that were distributed within bit.Qiuling could be found within the reserve.However,only45.5%of the carnivores distributed within Mt.Qinling were detected within the NNR.Among the mammals,there were 12 oriental species (66.7%),1 palearctic specie (5.5%)and 5 widely-distributed species (27.8%).The NNR is a crossing area of palearctic species and oriental species on the zoogeographical regions,and it is a transitional area from the oriental realm to the palearctic realm.The results of the analysis on the ecological distribution of carnivore and artiodactyl in the area showed that their elevation ranges had large differences.The species whose elevation ranges above 1300 m,about 1000 m,and in 450-700 m occupied one third respectively.The results also indicated that species richness for the mammals in the NNR peaked at a middle elevation (rising at first,then descending with the increase in elevation).Not only on the southern slope,but also on the northern slope of Mt.Qinling,the number of species distributed in the area at 1800-2200 m a.s.l.was the largest (more than 80%),while the number of species distributed in the area above 2 600 m a.s.l.was the smallest (about 50%).Elevation gradients of species richness for the mammals in the NNR also embodied the mammal distributions among the vegetation types.The number of species

  7. Atmospheric wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Xiao, Weiyang; Jaffe, Daniel; Kota, Sri Harsha; Ying, Qi; Tang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, remarkable ecological changes have been observed in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR). Some of these changes might be related to excessive deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), but the relationship has not been quantified due to lack of monitoring data, particularly S and N deposition data. In this study, we investigated the concentrations, fluxes, and sources of S and N wet deposition in JNNR from April 2010 to May 2011. The results show that SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the wet deposition were 39.4-170.5, 6.2-34.8, and 0.2-61.2 μeq L(-1), with annual Volume-Weighted Mean (VWM) concentrations of 70.5, 12.7, and 13.4 μeq L(-1), respectively. Annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ were 8.06, 1.29, and 1.39 kg S(N)ha(-1), respectively, accounting for about 90% of annual atmospheric inputs of these species at the monitoring site. The results of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis show that fossil fuel combustion, agriculture, and aged sea salt contributed to 99% and 83% of annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively. Agriculture alone contributed to 89% of annual wet deposition flux of NH4+. Although wet deposition in JNNR was polluted by anthropogenic acids, the acidity was largely neutralized by the Ca2+ from crust and 81% of wet deposition samples had a pH higher than 6.00. However, acid rain mainly caused by SO4(2-) continued to occur in the wet season, when ambient alkaline dust concentration was lower. Since anthropogenic emissions have elevated S and N deposition and caused acid rain in JNNR, further studies are needed to better quantify the regional sources and ecological effects of S and N deposition for JNNR.

  8. Dynamics, aboveground biomass and composition on permanent plots, Tambopata National Reserve. Madre de Dios, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir C. Pallqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the floristic composition and changes in stored biomass and dynamics over time in 9 permanent plots monitored by RAINFOR (Amazon Forest Inventory Network and located in the lowland Amazon rainforest of the Tambopata National Reserve. Data were acquired in the field using the standardized methodology of RAINFOR. The biomass was estimated using the equation for tropical moist forests of Chave et al. (2005. Biomass dynamics were analyzed, in three separated periods from 2003 to 2011. 64 families, 219 genera and 531 species were recorded. The tree floristic composition is very similar in all plots except for one swamp plot, although but it is also evident that two slightly different forest communities exist in the rest of landscape, apparently related to the age of the ancient river terraces in the area. Mortality and recruitment of individuals averaged 2.12 ± 0.52% and 1.92 ± 0.49%, respectively. The turnover rate is 2.02% per year. Aboveground biomass stored in these forests averages 296.2 ± 33.9 t ha-1. The biomass dynamics show a total net gain of 1.96, 1.69 and –1.23 t ha-1 for period respectively. Prior to the drought of 2010 a change in biomass was found 1.88 t ha-1 yr-1 and post drought was -0.18 t ha-1 yr-1 on average, though the difference is not significant. Demographic analysis suggests a dynamic equilibrium in the plots. The negative balance of biomass observed for the period 2008 – 2011 may be due to the drought of 2010, in which half of the monitored plots experienced negative net biomass change due to mortality of individuals selectively affecting the floristic composition.

  9. Plant Pb Contents in Elevation Zones of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jun-Hong; CUI Bao-Shan; DENG Wei; WANG Qing-Gai; DING Qiu-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Typical plants and soils of four elevation zones,mountain tundra(Zone A),Betula ermanii forest(Zone B),mountain dark coniferous forest(Zone C),and mountain coniferous and broad-leaf forest(Zone D),along the vertical gradient of the northern mountain slope of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve,Jilin Province,China,were sampled to study the relationship between plant and soil Pb,and to compare the Pb levels in typical plant types within the same elevation zone.The Pb contents in the soil and plant samples were measured by using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that the average plant Pb contents of the four plant elevation zones were lower than the average worldwide level.except for Zone B,Compared with the average level in China or the average worldwide level,the soil Pb levels of the four plant zones were higher,with Zones D and B having the lowest and highest averages,respectively.Plant Pb levels fluctuated from the upper to the lower zones,in a pattern of low-high-low-high,which was the same as that of the soils in the four zones.Furthermore.plant Pb was closely related to soll Pb.Depending on the plant species and plant parts,large differences were found in the Pb levels of typical plants within each zone.In Zone A,Vaccinium uliginosum and Rhododendron redowskianum had higher Pb levels than the other plants.In Zone C,the Pb levels in the branches of both plant species were higher than those in the leaves,which was contrary to Zone D.In Zone B,the Pb levels in the plant parts varied greatly with plant species.

  10. The Army National Guard: Part of the Operational Force and Strategic Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    17 Ambiguity Exists When Defining the Strategic and Operational Role of the Reserve Component...touted the RC shift from a strategic reserve to an operational reserve proving ambiguity still exists.53 What is clear in this review of RC roles is...ARNG) capabilities, required to optimize ARNG performance while seNing in an operational role . These changes include a more encompassing mobilization

  11. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve: Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2011; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methodology. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature and soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2013; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  13. Methodology applied by the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Bio fuels National Agency for detection of cartels - their limits and perspectives; Metodology adotada pela Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis para detectecao de carteis - seus limites e perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, Douglas Pereira; Sales, Orlando de Araujo Vilela; Baran, Patricia Huguenin; Paiva, Rodrigo Milao de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regulacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados, Alcool Combustivel e Gas Natural; Bicalho, Lucia Maria de Oliveira Navegantes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the present methodology used by the Defense Competition Coordination of the Petroleum National Agency for detection of vestiges of cartels in the Brazilian fuel market, their limits, in view of the instruments presently at the disposal of the Agency and perspectives of modification from the eventual availability of new instruments.

  14. Estimation on Aesthetic Value of Tourist Landscapes in a Natural Heritage Site : Kanas National Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Feng, [No Value; Yang Zhaoping, [No Value; Liu Xuling, [No Value; Wu Jingrui, [No Value; Ma Zhongguo, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    Most world natural heritage sites are designated partly by reason of their prominent aesthetic values in accordance with Article VII of World Natural Heritage Convention. In this paper, the aesthetic values of Kanas National Nature Reserve, which has potential for Such designation, was analyzed quan

  15. C-CAP Land Cover, National Estuarine Research Reserve, Wells, Maine, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution orthoimagery, LiDAR data and ancillary data sources such as National Wetlands Inventory, and was...

  16. 2006 C-CAP Land Cover of Old Woman Creek, Ohio, National Estuarine Research Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution orthoimagery, LiDAR data and ancillary data sources such as SSURGO and National Wetlands Inventory,...

  17. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110957 Bai Jingru(Engineering Research Centre of Ministry of Education for Comprehensive Utilization of Oil Shale,Northeast Dianli University,Jilin 132012,China);Wang Qing Basic Physicochemical Characteristics of the Huadian Oil Shale Semi-Cokes(Journal of Jilin University,ISSN1671-5888,CN22-1343/P,40(4),2010,p.905-911,5 illus.,8 tables,10 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:oil shale,Jilin Province20110958 Chen Jingyi(Faculty of Resources and Information Technology,China University of Petroleum,Beijing 102249,China);Wang Feiyu Maturity and Genetic Type of Crude Oils in Qikou Sag,Bohai Bay Basin(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65-1107/TE,31(3),2010,p.242-244,7 illus.,4 refs.)Key words:crude oil,Bohaiwan Basin Qikou sag is one of the rich-oil areas in Bohai Bay Basin,in which three sets of lacustrine source rocks developed in Tertiary and Paleozoic reservoirs.The geochemical analyses of 59 crude oil and 102 source rock samples from Qikou sag show that the crude oils in Qikou sag belong to mature oil,combined with the biomarkers of n-alkanes,steroid and terpenoid as well as light hydrocarbons index,

  18. Flowering plant biodiversity of Augrabies Falls National Park: a comparison between Augrabies Falls National Park, Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Vaalbos National Park and Goegap Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Zietsman

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A list of flowering plants has been compiled for the Augrabies Falls National Park, which occupies an area of approximately 18 600 ha. This list of 364 species represents 210 genera and 74 families. The Monocotyledonae are represented by 76 species (20.9 of the total number of species and the Dicotyledonae by 288 (79.1 . Approximately 54 of these species occur only in the Augrabies Falls National Park and not in one of the other conservation areas with which it was compared. According to the life form spectrum, the Augrabies Falls National Park is a therophyte-hemicryp- tophyte area. Five of these spesies are endemic to the Southern African floristic region. One of them is a rare species.

  19. China Petroleum Information Technology Service Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is one of the world's leading integrated energy companies. Its business covers a broad spectrum of upstream and downstream activities, oil and gas engineering technical services, and equipment manufacturing and supply.CNPC ranks 9th among the world's top 50 petroleum companies and rates 39th in Global 500.

  20. Brief Introduction of CNPC Sichuan Petroleum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ CNPC Sichuan Petroleum(CSP), a subsidiary company of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) with annual production value surpassing RMB 10 billion, is specialized in oil and gas field engineering and technical services, equipment manufacturing and supply, and cooperation in oil and gas field development. CSP has also enjoyed the right in doing international business including technologic & economic cooperation and trading.

