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Sample records for national perspectives hydrogen

  1. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  2. National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and suggestions put forth by officials, industry experts and policymakers in their efforts to come together to develop a roadmap for America''s clean energy future and outline the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision. The National Hydrogen Roadmap Workshop was held April 2-3, 2002. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, The National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, which is also available online.

  3. NASA Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Ronald; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation is to provide the current status of NASA's efforts in the development of hydrogen peroxide in both mono-propellant and bi-propellant applications, consistent with the Space Launch Initiative goals of pursuing low toxicity and operationally simpler propellants for application in the architectures being considered for the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle, also known as the Space Launch Initiative, or SLI.

  4. National FCEV and Hydrogen Fueling Station Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian; Melaina, Marc

    2016-06-09

    This presentation provides a summary of the FY16 activities and accomplishments for NREL's national fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) and hydrogen fueling station scenarios project. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  5. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage - New perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Morten B.; Jepsen, Lars H.; Lee, Young-Su

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, hydrogen has been considered as a possible energy carrier for the storage of renewable energy. The main focus has been on addressing the ultimate challenge: developing an environmentally friendly successor for gasoline. This very ambitious goal has not yet been fully reached...

  6. The U.S. National Hydrogen Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunita Satyapal; Carole Read; Grace Ordaz; John Petrovic; George Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is being considered by many countries as a potential energy carrier for vehicular applications. In the United States, hydrogen-powered vehicles must possess a driving range of greater than 300 miles in order to meet customer requirements and compete effectively with other technologies. For the overall vehicular fleet, this requires that a range of 5-13 kg of hydrogen be stored on-board. The storage of such quantities of hydrogen within vehicular weight, volume, and system cost constraints is a major scientific and technological challenge. The targets for on-board hydrogen storage were established in the U.S. through the FreedomCAR and Fuel partnership, a partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and major energy companies. In order to achieve these long-term targets, the Department of Energy established a National Hydrogen Storage Project to develop the areas of metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, carbon-based and high-surface-area sorbent materials, and new hydrogen storage materials and concepts. The current status of vehicular hydrogen storage is reviewed and hydrogen storage research associated with the National Hydrogen Storage Project is discussed. (authors)

  7. Water electrolysis for hydrogen production in Brazilian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCCH/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation and distributed energy sector of Brazilian economy. Fossil fuels are polluting by carbogenic emissions from their combustion, being so co-responsible for present global warming. However, no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally non-carbogenic hydrogen production process is currently available for commercialization. There are feasible possibilities to use electrolysis as one of the main sources of hydrogen, especially thinking on combination with renewable sources of energy, mainly eolic and solar. In this work some perspectives for Brazilian energy context is presented, where electrolysis combined with renewable power source and fuel cell power generation would be a good basis to improve the distributed energy supply for remote areas, where the electricity grid is not present or is deficient. (author)

  8. PWG4 perspective on ex-vessel hydrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this perspective document is to identify the potential ex-vessel hydrogen sources and to address the question whether, considered the uncertainties associated to these sources, further investigations are required. The statement is established with reference to the needs for safety evaluation of nuclear reactors under severe accident conditions. It is recognised that the views could be different if one looks at these issues from another standpoint. Since the TMI-2 accident in 1979, there had been a large interest in the nuclear reactor safety community for studying the behaviour of hydrogen in case of a severe accident. As a result, different 'state of the art' reports were produced. Examples of these documents are NUREG/CR-1561 and EUR 14307. In particular, they identified potential hydrogen sources during accidents, including ex-vessel sources. Various ex-vessel hydrogen sources, covering a variety of physical and chemical processes, were identified. Although their precise quantification and relative importance is to be established on a case by case basis with respect to the specific reactor design of interest, general trends can be formulated. The sources to be considered are the followings: - radiolysis of water; - corrosion reactions, - reaction of urania with steam and water; - core-concrete interaction; - debris-atmosphere interaction. These sources are discussed successively. The PWG4 (CSNI's Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases) perspective on Ex-vessel Hydrogen Sources can be summarised in the following statements: 1. The issue of hydrogen sources must be considered as a whole and cannot be separated into in-vessel and ex-vessel issues. For significant sources that may not be accommodated by mitigation means associated to DBA, the uncertainty is largely dominated by the unknown extent of Zr oxidation during the in-vessel phase. 2. PWG4 notes that hydrogen production during corium quenching by water is

  9. Building the hydrogen/fuel cell industry: an EDC perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Canada has world-leading expertise in a number of hydrogen and fuel cell research segments. However, there are no guarantees that a strong research position necessarily translates into a large industry sector. The challenge facing Canada is to remain a leader in the coming years and decades as this hub of research activity evolves into an actual business sector. Many other countries are actively investing in hydrogen and fuel cell research. If these countries and their national governments are more committed than Canada to this commercial pursuit, then we will be left behind. Mr. Stothart's presentation will highlight a number of observations and recommendations regarding what is needed to build a successful hydrogen and fuel cell sector in Canada. (author)

  10. The National Center For Hydrogen And Fuel Cells. Jump-starting the hydrogen economy through research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Varlam, Mihai; Carcadea, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The research, design and implementation of hydrogen-based economy must consider each of the segments of the hydrogen energy system - production, supply, storage, conversion. The National Center for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells has the experience, expertise, facilities and instrumentation necessary to have a key role in developing any aspect of hydrogen-based economy, aiming to integrate technologies for producing and using hydrogen as an 'energy vector'. This paper presents a simulation of the applied 'learning curve' concept, NCHFC being the key element of R and D in the field in comparing the costs involved. It also presents the short and medium term research program of NCHFC, the main research and development directions being specified. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  12. NATIONAL EXAMINATION IN PERSPECTIVE OF CRITICAL PEDAGOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Kerta Adhi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors contributing to why the policy on national examination is given priority, how the policy on national examination is presented in the system of educational management, its implication andrepresentation in the system of educational management applied in Senior High School in Tabanan. The critical theories such as the theory of hegemony, the theory of social practice and the theory of management in the perspective of critical pedagogy were eclectically used in the present study. Qualitative method using the approach of cultural studies was employed. The data were collected using participatory observation, in-depth interview and documentation study. The data were validated using triangulation method and descriptive-qualitative technique. The result of the study showed that the factors contributing to why the policy on national examination was given priority were educational politics and state policy, socio-cultural and global influence. The policy on national examination was represented in the school and class management by the agents within and outside school. The implication was that there was such a coalition among the agents that all the students would pass the national examination. The process of how the national examination was undertaken and the result which appeared to be good (all the students passed turned out to be hyperreality. Therefore, it was necessary to reconstruct the national education.

  13. Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsche, W E; Hoffman, K C; Salzano, F J

    1973-06-29

    technological feasibility of a hydrogen energy system be considered now. It is of vital importance to the nation to develop some general-purpose fuel that can be Produced from a variety of domestic energy sources and reduce our dependence on imported oil.

  14. Orbital and periorbital infections: a national perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam-Dhingra, Aditya; Lander, Lina; Preciado, Diego A; Taylormoore, Jonathan; Shah, Rahul K

    2011-08-01

    To describe the epidemiologic features of pediatric orbital and periorbital infections from a national perspective and to identify predictors of surgery. Analysis of the Kids' Inpatient Database. Administrative data set. Pediatric inpatient admissions with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis of orbital cellulitis. Hospital admission, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were examined and predictors of surgical intervention were evaluated using logistic regression. A total 5440 hospital admissions was noted for pediatric orbital cellulitis; of these, 672 patients (12.4%) underwent surgical intervention. Mean length of stay for all patients was 3.8 days; 90.4% were routinely discharged. Patients who had surgery were older, with a mean (SE) age of 10.1 (0.29) years compared with 6.1 (0.10) years for nonsurgical patients (P national perspective. Predictors of surgical intervention include older age, presentation with diplopia, and hospital admission via the emergency department. Knowledge of these variables facilitates analysis of resource utilization for pediatric orbital cellulitis and can be used to optimally triage patients, ultimately reducing costs and lengths of stay while preserving quality of care.

  15. An evolutionary perspective on the immunomodulatory role of hydrogen sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers-Auty, J

    2015-11-01

    Most preclinical studies on endogenous hydrogen sulphide signalling have given little consideration to the fact that the human body contains more bacterial cells than human cells, and that evolution provides the context for all biology. Whether hydrogen sulphide is pro or anti-inflammatory is heavily debated within the literature, yet researchers have not fully considered that invasive bacteria produce hydrogen sulphide, often at levels far above the endogenous levels of the host. Here I argue that if hydrogen sulphide is an endogenous signalling molecule with immunomodulatory functions, then it must have evolved in the presence of virulent bacteria which produce hydrogen sulphide. This context leads to two competing theories about the evolution of endogenous hydrogen sulphide signalling. The detectable emission theory proposes that bacteria produce hydrogen sulphide as part of normal metabolism and hosts which evolved to detect and respond to this hydrogen sulphide would gain a selective survival advantage. This predicts that the endogenous production of hydrogen sulphide is a mechanism which amplifies the bacterial hydrogen sulphide signal. The opposing protective agent theory predicts that bacterial hydrogen sulphide is an effective defence against the bactericidal mechanisms of the host's immune response. In this case, endogenous hydrogen sulphide production is either at inconsequential levels to alter the immune response, or is involved in the inflammation resolution process. Evidence suggests that the direct interactions of hydrogen sulphide with the bactericidal mechanisms of the innate immune system are most congruent with the protective agent theory. Therefore, I argue that if hydrogen sulphide is an immunomodulatory endogenous signalling molecule its effects are most likely anti-inflammatory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen storage: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, E.; Filiou, C.; Peteves, S.D.; Veyret, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    The EU aims at establishing a sustainable energy supply, able to provide affordable and clean energy without increasing green house gas emissions. Hydrogen and fuel cells are seen by many as key energy system solutions for the 21. century, enabling clean and efficient production of power and heat from a broad range of primary energy sources. To be effective, there is a crucial need for well-coordinated research, development and deployment at European Level. The particular segment of hydrogen storage is one key element of the full hydrogen chain and it must meet a number of challenges before it is introduced into the global energy system. Regarding its energy characteristics, the gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is about three times higher than gasoline, but its energy content per volume is about a quarter. Therefore, the most significant problem for hydrogen (in particular for on-board vehicles) is to store sufficient -amounts of hydrogen. The volumetric energy density of hydrogen can be increased by compression or liquefaction which are both the most mature technologies. Still the energy required for both compression and liquefaction is one element to be properly assessed in considering the different pathways in particular for distribution. As far as on-board vehicle storage is concerned all possible options (compressed, liquid, metal hydrides and porous structures) have their own advantages and disadvantages with respect to weight, volume, energy efficiency, refuelling times, cost and safety aspects. To address these problems, long-term commitments to scientific excellence in research, coupled with co-ordination between the many different stakeholders, is required. In the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage, no single technology satisfies all of the criteria required by manufacturers and end-users, and a large number of obstacles have to be overcome. The current hydrogen storage technologies and their associated limitations/needs for improvement

  17. Principle and perspectives of hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Metz, S.J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biocatalyzed electrolysis is a novel biological hydrogen production process with the potential to efficiently convert a wide range of dissolved organic materials in wastewaters. Even substrates formerly regarded to be unsuitable for hydrogen production due to the endothermic nature of the involved

  18. Fundamental hydrogen interactions with beryllium : a magnetic fusion perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Felter, Thomas E.; Whaley, Josh A.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2012-03-01

    Increasingly, basic models such as density functional theory and molecular dynamics are being used to simulate different aspects of hydrogen recycling from plasma facing materials. These models provide valuable insight into hydrogen diffusion, trapping, and recombination from surfaces, but their validation relies on knowledge of the detailed behavior of hydrogen at an atomic scale. Despite being the first wall material for ITER, basic single crystal beryllium surfaces have been studied only sparsely from an experimental standpoint. In prior cases researchers used electron spectroscopy to examine surface reconstruction or adsorption kinetics during exposure to a hydrogen atmosphere. While valuable, these approaches lack the ability to directly detect the positioning of hydrogen on the surface. Ion beam techniques, such as low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), are two of the only experimental approaches capable of providing this information. In this study, we applied both LEIS and DRS to examine how hydrogen binds to the Be(0001) surface. Our measurements were performed using an angle-resolved ion energy spectrometer (ARIES) to probe the surface with low energy ions (500 eV - 3 keV He{sup +} and Ne{sup +}). We were able to obtain a 'scattering maps' of the crystal surface, providing insight on how low energy ions are focused along open surface channels. Once we completed a characterization of the clean surface, we dosed the sample with atomic hydrogen using a heated tungsten capillary. A distinct signal associated with adsorbed hydrogen emerged that was consistent with hydrogen residing between atom rows. To aid in the interpretation of the experimental results, we developed a computational model to simulate ion scattering at grazing incidence. For this purpose, we incorporated a simplified surface model into the Kalypso molecular dynamics code. This approach allowed us to understand how the incident ions interacted with the

  19. Present status of research on hydrogen energy and perspective of HTGR hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masuro; Akino, Norio

    2001-03-01

    A study was performed to make a clear positioning of research and development on hydrogen production systems with a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) under currently promoting at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute through a grasp of the present status of hydrogen energy, focussing on its production and utilization as an energy in future. The study made clear that introduction of safe distance concept for hydrogen fire and explosion was practicable for a HTGR hydrogen production system, including hydrogen properties and need to provide regulations applying to handle hydrogen. And also generalization of hydrogen production processes showed technical issues of the HTGR system. Hydrogen with HTGR was competitive to one with fossil fired system due to evaluation of production cost. Hydrogen is expected to be used as promising fuel of fuel cell cars in future. In addition, the study indicated that there were a large amount of energy demand alternative to high efficiency power generation and fossil fuel with nuclear energy through the structure of energy demand and supply in Japan. Assuming that hydrogen with HTGR meets all demand of fuel cell cars, an estimation would show introduction of the maximum number of about 30 HTGRs with capacity of 100 MWt from 2020 to 2030. (author)

  20. Perspectives for generation companies and the emerging hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, N.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Canadian and global power generation supply is evolving towards inclusion of emerging types of technologies for electricity production. Although much of Canadian electricity supply will continue to be derived from traditional sources in the foreseeable future the band for capital cost competitiveness is narrowing between the once clear-cut technological winners and emerging generation technologies creating opportunity for new technologies to commercialize in the market. OPG has been active in the development and commercialization of stationary high temperature fuel cells for several years. The major activity has been a partnering initiative to engineer and implement Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) demonstration installations. The relationship with SOFC developer Siemens-Westinghouse out of Pittsburgh has allowed OPG to maintain an ongoing involvement in the emerging fuel cell industry, while exploring the broader implications of this technology for the power industry business model. OPG is part of the 'Hydrogen Village Partnership'. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production, storage and delivery techniques as well as applications of hydrogen such as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. OPG maintains an active role in the demonstration of emerging technologies for a number of reasons: 1) advancing commercialization of emerging generation technologies, 2) 'hands-on' participation in the deployment of such technology in order to gather and apply market knowledge 3) Involvement in developing technology as a part of commitment to sustainable development. (author)

  1. Hydrogen infrastructure within HySA national program in South Africa: road map and specific needs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bessarabov, D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Science and Technology of South Africa developed the National Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies (HFCT) Research, Development and Innovation Strategy. The National Strategy was branded Hydrogen South Africa (HySA). HySA has been...

  2. Financing the industrial development of hydrogen - A Venture Capitalist's Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    There will be numerous opportunities to make -- and lose -- money by investing in hydrogen technology companies in the years ahead? Investors should recognize that most of these investments will take a great deal of capital and a long time to reach profitability. Companies most likely to be successful will be those that - Have identified attractive market niches where they can make money in the short term - Have a clear vision and pathway to the long term market they hope to address. (author)

  3. A Summary of the Slush Hydrogen Technology Program for the National Aero-Space Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnelis, Nancy B.; Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.; Kudlac, Maureen T.; Moran, Matthew E.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1995-01-01

    Slush hydrogen, a mixture of solid and liquid hydrogen, offers advantages of higher density (16 percent) and higher heat capacity (18 percent) than normal boiling point hydrogen. The combination of increased density and heat capacity of slush hydrogen provided a potential to decrease the gross takeoff weight of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and therefore slush hydrogen was selected as the propellant. However, no large-scale data was available on the production, transfer and tank pressure control characteristics required to use slush hydrogen as a fuel. Extensive testing has been performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center K-Site and Small Scale Hydrogen Test Facility between 1990 and the present to provide a database for the use of slush hydrogen. This paper summarizes the results of this testing.