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Northern Alaska Gas Hydrate Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. The impact of petroleum hydrocarbon and brine contaminants to macroinvertebrate communities inhabiting lotic systems at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In May 1995, an initial contaminants survey of Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge was completed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The results of that study...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  4. National Survey of Veterans, Active Duty Service Members, Demobilized National Guard and Reserve Members, Family Members, and Surviving Spouses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2010 National Survey of Veterans (NSV) is the sixth in a series of comprehensive nationwide surveys designed to help the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) plan...

  5. National Survey of Veterans, Active Duty Service Members, Demobilized National Guard and Reserve Members, Family Members, and Surviving Spouses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2010 National Survey of Veterans (NSV) is the sixth in a series of comprehensive nationwide surveys designed to help the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) plan...

  6. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  7. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111769 Bai Yubin(School of Oil and Gas Resources,Xi’an University of Petroleum,Xi’an 710065,China);Zhang Hai Physical Properties and Main Controlling Factors for the Low-Permeability Reservoirs from a Oil Field in the Ordos Basin(Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593/P,30(3),2010,p.104-108,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:low permeability reservoirs,reservoir properties,Ordos BasinThe Chang-2 reservoirs in A oil field in the Ordos Basin dominantly consist of fine-grainded feldspar sandstones which have low porosity and low-permeability,

  8. Water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP), 1994 - 2005 (NCEI Accession 0019215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data in 25...

  9. 1984 Survey of National Guard and Reserve Members: Description and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 122 b TELEPHONE (lncludl Area Code) 1 22, OFFICE SYMBOL "nr+nag Ayn c~wo.r I I2~.4AI S41 1 iI~ .- DO FORM 1473, 84...items. The 1979 Reserve Force Studies Surveys (Doering, Grissmer, & Hawes, 1981)1 was completed by the Rand Corporation under the general sponsorship...Design, Sample Design and Administrative Procedures," The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA: 1981. 5 (Manpower Reserve Affairs and Logistics). This survey

  10. 77 FR 21387 - Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) And (C) of the National Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential... reserves, among other factors, I determine, pursuant to section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National... volume of petroleum and petroleum products purchased from Iran by or through foreign...

  11. A Nation in Need: The Air Reserve Component and Wildland Firefighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    back to 1970 when a series of fires were unable to be contained by commercial tankers and conventional methods, causing the destruction of over 500... Fire Fighting System (MAFFS) aircraft provide Wildland Fire Fighting (WFF) for national fire emergencies. As of today, ARC assets execute this mission in...Modular Airborne Fire Fighting System (MAFFS) aircraft provide Wildland Fire Fighting (WFF) for national fire emergencies. As of today, ARC assets

  12. Mobilization of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve: Historical Perspective and the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-07

    understanding of the uso of the National Guard for State service, for domestic disturbances wnile in a Fede*. «.1 status, and for minor wars. National...denying him his social legislation.29 John K. Mahon has written that there were three major reasons for President Johnson’s refusal to mobilize the...Aviation Company was redes igna ted a =, the 2929th ’ledical Lot ichmout (Air Ambulanca); the 107 th Signal Company (Support) v,r, redes ignatei: aa the

  13. The participation of the production sector in the research projects financed by CTPETRO - National Brazilian Plan in Science and Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas; A participacao do setor produtivo nos projetos financiados pelo CTPETRO - Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Petroleo e Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Fabiana; Pereira, Newton Mueller [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mail: fabiana@ige.unicamp.br; newpe@ige.unicamp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper emphasizes the participation of the equipment and services suppliers for the petroleum sector in the projects financially supported by CTPETRO (National Brazilian Plan in Science and Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas), according to the edit 03/2000.

  14. Genetic classification of petroleum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Demaison, G.

    1991-03-01

    The authors genetic classification of petroleum basins is founded on a working nomenclature that consists of combining qualifiers from each of the following three categories: (1) the charge factor (supercharged, normally charged, or undercharged), (2) the migration drainage style (vertically drained or laterally drained), and (3) the entrapment style (high impedance or low impedance). The charge factor is estimated on the basis of the richness and volumetrics of mature source rocks. The source potential index (SPI), which combines source-rock richness and thickness into a single parameter, is a convenient shortcut for comparing the petroleum potential of different source rocks containing dissimilar kerogen types and for rapidly estimating a basin's regional charging capacity. On a global scale, a general correlation exists between the magnitude of SPI and basinwide petroleum reserves. The dominant migration drainage style can be predicted from the structural and stratigraphic framework of a basin. Recognition of the dominant migration style helps to predict the location of zones of petroleum occurrence in relation to the 'hydrocarbon kitchens.' The entrapment style, which is also dependent on the structural framework and the presence of seals, describes the degree of resistance (i.e. impedance) working against dispersion of the petroleum charge. Application of these working concepts should help significantly reduce geologic risk, particularly in new ventures-type exploration.

  15. Who Stays and Who Goes: Army Enlisted Reserve and National Guard Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This would result in a positive relationship between unemployment and retention rates. If unemployment is high, reserve retention rates would also...individuals raised in interracial marriages are free to identify with two or more racial groups. In this portion of the monograph, individuals are...This positive relationship is important, since one might be able to design programs that could help married or single soldiers to stay in the

  16. 76 FR 46723 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Commerce, and adhered to the terms of financial assistance awards funded under the CZMA. The National... of financial assistance awards funded under the CZMA. Each evaluation will include a site visit, consideration of public comments, and consultations with interested Federal, state, and local agencies and...

  17. 75 FR 16747 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Commerce, and adhered to the terms of financial assistance awards funded under the CZMA. The National... of financial assistance awards funded under the CZMA. Each evaluation will include a site visit, consideration of public comments, and consultations with interested Federal, State, and local agencies and...

  18. 78 FR 59153 - National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... our troops, our veterans, and our military families with the opportunities they have earned. The men... employers that provide our Reservists and National Guard members extraordinary support and flexibility. We... between military and civilian life. America must pledge our full support to those who serve in our...

  19. ROMANIAN ACHIEVEMENTS IN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stoicescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum has been and still remains, in equal measure, a friend and an enemy to humanity: a friend for its use in numerous applications over the years, from the lubrication of cart axles to jet fuel; an enemy for creating permanent conflicts between countries, leading to a global conflagration. This layout has perpetuated for over two millennia, until today.The problem of petroleum has a multitude of aspects: economic, political, financial, social, military, legislative and, last but not least, scientific and technical. It has taken a share of sacrifices, which may not be overlooked, to be rightfully called “black gold.” Subject to continuous development, petroleum is still indispensable to our quotidian life, although attempts have been made to replace it with alternative energy sources due to its negative effects on the planet, which are increasingly visible.The present state of petroleum industry is the result of a continuous labor of many generations of researchers, professors, engineers, technicians, foremen, and workers, especially from petroleum producing countries.  Romania is one of the first petroleum producers and ranked first in Europe and among the first nations worldwide until the end of the 19th century.  During the 20th century, a large number of oil and gas reservoirs were discovered in many countries on all continents; even today Romania still remains an important producer with encouraging perspectives.Romanian contributions to the progress of petroleum industry are noticeable, being appreciated and implemented by the major companies worldwide.  This work intends to present just several of these contributions, some of which are highlighted and highly regarded.

  20. The use of ovarian reserve markers in IVF clinical practice: a national consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Ferraretti, Anna Pia; Palermo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Filippo M

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian reserve markers have been documented to perform very well in the clinical practice. While this is widely recognized, still now there is no consensus on how to use new biomarkers in the clinical practice. This study was conducted among Italian IVF centres using the Delphi technique, a validated consensus-building process. Briefly three consecutive questionnaires were developed for clinicians in charge of IVF centres. In the first rounds, participants were asked to rate the importance of a list of statements regarding the categorization of ovarian response and the diagnostic role of biomarkers. In round 3, participants were asked to rate their agreement and consensus on the list of statements derived from the first two rounds. There were 120 respondents. Consensus was achieved for many points: (a) poor ovarian response is predicted on the basis of the following: AMH  3 ng/ml or AFC > 14; (c) day 3 FSH measurement should always be associated to estradiol; (d) AMH can be measured on a random basis; (e) the measurement of the AFC with the 2D technology may be considered adequate and (f) the AFC should be measured in the early follicular phase and consists in the total number of 2-9 mm follicles in both the ovaries. The present study suggests that extensive consensus on the importance and use of new ovarian reserve markers to improve IVF safety and performance is already present among clinicians.

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Estimated Depth to the Base of the Mesaverde Total Petroleum System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows estimated depth ranges to stratigraphic horizons near the base of the Mesaverde Total Petroleum System, Uinta-Piceance Province, northwestern...

  2. Evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and sentinel benthic organisms of the Delaware Bay Division, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge and adjoining marshes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This pilot study was conducted to characterize ambient petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marshes of the Cape May NWR and adjacent areas bordering the Delaware...

  3. Petroleum Technigue Market--A right place to purchase, sale and exchange your techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Petroleum Technological Market Office of China National Petroleum Corporation(CNPC),which is in charge of the macroscopic administration of the petroleum technology market (PTM) of CNPC, was founded in 1994.Beijing Trade Center of Petroleum Technology started business in 1996. It marks the PTM has further expanded.

  4. Bright Future for Petroleum Development Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhenqing

    1996-01-01

    @@ China's oil prospects look bright, since reform and opening speed up. The oil production of 1995 is 148 million tons and the confirmed reserves of oil and gas only occupy one-fifth of those possible to be verified, the petroleum exploration will be deepened to locate and confirm the remaining reserves.

  5. Vegetation of Mangroves: Spatial and Temporal Pattern of its Dominant Populations in Futian National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhenji; Zheng Wenjiao; Yang Zhiwei; Lin Yiming; Lin Peng

    2003-01-01

    The community characteristics of mangroves in the Futian Nature Reserve,Shenzhen, China are given based on surveying of 33 quadrats in 4 transects which stretch from the higher tidal zone to the lower tidal zone. The results show that there are 6 community types in this area: Kandelia cardel association, Avicennia marina association, A egiceras corniculatum association, Kardelia cardel + Aegiceras corniculatum association,Aegiceras corniculatum + Kandelia candel association and Acanthus ilicifolius association.Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina dominate the typical quadrats. Kandelia candel can be seen at almost all quadrats, Aegiceras corniculatum distributes mostly toward the estuary and the higher tidal zone, Avicennia marina distributes mostly toward the bay and the lower tidal zone, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza occasionally occurs toward the Estuary with one or several individuals, Acanthus ilicifolius was common toward the higher tidal zone, as an accompanying species, Derris trifoliata was common in many mature quadrats. Totally, 6 species of mangrove plants and 3 species of semi-mangrove plants appear in this research area. From the higher tidal zone to the lower tidal zone, the average diameter and basal area of mangrove trees increase gradually. According to the results, the Avicennia marina dominates in average diameter and basal area, and the Aegiceras corniculatum trees are on the contrary. From the transect 1 to the transect 4, the importance value of Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel decreases, and Ae giceras corniculatum increases. In this area, the Kandelia candel population and Aegiceras corniculatum population are developing populations with many seedlings and saplings, but the Avicennia marina population is in a mature stage with few seedlings and not so many total individuals. According to this research, we suppose that Aegiceras corniculatum should be developed toward the estuary and the Avicennia

  6. Options for national parks and reserves for adapting to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Gunderson, Lance; Allen, Craig D.; Fleishman, Erica; McKenzie, Donald; Meyerson, Laura A.; Oropeza, Jill; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2009-01-01

    Past and present climate has shaped the valued ecosystems currently protected in parks and reserves, but future climate change will redefine these conditions. Continued conservation as climate changes will require thinking differently about resource management than we have in the past; we present some logical steps and tools for doing so. Three critical tenets underpin future management plans and activities: (1) climate patterns of the past will not be the climate patterns of the future; (2) climate defines the environment and influences future trajectories of the distributions of species and their habitats; (3) specific management actions may help increase the resilience of some natural resources, but fundamental changes in species and their environment may be inevitable. Science-based management will be necessary because past experience may not serve as a guide for novel future conditions. Identifying resources and processes at risk, defining thresholds and reference conditions, and establishing monitoring and assessment programs are among the types of scientific practices needed to support a broadened portfolio of management activities. In addition to the control and hedging management strategies commonly in use today, we recommend adaptive management wherever possible. Adaptive management increases our ability to address the multiple scales at which species and processes function, and increases the speed of knowledge transfer among scientists and managers. Scenario planning provides a broad forward-thinking framework from which the most appropriate management tools can be chosen. The scope of climate change effects will require a shared vision among regional partners. Preparing for and adapting to climate change is as much a cultural and intellectual challenge as an ecological challenge.

  7. Spatial variations in daily average CO2 concentrations above wetland surface of Xianghai National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jun-hong; OUYANG Hua; WANG Qing-gai; ZHOU Cai-ping; XU Xiao-feng

    2005-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical variations of daily average CO2 concentration above the wetland surface were studied in Xianghai National Nature Reserve of China in August, 2000. The primary purpose was to study spatial distribution characteristics of CO2 concentration on the four levels of height(0. 1 m, 0.6 m, 1.2 m and 2 m) and compare the differences of CO2 concentration under different land covers. Results showed that daily average CO2 concentration above wetland surface in Xianghai National Natural Reserve was lower than that above other wetlands in northeast China as well as the worldwide average, suggesting that Xianghai wetland absorbed CO2 in August and acted as"sink" of CO2. The horizontal variations on the four levels of height along the latitude were distinct, and had the changing tendency of"decreasing after increasing" with the increase of height. The areas with obvious variations were consistent on different levels of height,and those with the highest variations appeared above surface of shore, sloping field, Typha wetland and Phragmites wetland; the vertical variations were greatly different, with the higher variations in Phragmites wetland and Typha wetland, and the lands near the shore and the sloping field with the lower variations. Spatial variations of daily average CO2 concentrations above wetland surface were affected by surface qualities and land covers.

  8. Barriers and opportunities for integrating social science into natural resource management: lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  9. Insect diversity and its influencing factors in Jiuduansha wetland national nature reserve,Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Xiuzhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were made on insect diversity on order and family levels in five dominant plant communities on four shoals and different gradient tidal creeks in Jiuduansha Nature Reserve.A total of 35444 specimens were collected,belonging to 64 families and 13 orders.According to species number,the dominant families ranked as Chloropidae (42,Eulophidae (29,Pteromalidae (24,Braconidae (22,Ichneumonidae (15,Scelionidae (12,and the dominant orders as Hymenoptera (137,Diptera (85,Coleoptera (32,Hemiptera (10.Our analyses showed:(1 The insect species richness in summer was higher than those in other three seasons;(2 In Phragmites australis community on low tidal flat in summer,the species richness of insects was the highest,that on high tidal flat ranked the second,then that on middle tidal flat.On the low tidal flat,the individual number of Blissidae,Chloropidae,Coccinellidae and Anthicidae was much higher than those on the middle and high tidal flats.The individual number of Blissidae and Delphacidae increased from Lower to High tidal flat.Compared with that on the low tidal flat,the insect composition on the middle tidal flat was closer to that on the high tidal flat.(3 The family and individual numbers of insects in Spartina alterniflora community were higher than those in Phragmite australis community on Middle shoal in summer.Psocoptera and Chloropidae were two dominant families in Spartina alterniflora community,their individuals accounting for 86.83% of the total.While in Phragmite australis community,Chloropidae,Anthicidae and Coccinellidae were three dominant families,their individuals accounting for 79% of the total.In the Scirpus mariqueter-S.triqueter community on Jiangyanansha,the dominant insect families were Phlaeothripidae,Cicadellidae,Chloropidae,Chironomidae and Braconidae,their individual accounting for 96.82% of the total,those in Zizania latifolia community only accounting for 31.52% of the total.(4 The shannon

  10. Suggestions on China's Petroleum Security Strategy and Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xuchao

    2001-01-01

    @@ Petroleum is an important strategic goods for national economy and political security. With the national economy growing rapidly, China's shortage in petroleum supply is on an annual rise,enabling the country more and more dependent on overseas resources. One of the major issues facing China in the future is how to ensure a long-term and stable petroleum supply for the country's economic security.

  11. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  12. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1997 • 1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  14. Mental Health Disorders, Suicide Risk, and Treatment seeking among Formerly Deployed National Guardand Reserve Service Member seen in Non VA Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    service use, alcohol misuse, suicidal thoughts, and stressful life events were more common among National Guard and Reserve veterans, compared to...to reach our originally planned sample size. Action to be taken:  We have reached out to leaders of student veteran...organizations at over 30 colleges and universities in the central and northeastern PA areas to help with recruitment of the National/Guard Reserve cohort

  15. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  18. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes of On-Reserve First Nations Schoolchildren Compared to Canadian Averages and Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated, in on-reserve First Nations (FN youth in Ontario, Canada, the following: (a the intakes of vegetable and fruit, “other” foods and relevant nutrients as compared to current recommendations and national averages, (b current prevalence rates of overweight and obesity and (c the relationship between latitude and dietary intakes. Twenty-four-hour diet recalls were collected via the Waterloo Web-Based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q (n = 443. Heights and weights of participants were self reported using measured values and Body Mass Index was categorized using the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Food group and nutrient intakes were compared to current standards, Southern Ontario Food Behaviour data and the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, using descriptive statistics. Mean vegetable and fruit, fibre and folate intakes were less than current recommendations. Girls aged 14–18 years had mean intakes of vitamin A below current recommendations for this sub-group; for all sub-groups, mean intakes of vegetables and fruit were below Canadian averages. All sub-groups also had intakes of all nutrients and food groups investigated that were less than those observed in non-FN youth from Southern Ontario, with the exception of “other” foods in boys 12–18 years. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8% and 19.6%, respectively, exceeding rates in the general population. Dietary intakes did not vary consistently by latitude (n = 248, as revealed by ANOVA. This study provided a unique investigation of the dietary intakes of on-reserve FN youth in Ontario and revealed poor intakes of vegetables and fruit and related nutrients and high intakes of “other” foods. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity exceed those of the general population.

  19. Nest site selection of white-naped crane (Grus vipio) at Zhalong National Nature Reserve, Heilongjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-ming WU; Hong-fei ZOU; Jian-zhang MA

    2014-01-01

    White-naped crane (Grus vipio) is a globally threatened spe-cies. It is very important to analyze its nest site selection in circum-stances where there are multiple disturbances, and also helpful to accu-mulate valuable information about this threatened species and supply scientific suggestions for conservation and management. We studied nest site selection and the effects of environmental variables on nesting habits of white-naped crane at Zhalong National Nature Reserve, Qiqihar City, Heilongjiang, China, during March-May of 2002-2008. White-naped crane responded and adapted to changes in the quality of the spatial environments of landscape and microhabitat under multiple environ-mental disturbances. Nest site selection included two scales and two choices, namely the choice of nest site habitat type within the macro-habitat scale and nest site micro-habitat selection within the mi-cro-habitat scale. Nest sites were recorded only in reed marshes. The choice of nest site micro-habitat included three basic elements and six factors, namely incubation element (nest parameters factor, incubation temperature factor and incubation humidity factor), safety element (pro-tection factor and concealment factor), and food element (water factor). Water, remnant reed clusters, and fire were major resource management challenges during the breeding period for the white-naped crane in this Reserve.