  4. Sport clubs in Europe: A cross-national comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, C.; Hoekman, R.H.A.; Nagel, S.; Werff, H. van der

    2015-01-01

    ​This book presents an up-to-date portrait of the characteristics of sport clubs in various European countries and their role in society and the national sport system. Furthermore, it offers a cross-national comparative perspective of sport clubs in twenty European countries. Containing both

  5. Hydrogen in a global long-term perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quakernaat, J.

    1994-01-01

    For many countries, the hydrogen economy offers an operational objective for their long-term energy structure. At the end of the next century, the world will depend on the predominate use of carbon-free and carbon-neutral sources of energy, such as flow energy, energy from modern biomass, and safe nuclear energy. The direct and indirect costs involved in the use of traditional energy supplies will increase sharply in the process of time, so that the economic feasibility of a less intensive use of energy and the introduction of alternative energy supply systems will no longer be insurmountable problems. The supply and demand structures of energy will be optimally blended by the use of hydrogen and electricity, an almost ideal combination of secondary energy carriers. With these carriers, practically every centralized or decentralized, environmentally sound energy supply can be permanently maintained, both within and outside of industrialized, metropolitan areas. The economic development of developing countries will depend on the predominate use of relatively 'cheap' fossil energy carriers (coal, petroleum and natural gas), as well as on the accompanying energy supplies structures. Yet those countries as well, similar to the wealthy industrial countries, will have to start using the highly capital intensive and very energy efficient energy supply systems and energy consumption technologies. This requires innovative strategies that are aimed at compensating developing countries (temporarily) for their lack of purchasing power and knowledge infrastructure. The costs involved in the hydrogen chain are still too high, and the world energy prices are still too low for such a transfer to take place. The attention, however, will focus on drastic energy saving, decarbonization of fossil fuels, substitution to natural gas, the opening up of flow energy, biomass production, and the development of inherent, safe nuclear energy. 49 refs

  6. French perspectives for production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitart, Xavier; Yvon, Pascal; Carles, Philippe; Naour, Francois Le

    2009-01-01

    The demand for hydrogen, driven by classical applications such as fertilizers or oil refining a well as new applications (synthetic fuels, fuel cells ... ) is growing significantly. Presently, most of the hydrogen produced in the world uses methane or another fossil feedstock, which is not a sustainable option, given the limited fossil resources and need to reduce CO 2 emissions. This stimulates the need to develop alternative processes of production which do not suffer from these drawbacks. Water decomposition combined with nuclear energy appears to be an attractive option. Low temperature electrolysis, even if it is used currently for limited amounts is a mature technology which can be generalized in the near future. However, this technology, which requires about 4 kWh of electricity per Nm 3 of hydrogen produced, is energy intensive and presents a low efficiency. Therefore the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) launched an extensive research and development program in 2001 in order to investigate advanced processes which could use directly the nuclear heat and present better economic potential. In the frame of this program, high temperature steam electrolysis along with several thermochemical cycles has been extensively studied. HTSE offers the advantage of reducing the electrical energy needed by substituting thermal energy, which promises to be cheaper. The need for electricity is also greatly reduced for the leading thermochemical cycles, the iodine-sulfur and the hybrid sulfur cycles, but they require high temperatures and hence coupling to a gas cooled reactor. Therefore interest is also paid to other processes such as the copper-chlorine cycle which operates at lower temperatures and could be coupled to other generation IV nuclear systems. The technical development of these processes involved acquisition of basic thermodynamic data, optimization of flowsheets, design and test of components and lab scale experiments in the kW range. This will demonstrate

  7. Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsche, W. E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Advocates the development of a hydrogen fuel economy as an alternative to the predominately electric economy based upon nuclear plants and depleting fossil fuel supplies. Evaluates the economic and environmental benefits of hydrogen energy delivery systems in the residential and transportation sectors. (JR)

  8. Uranium for hydrogen storage applications : a materials science perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Tewell, Craig R.; Cowgill, Donald F.; Kolasinski, Robert D.

    2010-08-01

    Under appropriate conditions, uranium will form a hydride phase when exposed to molecular hydrogen. This makes it quite valuable for a variety of applications within the nuclear industry, particularly as a storage medium for tritium. However, some aspects of the U+H system have been characterized much less extensively than other common metal hydrides (particularly Pd+H), likely due to radiological concerns associated with handling. To assess the present understanding, we review the existing literature database for the uranium hydride system in this report and identify gaps in the existing knowledge. Four major areas are emphasized: {sup 3}He release from uranium tritides, the effects of surface contamination on H uptake, the kinetics of the hydride phase formation, and the thermal desorption properties. Our review of these areas is then used to outline potential avenues of future research.

  9. Hydrogen research and nuclear safety: a utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.

    1982-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper is to emphasize that research efforts need to be pursued only after the following steps have been taken: 1) identify clearly what decisions are needed; 2) develop an overall decision logic chart and identify the information required for each of the decisions; 3) distinguish confirmatory research from research needed for decision-making information; 4) recognize that an optimized mitigation system is generally not the objective, neither is minimum risk required; 5) assure that the level of studies be consistent with the risk. After having taken the above steps, the authors concluded that a deliberate and distributed ignition system is a viable solution for the hydrogen problem for certain nuclear power plants

  10. American Minorities and 'New Nation' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joan W.

    1976-01-01

    The 'Third World models' discussed in this article are, specifically the concept of 'internal colonialism' and the related idea of a 'dual economy/society' that is especially prominent in the literature on urbanization in Africa and Latin American nations.

  11. Non-carbogenic production of hydrogen by water electrolysis in Brazilian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Combustiveis Nucleares], e-mail: saliba@ipen.br; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Silva, Marco Antonio Oliveira; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCCH/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Celulas a Combustivel e Hidrogenio

    2010-03-15

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation and distributed energy sector of Brazilian economy. Fossil fuels are polluting by carbogenic emissions from their combustion, being so co-responsible for present global warming. However, no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally non-carbogenic hydrogen production process is currently available for commercialization. There are feasible possibilities to use electrolysis as on of the main sources of hydrogen, especially thinking on combination with renewable sources of energy, mainly aeolian and solar. In this work, some perspectives for Brazilian energy context is presented, where electrolysis combined with renewable power source and fuel cell power generation would be a good basis to improve the distributed energy supply for remote areas, where the electricity grid is not present or is deficient. (author)

  12. Non-carbogenic production of hydrogen by water electrolysis in Brazilian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Combustivel Nuclear], e-mail: saliba@ipen.br; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Oliveira Silva, Marco Antonio; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Hidrogenio e Celulas Combustiveis

    2009-03-15

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation and distributed energy sector of Brazilian economy. Fossil fuels are polluting by carbon emissions from their combustion, being so co-responsible for present global warming. However, no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally non-carbon hydrogen production process is currently available for commercialization. There are feasible possibilities to use electrolysis as one of the main sources of hydrogen, especially thinking on combination with renewable sources of energy, mainly aeolian and solar. In this work, some perspective for Brazilian energy context is presented, where electrolysis combined with renewable power source and fuel cell power generation would be a good basis to improve the distributed energy supply for remote ares, where the electricity grid is not present or is deficient. (author)

  13. Year-Round Schools: A National Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, James C., Jr.

    A rationale for restructuring American education through changing the school schedule is presented in this paper. The following issues are addressed: the national status of year-round education; meeting children's needs; school year calendars in Europe, Japan, and Russia; and school calendar options. Arguments for year-round schooling are that it…

  14. Oceanographic data management - A national perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.

    data is examined. The CMD acts as a 'single window' facility to inform the end-users about the national data warehouse. The issues addressed in the context of the oceanographic data management are common for other geophysical parameters as well...

  15. Development of a national center for hydrogen technology. A summary report of activities completed at the national center hydrogen technology from 2005 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Michael J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) located in Grand Forks, North Dakota, has operated the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) since 2005 under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EERC has a long history of hydrogen generation and utilization from fossil fuels, and under the NCHT Program, the EERC has accelerated its research of hydrogen generation and utilization topics. Since the NCHT's inception, the EERC has received more than $65 million in funding of hydrogen-related projects ($20 million for the NCHT project which includes federal and corporate development partner funds) involving more than 85 partners (27 with the NCHT). The NCHT project's 19 activities span a broad range of technologies that align well with the Advanced Fuels Program goals and, specifically, those described in the Hydrogen from Coal Program research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) plan. A number of projects have been completed which range from technical feasibility of several hydrogen generation and utilization technologies to public and technical education and outreach tools. Projects under the NCHT have produced hydrogen from natural gas, coal, liquid hydrocarbons, and biomass. The hydrogen or syngas generated by these processes has also been purified to transportation-grade quality in many of these instances or burned directly for power generation. Also, several activities are still undergoing research, development, demonstration, and commercialization at the NCHT. This report provides a summary overview of the projects completed in the first 5 years of the NCHT. Individual activity reports are referenced as a source of detailed information on each activity.

  16. Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology. A Summary Report of Activities Completed at the National Center for Hydrogen Technology - Year 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Michael [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) located in Grand Forks, North Dakota, has operated the National Center for Hydrogen Technology (NCHT) since 2005 under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EERC has a long history of hydrogen generation and utilization from fossil fuels, and under the NCHT Program, the EERC has accelerated its research on hydrogen generation and utilization topics. Since the NCHT's inception, the EERC has received more than $65 million in funding for hydrogen-related projects ($24 million for projects in the NCHT, which includes federal and corporate partner development funds) involving more than 85 partners (27 with the NCHT). The NCHT Program's nine activities span a broad range of technologies that align well with the Advanced Fuels Program goals and, specifically, those described in the Hydrogen from Coal Program research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) plan that refers to realistic testing of technologies at adequate scale, process intensification, and contaminant control. A number of projects have been completed that range from technical feasibility of several hydrogen generation and utilization technologies to public and technical education and outreach tools. Projects under the NCHT have produced hydrogen from natural gas, coal, liquid hydrocarbons, and biomass. The hydrogen or syngas generated by these processes has also been purified in many of these instances or burned directly for power generation. Also, several activities are still undergoing research, development, demonstration, and commercialization at the NCHT. This report provides a summary overview of the projects completed in Year 6 of the NCHT. Individual activity reports are referenced as a source of detailed information on each activity.

  17. Consensus and Difference: American Students' Perspectives on the National History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese; Lan, William

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to re-examine the consensus and difference in American students' understanding of national history, on which there were divergent research results. With three sets of questions that examined students' perspectives of the collective memory, historical significance, and credibility of historical sources, we found that…

  18. National space legislation : future perspectives for Malaysian Space Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, Che Zuhaida Binti

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the future perspectives for Malaysian space law. It aims at demonstrating the development of Malaysian outer space activities inclusive of her status with respect to United Nations space conventions and her membership of international and regional space-related organizations.

  19. The perspectives for the use of hydrogen for electricity storage considering the foreign experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blacharski Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the European Union has seen a rapid increase in installed capacity of generating units based on renewable energy sources (RES. The most significant increase in installed capacity was recorded in 2015, in wind farms and solar PV installations. One of the most serious is the volatile character of RES on a time basis. Therefore, for a further expected increase in the use of RES and their effectiveness improvements, investments are needed allowing for electricity to be stored. One of the electricity storage options is to use excess electricity in order to produce hydrogen by electrolysis of water. Although this process plays a marginal role in obtaining hydrogen on a worldwide basis due to high costs, experience in recent years has shown that periodically low (negative electricity prices, developing on the power exchanges in the situation where there is surplus electricity available, affect economic requirements for hydrogen production technologies. The paper shows activities undertaken by European countries (mainly Germany aiming at making it possible for hydrogen to be stored in the natural gas grids. A particular attention is given to material resource issues and possible operational problems that might arise while blending natural gas with hydrogen into the grid. The experiences of selected European countries are of particular interest from the Polish perspective, having regard to significant increase of RES in electricity generation during the last few years and adopted objectives for the growing importance of RES in the Poland’s energy balance.

  20. A fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach for assessing national competitiveness in the hydrogen technology sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Kon; Kim, Jong Wook [Energy Policy Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Mogi, Gento [Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Gim, Bong Jin [Department of Industrial Engineering, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea)

    2008-12-15

    As it is more environmentally sound and friendly than conventional energy technologies that emit carbon dioxide, hydrogen technology can play a key role in solving the problems caused by the greenhouse gas effect and in coping with the hydrogen economy. Numerous countries around the world, including Korea, have increasingly focused on R and D where hydrogen technology development is concerned. This paper focuses on the use of the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP), which is an extension of the AHP method and uses interval values to reflect the vagueness of human thought, to assess national competitiveness in the hydrogen technology sector. This analysis based on the AHP and fuzzy AHP methods revealed that Korea ranked 6th in terms of national competitiveness in the hydrogen technology sector. (author)

  1. French feminism: national and international perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Allwood, G; Wadia, K

    2002-01-01

    During the 1980s, the French media proclaimed the death of feminism, but although the 1970s women’s movement had demobilised, feminists were still active in issue-specific groups, in academia and within the institutions of the state. Paying careful attention to the difficulties associated with defining feminisms and national feminisms in particular, this article situates an analysis of French feminism since the 1980s in a context of growing international feminist dialogue and activism and a r...

  2. A national vision of America's transition to a hydrogen economy. To 2030 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-02-01

    This document outlines a vision for America’s energy future -- a more secure nation powered by clean, abundant hydrogen. This vision can be realized if the Nation works together to fully understand hydrogen’s potential, to develop and deploy hydrogen technologies, and to produce and deliver hydrogen energy in an affordable, safe, and convenient manner.

  3. Integration in Spain: national and regional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberte Castiñeiras, J R

    1999-03-01

    At the present moment Spanish psychopedagogical researchers are evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of integration on both a national and a regional level. As a result of two important pieces of legislation, physically and mentally handicapped people are gradually becoming more integrated in education, social life, and the work place. Consequently, both ordinary pupils and those with permanent or temporary special education needs can achieve the same objectives within the same system. Individual strategies are designed to cope with each pupil's specific needs, and each case is followed closely by a multidisciplinary team. The basic concept behind integration in Spain is a global relationship with the educational environment, which includes school, home, vocational training and ultimately work. It is not so much a case of identifying what a pupil is, but rather deciding what education can do for that particular pupil. There are, however, certain difficulties which require adaptation of the curriculum: access to educational opportunities and experiences may be affected by deficient visual, auditory or motor skills; there may be an absence of specific learning skills in certain areas of the curriculum; pupils with serious mental handicaps may lack basic cognitive skills. Spanish educational reform considers the classroom teacher as the central axis in the quality of education. For this reason, new programmes and diplomas in infant and primary teacher education include training for adaptation and integration.

  4. Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay C. Almlie; Bruce Wood; Rich Schlupp

    2007-03-01

    In November 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), ePowerSynergies, Inc. (ePSI), and Resurfice Corporation teamed to develop, produce, and demonstrate the world's first and only fuel cell-powered ice resurfacer. The goals of this project were: {sm_bullet} To educate the public on the readiness, practicality, and safety of fuel cells powered by hydrogen fuel and {sm_bullet} To establish a commercialization pathway in an early-adopter, niche market. The vehicle was developed and produced in a short 3-month span. The vehicle made its world debut at U.S. Senator Byron Dorgan's (D-ND) 2005 Hydrogen Energy Action Summit. Subsequently, the vehicle toured North America appearing at numerous public events and conferences, receiving much attention from international media outlets.

  5. Technology issues associated with fueling the national aerospace plane with slush hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Ned P.

    1988-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane is a horizontal takeoff and landing, single stage-to-orbit vehicle using hydrogen fuel. The first flights are planned for the mid 1990's. The success of this important national program requires advances in virtually every discipline associated with both airbreathing and space flight. The high heating value, cooling capacity, and combustion properties make hydrogen the fuel of choice, but low density results in a large vehicle. Both fuel cooling capacity and density are increased with the use of slush hydrogen and result in significant reductions in vehicle size. A national program to advance this technology and to find engineering solutions to the many design issues is now under way. The program uses the expertise of the cryogenics production and services industry, the instrumentation industry, universities and governments. The program will be discussed to highlight the major issues and display progress to date.