  20. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  1. Spatial Variability and Ecological Effects of Anthropogenic Activities in a Nature Reserve: A Case Study in the Baijitan National Nature Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves play an essential role in protecting natural resources and maintaining an ecological balance. However, certain nature reserves are increasingly disturbed by human activities in the form of settlements, roads, farmland, etc. How to monitor the status of nature reserves by using remote sensing methods has been a focus of scholars for a long time. In this study, remote sensing satellite images from 2009 and 2014 were used to extract and analyze the distribution of anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture, industry, residency, traffic, and other human activities. On this basis, the Nature Reserve Human Interference (NRHI and landscape indices (LI were calculated to describe the intensity of anthropogenic disturbance; in addition, the slope and aspect were analyzed to describe the regularity in the distribution of anthropogenic activities. The results showed that more than 90% of the anthropogenic activity occurred in the experimental and buffer zones. Likewise, the NRHI increased from 0.0901 in 2009 to 0.1127 in 2014. The NRHI was proportional to the patch density (PD, landscape shape index (LSI, landscape division index (DIVISION, Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI, and Shannon′s evenness index (SHEI, and it was inversely proportional to the contagion index (CONTAG. Moreover, 84.54% of the anthropogenic activity occurred in a range from 0 to 3.6 degrees, and 14.44% of the activity occurred in a range from 3.6 to 7.2 degrees. More than 60% of the anthropogenic activity occurred on sunny slopes because of the human adaptability to the environment and the possibility for humans to fulfill their physical needs (warmth and comfort. Thus, the monitoring of this nature reserve needs to be further strengthened and focused on the area with a range of 0–7.2 degrees and on the sunny slopes.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in national parks, nature reserves and protected areas worldwide: a strategic perspective for their in situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2012-02-01

    Soil fungi play a crucial role in producing fundamental ecosystem services such as soil fertility, formation and maintenance, nutrient cycling and plant community dynamics. However, they have received little attention in the field of conservation biology. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial soil symbionts fulfilling a key function in the complex networks of belowground/aboveground biotic interactions as they live in association with the roots of most (80%) land plant families and influence not only soil fertility but also plant nutrition, diversity and productivity. The diversity of AMF communities can decline due to habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, especially in agro-ecosystems, and many valuable ecotypes could become extinct before they are even discovered. Consequently, long-term strategies are urgently needed to ensure their conservation in habitats where they naturally occur and have evolved. Protected areas, where living organisms are under the care of national and international authorities, represent an appropriate place for the in situ conservation of AMF, providing them with adapted situations together with established complex networks of interactions with different components within each specific ecosystem. Here, we review data available about the main present-day threats to AMF and the current state of knowledge about their occurrence in protected sites worldwide, providing a checklist of national parks and nature reserves where they have been reported. The aim was to offer a strategic perspective to increase awareness of the importance of conserving these beneficial plant symbionts and of preserving their biodiversity in the years to come.

  3. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve’s (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  4. Norwegian Petroleum Policy; Norsk petroleumspolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeiland, Ranveig

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the environment, the petroleum fortune and future generations, licence policy, and regional issues. A principal aim for the Norwegian government is to combine the role as a major energy producer with the desire to be a leading country in environmental issues. Norway is now a major oil and gas producer that produces effectively, profitably and more environmentally friendly than other petroleum countries. The MILJOESOK process was started to strengthen the cooperation between Norwegian authorities and the industry in the environmental sector. The emissions of greenhouse gases per unit produced have been reduced. The emissions to sea of oil and chemicals are also being reduced. Another principle aim is that the oil and gas resources should give the highest possible value creation and secure welfare and employment. With the present production level the reserves of oil will last for 15 years and the reserves of gas for 110 years. The state income generated by the petroleum production is expected to peak around the turn of the millennium, then to decline gradually toward 2050. The petroleum fund is established to be a buffer till long into the future. In 2010, the yield from this fund is expected to be twice the amount of oil money used over the state budget today. Compared with the UK, Norway has chosen to exploit the resources in a step by step fashion at a moderate rate. This policy can be seen in the granting of concession. New concessions will be granted at a rate suitable for smoothing out the activity level and strengthening onshore employment. The North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are quite different as to mapping and maturity and hence require different concession policies. The new deep-sea fields in the Norwegian Sea offer technological challenges and it is important that offshore activities in this area create opportunities for regional development on land

  5. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  8. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  9. Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas, Navarro and Taylor Groups, Western Gulf Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Late Cretaceous Navarro and Taylor Groups in the Western Gulf Province in Texas (USGS Province 5047). The Navarro and Taylor Groups have moderate potential for undiscovered oil resources and good potential for undiscovered gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and five assessment units. Five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  10. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

    2000-01-12

    Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

  12. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D; Minot, Edward O

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges.

  13. Elephant (Loxodonta africana home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Thomas

    Full Text Available During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR and Kruger National Park (KNP we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges.

  14. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Home Ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: A Five-Year Satellite Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D.; Minot, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges. PMID:19065264

  15. Securing water for wetland conservation: a comparative analysis of policy options to protect a national nature reserve in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Wu, Junjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Ma

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluates four policy options to secure the water supply needed for wetland conservation in Qixinghe--a national wetland nature reserve in China--using four criteria: cost effectiveness, probability of success in achieving the water-saving goal, political feasibility, and farmer acceptance. This multi-criteria analysis framework reveals the ecological, economic, and socio-political trade-offs for policymakers when choosing among the four policy options. Results suggest that upgrading irrigation infrastructure in the area surrounding the wetland (Option I) is the most politically feasible option, but it is the second best option in terms of cost effectiveness. Constructing a dam to store and control floodwater (Option II) is the most reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. It is also the farmers' most favored strategy. But this option is the least cost effective and receives little support from local governments. Promoting farmers' adoption of water-saving practices (Option III) is the most cost effective, but it is less reliable for achieving the water-saving goal than Options I or II. Converting paddy crops to dry-land crops (Option IV) is politically infeasible and least reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. The overall ranking of the four options is determined using the policymakers' revealed weights on the four criteria. Option I is ranked first, followed by Options II, III, and IV.

  16. 76 FR 2085 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System; North Inlet-Winyah Bay, SC and San Francisco Bay, CA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... efforts on four critical issues that affect the reserve's ability to conserve ecological communities in..., Estuarine Reserves Division, 1305 East-West Highway, N/ORM5, 10th floor, Silver Spring, MD 20910....

  17. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  18. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: Biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Fan; SANG WeiGuo; LI GuangQi; LIU RuiGang; CHEN LingZhi; WANG Kun

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud-ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.I.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex-ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn-over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern

  19. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud- ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex- ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn- over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity

  20. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  2. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges; Mer Caspienne: enjeux petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  3. NPC and CPPCC Delegates Call for Release of Petroleum Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Many delegates who attended the fifth session of Ninth National People's Congress and the fifth session of Ninth Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference called on the State to formulate "Petroleum and Natural Gas Law" as soon as possible for the purpose to operate petroleum and natural gas recovery, transportation and marketing on the legal basis.

  4. Spatial distribution patterns of wetland plants in relation to environmental gradient in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Demin; LUAN Zhaoqing; GUO Xiaoyu; LOU Yanjing

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying correlation between the spatial patterns of natural wetland plants and environmental gradient gives better understanding of wetland habitats,which is the fundamental for the strategy making on the protection and restoration of natural wetlands.In this study,the spatial patterns of wetland plants and the environmental gradient of wetland habitats were assessed in the Honghe National Nature Reserve (HNNR) in Northeast China,a wetland of international importance on the Ramsar list.Biophysical parameters' values of wetland plants were obtained by field sampling methods,and wetland mapping at the community scale was completed using remote sensing techniques.Digital delineation of the surface water system,hydrological zoning and wetness index were produced by spatial analysis methods in Geographic Information System.An ecological ordination method and two clustering methods were used to quantify the relationship between the spatial distribution patterns of wetland plants and the corresponding environmental gradients.Such quantitative analyses also present the specific diversity of different types of wetland plants based on the environmental attributes of their habitats.With the support from modern geo-information techniques,the experimental results indicate how four ecotypes of wetland plants spatially transit from forest swamp,shrub wetland and meadow into marsh wetland with increasing wetness index and water table.And they also show how wetland spatial distribution patterns are controlled by an environmental gradient of wetness.Another key finding of this research work is that our results present the exact fundamental differences between marsh and non-marsh plants of 11 wetland plant communities within the core study area.Hence,this case study gives a good sample for better understanding of the complex correlation between the spatial patterns of wetland plants and their environmental attributes using advanced digital analysis methods.It is also useful to

  5. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Schwartz

    Full Text Available Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1 whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2 if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3 how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  6. Habitat selection of breeding brown eared-pheasants (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in Xiaowutaishan National Nature Reserve,Hebei Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongming LI; Shiping GAO; Yuefeng WU; Lihan SUN; Shubin GUO; Jili LI

    2009-01-01

    From April to July of 2003-2005,we investigated habitat selection of breeding brown eared-pheasants (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in the Xiaowutaishan National Nature Reserve,Hebei Province.Our results show that brown eared-pheasants preferred deciduousconiferous mixed or deciduous forests with altitudes ranging from 1600 to 2200 m,steep gradients of slopes and medium or high positions on slopes.Moreover,they preferred habitats with more tree species,larger diameters at the breast height,more density and cover of trees and habitats with more types of grasses,high density and cover of grasses,but with fewer types of shrubs and lower density and cover of shrubs.They had larger territories in the early breeding stage than in the late breeding stage.There were significant differences in diameters at the breast height of trees,average height of trees,cover of trees,density of shrubs,cover of shrubs,aspect,distance to path,distance to water,distance to forest edge (P < 0.01,respectively),density of trees,type of shrubs,height of shrubs,type of grasses,density of grasses and proportion of bareness (P < 0.05,respectively).The result of the principal component analysis suggested that the principal components among the 23 habitat factors were the average height of trees,density of trees,diameters at the breast height of trees,density of shrubs,cover of shrubs and density of grasses.The differences in habitat selection of brown eared-pheasants between early breeding and late breeding stages may correlate with the dynamics of ambient environmental conditions,the reproductive behavior and energy requirements in their sub-stages of breeding.

  7. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  8. Petroleum geology of Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burollet, P.F. (CIFEG, Paris (France)); Ferjami, A.B.; Mejri, F. (ETAP, Tunis (Tunisia))

    1990-05-01

    Recent discoveries and important oil shows have proven the existence of hydrocarbons in newly identified depocenters and reservoirs. In general, except for some areas around the producing fields, Tunisia is largely underdrilled. The national company ETAP has decided to release data and to publish a synthesis on the petroleum geology of Tunisia. The geology of Tunisia provides a fine example of the contrast between Alpine folding, which typifies northern Tunisia and the African craton area of the Saharan part. Eastern Tunisia corresponds to an unstable platform forming plains or low hills and extending eastwards to the shallow Pelagian Sea. There are a wide variety of basins: central and northern Tunisia represents a front basin the Saharan Ghadames basin or the Chott trough are sag basins; the Gulf of Gabes was formed as a distension margin the Gulf of Hammamet is a composite basin and several transversal grabens cut across the country, including offshore, and are rift-type basins. All these features are known to be oil prolific throughout the world. Two large fields and many modest-size pools are known in Tunisia. Oil and gas fields in the surrounding countries, namely the Saharan fields of Algeria and Libya the large Bouri field offshore Tripolitania and discoveries in the Italian part of the Straits of Sicily, suggest a corresponding potential in Tunisia. Exposed paleogeographic and structural maps, balanced sections, and examples of fields and traps will support an optimistic evaluation of the future oil exploration in Tunisia.

  9. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  10. San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation and Bylas, Arizona; Fort Thomas Public Schools. National Study of American Indian Education, Series 1, No. 18, Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, John H.; Anderson, Ned

    As part of the Final Report of the National Study of American Indian Education, Part I of this document depicts the demographic, socioeconomic, educational, and social aspects of the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation and community of Bylas. Part II places specific emphasis on recent history, economy, problems and new programs, and the…

  11. 76 FR 16728 - Announcement of the American Petroleum Institute's Standards Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... ) Meetings/Conferences: The Spring Committee on Petroleum Measurement Meeting will be held in Dallas, Texas... National Institute of Standards and Technology Announcement of the American Petroleum Institute's Standards.... SUMMARY: The American Petroleum Institute (API), with the assistance of other interested parties...

  12. Perspective analysis 2020. Hordaland future role as petroleum region; Perspektivanalyse 2020. Hordalands fremtidige rolle som petroleumsregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrefjord, Ole; Heum, Per

    2011-07-01

    The report compiles developments and challenges for the petroleum industry in Norway. It forms the context for assessing the Hordaland petroleum region. Scenarios are developed and discussed and Norway, Hordaland part by combining the scope of global trends in the extent to which national (and regional) are able to tackle the challenges that the petroleum industry must be prepared to meet.(eb)

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  17. Dynamic contents of energy and organic nutrient in steppe growths of the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Veselý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics in the content of organic nutrients, ash and energy in dry matter of growths within the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve (NPR, and to document their initial nutritive value before the intended grazing. Plant samples in 1995 and 1996 during the growing season in 14-days intervals from the area of 3 × 1 m2. Amounts of dry matter, fibre, nitrogen substances, fat and ashes were determined in growths according to the ANONYM (2001. Nitrogen-free extract substances (BNLV were determined by final calculating; BE, ME, NEL, NEV, PDIN and PDIE were calculated using the regression equations (VESELÝ and ZEMAN, 1995, 1997. Combining ratio (SP was calculated according to the relation: SP = PDIN (g/NEL (MJ. The dynamics of the contents of dry matter, organic nutrients, ashes and energy were assessed in the growth during the vegetation period and the dynamics was compared with standardized requirements of sheep (no pregnant ewe. Regression and correlation relations for nutrition value of the growths during vegetation period were calculated by use of mathematical-statistical analysis. Only statistically significantly (P<0.05 different parameters form the zero are presented in the paper. The content of dry matter in the growths culminated in summer months (places D8, E13, B17 and it was accompanied by depression in autumn months. After the highest content of crude protein, PDIN and PDIE recorded in spring months summer depression (August followed, this depression was partly balanced by autumn growth of vegetation. The content of ash in steppe growths increased during evaluated period. Similar tendency was registered for fat. Also the contents of fibre and BNLV linearly increased. The contents of nitrogen nutrients and energy corresponded with standardized requirements for sheep during whole vegetation period. Conversely the content of fibre highly exceeded the requirement except in spring

  18. North Yemen has expectation on petroleum development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Toshiaki

    1988-12-10

    Petroleum was first discovered in the inland area of North Yemen by an American Oil Company in 1984. Petroleum development is expected to work as a driving force for the economic and social development in this very poor country whose mainstay industry is extensive agriculture. And the development is being pushed forward in a high pitch. With the agreement and cooperation of North Yemen Government which had a strong expectation on petroleum explorations, Hunt Oil Company drilled the first exploratory well in an unexplored area and struck an oil field of commercial quantity. First, a domestic petroleum refinery was constructed to reduce foreign defrayments on imported petroleum products. Next, a very difficult laying work of pipe lines was completed at a record speed. Thus, the crude oil exporting facility was completed. Produced crude oil excluding cost oil and royalty is divided between the company and the government. Present production amount is 175 thousand barrels a day. The probable reserve is 850 million barrels. The government's contract sales amount for 1988 was 18.6 million barrels. 5 tabs.

  19. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  20. Final joint environmental assessment for the construction and routine operation of a 12-kilovolt (KV) overhead powerline right-of-way, and formal authorization for a 10-inch and 8-inch fresh water pipeline right-of-way, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose and need of the proposed action, which is the installation of an overhead powerline extension from an Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) power source to the WKWD Station A, is to significantly reduce NPR-1`s overall utility costs. While the proposed action is independently justified on its own merits and is not tied to the proposed NPR-1 Cogeneration Facility, the proposed action would enable DOE to tie the NPR-1 fresh water pumps at Station A into the existing NPR-1 electrical distribution system. With the completion of the cogeneration facility in late 1994 or early 1995, the proposed action would save additional utility costs. This report deals with the environmental impacts of the construction of the powerline and the water pipeline. In addition, information is given about property rights and attaining permission to cross the property of proposed affected owners.

  1. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  2. Joint environmental report pursuant to the 10 November 2006 memorandum of understanding between the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the National Energy Board concerning the public process for the Deep Panuke project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-11

    This joint environmental report of the Deep Panuke Offshore Gas Development Project was compiled following a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the National Energy Board concerning the public process used by EnCana Corporation. EnCana has proposed an initial program consisting of 6 offshore production wells in Deep Panuke, Margaree, and Panuke. Other production wells are planned for Cohasset and Deep Cohasset. Project components include a mobile offshore production unit, subsea flowlines, subsea wells, and an export pipeline. Environmental issues related to the marine part of the proposal included impacts to protected marine habitats, benthic organisms, marine mammals, fish and fish habitat, and commercial fishing. Land use issues included impacts to soil quality, vegetation, fresh water quality, and impacts to watercourses and wetlands. Responses to the consultation process, details of environmental reviews on behalf of various government agencies. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. A REVIEW OF THE KEY PROVISIONS OF THE PETROLEUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with the approved national gas pricing framework, implement customer protection measures ... The responsibility of this corporation is to enter into contracts and incur ..... ed that the Bill should provide for the remittance of revenue by petroleum.

  4. Predictors of Army National Guard and Reserve members' use of Veteran Health Administration health care after demobilizing from OEF/OIF deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex H S; Chen, Cheng; Mohr, Beth A; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo

    2014-10-01

    This study described rates and predictors of Army National Guard and Army Reserve members' enrollment in and utilization of Veteran Health Administration (VHA) services in the 365 days following demobilization from an index deployment. We also explored regional and VHA facility variation in serving eligible members in their catchment areas. The sample included 125,434 Army National Guard and 48,423 Army Reserve members who demobilized after a deployment ending between FY 2008 and FY 2011. Demographic, geographic, deployment, and Military Health System eligibility were derived from Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System and "Contingency Tracking System" data. The VHA National Patient Care Databases were used to ascertain VHA utilization and status (e.g., enrollee, TRICARE). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of VHA utilization as an enrollee in the year following demobilization. Of the study members demobilizing during the observation period, 56.9% of Army National Guard members and 45.7% of Army Reserve members utilized VHA as an enrollee within 12 months. Demographic, regional, health coverage, and deployment-related factors were associated with VHA enrollment and utilization, and significant variation by VHA facility was found. These findings can be useful in the design of specific outreach efforts to improve linkage from the Military Health System to the VHA.

  5. Měkkýši Národní přírodní rezervace Soos Molluscs (Mollusca of the Soos National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Horáčková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soos National Nature Reserve nearby Františkovy Lázně Town (Western Bohemia, Czech Republic is a spectacular peatbog site with the occurrence of fens on numerous mineral spring effluents, emanations of pure carbon dioxide in mofettes (i.e. false mud volcanoes, parts with saltwater wetlands, and diatomite mantel in its central part. These natural conditions affect general character of all habitats, vegetation and malacocoenoses in the reserve. Altogether, 31 mollusc species were found there, but only two of them are considered as near threatened (Pisidium obtusale and Vertigo substriata. The majority of recorded assemblage was composed of common and generalist mollusc species.

  6. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  7. Water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) from January 1, 1995 to August 1, 2011 (NCEI Accession 0052765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data in 26...

  8. Survey on Amphibian Resources in Changqing National Reserve%长青自然保护区两栖动物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小如; 孙亚群; 袁朝晖

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian resources were investigated using line transect method from 2012 to 2014 in Changqing National Reserve.Results showed that,there were 13 kinds of amphibian belong to 2 order,6 families,7 genera in Changqing National Reserve.Protecting the habitat is the key to protect amphibian.%于2012-2014年,采用样线调查的方法,对长青自然保护区内两栖类动物进行调查。结果表明:长青自然保护区有两栖类动物13种,分属2目6科7属;保护两栖类动物的关键是保护好其栖息地。

  9. Community characteristics of tropical montane evergreen forest and tropical montane dwarf forest in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China

    OpenAIRE

    Wenxing Long; Runguo Zang; Yi Ding

    2011-01-01

    Both tropical montane evergreen forest (TMEF) and tropical montane dwarf forest (TMDF) are typical tropical cloud forests on Hainan Island. To compare community structure and species diversity be-tween these two forest types, we established eight and ten plots (each with 2,500 m2 in area) in TMEF and TMDF, respectively, in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China. We investigated each individual plant with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥1 cm including trees, shrubs a...