  6. A grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of hydrogen technologiess in Life Cycle Sustainability perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Mazzi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address...... using the proposed methodology, electrolysis of water technology by hydropower has been considered to be the best technology for hydrogen production according to the decision-making group....

  7. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  8. Perspectives on Europeanization of national judiciaries: old and new questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.; Jaremba, Urszula

    The aim of this article is to bring together different legal, political science and sociological perspectives addressing the problem of Europeanization of national judiciaries. In that sense, this article provides an overview of several old aspects regarding the way and extent national courts/judges...... adapted to their role of European judges. Next to that, it is looked into the manner of and reasons behind judges’ involvement in the process of EU legal integration, whereby a new research agenda is offered. For that purpose, new questions are raised and different empirical aspects are discussed...... concerning, for instance, courts compliance with EU law, the relevance of national judges’ individual profiles (knowledge, attitudes and values) but also the role of institutions (networks) and legal systems in the process of Europeanization of judges....

  9. Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M.

    1943-02-19

    A transcript is presented of a speech on the history of the development of hydrogenation of coal and tar. Apparently the talk had been accompanied by the showing of photographic slides, but none of the pictures were included with the report. In giving the history, Dr. Pier mentioned the dependence of much of the development of hydrogenation upon previous development in the related areas of ammonia and methanol syntheses, but he also pointed out several ways in which equipment appropriate for hydrogenation differed considerably from that used for ammonia and methanol. Dr. Pier discussed the difficulties encountered with residue processing, design of the reaction ovens, manufacture of ovens and preheaters, heating of reaction mixtures, development of steels, and development of compressor pumps. He described in some detail his own involvement in the development of the process. In addition, he discussed the development of methods of testing gasolines and other fuels. Also he listed some important byproducts of hydrogenation, such as phenols and polycyclic aromatics, and he discussed the formation of iso-octane fuel from the butanes arising from hydrogenation. In connection with several kinds of equipment used in hydrogenation (whose pictures were being shown), Dr. Pier gave some of the design and operating data.

  10. Nation Branding in Romania After 1989: A Cultural Semiotic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Florentina Cheregi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses four nation branding post-communist campaigns initiated by the Romanian Government, from a cultural semiotic perspective, as developed by the Tartu-Moscow-Semiotic School. In so doing, it focuses on analyzing advertising and national identity discourses inside the semiospheres. Moreover, the paper investigates how elements of neoliberal ideology are addressed in the governmental campaigns, considering the “marketization of public discourse” (Fairclough, 1993. Nation branding in post-communist Romania is a distinctive phenomena, compared to other countries, especially from Western Europe. In transition countries, nation branding is often mentioned because of the constant need to reconfigure national identity by dissociating from the communist past (Kaneva, 2012. In Romania, nation branding is also a public issue discussed in the media, connected to the ways in which the international press portrays the country or to the migrants’ actions. In this context, Romania’s nation brand represents a cultural space and the campaigns mobilize cultural symbols as systems of signs necessary for the existence and functioning of advertising discourses. Using a semiotic analysis linked to the field of cultural semiotics (Lotman, 2005/1984, this article analyzes four nation branding campaigns initiated by the Romanian Government (Romania Simply Surprising – 2004, Romania Land of Choice – 2009, Explore the Carpathian Garden – 2010, and Discover the Place Where You Feel Reborn – 2014, considering elements such as semiotic borders, dual coding and symbols. The results show that the campaigns are part of four different semiospheres, integrating discursive practices both from advertising and public diplomacy when communicating the national image to the internal (citizens or external (international audiences.

  11. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  12. Abstracts of the 1. National congress of hydrogen and sustainable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The First Argentine National Congress of Hydrogen and Sustainable Energy Sources was organized by the Instituto of Sustainable Energy and Development CNEA, in San Carlos de Bariloche, between the 8th and 10th of June of 2005. In this event 88 papers were presented in the following sessions, on these subjects: 1.-Hydrogen-Materials Interaction. 2.-Materials Damage. 3.-Production and Purification. 4.-Storage and Transportation. 5.-Fuel Cells. 6.-Prototypes and Demonstration Plants. 7.-Eolic Energy. 8.-Solar Energy. 9.-Biomass. 10.-Small Hydroelectric Plants. 11.-Other Activities. 12.-Hybrid Fuels. 13.- Reforming, Materials, Catalysis, Processes. 14.-Projections and Energy Prospective

  13. National hydrogen technology competitiveness analysis with an integrated fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS approaches: In case of hydrogen production and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongkon; Mogi, Gento

    2017-02-01

    The demand of fossil fuels, including oil, gas, and coal has been increasing with the rapid development of developing countries such as China and India. U.S., Japan, EU, and Korea have been making efforts to transfer to low carbon and green growth economics for sustainable development. And they also have been measuring to cope with climate change and the depletion of conventional fuels. Advanced nations implemented strategic energy technology development plans to lead the future energy market. Strategic energy technology development is crucial alternative to address the energy issues. This paper analyze the relative competitiveness of hydrogen energy technologies in case of hydrogen production and storage technologies from 2006 to 2010. Hydrogen energy technology is environmentally clean technology comparing with the previous conventional energy technologies and will play a key role to solve the greenhouse gas effect. Leading nations have increasingly focused on hydrogen technology R&D. This research is carried out the relative competitiveness of hydrogen energy technologies employed by an integrated fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP) and The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) approaches. We make four criteria, accounting for technological status, R&D budget, R&D human resource, and hydrogen infra. This research can be used as fundamental data for implementing national hydrogen energy R&D planning for energy policy-makers.

  14. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  15. Family joint activities in a cross-national perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntsche Emmanuel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents and children joint activities are considered to be an important factor on healthy lifestyle development throughout adolescence. This study is a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children – World Health Organization Collaborative Study (HBSC. It aims to describe family time in joint activities and to clarify the role of social and structural family profile in a cross-national perspective. Methods The research was carried out according to the methodology of the HBSC study using the anonymous standardized questionnaire. In total, 17,761 students (8,649 boys and 9,112 girls aged 13 and 15 years from 6 European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Greenland, Lithuania, Spain, and Ukraine were surveyed in the 2001–2002 school-year. The evaluation of joint family activity is based on 8 items: (1 watching TV or a video, (2 playing indoor games, (3 eating meals, (4 going for a walk, (5 going places, (6 visiting friends or relatives, (7 playing sports, (8 sitting and talking about things (chatting. Results Students from Spain and Ukraine reported spending the most time together with their families in almost all kinds of joint activities, whereas students from Greenland and Finland reported spending the least of this time. Boys were more likely than girls to be spending time together with family. Joint family activity goes into decline in age from 13 to 15 years. Variability of family time in a cross-national perspective was relatively small and related to children age category. Considering national, gender and age differences of studied population groups, we found that the distribution of joint family activities tends to be dispersed significantly by family structure (intact/restructured family and family wealth. Conclusion Our study compares children and parent joint activities in European countries and reveals differences and similarities in these patterns between countries. The findings

  16. Family joint activities in a cross-national perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Zemaitiene, Nida; Borup, Ina; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Moreno, Carmen

    2007-05-30

    Parents and children joint activities are considered to be an important factor on healthy lifestyle development throughout adolescence. This study is a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children--World Health Organization Collaborative Study (HBSC). It aims to describe family time in joint activities and to clarify the role of social and structural family profile in a cross-national perspective. The research was carried out according to the methodology of the HBSC study using the anonymous standardized questionnaire. In total, 17,761 students (8,649 boys and 9,112 girls) aged 13 and 15 years from 6 European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Greenland, Lithuania, Spain, and Ukraine) were surveyed in the 2001-2002 school-year. The evaluation of joint family activity is based on 8 items: (1) watching TV or a video, (2) playing indoor games, (3) eating meals, (4) going for a walk, (5) going places, (6) visiting friends or relatives, (7) playing sports, (8) sitting and talking about things (chatting). Students from Spain and Ukraine reported spending the most time together with their families in almost all kinds of joint activities, whereas students from Greenland and Finland reported spending the least of this time. Boys were more likely than girls to be spending time together with family. Joint family activity goes into decline in age from 13 to 15 years. Variability of family time in a cross-national perspective was relatively small and related to children age category. Considering national, gender and age differences of studied population groups, we found that the distribution of joint family activities tends to be dispersed significantly by family structure (intact/restructured family) and family wealth. Our study compares children and parent joint activities in European countries and reveals differences and similarities in these patterns between countries. The findings underline the role of family structure (intact

  17. Marché des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation The Market for Hydrogenation Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mace J. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'institut Français du Pétrole (IFP ayant acquis une grande expérience dans le domaine des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation, en particulier dans l'utilisation du nickel soluble et des catalyseurs bimétalliques à base de palladium, une étude a été effectuée pour évaluer le marché potentiel des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation intervenant dans la synthèse de quelques grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques : le cyclohexane, la cyclohexanone, les alcools oxo, le butanediol, le sorbitol, le toluylène diamine, l'hexaméthylène diamine, l'eau oxygénée et l'acide téréphtalique. Ce marché atteint pour les produits considérés 63 M$ pour 3500 t/an de catalyseurs commercialisés et représente globalement 7 % de celui des catalyseurs utilisés en pétrochimie. Les débouchés les plus importants sont ceux des catalyseurs nécessaires pour la production de toluylène diamine (14,4×10·6 $, d'hexaméthylène diamine (11,5×10·6 $ et d'eau oxygénée (11,5×10·6 $. Ces hydrogénations sont effectuées pour l'essentiel en présence de 3 métaux: le nickel, 2300 t/an, le cuivre, 680 t/an et le palladium, 560 t/an. Le nickel continue d'être utilisé en majeure partie sous forme de nickel de Raney. Le nickel soluble de I'IFP, bien qu'étant plus sensible au soufre et à l'eau, devrait pouvoir trouver des applications pour l'hydrogénation d'autres composés possédant des doubles liaisons aromatiques. Les catalyseurs au palladium s'imposent lorsque l'on recherche une sélectivité dans l'hydrogénation d'une fonction sans toucher à une autre fonction. L'exemple type est, dans la préparation de l'eau oxygénée, celui de l'hydrogénation des fonctions quinone sans toucher aux liaisons aromatiques. On the basis of the great experience gained by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP in the field of hydrogenation catalysts, especially in using soluble nickel and bimetallic palladium-base catalysts, a survey was made to assess the potential market for

  18. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  19. Perspectives on Inclusive Education with Reference to United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores inclusive education and explains the role of United Nations for imparting it to different nations. Undoubtedly, the UN and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) strive for all children to have equitable access to education as a basic human right. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) combined with the Convention…

  20. Why hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The energy consumption increase and the associated environmental risks, led to develop new energy sources. The authors present the potentialities of the hydrogen in this context of energy supply safety. They detail the today market and the perspectives, the energy sources for the hydrogen production (fossils, nuclear and renewable), the hydrogen transport, storage, distribution and conversion, the application domains, the associated risks. (A.L.B.)

  1. Perspectives on Suicide in the Army National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    emphasis on individual perceptions in rela- tion to social groups, this perspective is labeled ‘‘social cognitive.’’ Joiner’s interper- sonal theory of...egoism and anomie -generated suicide. At the same time, the risk of altruistic suicide is potentially higher, although the US military arguably lacks the...intentions after deployment. The connection between such a loss and Joiner’s46 interpersonal theory of suicide is clear, in particular among men who

  2. Slush hydrogen (SLH2) technology development for application to the National Aerospace Plane (NASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, Richard L.; Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.; Richter, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    The National Aerospae Plane (NASP) program is giving us the opportunity to reach new unique answers in a number of engineering categories. The answers are considered enhancing technology or enabling technology. Airframe materials and densified propellants are examples of enabling technology. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center has the task of providing the technology data which will be used as the basis to decide if slush hydrogen (SLH2) will be the fuel of choice for the NASP. The objectives of this NASA Lewis program are: (1) to provide, where possible, verified numerical models of fluid production, storage, transfer, and feed systems, and (2) to provide verified design criteria for other engineered aspects of SLH2 systems germane to an NASP. This program is a multiyear multimillion dollar effort. The present pursuit of the above listed objectives is multidimensional, covers a range of problem areas, works these to different levels of depth, and takes advantage of the resources available in private industry, academia, and the U.S. Government. The NASA Lewis overall program plan is summarized. The initial implementation of the plan will be unfolded and the present level of efforts in each of the resource areas will be discussed. Results already in hand will be pointed out. A description of additionally planned near-term experimental and analytical work is described.

  3. A hydrogen infrastructure - what, why, when and how - an oil industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, A.

    1999-01-01

    Shell Oil's exploration of profitable business opportunities afforded by fuel cells and by the emergence of a viable hydrogen economy is discussed. The emphasis in this paper is on the transportation sector, particularly the importance of a refueling infrastructure and the influence that consumer attitudes will have on which technological solution will gain the upper hand in hydrogen-powered vehicle development. Key issues facing the oil industry with regard to development of hydrogen as the new energy carrier are also reviewed. Methanol reformer fuel cell cars are the most likely to gain acceptability in the short term, but the probability of methanol fuel cell vehicles being replaced by gasoline or hydrogen fuelled fuel cell vehicles or be superseded by advances in internal combustion engine and after-treatment technology, are very real. Government regulations, fiscal incentives and societal pressures will be the principal determinants of development. Beyond hydrogen energy there are a number of other potentially game-changing technologies that also have to be reckoned with. Among these possibilities are lightweight vehicles, direct methanol fuel cells, new proton exchange membrane fuel cells and driverless highways

  4. A new perspective on hydrogen production by photosynthetic water-splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.; Greenbaum, E.

    1996-05-01

    Present energy systems are heavily dependent on fossil fuels. This will eventually lead to the foreseeable depletion of fossil energy resources and, according to some reports, global climate changes due to the emission of carbon dioxide. In principle, hydrogen production by biophotolysis of water can be an ideal solar energy conversion system for sustainable development of human activities in harmony with the global environment. In photosynthetic hydrogen production research, there are currently two main efforts: (1) Direct photoevolution of hydrogen and oxygen by photosynthetic water splitting using the ferredoxin/hydrogenase pathway; (2) Dark hydrogen production by fermentation of organic reserves such as starch that are generated by photosynthesis during the light period. In this chapter, the advantages and challenges of the two approaches for hydrogen production will be discussed, in relation to a new opportunity brought by our recent discovery of a new photosynthetic water-splitting reaction which, potentially, has twice the energy efficiency of conventional watersplitting via the two light reaction Z-scheme of photosynthesis.

  5. Evaluating the perspectives for hydrogen energy uptake in communities: Success criteria and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Suzanne; Mazzucchelli, Paola

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of initiatives have been supported in Europe in the hydrogen energy sector. Communities can play an important role in the adoption process of these emerging technologies: supporting pre-commercial deployment, building public acceptance, and promoting innovation clusters, all of which lay the foundations for more widespread and sustained technology deployment. Participation by communities is hinged on the perceived contribution of technology adoption to community socio-economic and energy related goals, such as, climate change mitigation, air quality improvement, creation of new industries and businesses, exploitation of abundant renewable resources, and meeting growing energy needs. Hydrogen uptake in communities therefore stands to benefit development of the hydrogen energy sector and the communities themselves. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating the potential for successful large-scale hydrogen and fuel cell technology adoption-beyond demonstration projects-within defined community frameworks. This methodology can be a valuable tool, for community decision-makers and industry stakeholders alike, to evaluate and identify opportunities for large-scale hydrogen technology adoption. Results of applying the methodology are presented for three community types: islands, cities and regions. The work in this paper reflects work done within the frame of the European Commission-funded 'Roads2HyCom' project, Work Package 3.

  6. Inorganic membranes for hydrogen production and purification: a critical review and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G Q; Diniz da Costa, J C; Duke, M; Giessler, S; Socolow, R; Williams, R H; Kreutz, T

    2007-10-15

    Hydrogen as a high-quality and clean energy carrier has attracted renewed and ever-increasing attention around the world in recent years, mainly due to developments in fuel cells and environmental pressures including climate change issues. In thermochemical processes for hydrogen production from fossil fuels, separation and purification is a critical technology. Where water-gas shift reaction is involved for converting the carbon monoxide to hydrogen, membrane reactors show great promises for shifting the equilibrium. Membranes are also important to the subsequent purification of hydrogen. For hydrogen production and purification, there are generally two classes of membranes both being inorganic: dense phase metal and metal alloys, and porous ceramic membranes. Porous ceramic membranes are normally prepared by sol-gel or hydrothermal methods, and have high stability and durability in high temperature, harsh impurity and hydrothermal environments. In particular, microporous membranes show promises in water gas shift reaction at higher temperatures. In this article, we review the recent advances in both dense phase metal and porous ceramic membranes, and compare their separation properties and performance in membrane reactor systems. The preparation, characterization and permeation of the various membranes will be presented and discussed. We also aim to examine the critical issues in these membranes with respect to the technical and economical advantages and disadvantages. Discussions will also be made on the relevance and importance of membrane technology to the new generation of zero-emission power technologies.