  10. South African National Survey of Arachnida: A checklist of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of the Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve, Limpopo province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Foord, Stefan H.; Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman; Rudy Jocqué; Charles R. Haddad; Robin Lyle; Peter Webb

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA) is to document the Arachnida fauna of South Africa. One of the focus areas of SANSA is to survey protected areas to obtain species-specific information, and species distribution patterns for Red Data assessments. Here, we provide the first checklist of the spider species of Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve (LNR) in the Limpopo province of South Africa collected during five surveys between 2009 and 2016 using methods targeting both ...

  11. Orthoptera (Insecta: Tettigonioidea, Pyrgomorphoidea, Acridoidea) of Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Bale Mountains National Park and other areas of conservation interest in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Rob P W H; Massa, Bruno

    2016-11-09

    An annotated checklist of 51 Orthoptera taxa (Tettigonioidea, Pyrgomorphoidea and Acridoidea) of Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Bale Mountains National Park and some additional sites in Ethiopia is presented. Ten species are newly recorded for the country. Four species are new to science: Peropyrrhicia attilioi n. sp., P. keffensis n. sp., P. semiensis n. sp. and Coryphosima danieli n. sp. The status of Peropyrrhicia cooperi Uvarov, 1934 and P. scotti Uvarov, 1934 is revised: both are considered valid species.

  12. Changes in vegetative coverage of the Hongze Lake national wetland nature reserve: a decade-long assessment using MODIS medium-resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun; Hu, Chuanmin

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems on Earth. However, global wetland coverage is being reduced due to both anthropogenic and natural effects. Thus, assessment of temporal changes in vegetative coverage, as a measure of the wetland health, is critical to help implement effective management plans and provide inputs for climate-related research. In this work, 596 moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-m resolution images of the Hongze Lake national wetland nature reserve from 2000 to 2009 were used to study the vegetative coverage (above the water surface) of the reserve. Three vegetation indices [normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced VI (EVI), and floating algae index (FAI)] were compared to evaluate their effectiveness in assessing relative changes. FAI was less sensitive than NDVI and EVI to aerosol effects and showed less statistical error than NDVI and EVI. Long-term FAI data revealed clear seasonal cycles in vegetative coverage in the 113-km2 core area of the reserve, with annual maximal coverage relatively stable after 2004. This suggests that the national wetland nature reserve was well protected through the study period. However, vegetative coverage decreased due to the flooding event in 2003. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that annual sunshine duration collectively played a significant role in affecting the wetland vegetative coverage.

  13. USGS Geologic Map of Pipe Spring National Monument and the Western Kaibab-Paiute Indian Reservation, Mohave County, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The digital map publication, compiled from previously published and unpublished data and new mapping by the author, represents the general distribution of surficial...

  14. Bair Island Restoration and Management Plan : Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Bair Island Ecological Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, and the California Department of Fish and Game are proposing adoption of...

  15. USGS Geologic Map of Pipe Spring National Monument and the Western Kaibab-Paiute Indian Reservation, Mohave County, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The digital map publication, compiled from previously published and unpublished data and new mapping by the author, represents the general distribution of surficial...

  16. Petroleum Discoveries and Exploration Prospect in China's Major Petroliferous Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Up to now, there are 29 oil-and gas-bearing basins with recoverable oil and gas reserves in China. However,most of the reserves were mainly discovered in parts of the 29 basins, which played an important role in China's petroleum exploration and development.

  17. CHINA INCREASED PETROLEUM TAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xueping

    2005-01-01

    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  18. Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yizhong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology (HIPG) is not only the center of petroleum geological research & information, but also the technical supporter of the Exploration Department for frontier areas in South China, subordinate to CNPC.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Major Action of Chinese Petroleum Industry on Cooperation with Foreign Companies Petroleum cooperation contract signed in Beijing by Sino- US-Japan companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhongqiu; Cheng Xiao

    1994-01-01

    @@ The Petroleum Cooperation Contract on the Third Block of the southeast part of Tarim Basin was signed on Dec.20, 1993 in Beijing by and between China National Petroleum Corporation, and Esso China Ltd., Sumitomo Corporation, Indonesia Petroleum Ltd. It is the first contract with the foreign companies in terms of petroleum exploration and development in Tarim Basin and also the first contract by public bidding for onshore petroleum cooperation.Therefore, the signature of this contract not only marks the cooperation in Tarim Basin has enter into a new stage for petroleum exploration and development by introducing foreign funds and technology; but also marks Chinese petroleum industry has entered into a new stage of full opening to the outside world.

  3. Sexual Assault: Better Resource Management Needed to Improve Prevention and Response in the Army National Guard and Army Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    ensure it has the staff needed to complete investigations within 3 weeks, as required by OCI guidance. Eligibility for follow-up or long-term health ...long-term mental and medical health -care services. DOD’s sexual assault prevention and response instruction requires the commander of the Army...correct or mitigate the challenges of funding behavioral health care for Army Reserve soldiers, particularly those who require coverage for trauma

  4. Preferential Petroleum Migration Pathways in Eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin,Offshore South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jianning; Zou Huayao; Gong Zaisheng

    2009-01-01

    Secondary petroleum migration in the eastern Pearl River Mouth basin was modeled using the three-dimensional PATHWAYSTM model,which assumes that the positions of petroleum migration pathways are controlled by the morphology of the sealing surfaces.The modeling results have accurately predicted the petroleum occurrences.Most commercial petroleum accumulations are along the predicted preferential petroleum migration pathways (PPMP),and most large fields (petroleum reserves greater than 1×108 t) have more than one preferential petroleum migration pathways to convey petroleum to the traps.The lateral migration distance for oil in the LH11-1 field,the largest oilfield so far discovered in the Pearl River Mouth basin,was more than 80 km.The case study suggests that in lacustrine fault basins,petroleum can migrate over a long distance to form large oilfields without driving force from groundwater flow.The focusing of petroleum originating from a large area of the generative kitchens into restricted channels seems to be essential not only for long-range petroleum migration in hydrostatic conditions,but also for the formation of large oil or gas fields.The strong porosity and permeability heterogeneities of the carrier beds and the relatively high prediction accuracy by a model that does not take into consideration of the effect of heterogeneity suggest that the positions of petroleum migration pathways in heterogeneous carrier beds with relatively large dipping angles are determined primarily by the morphology of the sealing surfaces at regional scales.

  5. Global Reserve Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t GLOBAL RESERVE COOPERATION BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL PAMELA L. MCGAHA United States Army National Guard...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Reserve Cooperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...decade, the United States, its allies, and partner nations have greatly increased their reliance on Reserve Component forces. This global

  6. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  8. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  9. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  10. Assessment of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change and Landscape Patterns in the Two National Nature Reserves of Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC alters landscape patterns and affects regional ecosystems. The objective of this study was to examine LCLUC and landscape patterns in Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR and Ganjia Lake Haloxylon Forest National Nature Reserve (GLHFNNR, two biodiversity-rich national nature reserves in the Ebinur Lake Watershed (ELW, Xinjiang, China. Landsat satellite images from 1972, 1998, 2007 and 2013 were used to calculate the dynamics of a land-cover and land-use (LCLU transition matrix and landscape pattern index using ENVI 5.1 and FRAGSTATS 3.3. The results showed drastic land use modifications have occurred in ELWNNR during the past four decades. Between 1972 and 1998, 1998 and 2007, and 2007 and 2013, approximately 251.50 km2 (7.93%, 122.70 km2 (3.87%, and 195.40 km2 (6.16% of wetland were turned into salinized land. In GLHFNNR both low and medium density Haloxylon forest area declined while high density Haloxylon forest area increased. This contribution presents a method for characterizing LCLUC using one or more cross-tabulation matrices based on Sankey diagrams, demonstrating the depiction of flows of energy or materials through ecosystem network. The ecological landscape index displayed that a unique landscape patches have shrunk in size, scattered, and fragmented. It becomes a more diverse landscape. Human activities like farming were negatively correlated with the landscape diversity of wetlands. Furthermore, evidence of degraded wetlands caused by air temperature and annual precipitation, was also observed. We conclude that national and regional policies related to agriculture and water use have significantly contributed to the extensive changes; the ELWNNR and GLHFNNR are highly susceptible to LCLUC in the surrounding Ebinur Lake Watershed.

  11. Impact analysis of the methodology for estimation of porosity in petroleum reserves using Monte Carlo simulation; Analise de impactos da metodologia de estimativa da porosidade em reservas de petroleo por meio de simulacao de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Gabriel A.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Analises Geoeconomicas de Recursos Minerais]. E-mail: gabriel@ige.unicamp.br; Vidal, Alexandre C.; Suslick, Saul B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia e Recursos Naturais]. E-mails: vidal@ige.unicamp.br; suslick@ige.unicamp.br

    2006-04-15

    In many papers dealing with estimation of oil reserves, engineers usually assume that well porosity can be modeled as a Gaussian distribution, that is, under this assumption the expected value of porosity can be estimated from the average porosity values from well log and petrophysical data. But, other distributions can be used to model local porosity when Gaussian distribution cannot fit sample data. In this paper, using actual porosity data of a 3-NA-002-RJS well from the Campos Basin, it is shown that for a selected interval, the logistic distribution fits the data better than other distributions and its expected value should be used to estimate the well porosities of the entire population. In such cases, as numerical analysis shows, using arithmetic mean instead of expected value may give rise to errors. The data shows that using an average as porosity estimator will overestimate the P90 and underestimate the P10 estimates. (author)

  12. SWOT analysis - Chinese Petroleum

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  13. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  14. An archaeological reconnaissance and evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Reservation, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuVall, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    At the request of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee, an archaeological reconnaissance and evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed areas was conducted between June I and September 2, 1993. The project was conducted by Glyn D. DuVall, Principal Investigator. ORNL project representative, Peter Souza, accompanied the principal investigator during all project evaluations. The reconnaissance to assess adverse impacts to cultural resources located within the boundaries of federally licensed, permitted, funded or assisted projects was conducted in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-665; 16 USC 470; 80 Stat. 915), National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Public Law 91-190; 91 Stat. 852; 42 USC 4321-4347) and Executive Order 11593 (May 13, 1971). Based upon the reconnaissance, a search of the site files at the Tennessee Division of Archaeology and a search of the National Register of Historic Places, the proposed construction on the site will have no impact on any property included in or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places pursuant to 36 CFR 60.4. This judgement is based on the amount of prior disturbance associated with ORNL during the past 50 years. Construction in the vicinity of the New Bethel Baptist Church and Cemetery should allow sufficient buffer to avoid direct and visual impact to the property. The determination of sufficient buffer area, either distance or vegetative, should be coordinated with the Tennessee Historical Commission, Office of the State Historic Preservation Officer.

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  16. Eliminate the Army and Air Force Reserves: Building a Robust National Guard to Meet 21st Century Operational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    support operations. Placement of Aerial Spray capabilities in the Guard would allow governors to combat the growth of invasive plant species and...to the National Guard. The mission calls for the Air Force to provide around-the- clock alert teams ready to launch fighters, and other aircraft, at... biological expertise, that can be used in the case of a homeland emergency or support to civil authorities. Major General Stephen Danner, Adjutant

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. Building a community of practice for sustainability: strengthening learning and collective action of Canadian biosphere reserves through a national partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Maureen G; Godmaire, Hélène; Abernethy, Paivi; Guertin, Marc-André

    2014-12-01

    Deliberation, dialogue and systematic learning are now considered attributes of good practice for organizations seeking to advance sustainability. Yet we do not know whether organizations that span spatial scales and governance responsibilities can establish effective communities of practice to facilitate learning and action. The purpose of this paper is to generate a framework that specifies actions and processes of a community of practice designed to instill collective learning and action strategies across a multi-level, multi-partner network. The framework is then used to describe and analyze a partnership among practitioners of Canada's 16 UNESCO biosphere reserves, and additional researchers and government representatives from across Canada. The framework is a cycle of seven action steps, beginning and ending with reflecting on and evaluating present practice. It is supported by seven characteristics of collaborative environmental management that are used to gauge the success of the partnership. Our results show that the partnership successfully built trust, established shared norms and common interest, created incentives to participate, generated value in information sharing and willingness to engage, demonstrated effective flow of information, and provided leadership and facilitation. Key to success was the presence of a multi-lingual facilitator who could bridge cultural differences across regions and academia-practitioner expectations. The project succeeded in establishing common goals, setting mutual expectations and building relations of trust and respect, and co-creating knowledge. It is too soon to determine whether changes in practices that support sustainability will be maintained over the long term and without the help of an outside facilitator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New Round of Petroleum Products Price Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Background On December 18,2008,a new petroleum products pricing mechanism was carried out in China.According to the Procedure for the Administration of Oil Price(Trial)issued last month by National Development and Reform Commission,if the moving average price for crude oil in international market changes more than4% in 22 consecutive working days,the prices for gasoline and diesel in domestic market can be adjusted accordingly.

  6. Levels and spatial distribution of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in superficial sediments from the marine reserves of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano Ettore; Guerranti, Cristiana

    2013-11-15

    Surface sediments from marine reserves of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park (Italy), including remote islands not directly affected by anthropogenic influences, were analyzed for two dominant perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), namely perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), using LC-ESI-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFOS were low, with medians ranging from 0.25 to 1.50 ng/g dry wt, whereas PFOA was always below the detection limit of 0.1 ng/g dry wt. The present paper can be considered a baseline study useful in future environmental monitoring programs.

  7. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    " through the chemical space of petroleum substances. We show that the PETROTOX and PETRORISK predictions reflect changes in mass distribution introduced to selected HBs by affecting hazard and risk estimates in correspondence with what is expected based on physical-chemical properties of individual constituents in the corresponding HBs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  9. South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA: Solifugae (sun-spiders of the national parks and reserves of South Africa (Arachnida, Solifugae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA inventories are underway to determine the diversity of the South African Arachnida fauna (Dippenaar- Schoeman & Craemer 2000. Several SANSA projects are in progress, including inventories of the arachnid faunas of protected areas. One such project is an inventory of the Solifugae (sun spiders from protected areas. Meaningful conservation can not take place if the species involved are not known.

  10. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    resources and concern for the environment and other social factors so that as much as possible of the Norwegian continental shelf (Figure 1.1) can be made available to the industry in a sound manner. For several years, the Norwegian authorities have been seeking to make the continental shelf attractive to new companies which can bring know-how, capital and enthusiasm into Norwegian petroleum exploration. There are now obvious signs that this has led to great activity with regard to applications for awards and trading of shares in the licences. Both the industry and the authorities face a challenge to ensure that this also leads to the drilling of more exploration wells and more discoveries being made. Large volumes of oil and gas also remain in fields that are in production. Based on current plans, the average recovery factor for oil is expected to be 46 per cent. Continuous research and development of technology are required to raise this further. The authorities expect the companies on the Norwegian continental shelf to make a determined effort to ensure the highest possible recovery. Two years ago, the Directorate set the aim of increasing the oil reserves by five billion barrels in ten years. This target is ambitious, but in view of the current trend and the plans made by the industry for recovery from the fields, it is within reach. Great attention is centred on environmental issues, both nationally and internationally. The world is engaged on climate change and reducing the emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Focus is also being placed on the reliability of energy supplies and developing alternative sources of fuel and electricity. This places great demands on Norway as a supplier of traditional energy in the form of oil and gas. (Author). figs., tabs

  11. S.2058: This act may be cited as the Department of Energy National Security Act for Fiscal Year 1999, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, May 11, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This bill is to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 1999 for defense activities of the Department of Energy, and for other purposes. Topics addressed in the bill include DOE national security programs including recurring general provisions and program authorizations, restrictions,and limitations; defense nuclear facilities safety board; national defense stockpile; naval petroleum reserves; and Panama Canal commission.

  12. Evaluating Sources of Chemical Pathways of Aerosol Production on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and Navajo Nation using Isotopic and Geochemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. Z.; Michalski, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Increase emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) as a result of the development of oil, gas and coal resources in the Four Corners region of the United States have caused concern for area American Indian tribes that levels of ozone, acid rain, and aerosols or particulate matter (PM) may increase on reservation lands. NOx in the atmosphere plays an important role in the formation of these pollutants and high levels are indicators of poor air quality and exposure to them has been linked to a host of human health effects and environmental problems facing today's society. Nitrogen oxides are eventually oxidized in the atmosphere to form nitric acid and particulate nitrate which falls to earth's surface by way of dry or wet deposition. In the end, it is the removal of NOx from the atmosphere by chemical conversion to nitrate that halts this production of oxidants, acid, and aerosols. Despite the importance of understanding atmospheric nitrate production there remains major deficiencies in estimating the significant key reactions that transform atmospheric NOx. This project will examine the chemical composition (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and stable isotope composition (N15, O17, O18, Δ17O) of aerosols (PM2.5-PM10) collected on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and Navajo Nation to provide insight into the sources of NOx and the oxidation pathways that convert NOx into nitrate on these reservation lands.

  13. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  14. CBOS damage assessment on Pacific herring - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  15. DWH damage assessment on marine species - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  16. The accountability of the brazilian regulatory agencies: the experience of the National Petroleum Agency; O controle externo das agencias reguladoras: o caso da Agencia Nacional do Petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Borges, Heloisa Lopes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia. Grupo de Economia da Energia

    2004-07-01

    During the reform process for which passed the Brazilian Oil and Gas Industry, the academic debate was centered mostly in the sectorial restructuring process, in the contract designs and regulatory environment for the industries in change, particularly the desired attributes of its institutions. The debate tends, in the present, to converge towards the existence of different possible combinations between market structures and institutional structures (the regulators among them) that would lead to a desirable result. Thus, the various characteristics and configurations, originally appointed as necessary conditions for the success of any reform, are not dealt with such great deference anymore. The hypothesis that the existence of a independent regulator is a determinant choice for the success of structural and institutional reforms was relaxed as general rule, but there are still strong economic reasons to justify the option, adopted in Brazil. The creation of the Oil National Agency (ANP), the Brazilian regulator for the Oil and Gas Industry is a recent phenomenon. And few studies specifically approach the issue of its accountability, institutional role that in Brazil is delegated mostly, but not exclusively, to the National Court of Accounts (Tribunal de Contas da Uniao). Therefore, the objective of this work will be to discuss the different possibilities of accountability over the ANP, evaluating the paper and the functions of the TCU and the forms of external control on the Agency, pointing out the possibilities, the impediments and the challenges, as well as the economic consequences to the Natural Gas Industry of the current configuration. (author)

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  18. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia's reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-12-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  19. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede, E-mail: gwibawa@chem-eng.its.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082333 Bai Guoping(Key Laboratory for Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Education Ministry,China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249,China);Yin Jinyin Petroleum Geological Features and Explo- ration Potential Analyses of North Carnavon Basin,Australia(Petroleum Geology & Ex- periment,ISSN1001—6112,CN32—1151/ TE,29(3),2007,p.253—258,4 illus.,1 table,12 refs.)