  7. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

    2012-04-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

  8. Fashion reporting in cross-national perspective 1955-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S.S.E. Janssen (Susanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis article aims to portray long-term developments and cross-national differences in the editorial prominence, artistic focus and international orientation of the coverage given to designer fashion by a central, intermediary agency within national, cultural fields: the journalism of art

  9. National planning in South Africa: A temporal perspective | Drewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most recent spatial planning directive in South Africa is the National Development Plan (2012), which has a diversified approach with political, social and economic goals. In the past four decades, national planning policy and directives have moved through balanced and unbalanced regional growth approaches.

  10. Hydrogen in Ti and Zr alloys: industrial perspective, failure modes and mechanistic understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, T. P.; Dye, D.; Rugg, D.

    2017-06-01

    Titanium is widely used in demanding applications, such as in aerospace. Its strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance make it well suited to highly stressed rotating components. Zirconium has a no less critical application where its low neutron capture cross section and good corrosion resistance in hot water and steam make it well suited to reactor core use, including fuel cladding and structures. The similar metallurgical behaviour of these alloy systems makes it alluring to compare and contrast their behaviour. This is rarely undertaken, mostly because the industrial and academic communities studying these alloys have little overlap. The similarities with respect to hydrogen are remarkable, albeit potentially unsurprising, and so this paper aims to provide an overview of the role hydrogen has to play through the material life cycle. This includes the relationship between alloy design and manufacturing process windows, the role of hydrogen in degradation and failure mechanisms and some of the underpinning metallurgy. The potential role of some advanced experimental and modelling techniques will also be explored to give a tentative view of potential for advances in this field in the next decade or so. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  11. A theoretical perspective of the nature of hydrogen-bond types - the atoms in molecules approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pandiyan, B. V.; Kolandaivel, P.; Deepa, Palanisamy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 12 (2014), s. 1609-1623 ISSN 0026-8976 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hydrogen bond * proton affinity * deprotanation enthalpy * atoms in molecules * chemical shift Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.720, year: 2014

  12. Eating Disorders: National Institute of Mental Health's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mark; Insel, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research, and eating disorders embody an important fraction of this burden. Although past and current research has provided important knowledge regarding the etiology, classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of…

  13. National planning in South Africa: A temporal perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    planning directive in South Africa is the National Development Plan (2012), which has a diversified approach with ... Dr Johannes Ernst Drewes, Head: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag. X6001 ... The Wales Spatial Plan (Welsh Assembly. Government ...

  14. Watershed management in the 21st Century: National perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Adams; Tom Noonan; Bruce Newton

    2000-01-01

    Watersheds will continue to be planning management units of choice during the 21st century. Historic precedent, contemporary beliefs, regulation, and broad institutional support have insured their future. Whether their use will result in more sustainable systems depends on keeping natural resource issues a high national priority, balancing competition for consumptive...

  15. A National Perspective on Women Owning Woodlands (WOW) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Emily S.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a national overview of women owning woodlands (WOW) networks and the barriers and successes they encounter. Qualitative interview data with key network leaders were used for increasing understanding of how these networks operate. Network leaders were all connected professionally, and all successful WOW networks involved…

  16. True religion and nation building: a biblical perspective | Obielosi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some have created imaginary God and are living in utopian world. Most so called Men of God seize the opportunity to loot the already wounded flock through prosperity preaching and false promises in the name of prophecies. It is the position of the researcher that authentic guidelines for quality control and nation building ...

  17. Low-temperature metallic liquid hydrogen: an ab-initio path-integral molecular dynamics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Li, Xin-Zheng; Zhang, Qianfan; Probert, Matthew; Pickard, Chris; Needs, Richard; Michaelides, Angelos; Wang, Enge

    2013-03-01

    Experiments and computer simulations have shown that the melting temperature of solid hydrogen drops with pressure above about 65 GPa, suggesting that a low temperature liquid state might exist. It has also been suggested that this liquid state might be non-molecular and metallic, although evidence for such behaviour is lacking. Using a combination of ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics and the two-phase methods, we have simulated the melting of solid hydrogen under finite temperatures. We found an atomic solid phase from 500 to 800 GPa which melts at < 200 K. Beyond this and up to pressures of 1,200 GPa a metallic atomic liquid is stable at temperatures as low as 50 K. The quantum motion of the protons is critical to the low melting temperature in this system as ab initio simulations with classical nuclei lead to a considerably higher melting temperature of ~300 K across the entire pressure range considered.

  18. Stretched hydrogen molecule from a constrained-search density-functional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valone, Steven M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Levy, Mel [DIKE UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Constrained-search density functional theory gives valuable insights into the fundamentals of density functional theory. It provides exact results and bounds on the ground- and excited-state density functionals. An important advantage of the theory is that it gives guidance in the construction of functionals. Here they engage constrained search theory to explore issues associated with the functional behavior of 'stretched bonds' in molecular hydrogen. A constrained search is performed with familiar valence bond wavefunctions ordinarily used to describe molecular hydrogen. The effective, one-electron hamiltonian is computed and compared to the corresponding uncorrelated, Hartree-Fock effective hamiltonian. Analysis of the functional suggests the need to construct different functionals for the same density and to allow a competition among these functions. As a result the correlation energy functional is composed explicitly of energy gaps from the different functionals.

  19. Financing the industrial development of hydrogen - A Venture Capitalist's Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Robert W

    2006-07-01

    There will be numerous opportunities to make -- and lose -- money by investing in hydrogen technology companies in the years ahead? Investors should recognize that most of these investments will take a great deal of capital and a long time to reach profitability. Companies most likely to be successful will be those that - Have identified attractive market niches where they can make money in the short term - Have a clear vision and pathway to the long term market they hope to address. (author)

  20. Solute's perspective on how trimethylamine oxide, urea, and guanidine hydrochloride affect water's hydrogen bonding ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Ileana M; Gai, Feng

    2012-10-18

    While the thermodynamic effects of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), urea, and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) on protein stability are well understood, the underlying mechanisms of action are less well characterized and, in some cases, even under debate. Herein, we employ the stretching vibration of two infrared (IR) reporters, i.e., nitrile (C≡N) and carbonyl (C═O), to directly probe how these cosolvents mediate the ability of water to form hydrogen bonds with the solute of interest, e.g., a peptide. Our results show that these three agents, despite having different effects on protein stability, all act to decrease the strength of the hydrogen bonds formed between water and the infrared probe. While the behavior of TMAO appears to be consistent with its protein-protecting ability, those of urea and GdnHCl are inconsistent with their role as protein denaturants. The latter is of particular interest as it provides strong evidence indicating that although urea and GdnHCl can perturb the hydrogen-bonding property of water their protein-denaturing ability does not arise from a simple indirect mechanism.

  1. Role of national labs in energy and environmental R ampersand D: An industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, N.

    1995-01-01

    The perceived role of national laboratories in energy and environmental research and development is examined from an industrial perspective. A series of tables are used to summarize issues primarily related to the automotive industry. Impacts of policy on energy, environment, society, and international competition are outlined. Advances and further needs in automotive efficiency and pollution control, and research roles for national labs and industry are also summarized. 6 tabs

  2. Rethinking Environmental Science Education from Indigenous Knowledge Perspectives: An Experience with a Dene First Nation Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Ranjan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This auto-ethnographic article explores how land-based education might challenge Western environmental science education (ESE) in an Indigenous community. This learning experience was developed from two perspectives: first, land-based educational stories from Dene First Nation community Elders, knowledge holders, teachers, and students; and…

  3. Contingent and Continuing Employment: Comparative National and Historical Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marens, Richard; Tackney, Charles T.

    This symposium focuses on the comparative impact of social institutions and labor laws on both contingent and continuing employment. Presenters will apply a wide range of analytical concepts to the history and culture of five individual nations. These concepts include a diverse set of theoretical...... approaches aimed at understanding the web of rules governing comparative industrial and employment relations around the world. The approaches include path dependence, institutional theory, historical materialism, and post-modernism. The central strength of this symposium is its comprehensive and inclusive...... wide-ranging coverage of the organizational meaning of contingent or continued employment for both formal and informal employment across a diverse group of nations, a group that includes Peru, Colombia, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States. Following the presentations, the presenters...

  4. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  5. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Pakistan: National Trends and Global Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hafeez Bhatti, Abu Bakar; Dar, Faisal Saud; Waheed, Anum; Shafique, Kashif; Sultan, Faisal; Shah, Najmul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second amongst all causes of cancer deaths globally. It is on a rise in Pakistan and might represent the most common cancer in adult males. Pakistan contributes significantly to global burden of hepatitis C, which is a known risk factor for HCC, and has one of the highest prevalence rates (>3%) in the world. In the absence of a national cancer registry and screening programs, prevalence of hepatitis and HCC only represents estimates of the real magnitude o...

  6. NATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL INITIATIVE: EVALUATION OF PERSPECTIVES OF RUSSIA'S TECHNOLOGICAL LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    N. G. Kurakova; A. N. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    There were analysed scientific-technological solutions which are suggested to be included in the National Technological Initiative «New Production technologies» (NSI-NPT). Considering that Russian President set a target to become a technological leader and conquer the noticeable niches of global products and services markets using technologies, the attention has been drawn to the fact that readiness to influence markets of high-technological products is defined by the shares of patents, recei...

  7. German Legal History: National Traditions and Transnational Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Duve

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I review select institutional and analytical traditions of Legal History in 20th century Germany, in order to put forth some recommendations for the future development of our discipline. A careful examination of the evolution of Legal History in Germany in the last twenty-five years, in particular, reveals radical transformations in the research framework: Within the study of law, there has been a shift in the internal reference points for Legal History. While the discipline is opening up to new understandings of law and to its neighboring disciplines, its institutional position at the law departments has become precarious. Research funding is being allocated in new ways and the German academic system is witnessing ever more internal differentiation. Internationally, German contributions and analytic traditions are receiving less attention and are being marginalized as new regions enter into a global dialogue on law and its history. The German tradition of research in Legal History had for long been setting benchmarks internationally; now it has to reflect upon and react to new global knowledge systems that have emerged in light of the digital revolution and the transnationalization of legal and academic systems. If legal historians in Germany accept the challenge these changing conditions pose, thrilling new intellectual and also institutional opportunities emerge. Especially the transnationalization of law and the need for a transnational legal scholarship offers fascinating perspectives for Legal History.

  8. National Language and Terminology Policies — A South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Terminology plays a pivotal role in language development and the promotion of multilingualism. This article discusses the issue of multilingualism regarding terminology policies as seen from an African perspective. Special emphasis is given to the South African situation regarding language policies and consequential terminology policies in terms of subject-oriented terminography, translation-oriented terminography and linguistic community-oriented terminography.

    OPSOMMING: Nasionale taal- en terminologiebeleid — 'n Suid-Afrikaanse perspektief. Terminologie speel 'n sleutelrol in taalontwikkeling en die bevordering van veeltaligheid. Hierdie artikel bespreek die kwessie van veeltaligheid ten opsigte van terminologiebeleid soos gesien vanuit 'n Afrikaperspektief. Spesiale klem word gelê op die Suid-Afrikaanse situasie rakende taalbeleid en die gevolglike terminologiebeleid in terme van vakgeörienteerde terminografie, vertaalgeörienteerde terminografie en taalgemeenskapgeörienteerde terminografie.

    Sleutelwoorde: MEERTALIGHEID, TAALBELEID, TAALDIVERSITEIT, TAALGEMEENSKAPGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE, TERMINOLOGIEBESTUUR, TERMINOLOGIEONTWIKKELING, VAKGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE, VERTAALGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE

  9. Viability of Hydrogen Pathways that Enhance Energy Security: A Comparison of China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Andreasen, Kristian, Peter; Sovacool, Benjamin, K.

    2014-01-01

    When designed and built properly, hydrogen energy systems can enhance energy security through technological diversification and minimizing dependence on foreign imports of energy fuels. However, hydrogen can be produced from different feedstocks according to separate pathways, and these different...... pathways create particular consequences on a nation's overall energy security. The objective of this study is to investigate the superiorities and inferiorities of hydrogen pathways from the perspective of China and Denmark, and to determine which pathways best contribute to national energy security...

  10. Consultation with First Nations stakeholders : an Alberta perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutwind, S. [Alberta Justice, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Aboriginal Law

    2005-07-01

    Aboriginal issues present risks and challenges to resource development in Alberta. This paper provided an overview of significant precedents and acts which may impact on oil and gas activities. The Constitution Act of 1982 acknowledged that existing Aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada were recognized and confirmed. In the case of R v. Sparrow, justification was established where there was a valid legislative objective, such as conservation and resource management, and a precedent was set regarding the interpretation of disputes of section 35 subsection 1 concerning legal restriction of the exercise of treaty rights, such as hunting and fishing. In R v. Badger, the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) advised that the framework applied to treaty rights as well as Aboriginal rights. The Natural Resources Transfer Agreement transferred powers over natural resources from Canada to Alberta in relation to hunting rights. Proof of rights issues were discussed in Taku River Tlingit First Nation v. Tulesequa Chief Mine Project, as well as in Haida Nation v. British Columbia, where it was concluded that an Aboriginal right need not be proven before a duty to consult arises. A review of Alberta's consultation practices was presented, as well as the Aboriginal issues and resource development initiative, which recognizes the importance of consultation with affected Aboriginal people and communities when regulatory and development activities infringe their existing treaty and other constitutional rights, such as the rights to hunt, fish and trap for food. Details of the Consultation Coordination Group were presented. A draft of the Government of Alberta's First Nations Consultation Policy on Land Management and Resource Development was also presented. tabs, figs.

  11. A National Strategy in Achieving English Communicative Ability: Globalisation Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuril Huda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The vital role of English as an instrument to speed up national development justifies substantial efforts to improve the instruction. Learners of English in Indonesia suffer from difficulties since the language environment does not support them. Compensating tha lack of environment does not support them. Compensating the lack of environmental support with good quality of English instrustion in the primary and secondary schools would need a huge budget that the Government could not afford. Therefore, the target of the efforts should be limited to a smaller but more prospective population: university students

  12. Gynaecology – Quo vadis? Situation Analysis, National and International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, S. Y.; Simoes, E.; Wallwiener, D.

    2014-01-01

    In a large and heavily networked specialty like gynaecology it is a particular challenge with regard to future status to achieve excellent patient care, research and teaching. At the same time not only hospitals but also research facilities are experiencing increasing pressure from performance and competition sides in terms of survival and further development on the clinical, scientific and economic fronts. The numerous changes, including paradigm shifts, in medicine, society, the health-care system and scientific innovations present new challenges to the specialty. This leads to questions about priority, problem areas and weaknesses as well as to new opportunities for the field and the overall question if it will be possible to meet the paradigm shifts and problems by the creation of new structures. In the light of the need for and the potential of design measures, this article presents a SWOT analysis of the specialtyʼs situation as a whole and in particular for gynaecology in German universities. One sees additional demands that add up to an expansion of the tasks. At the same time the shortage of new recruits becomes apparent. A broadening of the perspectives on womenʼs health and individualised medicine come into focus. Partial solutions include new supporting structures, capacity measurements as well as even structural options. In particular, the department structure, that is common abroad, opens an opportunity for specialisation while maintaining unity for a broader further training and strengthened research. Chances and strengths of the specialty are especially effective in coordinated and concerted activities. PMID:25568466

  13. A Solute's Perspective on How TMAO, Urea and GdnHCl Affect Water's Hydrogen Bonding Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Pazos, Ileana M.; Gai, Feng

    2012-01-01

    While the thermodynamic effects of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) on protein stability are well understood, the underlying mechanisms of action are less well characterized and, in some cases, even under debate. Herein, we employ the stretching vibration of two infrared (IR) reporters, i.e., nitrile (C≡N) and carbonyl (C=O), to directly probe how these cosolvents mediate the ability of water to form hydrogen bonds with the solute of interest, e.g., a pep...

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Pakistan: National Trends and Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Hafeez Bhatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC ranks second amongst all causes of cancer deaths globally. It is on a rise in Pakistan and might represent the most common cancer in adult males. Pakistan contributes significantly to global burden of hepatitis C, which is a known risk factor for HCC, and has one of the highest prevalence rates (>3% in the world. In the absence of a national cancer registry and screening programs, prevalence of hepatitis and HCC only represents estimates of the real magnitude of this problem. In this review, we present various aspects of HCC in Pakistan, comparing and contrasting it with the global trends in cancer care. There is a general lack of awareness regarding risk factors of HCC in Pakistani population and prevalence of hepatitis C has increased. In addition, less common risk factors are also on a rise. Majority of patients present with advanced HCC and are not eligible for definitive treatment. We have attempted to highlight issues that have a significant bearing on HCC outcome in Pakistan. A set of strategies have been put forth that can potentially help reduce incidence and improve HCC outcome on national level.

  15. The role of hydrogen in the energy transition. Development status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, Matthias; Buenger, Ulrich; Landinger, Hubert; Pschorr-Schoberer, Evi; Raksha, Tetyana; Wurster, Reinhold; Zerta, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells have great potential and are currently at the threshold of commercialization. Baden-Wuerttemberg and German companies and research institutions have created a good starting point for participating in these growth markets internationally. With dwindling fossil resources, the phasing out of nuclear energy and international targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the entire energy system is fundamentally changing and will be fully converted over the long term to renewable energy sources. While in the past chemical sources of energy dominated as the primary source of energy, in the future these will be superseded in particular by electricity as a renewable, largely fluctuating primary energy. At the same time, however, the easy storage and transportability of energy is also partially lost. An intelligent combination of electricity, gas (methane, hydrogen), heat and fuels for mobility is a prerequisite for a robust, sustainable and sustainable energy supply in Germany. The coordinated interaction between generation, transmission, distribution, storage and consumption of electrical energy enables the efficient integration of renewable energies into the energy supply system and a secure transition to the regenerative energy age. Germany needs a robust and flexible energy strategy that can provide long-term planning security for all market players. [de

  16. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 3, effects on the national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voehringer, F.; Mueller, A.

    2007-01-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the effects of the four scenarios concerning future developments in Swiss energy supply policy on the Swiss national economy. The four energy scenarios include variants entitled 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. This report presents and discusses the results of a dynamic balance model and includes an appendix that presents data on the external costs of the energy sector in Switzerland. Swiss energy scenarios are discussed in an international context and five climate-policy scenarios are developed. Effects on CO 2 emissions and energy consumption are discussed, as are socio-economic effects. The results of a so-called cross-impact analysis are discussed and the opinions of Swiss climate experts are reviewed. External costs are reviewed in a comprehensive appendix to the report

  17. Perspectives on the Science Advisor Program at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Heath, R.B.; Podlesny, A.; Channon, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Science Advisor Program which has been established at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the long term augmentation of math and science instruction in New Mexico schools. Volunteer SNL engineers and scientists team with the faculty of participating schools to enhance the teachers' abilities to capture and hold the student's scientific imagination and develop their scientific skills. This is done primarily through providing laboratory resources, training the teachers how to use those resources, and advising how to obtain them in the future. In its first year, over 140 advisors teamed with 132 schools, for average weekly contact with 500 teachers and 10,000 students. Surveys indicate a general rise in frequency and quality of hands-on science instruction, as well as teacher and student attitudes. An expanded evaluation is planned for subsequent years

  18. [Twenty years of bioethics in Mexico: development and perspectives of the National Bioethics Commission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Chávez-Guerrero, Manuel Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Bioethics in Mexico has a history that reveals the vision and ethical commitment of iconic characters in the fields of health sciences and humanities, leading to the creation of the National Bioethics Commission responsible for promoting a bioethics culture in Mexico. Its development and consolidation from the higher perspective of humanism had the aim to preserve health, life and its environment, while at the same time the bases of ethics and professional practice from different perspectives have been the building blocks of medical practice.

  19. Progress of Nuclear Hydrogen Program in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae

    2009-01-01

    To cope with dwindling fossil fuels and climate change, it is clear that a clean alternative energy that can replace fossil fuels is required. Hydrogen is considered a promising future energy solution because it is clean, abundant and storable and has a high energy density. As other advanced countries, the Korean government had established a long-term vision for transition to the hydrogen economy in 2005. One of the major challenges in establishing a hydrogen economy is how to produce massive quantities of hydrogen in a clean, safe and economical way. Among various hydrogen production methods, the massive, safe and economic production of hydrogen by water splitting using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) can provide a success path to the hydrogen economy. Particularly in Korea, where usable land is limited, the nuclear production of hydrogen is deemed a practical solution due to its high energy density. To meet the expected demand for hydrogen, the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) launched a nuclear hydrogen program in 2004 together with Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST). Then, the nuclear hydrogen key technologies development program was launched in 2006, which aims at the development and validation of key and challenging technologies required for the realization of the nuclear hydrogen production demonstration system. In 2008, Korean Atomic Energy Commission officially approved a long-term development plan of the nuclear hydrogen system technologies as in the figure below and now the nuclear hydrogen program became the national agenda. This presentation introduces the current status of nuclear hydrogen projects in Korea and the progress of the nuclear hydrogen key technologies development. Perspectives of nuclear process heat applications are also addressed

  20. Evaluation of Transitioning Management of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative to Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Park; Mike Patterson

    2009-08-01

    This report describes the current capabilities of the INL to manage the NHI, the planned increases in capability to support NHI, and the cost and schedule and strategy for developing a commercially viable hydrogen production technology for deployment with NGNP.

  1. Analytic Methods for Benchmarking Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Saur, Genevieve; Ramsden, Todd; Eichman, Joshua

    2015-05-28

    This presentation summarizes NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis work in three areas: resource potential, greenhouse gas emissions and cost of delivered energy, and influence of auxiliary revenue streams. NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis projects focus on low-­carbon and economic transportation and stationary fuel cell applications. Analysis tools developed by the lab provide insight into the degree to which bridging markets can strengthen the business case for fuel cell applications.

  2. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    This report has been prepared to provide low-income advocates and other stakeholders information on the energy burden faced by low-income customers and programs designed to alleviate that burden in various states. The report describes programs designed to lower payments, manage arrearages, weatherize and provide other energy efficiency measures, educate consumers, increase outreach to the target It discusses the costs and benefits of the population, and evaluate the programs. various options--to the degree this information is available--and describes attempts to quantify benefits that have heretofore not been quantified. The purpose of this report is to enable the low-income advocates and others to assess the options and design program most suitable for the citizens of their states or jurisdictions. It is not the authors' intent to recommend a particular course of action but, based on our broad experience in the field, to provide the information necessary for others to do so. We would be happy to answer any questions or provide further documentation on any of the material presented herein. The original edition of this report was prepared for the Utah Committee on Consumer Services, pursuant to a contract with the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC), to provide information to the Utah Low-Income Task Force established by the Utah Public Service, Commission. Attachment 1 is drawn from NCLC's 1998 Supplement to its Access to Utility Services; NCLC plans to update this list in 2001, and it will be available then from NCLC. This report has been updated by the authors for this edition.

  3. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a survey of assistance programs that public utility commissions have approved in most states to assist the low-income customers of utilities within their states. Surveys find that there is no single model of low-income assistance; rather, each state has adopted a program that meets its particular circumstances. However, while the details of programs vary considerably, they all fall within four broad categories: (1) Affordability programs, which provide direct assistance in paying energy bills; (2) Consumer protections, such as collection practices and installment billing requirements, which make it easier to pay energy bills on time; (3) Education programs, which teach consumers about prudent energy use and counsel them about budgeting; and (4) Efficiency and weatherization programs, which make investments to help consumers control their energy bills by reducing their need for energy. Programs usually include more than one of these components. All programs also include outreach and evaluation components. This report describes these options, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the economic and other benefits of utility assistance programs for low-income customers. Low-income programs help participants by lowering the fraction of their incomes devoted to energy bills (the energy burden) from a very high level. In the United States, the median household devotes only 3.8 percent of its income to electricity while a family depending on a minimum-wage earner must devote 12.1 percent to energy while facing housing cost increases all over the nation. Low-income families unable to keep up with these pressures find themselves forced to go without power at times, to move, or to forgo other necessities such as food or medicine in order to pay their electricity bills

  4. Hydrogen safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA experience with hydrogen began in the 1950s when the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) research on rocket fuels was inherited by the newly formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Initial emphasis on the use of hydrogen as a fuel for high-altitude probes, satellites, and aircraft limited the available data on hydrogen hazards to small quantities of hydrogen. NASA began to use hydrogen as the principal liquid propellant for launch vehicles and quickly determined the need for hydrogen safety documentation to support design and operational requirements. The resulting NASA approach to hydrogen safety requires a joint effort by design and safety engineering to address hydrogen hazards and develop procedures for safe operation of equipment and facilities. NASA also determined the need for rigorous training and certification programs for personnel involved with hydrogen use. NASA's current use of hydrogen is mainly for large heavy-lift vehicle propulsion, which necessitates storage of large quantities for fueling space shots and for testing. Future use will involve new applications such as thermal imaging

  5. Hydrogen Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  6. Exploring the barriers to implementing National Health Insurance in South Africa: The people's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Passchier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the challenges of implementing the proposed National Health Insurance for South Africa (SA, based on the six building blocks of the World Health Organization Health System Framework. In the context of the current SA health system, leadership, finance, workforce, technologies, information and service delivery are explored from the perspective of the people at ground level. Through considerations such as these, the universal health coverage goals of health equity, efficiency, responsiveness and financial risk protection, might be realised.

  7. Hydrogen from reformer gas a novel fuel and bridging technology: A combustion perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, P.; Checkel, M.D.; Fleck, B.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Constant-volume combustion experiments measuring laminar burning velocity are presented for combinations of methane, inert diluent and H{sub 2}/CO mixtures that would result from steam reforming of methane. The experiments illustrate the very attractive prospects of on-board steam reforming in natural gas powered vehicles that would employ exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve combustion performance and reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Laminar burning velocity in the partially reformed fuel stream can be maintained at levels similar to that of air/natural gas mixtures by increasing the prereforming of the fuel at increasing concentrations of EGR. Up to 40% dilution was tested, requiring that 53% of the methane fuel be reformed to maintain burning velocity. Calculations indicate NO{sub x} levels are similar to scenarios with unreformed fuel. The knowledge base from this and similar experiments is required to allow for the future adoption of on-board fuel reforming in IC engines. This is a critical intermediate step in introducing hydrogen as a fuel to the currently fossil-hydrocarbon oriented economy and fuel delivery infrastructure. (author)

  8. Is business strategy from a positioning and resource-based perspective relevant for national institutions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Smit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To ascertain whether business strategy is relevant for national institutions a distinction is made between private businesses and institutions as “social business units” of a country. In “social businesses” as well as in private businesses, efficiency is the desired outcome. However, in private businesses it is about sustainable competitive advantage while in institutions it is about policies to resolve the socio and economic problems that a country faces in order to increase welfare of society as a whole. The conclusion is that business strategy form the positioning and resource-based perspectives, does not apply to social businesses such as national institutions.

  9. Defining a National Web Sphere over time from the Perspectives of Collection, Technology and Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Brügger, Niels; Moesgaard, Jakob

    This paper describes a framework supporting definition of how to automatically identify national webpages outside a country’s top level domain. The framework aims at a definition that can be put into operation in order to make automatic detection of national web pages. At the same time...... the framework aims at a definition that can be reused independent of changed behaviours on the net, changes in jurisdiction and changes in technology. A crucial point in this framework is that the perspectives of collection, technology and Scholarship are present in decision making. The framework origins from...... harvests from the Danish national web archive, Netarkivet. However in both cases a definition of national webpages was needed. Thus the creation of the framework was a prerequisite for the rest of this study. Motivation of the study and framework is based on the fact that human communication activities...

  10. Infrastructure development for electrical mobility: a Nordic perspective on national and cross-national challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Antje; Iversen, Eric; Borup, Mads

    The formative EU transport policy focuses on region-wide initiatives to promote more sustainable transportation, including electrical mobility. The vow to integrate or coordinate the ongoing development of electrical mobility into a Europe-wide recharging-infrastructure confronts a number...... level. This paper studies the national cases of Norway and Denmark within the context of the seemingly homogenous Nordic region. The paper focuses on the different approaches taken at the national level to build battery electric vehicle (BEV) recharging infrastructure. Norway and Denmark provide apt......, contrasting focal points. Despite its position as a large fossil-fuel exporter and its mountainous topography, Norway exhibits high – and rapidly growing – levels of penetration of BEVs. Denmark is developing a connected nation-wide infrastructure. In both countries the integration of the existing...

  11. National Combustion Code Used To Study the Hydrogen Injector Design for Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Norris, Andrew T.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen, in the gas state, has been proposed to replace Jet-A (the fuel used for commercial jet engines) as a fuel for gas turbine combustion. For the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen only, water is the only product and the main greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, is not produced. This is an obvious benefit of using hydrogen as a fuel. The situation is not as simple when air replaces oxygen in the combustion process. (Air is mainly a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, and argon. Other components comprise a very small part of air and will not be mentioned.) At the high temperatures found in the combustion process, oxygen reacts with nitrogen, and this produces nitrogen oxide compounds, or NOx--the main component of atmospheric smog. The production of NOx depends mainly on two variables: the temperature at which combustion occurs, and the length of time that the products of combustion stay, or reside, in the combustor. Starting from a lean (excess air) air-to-fuel ratio, the goal of this research was to minimize hot zones caused by incomplete premixing and to keep the residence time short while producing a stable flame. The minimization of these two parameters will result in low- NOx hydrogen combustion.

  12. Overview of the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Bush, Brian; Penev, Michael

    2015-05-12

    This presentation provides an introduction to the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) and includes an overview of each of the three versions of H2FAST: the Web tool, the Excel spreadsheet version, and the beta version of the H2FAST Business Case Scenario tool.

  13. Decarbonization of dominant energetic regime: perspectives on economy of hydrogen in Brazil; Descarbonizacao do regime energetico dominante: perspectivas para a economia do hidrogenio no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrich, Sandra Simm [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: sandrasimm@ufpr.br; Pereira, Newton Mueller [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: newpe@ige.unicamp.br

    2011-04-15

    Fossil fuels and combustion engine constitute the dominant energy regime, which is a fact that leads to discussions related to energy security, the exhaustion of fossil sources and the need for decarbonization. Hence, the transition to milder energy options for the environment is fully justified. The option analysed in this article is to use hydrogen as an energy vector and the fuel cell as a conversion system, assuming they can influence the entire social structure and lead to the establishment of a hydrogen economy. In this way, the objective of this article is to analyse the conditions under which the current Brazilian energy regime for stationary and transportation energy supply will Incorporate the hydrogen and fuel cells technologies, based on renewable sources. To understand the national context semi-structured Interviews were carried out with the coordinators of the Brazilian road map for structuring the hydrogen economy. (author)

  14. Globalization and support for national cultural protectionism from a cross-national perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, H.; Meuleman, R.; Lubbers, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study answers the question to what extent support for national cultural protectionism differs between countries, and to what extent differences between countries are related to levels of globalization. We propose that globalization processes affect people′s support of cultural protectionism,

  15. Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Annie L.; Skelton, Norm W.

    2011-01-01

    Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.

  16. Coal and energy: a southern perspective. Regional characterization report for the National Coal Utilization Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boercker, F. D.; Davis, R. M.; Goff, F. G.; Olson, J. S.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1977-08-01

    This publication is the first of several reports to be produced for the National Coal Utilization Assessment, a program sponsored by the Assistant Administrator for Environment and Safety through the Division of Technology Overview of ERDA. The purpose of the report is to present the state and regional perspective on energy-related issues, especially those concerning coal production and utilization for 12 southern states. This report compiles information on the present status of: (1) state government infrastructure that deals with energy problems; (2) the balance between energy consumption and energy production; (3) the distribution of proved reserves of various mineral energy resources; (4) the major characteristics of the population; (5) the important features of the environment; and (6) the major constraints to increased coal production and utilization as perceived by the states and regional agencies. Many energy-related characteristics described vary significantly from state to state within the region. Regional and national generalizations obscure these important local variations. The report provides the state and regional perspective on energy issues so that these issues may be considered objectively and incorporated into the National Coal Utilization Assessment. This Assessment is designed to provide useful outputs for national, regional, and local energy planners.