  1. Factors Associated With Current Smoking Among Off-Reserve First Nations and Métis Youth: Results From the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Christopher; Leatherdale, Scott; Cooke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    First Nations and Métis, two of Canada's constitutionally recognized Indigenous groups, suffer from poorer overall health than non-Indigenous Canadians. Current smoking, a known predictor of chronic health conditions, is close to twice as prevalent among Indigenous youth as it is among non-Indigenous Canadian youth. However, little population-level research has examined the correlates of current smoking among this population. Guided by a health framework centered on Indigenous-specific determinants, we used data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine the correlates of current smoking among First Nations and Métis youth aged 15-17 years living outside of First Nations reserves. Using binary logistic regression, we investigated how culturally specific factors, namely knowledge of an Indigenous language, participation in traditional activities, and family members' attendance at residential schools, were correlated with current smoking. We also considered demographic, geographic, socioeconomic and health-related correlates. Overall, an estimated 20.6% of First Nations and Métis youth reported current smoking. We found no significant associations between culturally specific activities and current smoking in the multivariate analyses, although those who spoke an Indigenous language were more likely to smoke. Those who participated in sports more often were less likely to smoke, and respondents who reported heavy drinking and who were from families with lower income were more likely to smoke. Gender, body mass index, urban/rural geography and regional geography, and mother's highest level of education were not significantly correlated with smoking. The results of our study support prior research that has found a disturbingly high prevalence of current smoking among Indigenous youth, compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Our results highlight the importance of considering sports participation, co-occurring health-risk behaviours and socioeconomic

  2. Blueprint for Energy Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhenying

    2008-01-01

    @@ The government is drafting a strategic reserve blueprint to ensure energy security-the move coming close on the heels of the construction of four oil reserve bases, according to Ma Fucai, deputy director of the Office of the National Energy Leading Group.

  3. Geoscience indexing at petroleum abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnegan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Geoscience literature received by Petroleum Abstracts Information System is indexed by Scientist with field experience. The indexing consists of relating concepts produced by the author to a controlled vocabulary used at Petroleum Abstracts. The primary emphasis of selection of the literature at Petroleum Abstracts is petroleum-related, but not petroleum restricted. Geoscience literature indexed at Petroleum Abstracts comprises the following subjects: Geology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Mineral Commodities. The depth of indexing attributed to each article does in fact depend on the amount of petroleum-related subject matter in the article. Once the indexing is completed, the abstract is then cut to approximately 150 words. The scientist who indexes at Petroleum Abstracts is not expected to know or remember every detail or concept ever published. But he or she is expected to be able to go to an atlas, dictionary, or any other reference material available and apply the concepts to a controlled vocabulary. This is somewhat of a restriction on scientists, but it is the only way to maintain any kind of consistency in the indexing. Successful searching of the Petroleum Abstracts Information System can be accomplished with an understanding of the indexing strategy and the importance and necessity of referencing the thesauri controlled vocabulary. It may be more time-consuming, but will certainly be more accurate in the retrieval of the information.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  5. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  6. NCCOS National Status and Trends Bioeffects Assessment: Chemical contaminant data in the St. Thomas East End Reserves, U.S. Virgin Islands, from 2010-05-04 to 2012-06-22 (NCEI Accession 0146168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides valuable baseline data on sediment chemical contamination for the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). From...

  7. Flourishing Cause of Petroleum Diversified Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong

    1994-01-01

    @@ Petroleum industry of China is one of the large pillar industries of the national economy,and consists of a batch of large and extra-large state-owned enterprises with extensive economic scale and high economic strength. Since the founding of new China,it has risen abruptly on the ruins of past.After over 40 years of rapid development,it has formed an industrial scale of over 140 million tons/year crude oil,16 billion m3/year natural gas, and possessed the capability of crude oil processing of 20million tons/year and that of petroleum machinery products of 200 000 tons/year. It have 130 construction companies,11 direct-affiliated scientific research institutes,and1.5 million staff and workers so as to make important contributions to the socialist construction.

  8. Option to Operate a Reserve of Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urate, Kengo; Sekozawa, Teruji

    In this paper, the value generated by releasing petroleum reserves at the time of a crude oil price spike is analyzed to show the utility of releasing petroleum reserves. Japan's petroleum reserve currently only releases oil for the purpose of coping with a crude oil supply disruption. However, at present no disruptions to the supply of crude oil are occurring. To determine the value of the petroleum reserve if reserves are released when crude oil price spikes occur, option theory based on financial engineering is used to quantitatively calculate the value of a release into a market with stochastically changing prices. In addition, by examining the value that would have been generated as a function of release price if petroleum reserves had been released at the time of the crude oil price spike of 2008, it is possible to demonstrate the utility of such a release. Furthermore, input-output analysis is used to measure the impact on petrochemical product industries and other industries affected by price increases when crude oil price spikes occur to determine the degree of the price mitigation effect of a petroleum reserve with a release function.

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  10. Palaeozoic petroleum systems of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boote, D.R.D.; Traut, M.W. [Occidental Oil and Gas Corporation, Bakersfield, CA (United States); Clark-Lowes, D.D. [University of London (United Kingdom). Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

    1998-12-31

    The Palaeozoic petroleum systems of North Africa contain five large giant (> 1 billion barrels of oil equivalent) and 24 giant (> 250 million barrels of oil equivalent) oil and gas fields with total recoverable reserves discovered to date of more than 46 billion barrels of oil equivalent. This article presents a classification of these petroleum systems based upon their productivity and maturity. Productivity of each system has been estimated from the associated hydrocarbon reserves and maturity from an analysis of their geological history ranging from initial genesis to maturity, destruction and final extinction. Key factors controlling both productivity and maturity include hydrocarbon charge, style of drainage and entrapment, and intensity of post-entrapment tectonic, thermal and hydrodynamic destructive processes. The regionally extensive Lower Silurian Tanezzuft Formation is the origin of 80-90% of Palaeozic sourced hydrocarbons, with a further 10% from the Upper Devonian Frasnian shales, charging a number of intra-Palaeozoic and basal Triassic reservoirs. Triassic fluvial sands are the most important of these, hosting just over half of the total reserves, while Cambro-Ordovician and Lower Devonian F6 sandstone reservoirs are the second and third most significant, respectively. (author)

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  13. Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul

    2006-12-01

    Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.

  14. INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-IMPACTED WETLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the 1994 San Jacinto River flood and oil spill in southeast Texas, a petroleum-contaminated wetland was reserved for a long-term research program to evaluate bioremediation as a viable spill response tool. The first phase of this program, presented in this paper, evalua...

  15. INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-IMPACTED WETLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the 1994 San Jacinto River flood and oil spill in southeast Texas, a petroleum-contaminated wetland was reserved for a long-term research program to evaluate bioremediation as a viable spill response tool. The first phase of this program, presented in this paper, evalua...

  16. Petroleum software profiles: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-05-01

    Computer software for the petroleum industry developed by various consulting and oil field services companies were described. A system for mapping and analysis in real time (S.M.A.R.T.), combining advanced information technology, advanced geostatistics and high levels of 3-D graphics capability, was developed by United Oil and Gas Consulting Ltd of Calgary. It is a multi-disciplinary tool, incorporating geoscientific concepts to build a spatial earth model of reservoirs, simplifying horizontal and vertical well planning and analysis, and allowing for the incorporation of 3-D seismic structure. Another company, Schlumberger Geoquest, provides the industry with data services and software products to maximize the value of exploration and production data. Their `Geoframe` systems cover a spectrum of reservoir characterization disciplines to enable detailed interpretation and integration of data from petrophysics, geology and geophysics. Among the Goequest software solutions a number of reservoir simulators (Eclipse 100, 300, 500), well log analysis software (QLA), software for integrating solutions for rock and reserves (CADE Office), and software for well analysis applications (PA/OFM) were highlighted. Geoquest`s wide range of data processing and interpretation, reservoir pressure and flow evaluation, mapping and cartography services, and leased systems, were also reviewed.

  17. Surgical treatment of an umbilical hernia in a free-ranging sub-adult African elephant in Samburu National Reserve, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijele D

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Domnic Mijele, Michael Njoroge, Titus Kaitho Veterinary Services Department, Species Conservation and Management Division, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: A 10-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana at Samburu National Reserve in Northern Kenya, weighing approximately 1,600 kg, presented with an umbilical hernia in October 2013. Umbilical herniorrhaphy was carried out under field conditions. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using etorphine hydrochloride for 3 hours during the surgery. This case report details both the surgical and anesthetic procedure carried out to correct the hernia, and the eventual successful recovery of the elephant from anesthesia. However, the elephant died weeks after the surgery and a postmortem could not reveal the cause of death because predators had scavenged the carcass. The challenges of the surgical procedure and outcome including possible causes of death are highlighted in this report. Keywords: African elephant, general anesthesia, etorphine hydrochloride, local anesthesia Lignocaine + adrenaline, umbilical herniorrhaphy

  18. Reptiles Resources in Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve%梵净山国家自然保护区爬行动物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 冉辉; 梁琍; 沈正雄

    2011-01-01

    According to survey of reptiles resource in Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve in recent thirty years, this study showed that the reptiles in the reserve are 43 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, 3 suborders, 2 orders, accounting for 40.19% of the total number in Guizhou province. Among them, Zaocys nigromarginatus and Japalura szechwanensis are new records to Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve. The 38 species of Oriental Realm and 22 common species of both Central China and South China appear dominant over other species in this fauna. The total of 43 reptiles species in the reserve belong to the species of terrestrial wildlife which are protected by China and are beneficial or of important economic and scientific research value. In these species, 14 species are included in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals, and 2 species are ranked in CITES Appendix II, 1 species is put into CITES Appendix III. Among the 43 species, 3 species are dominant, 5 species are common, and others are rare species. Considering the reserve condition and reptiles resource status, the endangered factors and protect suggestion for the reptiles resource in the reserve are discussed.%基于近三十年来铜仁学院生物科学与化学系对梵净山国家自然保护区爬行动物资源的调查,本文报道了该保护区现已记录爬行类隶属2目3亚目10科28属43种,占贵州省爬行类种数的40.19%,其中发现2个梵净山国家自然保护区爬行类新纪录,即黑线乌梢蛇和四川攀蜥。其动物区系组成以38种东洋界种类为主,并以22种东洋界华中区与华南区共有种占明显优势。保护区内43种爬行类均属“国家保护的有益的或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的陆生野生动物”;14种被列入“中国濒危动物红皮书”;有2种被列入CITES附录Ⅱ,1种被列入CITES附录Ⅲ;有3种为优势种,5种为常见种,其余35种为稀少种。结合该区实际

  19. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  20. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)