  17. Some aspects of hydrogen as a long-term energy carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quakernaat, J.; De Jong, K.P.; Van Wechem, H.M.H.; Okken, P.A.; Lako, P.; Ybema, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier received extensive and worldwide attention some ten to fifteen years ago. The developments in the energy market since then have reduced the interest in hydrogen. However, the increased concern for the environment and new technical options have brought hydrogen to the centre of attention once again. These considerations led to the organization of the National Hydrogen Seminar, held on 19 November 1993 at ECN, Petten, Netherlands. Eight experts in the field of hydrogen illustrated the possibilities and prospects of the production, storage and use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. In this report three of these contributions are presented, for which separate abstracts have been prepared. The first paper is on hydrogen in a global long-term perspective, in the second paper carbon is considered as a hydrogen carrier or as a disappearing skeleton, and in the third paper attention is paid to the cost effective integration of hydrogen in energy systems with CO 2 constraints

  18. Econometric analysis of the R and D performance in the national hydrogen energy technology development for measuring relative efficiency: The fuzzy AHP/DEA integrated model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Kon; Kim, Jong Wook [Energy Policy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Mogi, Gento [Department of Technology management for innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Lee, Sang Kon [PNU-IFAM Joint Research Center, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-Dong, Kumjeong-Gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Hui, K.S. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (China)

    2010-03-15

    Hydrogen energy technology can be one of the best key players related to the sector of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the hydrogen economy. Comparing to other technologies, hydrogen energy technology is more environmentally sound and friendly energy technology and has great potential as a future dominant energy carrier. Advanced nations including Korea have been focusing on the development of hydrogen energy technology R and D for the sustainable development and low carbon green society. In this paper, we applied the integrated fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP) and the data envelopment analysis (DEA) for measuring the relative efficiency of the R and D performance in the national hydrogen energy technology development. On the first stage, the fuzzy AHP effectively reflects the vagueness of human thought. On the second stage, the DEA approach measures the relative efficiency of the national R and D performance in the sector of hydrogen energy technology development with economic viewpoints. The efficiency score can be the fundamental data for policymakers for the well focused R and D planning. (author)

  19. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  20. Change Interventions of the Ministry of National Education: An Evaluation from an Organizational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kılıçoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Change movements in the Turkish education system have been ongoing since the first years of the Republic. It is clear that restructuring the Ministry of National Education through enacted regulations has moved the current state of the Turkish education system to a different position. In this study, change interventions of the Ministry of National Education are aimed to be examined and the theoretical foundations of these movements are intended to be revealed regarding the organizational theories. This study is designed as a qualitative study in which document analysis is utilized. Government policy documents like laws, legislations, regulations, notices, and decrees enacted between the years of 2009 and 2014 in Turkey are used as data source. By means of examining the conducted changes, this study is thought to present a holistic perspective about the future of the Turkish education system and the tenor in the change initiatives.

  1. Why hydrogen; Pourquoi l'hydrogene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy consumption increase and the associated environmental risks, led to develop new energy sources. The authors present the potentialities of the hydrogen in this context of energy supply safety. They detail the today market and the perspectives, the energy sources for the hydrogen production (fossils, nuclear and renewable), the hydrogen transport, storage, distribution and conversion, the application domains, the associated risks. (A.L.B.)

  2. Family migration in a cross-national perspective: The importance of institutional and cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vidal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Migration rates of dual-earner couples are lower than those of male-breadwinner couples. We revisit this issue using a cross-national comparative perspective and examine heterogeneity in the role of female employment in couple relocations. We propose a theoretical framework in which national levels of support for female employment and normative expectations about gender roles act as moderators of the relationship between couple type (i.e., dual-earner and male-breadwinner and family migration. Methods: We deploy discrete-time event history analyses of harmonised longitudinal data from four large-scale datasets from Australia, Britain, Germany, and Sweden, covering the 1992-2011 period. Results: Consistent with prior research, we find that male-breadwinner couples migrate more often than dual-earner couples in all countries, suggesting that traditional gender structures affecting family migration operate across very different contexts. We also find cross-country differences in the estimated effects of different sorts of absolute and relative partner resources on family migration. Conclusions: We take our results as preliminary evidence that national contexts can serve as moderators of the relationship between within-couple employment arrangements and family migration decisions. Contribution: Our study contributes to family migration literature by illustrating how cross-national comparisons are a valuable methodological approach to put prevailing micro-level explanations of the relationship between female employment and family migration in context.

  3. Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in French Hospitals in 2014 From the National Health Insurance Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Soline; Blein, Cécile; Andremont, Antoine; Bandinelli, Pierre-Alain; Galvain, Thibaut

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the hospital stays of patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and to measure the hospitalization costs of CDI (as primary and secondary diagnoses) from the French national health insurance perspective DESIGN Burden of illness study SETTING All acute-care hospitals in France METHODS Data were extracted from the French national hospitalization database (PMSI) for patients covered by the national health insurance scheme in 2014. Hospitalizations were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, 10 th revision (ICD-10) code for CDI. Hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis or the secondary diagnosis (comorbidity) were studied for the following parameters: patient sociodemographic characteristics, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and related costs. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed on stays with CDI as the secondary diagnosis to assess the impact of CDI on the LOS and costs. RESULTS Overall, 5,834 hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis were included in this study. The total national insurance costs were €30.7 million (US $33,677,439), and the mean cost per hospital stay was €5,267±€3,645 (US $5,777±$3,998). In total, 10,265 stays were reported with CDI as the secondary diagnosis. The total national insurance additional costs attributable to CDI were estimated to be €85 million (US $93,243,725), and the mean additional cost attributable to CDI per hospital stay was €8,295±€17,163, median, €4,797 (US $9,099±$8,827; median, $5,262). CONCLUSION CDI has a high clinical and economic burden in the hospital, and it represents a major cost for national health insurance. When detected as a comorbidity, CDI was significantly associated with increased LOS and economic burden. Preventive approaches should be implemented to avoid CDIs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:906-911.

  4. Conference on researches and industrial outlooks on fuel cell and hydrogen; Recherches et perspectives industrielles sur la pile a combustible et l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference aimed at presenting a panorama concerning the research and development of fuel cells and hydrogen and the associated regulation landscape. The first sessions concerned the industrial offer: the strategic advantages as a vehicle fuel, the equipment and the technology, the micro-cell. The second part of the conference concerned the society demand, the difficulties and the research and development programs: the parliamentary offer for the scientific and technological choices evaluation, the energy vector choice, the experiments in particular in Germany, the regulations. (A.L.B.)

  5. Marché des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation The Market for Hydrogenation Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Mace J. M.; Torck B.

    2006-01-01

    L'institut Français du Pétrole (IFP) ayant acquis une grande expérience dans le domaine des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation, en particulier dans l'utilisation du nickel soluble et des catalyseurs bimétalliques à base de palladium, une étude a été effectuée pour évaluer le marché potentiel des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation intervenant dans la synthèse de quelques grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques : le cyclohexane, la cyclohexanone, les alcools oxo, le butanediol, le sorbitol, le toluylène diamine...

  6. Human factors in telemanipulation: Perspectives from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel at the Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have extensive experience designing, building, and operating teleoperators for a variety of settings, including space, battlefields, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and hazardous waste retrieval. In the course of the last decade and a half, the RPSD designed, built, and operated 4 telemanipulators (M-2, ASM, LTM, CESAR arm) and operated another half dozen (M-8, Model 50, TOS SM-229, RM-10, PaR 5000, BilArm 83A). During this period, human factors professionals have been closely integrated with RPSD design teams, investigating telemanipulator feedback and feed forward, designing cockpits and control rooms, training users and designers, and helping to develop performance specifications for telemanipulators. This paper presents a brief review of this and other work, with an aim towards providing perspectives on some of the human factors aspects of telemanipulation. The first section of the paper examines user tasks during supervisory control and discusses how telemanipulator responsiveness determines the appropriate control metaphor for continuous manual control. The second section provides an ecological perspective on telemanipulator feedback and feed-forward. The third section briefly describes the RPSD control room design approach and how design projects often serve as systems integrators

  7. Human factors in telemanipulation: Perspectives from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel at the Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have extensive experience designing, building, and operating teleoperators for a variety of settings, including space, battlefields, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and hazardous waste retrieval. In the course of the last decade and a half, the RPSD designed, built, and operated 4 telemanipulators (M-2, ASM, LTM, CESAR arm) and operated another half dozen (M-8, Model 50, TOS SM-229, RM-10, PaR 5000, BilArm 83A). During this period, human factors professionals have been closely integrated with RPSD design teams, investigating telemanipulator feedback and feed forward, designing cockpits and control rooms, training users and designers, and helping to develop performance specifications for telemanipulators. This paper presents a brief review of this and other work, with an aim towards providing perspectives on some of the human factors aspects of telemanipulation. The first section of the paper examines user tasks during supervisory control and discusses how telemanipulator responsiveness determines the appropriate control metaphor for continuous manual control. The second section provides an ecological perspective on telemanipulator feedback and feed-forward. The third section briefly describes the RPSD control room design approach and how design projects often serve as systems integrators.

  8. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel Economy Testing at the U.S. EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (SAE Paper 2004-01-2900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...

  9. Lessons Learned in Afghanistan: A Multi-national Military Mental Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall C. Nedegaard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available America has been at war for almost 10 years. Because of this, continuing missions in the Middle East require the support and cooperation of our allied North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO forces from around the world. In this paper we provide an overview of the mission at Kandahar Air Field (KAF and the Multi-National Role 3 hospital located at KAF. Next, we explain the mental health capabilities and unique perspectives among our teammates from Canada, Great Britain, and the United States to include a discussion of the relevant cross-cultural differences between us. Within this framework we also provide an overview of the mental health clientele seen at KAF during the period of April 2009 through September 2009. Finally, we discuss the successes, limitations, and lessons learned during our deployment to Kandahar, Afghanistan.

  10. Evaluating a national science and technology program using the human capital and relational asset perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Liang; Chou, Jerome Chih-Lung; Roan, Hung-Wei

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of the National Science and Technology Program (NSTP) by targeting the Taiwan National Telecommunication Program (NTP) initiated in 1998. The Taiwan telecommunications industry has prospered, currently occupying key positions in global markets even though NTP seldom contributes positively to patent citation performance. Hence, the authors of this study investigate the qualitative perspective of intellectual capital rather than quantitative technological indices. The current study focuses on both human capital and relational assets through surveys of 53 principal investigators of NTP projects and 63 industrial R&D managers of telecommunications corporations in the Taiwan market. Results show that NSTP member quality and the flow of employment are good indicators of human capital and that both perform better than the middle value in the case of Taiwan NTP. In addition, we find that industrial participants are more likely to share R&D resources than other academic researchers with higher intention of co-publishing, co-funding, and sharing equipment and facilities. The industrial NTP participants also have higher expectations regarding achieving advanced technology breakthroughs in contrast to non-NTP industrial interviewees. Moreover, industrial participants with greater industry-university cooperation intensity indeed obtain a particular advantage, that is, greater knowledge acquisition from other fields related to the effect of knowledge spillovers through the particular NSTP linkage. Accordingly, from the perspectives of human capital and relational assets, the authors conclude by articulating the importance of absorptive capacity resulting from good human capital and knowledge spillover contributed by relational assets within governmental technology policy and NSTP programming. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 2009 Human Factors and Roadway Safety Workshop : National Perspectives on Safety [SD .WMV (720x480/29fps/227.0 MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-05

    Iowa Department of Transportation Research and Technology Bureau video presentation from the 2009 human factors and roadway safety workshop session titled: National Perspectives on Safety : Essie Wagner, program analyst, National Highway Traffic Safe...

  12. Economic Integration and National Identity in Northeast Asia: A European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pape

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Asian Paradox” in the Northeast of the continent appears to be particularly evident if seen through European eyes. While one of the tightest networks of intra-regional trade binds the economies of China, Taiwan, Korea and Japan, their political leaders hardly ever connect with each other in substantive exchanges. Cold images of frozen faces and of an “icy lady” seem to contrast with the warm embraces that businesspeople enjoy after successful deals over borders. However, is this the view only in the eyes of the European beholder, who is used to the myriad of regular institutionalised meetings at all political and bureaucratic levels of the EU? Northeast Asia comprises two of the three biggest national economies in the world and on the basis of its interdependence flourishes economically – with the exception of Japan – with GDP growth-rates above OECD average. At the same time, in view of unresolved historical legacies their leading politicians still feel forced to keep frozen faces because of voters’ gazes of self-instilled nationalisms back home. Homogeneous cultures of Confucianism and shame rather than guilt, notably on the islands and the peninsula, maintain a very high level of national identity, in spite of a growing awareness of economic interdependence and globalisation that even conservative schoolbooks and dominant mainstream media cannot refute anymore. Nevertheless, fledgeling attempts to facilitate the flow of goods and services across national borders through bilateral and plurilateral free trade agreements seem to advance, albeit only slowly. China, Japan and South Korea have managed to institutionalise at the level of rotating ambassadors at the tri-lateral secretariat in Seoul some forms of cooperation. “Hot-lines” of emergency communications have been installed at the highest level to fend off sudden misunderstandings related to still looming territorial disputes. This paper will explore the above issues

  13. Canada's experience in applying C&I to measure progress towards SFM - perspectives from the National, Regional and local levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Hall; S. R. J. Bridge; Brian D. Haddon

    2006-01-01

    This paper will provide perspectives of Canada’s experiences in applying Criteria and Indicators (C&I) to measure progress towards Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) at the National, Regional (Provincial) and local levels. SFM is rooted in Bruntland’s concept of Sustainable Development and is about providing for present forest-based needs without compromising...

  14. South Africa [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    South Africa has only small deposits of oil and natural gas and relies on coal production for most of its energy needs. South Africa's economy is structured around large scale, energy-intensive mining and primary minerals industries having a high commercial primary energy intensity. The supply of primary energy in 2007 was 128 Mtoe at a growth rate of 4.4 %/a. The main shares were given by coal (68%), crude oil (19%), renewables (8%), nuclear (3%) and natural gas (2%). South Africa accounts for a major fraction of the CO 2 emissions of the whole continent. Due to its large coal deposits, South Africa is one of the cheapest electricity suppliers in the world. The main reason is its coal based power generating capacity, whose share is 79% (of ∼40 GW(e)), followed by crude oil (10%), renewables (6%), nuclear (3%) and natural gas (2%). Eskom Holdings Ltd, the State owned power utility that supplies 95% of South Africa's electricity, is planning to increase the current generation capacity of 40 GW by 4%/a to 80 GW by 2025. The power supply crisis in January 2008, which forced shutdowns at mines, has accelerated recognition of the need to diversify the energy mix, such as with nuclear power and natural gas, as well as various forms of renewable energy. Starting in 1984, the national utility ESKOM has been successfully operating the Koeberg nuclear power station consisting of two 900 MW(e) PWR units which generated ∼6.5% of the electricity needs. In addition, ESKOM has been pursuing the project of modular HTGRs for electricity production to meet the demand of its growing economy. In 2007-2008, the demand for electricity in South Africa started to exceed supply when the economy was growing and, at the same time, existing plants went out for maintenance. As a result, ESKOM and the South African Government decided to request proposals for new nuclear capacity and to expand the nuclear component in the energy supply mix of the country. In the strategic plan for the

  15. Decentralization's impact on the health workforce: Perspectives of managers, workers and national leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen-Aitken, Riitta-Liisa

    2004-05-14

    Designers and implementers of decentralization and other reform measures have focused much attention on financial and structural reform measures, but ignored their human resource implications. Concern is mounting about the impact that the reallocation of roles and responsibilities has had on the health workforce and its management, but the experiences and lessons of different countries have not been widely shared. This paper examines evidence from published literature on decentralization's impact on the demand side of the human resource equation, as well as the factors that have contributed to the impact. The elements that make such an impact analysis exceptionally complex are identified. They include the mode of decentralization that a country is implementing, the level of responsibility for the salary budget and pay determination, and the civil service status of transferred health workers.The main body of the paper is devoted to examining decentralization's impact on human resource issues from three different perspectives: that of local health managers, health workers themselves, and national health leaders. These three groups have different concerns in the human resource realm, and consequently, have been differently affected by decentralization processes. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding three key concerns that national authorities and international agencies should give prompt attention to. They are (1) defining the essential human resource policy, planning and management skills for national human resource managers who work in decentralized countries, and developing training programs to equip them with such skills; (2) supporting research that focuses on improving the knowledge base of how different modes of decentralization impact on staffing equity; and (3) identifying factors that most critically influence health worker motivation and performance under decentralization, and documenting the most cost-effective best practices to improve them

  16. Decentralization's impact on the health workforce: Perspectives of managers, workers and national leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolehmainen-Aitken Riitta-Liisa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Designers and implementers of decentralization and other reform measures have focused much attention on financial and structural reform measures, but ignored their human resource implications. Concern is mounting about the impact that the reallocation of roles and responsibilities has had on the health workforce and its management, but the experiences and lessons of different countries have not been widely shared. This paper examines evidence from published literature on decentralization's impact on the demand side of the human resource equation, as well as the factors that have contributed to the impact. The elements that make such an impact analysis exceptionally complex are identified. They include the mode of decentralization that a country is implementing, the level of responsibility for the salary budget and pay determination, and the civil service status of transferred health workers. The main body of the paper is devoted to examining decentralization's impact on human resource issues from three different perspectives: that of local health managers, health workers themselves, and national health leaders. These three groups have different concerns in the human resource realm, and consequently, have been differently affected by decentralization processes. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding three key concerns that national authorities and international agencies should give prompt attention to. They are (1 defining the essential human resource policy, planning and management skills for national human resource managers who work in decentralized countries, and developing training programs to equip them with such skills; (2 supporting research that focuses on improving the knowledge base of how different modes of decentralization impact on staffing equity; and (3 identifying factors that most critically influence health worker motivation and performance under decentralization, and documenting the most cost-effective best

  17. Human perspectives and conservation of grizzly bears in Banff National Park, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Emily C; Rutherford, Murray B; Gibeau, Michael L

    2012-06-01

    Some conservation initiatives provoke intense conflict among stakeholders. The need for action, the nature of the conservation measures, and the effects of these measures on human interests may be disputed. Tools are needed to depolarize such situations, foster understanding of the perspectives of people involved, and find common ground. We used Q methodology to explore stakeholders' perspectives on conservation and management of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in Banff National Park and the Bow River watershed of Alberta, Canada. Twenty-nine stakeholders participated in the study, including local residents, scientists, agency employees, and representatives of nongovernmental conservation organizations and other interest groups. Participants rank ordered a set of statements to express their opinions on the problems of grizzly bear management (I-IV) and a second set of statements on possible solutions to the problems (A-C). Factor analysis revealed that participants held 4 distinct views of the problems: individuals associated with factor I emphasized deficiencies in goals and plans; those associated with factor II believed that problems had been exaggerated; those associated with factor III blamed institutional flaws such as disjointed management and inadequate resources; and individuals associated with factor IV blamed politicized decision making. There were 3 distinct views about the best solutions to the problems: individuals associated with factor A called for increased conservation efforts; those associated with factor B wanted reforms in decision-making processes; and individuals associated with factor C supported active landscape management. We connected people's definitions of the problem with their preferred solutions to form 5 overall problem narratives espoused by groups in the study: the problem is deficient goals and plans, the solution is to prioritize conservation efforts (planning-oriented conservation advocates); the problem is flawed

  18. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Developmental mechanisms: putting genes in their place. STUART A NEWMAN. Department of Cell Biology ... effects, multifactoriality and func- tional redundancy of gene action in the determination of. Perspectives .... The vertebrate seg- mental plate becomes sequentially partitioned into paired somites by a process that ...

  19. Perspective d'avenir du marché de l'hydrogène Future Outlook of the Hydrogen Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozmen S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'hydrogène qui avait été jusqu'à présent produit à partir des hydrocarbures pour des usages chimiques devra dans les années futures, trouver un marché nouveau qui sera foncfion du développement des centrales nucléaires. Par utilisation de l'énergie électrique ou thermique disponible aux heures creuses, la décomposition de l'eau par voie électrolytique ou thermique (cycle d'oxydoréduction produirait l'hydrogène; gaz stockable et transportable. En plus de la consommation de l'hydrogène pour usage chimique-fabrication du méthanol, de l'ammoniac, hydrotraitement des fractions pétrolières, la métallurgie,... dont l'importance va croître, on envisage l'emploi de l'hydrogène comme véhicule d'énergie. Up to now, hydrogen has been produced from hydrocarbons for chemical uses. In the future, if will have to find a new market for itself which will depend on the development of nucleor power plants. Through the use of electric or thermal energy available during off-peak hours, water decomposition by electrolic or thermal methods (redox cycle could produce hydrogen, a storable and transportable gas. In addition to hydrogen consumption for chemical uses (manufacturing methanol, ammonia, hydrotreating petroleum fractions, metallurgy, etc. which will become greater, plans are being drawn up to use hydrogen as a vehicle for energy.

  20. Challenges of OSCE national board exam in Iran from participants’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadzadeh, Ali; Ravanshad, Yalda; Makarem, Abass; Azarfar, Anoush; Ravanshad, Sahar; Aval, Shapour Badiee; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Alizadeh, Anahita

    2017-01-01

    Background The national board exam for residents in Iran is held in two parts: Multiple-choice and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The OSCE is a suitable method for evaluation of residents’ clinical qualifications. However, it requires experienced human resources, accurate planning, facilities and reliable evaluation tools. Objective To determine the challenges of the OSCE National Board Exam in Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on all the final-year pediatrics and gynecology residents of Mashhad University of Medical Science, who participated in the board exam in September 2014. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the residents’ opinion on challenges of the OSCE. Data was analyzed with SPSS16. We used U Mann–Whitney test independent t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Fourteen pediatrics and eleven gynecology residents participated. In the gynecology group, there was no significant statistical correlation between the individual marks and questionnaire scores. However, in the pediatrics group, there was a significant correlation (p=0.046, r=−0.763). Based on pediatrics residents’ perspective, the main challenge of the OSCE part of the exam was the imbalance and disproportion between the allowed time and the task load in each exam stage. In other words, they believed that the tasks could not be fulfilled in the given time. In the gynecology group, the main challenge reported was the delay in announcing the exam results. In the pediatrics group, the main complaint was the disproportion of the allowed time and the task load in the exam stages. Conclusion Some of the challenges of the board exam were associated with the examiners and the exam environment, and some of them were related to the home university where the candidates had studied. To solve the problems, both aspects should be considered. PMID:28607655

  1. Challenges of OSCE national board exam in Iran from participants' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadzadeh, Ali; Ravanshad, Yalda; Makarem, Abass; Azarfar, Anoush; Ravanshad, Sahar; Aval, Shapour Badiee; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Alizadeh, Anahita

    2017-04-01

    The national board exam for residents in Iran is held in two parts: Multiple-choice and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The OSCE is a suitable method for evaluation of residents' clinical qualifications. However, it requires experienced human resources, accurate planning, facilities and reliable evaluation tools. To determine the challenges of the OSCE National Board Exam in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on all the final-year pediatrics and gynecology residents of Mashhad University of Medical Science, who participated in the board exam in September 2014. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the residents' opinion on challenges of the OSCE. Data was analyzed with SPSS16. We used U Mann-Whitney test independent t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Fourteen pediatrics and eleven gynecology residents participated. In the gynecology group, there was no significant statistical correlation between the individual marks and questionnaire scores. However, in the pediatrics group, there was a significant correlation (p=0.046, r=-0.763). Based on pediatrics residents' perspective, the main challenge of the OSCE part of the exam was the imbalance and disproportion between the allowed time and the task load in each exam stage. In other words, they believed that the tasks could not be fulfilled in the given time. In the gynecology group, the main challenge reported was the delay in announcing the exam results. In the pediatrics group, the main complaint was the disproportion of the allowed time and the task load in the exam stages. Some of the challenges of the board exam were associated with the examiners and the exam environment, and some of them were related to the home university where the candidates had studied. To solve the problems, both aspects should be considered.

  2. Profiles in chemistry: a historical perspective on the national organic symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Edward E; Myers, Brian J

    2013-06-21

    This perspective delineates the history of the National Organic Chemistry Symposium (NOS) and, in doing so, traces the development of organic chemistry over the past 88 years. The NOS is the premier event sponsored by the ACS Division of Organic Chemistry (ORGN) and has been held in odd-numbered years since 1925, with the exceptions of 1943 and 1945. During the 42 symposia, 332 chemists have given 549 plenary lectures. The role the NOS played in the launch of The Journal of Organic Chemistry and Organic Reactions and the initiation of the Roger Adams Award are discussed. Representative examples highlighting the chemistry presented in each era are described, and the evolution of the field is examined by assigning each NOS talk to one of seven subdisciplines and analyzing how the number of talks in each subdiscipline has changed over time. Comparisons of the demographics of speakers, attendees, and ORGN members are made, and superlatives are noted. Personal interest stories of the speakers are discussed, along with the relationships among them, especially their academic lineage. Logistical aspects of the NOS and their historical trends are reviewed. Finally, the human side of science is examined, where over the past century, the NOS has been intertwined with some of the most heated debates in organic chemistry. Conflicts and controversies involving free radicals, reaction mechanisms, and nonclassical carbocations are discussed.

  3. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to...

  4. Cloud-based services users and trust issues : a comparative study of gender and national culture perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Kandel, Chetan

    2017-01-01

    Cloud-based services are becoming increasingly popular for different purposes such as data storage, application deployment, testing and development, data backup and other such purposes which may include very sensitive and confidential data. Several articles related to cloud services have been published. However, none of them have studied cloud-based services usage and trust issues in cloud-based services from gender and national-culture perspectives. Since sensitive data are stored in the clo...

  5. The use of medication against attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark: a drug use study from a national perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Bjerregaard, Bine Kjøller; Glintborg, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to characterize the utilization of medication against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Denmark between 1995 and 2011 from a national perspective, by using population-based prescription data. Methods National data on drug use in Denmark between....... Methylphenidate accounted for 92.6 % of DDDs used. The general practitioner (GP) rarely initiated treatment, although treatment initiation based on the GP’s advice increased with older age of the patient. Maintenance treatment was found to be distributed roughly equally between prescriber types...

  6. German ambulatory care physicians' perspectives on clinical guidelines – a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böcken Jan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been little systematic research about the extent to which German physicians accept or reject the concept and practice of a clinical practice guidelines (CPG and b evidence based medicine (EBM The aim of this study was to investigate German office-based physicians' perspective on CPGs and EBM and their application in medical practice. Methods Structured national telephone survey of ambulatory care physicians, four thematic blocks with 21 questions (5 point Likert scale. 511 office-based general practitioners and specialists. Main outcome measures were the application of Clinical Practice Guidelines in daily practice, preference for sources of guidelines and degree of knowledge and acceptance of EBM. In the data analysis Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for explorative analysis of correlations. The comparison of groups was performed by Student's t-test. Chi2 test was used to investigate distribution of two or more categorical variables. Results Of the total study population 55.3% of physicians reported already using guidelines in the treatment of patients. Physicians in group practices (GrP as well as general practitioners (GP agreed significantly more with the usefulness of guidelines as a basis for patient care than doctors in single practices (SP or specialists (S (Student's t-test mean GP 2.57, S 2.84, p Conclusion Despite a majority of physicians accepting and applying CPGs a large group remains that is critical and opposed to the utilization of CPGs in daily practice and to the concept of EBM in general. Doctors in single practice and specialists appear to be more critical than physicians in group practices and GPs. Future research is needed to evaluate the willingness to acquire necessary knowledge and skills for the promotion and routine application of CPGs.

  7. Pediatric Reference Intervals for Biochemical Markers: Gaps and Challenges, Recent National Initiatives and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Houman; Higgins, Victoria; Fung, Angela W S; Truong, Dorothy; White-Al Habeeb, Nicole M A; Adeli, Khosrow

    2017-03-01

    Reference intervals provide valuable information to medical practitioners in their interpretation of quantitative laboratory test results, and are critical in the assessment of patient health and in clinical decision-making. The reference interval serves as a health-associated benchmark with which to compare an individual test result. While the concept of reference intervals and their utility appear straightforward, the process of establishing accurate and reliable reference intervals is considerably complex and involved. Currently, many pediatric laboratory tests are inappropriately interpreted using reference intervals derived from either adult populations, hospitalized pediatric populations, or from outdated and/or inaccurate technology. Thus, many pediatric reference intervals used in diagnostic laboratories are incomplete and may be inappropriate for clinical use. The use of inappropriate reference intervals impacts clinical decision-making and has potential detrimental effects on the quality of patient healthcare including misdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis, inappropriate treatments, and patient risk. These are critical gaps in pediatric healthcare and it is imperative to update and establish appropriate reference intervals for pediatric populations based on specific age- and sex-stratifications. In the present review, specific issues, challenges and deficiencies in pediatric reference intervals for biochemical markers will be discussed. Early studies using hospitalized patients will be examined, followed by a review of recent national and global initiatives on establishing reference intervals from healthy pediatric population. We will highlight the achievements and milestones of the Canadian CALIPER project, including the establishment of a comprehensive biobank and database which has addressed several of these critical gaps. CALIPER's mandate is to establish and provide comprehensive, up-to-date pediatric reference intervals to all biochemical markers of

  8. Hydrogen energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This book consists of seven chapters, which deals with hydrogen energy with discover and using of hydrogen, Korean plan for hydrogen economy and background, manufacturing technique on hydrogen like classification and hydrogen manufacture by water splitting, hydrogen storage technique with need and method, hydrogen using technique like fuel cell, hydrogen engine, international trend on involving hydrogen economy, technical current for infrastructure such as hydrogen station and price, regulation, standard, prospect and education for hydrogen safety and system. It has an appendix on related organization with hydrogen and fuel cell.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sour gas effects on the eye. A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy William [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada)]. E-mail: tim.lambert@calgaryheathregion.ca; Goodwin, Verona Marie [VM Goodwin Research and Consulting Ltd. (Canada); Stefani, Dennis [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada); Strosher, Lisa [Environmental Health, Calgary Health Region, 1509 Centre St SW, Calgary Alberta, T2G 2E6 (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    The toxicology of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sour gas on the eye has a long history beginning at least with Ramazzini's observations [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers-De Morbis Artificum Diatriba-1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc.; 1964. 98-99 pp.]. In contrast, a recent review by Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW Report) concluded that there is little evidence of eye irritation following short-term exposures to H{sub 2}S at concentrations up to 100 ppm and that the H{sub 2}S literature on the eye is a series of unsubstantiated claims reproduced in review articles dating back to the 1930s [Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW report). Health effects associated with short-term exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide: a technical review, Alberta Health and Wellness, October 2002, 81pp.]. In this paper, we evaluated this claim through a historical review of the toxicology of the eye. Ramazzini noted the effects of sewer gas on the eye [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers-De Morbis Artificum Diatriba-1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc. 1964. 98-99 pp.]. Lehmann experimentally showed eye effects in men at 70-90 ppm H{sub 2}S and also in animals [Lehmann K. Experimentalle Studien uber den Einfluss technisch und hygienisch wichtiger Gase und Dampfe auf den Organismus. Arch Hyg 1892;14:135-189]. In 1923, Sayers, Mitchell and Yant reported eye effects in animals and men at 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. Barthelemy showed eye effects in animals and men at 20 ppm H{sub 2}S [Barthelemy HL. Ten years' experience with industrial hygiene in connection with the manufacture of viscose rayon. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 1939;21:141-51]. Masure experimentally showed that H{sub 2}S is the causative agent of eye impacts in animals and men [Masure R. La Keratoconjunctivite des filatures de viscose; etude clinique and experiementale. Rev Belge Pathol 1950;20:297-341]. Michal upon microscopic examination of the rat's cornea, found nuclear

  10. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... and arise from complex interactions between genetic makeup and environment, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a collection of sub-phenotypes resulting in high fasting glucose. The underlying gene-environment interactions that produce these classes of T2DM are imperfectly characterized. Based on assessments...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  11. Defining a National Web Sphere over time from the Perspectives of Collection Technology and Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Brügger, Niels; Moesgaard, Jakob

    the framework aims at a definition that can be reused independent of changed behaviours on the net, changes in jurisdiction and changes in technology. A crucial point in this framework is that the perspectives of collection, technology and Scholarship are present in decision making. The framework origins from...... decisions. In this paper this definition is based on input from three important fields represented by each of the authors, representing the perspectives of scholarship, the Danish web Archive, and computer science. This represents the perspectives of collection, technology and scholarship, which are all...

  12. Hot Hydrogen Heat Source Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a  hot hydrogen heat source that would produce  a high temperature hydrogen flow which would be comparable to that produced...

  13. Enacting National Seabed Mining Laws in Africa: Importance of a Practitioner’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas N. Kimani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Countries should develop seabed mining laws that maintain environmental and social protections, yet whose safeguard rules are easier to understand and can be implemented at lower cost. Blindly adopting foreign laws, however well drafted, may result in a regime that is fragmented, inefficient and costly to administer from industry’s perspective. Insights from Kenya, demonstrates the value of adopting a practitioners perspective to identify practical problems, potential opportunities and important policy issues.

  14. Biodiesel: its reality and perspectives on national energy policy; O biodiesel: sua realidade e perspectivas diante da politica energetica nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbay, Samuel Max; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In the current context, the national energy politics has passed for excellent changes. With the world-wide crisis of the oil in a scarcity perspective and the pressures politics around the global heating, the energy politics has strengthen each time more to promote the use of energies renewed, especially in the automotive sector. This change of position brings new configurations to the national energy matrix and res-position the country as supplying of energy for the world. As it has detached of these politics, are the initiatives of attainment of clean and renewable fuel a matrix from biodiesel. Ahead of this situation, he is objective of the present work to analyze the available mechanisms in the picture of the national energy politics for the introduction of energies you renewed in the fuel sector by means of the program of biodiesel. In this direction, in the first part of the article is analyzed legal aspect that subsidizes the national energy politics and the mechanisms of introduction of energies you renewed in the automotive sector. In the second part the norms are analyzed that configure the national program of biodiesel and its paper in the global set of the component legal measures of the national energy politics. (author)

  15. Who Let the Dogs Out? Communicating First Nations Perspectives on a Canine Veterinary Intervention Through Digital Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; McKenzie, Christina; Okemow, Crystal; Viveros-Guzmán, Arcadio; Beatch, Heather; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-12-01

    Dog-related human injuries affect public safety and animal welfare, and occur more frequently in rural, remote, and Indigenous communities than in urban centres in Canada. Little work has been done to identify the perspectives of those people most heavily affected by this issue or to report successful dog management programs. This project was undertaken by veterinarians and public health workers with the goal of documenting First Nations perspectives on dogs, and educating other rural health workers about introducing animal management services to Indigenous communities. We recruited 10-14 residents and healthcare workers from three First Nations to take dog-related photos in their communities and participate in group interviews during the summer of 2014. Audiovisual data were synthesised into four digital stories exploring the following aspects of participant relationships with community dogs: (1) Spay/neuter clinics; (2) Role of the dog (past and present); (3) Human-animal bond; and (4) Healthy dogs as a part of healthy communities. These videos document changes in dog husbandry behaviour, new acceptance of spay/neuter, three-way knowledge transfer between residents, researchers, and policy makers, and an overall desire to sustain the positive outcomes of the pilot dog management project. This work highlights cultural beliefs and success strategies that might guide other programs providing veterinary services in First Nations communities.

  16. Risoe energy report 3. Hydrogen and its competitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Feidenhans' l, R.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2004-10-01

    Interest in the hydrogen economy has grown rapidly in recent years. Countries with long traditions of activity in hydrogen research and development have now been joined by a large number of newcomers. The main reason for this surge of interest is that the hydrogen economy may be an answer to the two main challenges facing the world in the years to come: climate change and the need for security of energy supplies. Both these challenges require the development of new, highly-efficient energy technologies that are either carbon-neutral or low emitting technologies. Another reason for the growing interest in hydrogen is the strong need for alternative fuels, especially in the transport sector. Alternative fuels could serve as links between the power system and the transport sector, to facilitate the uptake of emerging technologies and increase the flexibility and robustness of the energy system as a whole. This Risoe Energy Report provides a perspective on energy issues at global, regional and national levels. The following pages provide a critical examination of the hydrogen economy and its alternatives. The report explains the current R and D situation addresses the challenges facing the large-scale use of hydrogen, and makes some predictions for the future. The current and future role of hydrogen in energy systems is explored at Danish, European and global levels. The report discusses the technologies for producing, storing and converting hydrogen, the role of hydrogen in the transport sector and in portable electronics, hydrogen infrastructure and distribution systems, and environmental and safety aspects of the hydrogen economy. (BA)

  17. National Culture and Migration: Perspectives from the Puerto Rican Working Class. Centro Working Papers No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ricardo; Flores, Juan

    In this paper Puerto Rico's history as one of colonial oppression and a struggle for national self-definition is described. The divergent conceptions of patriotism, national liberation, and human freedom as voiced by leaders of the national elite and of the Puerto Rican working class are discussed in terms of traditional themes in the culture.…

  18. Integrating Health Promotion in the National Agenda: The Perspective of a Grassroots Advocate

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    On June 16, 2011, Dr. Regina Benjamin, Surgeon General of the United States, released the "National Prevention and Health Promotion Strategy: America's Plan for Better Health and Wellness," described as "the nation's first-ever National Prevention Strategy" by the U.S. Surgeon General. This was one of at least 38 provisions in the Patient…

  19. The Personal Struggles of "National" Educators Working in "International" Schools: An Intercultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper looks at how personal struggles associated with the overseas setting caused changes in the intercultural perspective of 30 Anglophone educators working in international schools. Situated within a social constructivist framework, interview methods were utilised to build a collective narrative shared by educators. Findings reveal that…

  20. Reflections on Math Reforms in the U.S.: A Cross-National Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Xiaoxia

    2007-01-01

    Understanding how various aspects of mathematics education work together is necessary if reform efforts are to succeed, Ms. Newton argues. She compares U.S. and Chinese mathematics education to provide perspectives that might further such understanding. She highlights the Chinese emphasis on thinking systematically about teaching, curriculum, and…

  1. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Dental Curriculum Revision in Iran: Dentists? Perspective on Achievement of Essential Competencies through National Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Fazel, A; Jafari, A; Khami, MR; Seddighpour, L; Kharrazifard, MJ; Nassibi, M; Yazdani, R; Soroush, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Based on the current emphasis on competency-based education, as a part of need assessment phase of dental curriculum revision in Iran, in the present study the dental graduates? perspective concerning the minimum competency requirements for an Iranian general dentist has been investigated. Methods: Based on the three available major competency documents in the literature a questionnaire was developed in which the participants were asked to indicate their opinion about the necessit...

  3. Policy Guidelines for Effective Inclusion and Reintegration of People with Chronic Diseases in the Workplace: National and European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Roka, Olga; Vasilou, Evdokia; Papadimitriou, Dimitra; Scaratti, Chiara; Kadyrbaeva, Asel; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Brecelj, Valentina; Svestkova, Olga; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Finnvold, Jon Erik; Gruber, Sonja; Leonardi, Matilde

    2018-03-11

    The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers) from seven European countries. Additionally, 20 European organizations concerned with health-related issues and employment completed an online survey. The findings reveal that employment-related challenges remain largely unaddressed. Both national and European stakeholders considered the existing legislative frameworks inadequate and appraised the co-ordination for the implementation of employment re-integration policies as ineffective. Policies targeting at work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases at European and national level should focus on consistent cooperation among all key stakeholders, awareness raising to staff and management, dissemination of effective strategies, developing research and evaluation standards and establishing monitoring systems on inclusive labour markets.

  4. Policy Guidelines for Effective Inclusion and Reintegration of People with Chronic Diseases in the Workplace: National and European Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Vlachou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers from seven European countries. Additionally, 20 European organizations concerned with health-related issues and employment completed an online survey. The findings reveal that employment-related challenges remain largely unaddressed. Both national and European stakeholders considered the existing legislative frameworks inadequate and appraised the co-ordination for the implementation of employment re-integration policies as ineffective. Policies targeting at work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases at European and national level should focus on consistent cooperation among all key stakeholders, awareness raising to staff and management, dissemination of effective strategies, developing research and evaluation standards and establishing monitoring systems on inclusive labour markets.

  5. The U S national parks in international perspective: The Yellowstone model or conservation syncretism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, international conservation scholars and practitioners have largely dismissed the U.S. national park experience, often termed the “Yellowstone model,” as being too protectionist and exclusionary, and therefore irrelevant and even detrimental to park management and policy in lesser developed countries. A review of the U.S. national park experience finds...

  6. A Way Forward: Emerging Perspectives on a National Quality Assurance System for South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, P.; Luckett, K.

    2000-01-01

    The final paper in this theme issue summarizes concerns related to establishing a national quality assurance system for institutions of higher education in South Africa. Proposes a three-phase approach to establishing a national quality assurance system to include: (1) evaluation of existing institutional self-evaluation systems; (2) establishment…

  7. The importance of the technologically able social innovators and entrepreneurs: A US National Laboratory Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez, Victor; Stinnett, Regan; Tierney, Robert; Walsh, Steven Thomas

    A country's National Innovation Policies (NIP) often center on military, energy or other national security missions. Yet many countries' NIPs have resulted in tremendous societal benefit through both planned and unplanned action not associated with these goals. Socially important technology product

  8. Evaluating a National Science and Technology Program Using the Human Capital and Relational Asset Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Liang; Chou, Jerome Chih-Lung; Roan, Hung-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of the National Science and Technology Program (NSTP) by targeting the Taiwan National Telecommunication Program (NTP) initiated in 1998. The Taiwan telecommunications industry has prospered, currently occupying key positions in global markets even though NTP seldom contributes positively…

  9. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  10. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  11. Hydrogen, energy of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleau, Th.

    2007-01-01

    A cheap, non-polluting energy with no greenhouse gas emissions and unlimited resources? This is towards this fantastic future that this book brings us, analyzing the complex but promising question of hydrogen. The scientific and technical aspects of production, transport, storage and distribution raised by hydrogen are thoroughly reviewed. Content: I) Energy, which solutions?: 1 - hydrogen, a future; 2 - hydrogen, a foreseeable solution?; II) Hydrogen, an energy vector: 3 - characteristics of hydrogen (physical data, quality and drawbacks); 4 - hydrogen production (from fossil fuels, from water, from biomass, bio-hydrogen generation); 5 - transport, storage and distribution of hydrogen; 6 - hydrogen cost (production, storage, transport and distribution costs); III) Fuel cells and ITER, utopias?: 7 - molecular hydrogen uses (thermal engines and fuel cells); 8 - hydrogen and fusion (hydrogen isotopes, thermonuclear reaction, ITER project, fusion and wastes); IV) Hydrogen acceptability: 9 - risk acceptability; 10 - standards and regulations; 11 - national, European and international policies about hydrogen; 12 - big demonstration projects in France and in the rest of the world; conclusion. (J.S.)

  12. Hydrogenation apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph [Encino, CA; Oberg, Carl L [Canoga Park, CA; Russell, Larry H [Agoura, CA

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

  13. Representation of national identity in the space of the city through tourism perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Shevchuk

    2014-05-01

    The author of the article suggests the using of banal nationalism to the idea of tourist sites as a means of representation of national identity. To this end, the article analyzes tourist sites of the city of Dnepropetrovsk. There are situated historical monuments and museums, theaters and cultural centers, sports facilities, industrial facilities, and even the natural part of the urban landscape. The results of this research is allocated the five different images that broadcast tourist attractions of Dnepropetrovsk and represent a whole national identity in different parts – such historical, cultural , natural , industrial parts and sport.

  14. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  15. Religious attendance in cross-national perspective : a multilevel analysis of 60 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, S.; Tubergen, F.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Why are some nations more religious than others? This article proposes a multilevel framework in which country differences in religious attendance are explained by contextual, individual, and crosslevel interaction effects. Hypotheses from different theories are simultaneously tested with data from

  16. Fatherhood, intra-household employment dynamics, and men's earnings in a cross-national perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Boeckmann, Irene; Budig, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies find fatherhood earnings premiums in several European countries and the United States. Yet little research investigates how intra-household dynamics shape the size of the fatherhood premium cross-nationally. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study we examine how the division of labor in two-parent households is associated with the fatherhood premium in fourteen countries. We find cross-national variation in the presence and size of the fatherhood premium. Our findings also show th...

  17. Value Focused Thinking for Nation Building in Afghanistan: A Regional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Analytical Hierarchy Process ANA Afghan National Army ANP Afghan National Police DA Decision Analysis MCDA Multicriteria ...the decision maker ability to understand the culture and values in subtle and more insightful ways thus making the model as realistic as possible...whole process more beneficent and fruitful to the masses in Afghanistan. 2.1 Decision Analysis Overview and Value Focused Thinking Decision making is

  18. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water and ground water at selected sites on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.S.; Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    Relative stable isotopic ratios for hydrogen and oxygen compared to standard mean ocean water are presented for water from 4 surface-water sites and 38 ground-water sites on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The surface-water samples were collected monthly from March 1991 through April 1992 and after a storm event on June 18, 1992. The ground-water samples either were collected during 1991 or 1992. These data were collected as part of the US Geological Survey's continuing hydrogeological investigations at the INEL. The relative isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are reported as delta 2 H (δ 2 H) and as delta 18 O (δ 18 O), respectively. The values of δ 2 H and δ 18 O in water from the four surface-water sites ranged from -143.0 to -122 and from -18.75 to -15.55, respectively. The values of δ 2 H and δ 18 O in water from the 38 ground-water sites ranged from -141.0 to -120.0 and from -18.55 to -14.95, respectively

  19. Leadership Factor in National Socio-Economic Development and Building: A Biblical and Contemporary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekundayo Lawrence Olabode

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The thrust of this paper is on theological concept of leadership.  It enunciates the leadership adroitness of Joseph and the acuity of Moses in Jewish nation-building.  The aim and objective of the paper is to contextualize leadership astuteness of these biblical icons (Joseph and Moses with the contemporary leadership in Nigeria in relation to nation-building.  The focus of the paper was to assess the performances of Nigerian leaders in socio-economic development of the nation from her independence in 1960 to 2013.  The work, having employed historical and contextualization methodologies, discovered that Nigeria is backward and at the verge of collapse due to the selfishness and nonchalance of its leaders to rise to the responsibility of the hallmarks of true leadership.  To avert disintegration and collapse of the nation and to build an enviable prosperous nation, the paper recommended that Nigerian leaders must respect, uphold and obey the law of the land, the nation must execute corruption revolution that will force all Nigerians irrespective of their status to declare their assets, all ill-gotten wealth must be   confiscated to remove the culture of corruption, the inequality in income distribution must be rectified to alleviate poverty.  Servant-leadership exemplified by Joseph and Moses must be imbibed in Nigerian culture of leadership.

  20. Perspectives on the Direction of the Suncheon Bay National Garden from Local Residents and Non-Local Visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moohan Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As Korea’s first national garden, the Suncheon Bay National Garden is a major tourist attraction and a space of enjoyment for visitors. However, in 2016 its sudden establishment necessitates many discussions and measures, and requires that it seek direction based on current perceptions for its continued use in the future. This study begins a search for that direction by examining perspectives of local residents and non-local visitors on the relationships between visitors’ purposes, spatial needs, and required features. The research methodology included a survey administered to Suncheon residents and tourists on these factors. Results were analyzed by multiple correlation analysis and networking between the variables, and differences between Suncheon residents and non-local visitors were deduced; relationships among the factors were also verified. Both locals and visitors saw a need to emphasize garden experiences and education. The study also presents items that differ by respondent group. This study provides information that can be referred to when implementing management and plans for other national gardens.

  1. The Prioritization and Comparison of Technical Background Criteria in the Selection Of Iran's National Table Tennis Coach: Sport Elites Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh RAHMATI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the prioritization and comparison of technical background criteria in the selection of Iran's national table tennis coach from the perspectives of sport elites. Method of this research was descriptive and survey kind. The study population were about 100 table tennis sport elites of whom 80 subjects were randomly selected based on Morgan table. Technical background criteria for national coach selection wer e based on McLean and Zakrajsk model. This questionnaire was provided with 7 items. The views of ten sport management professors were used for determining the content validity. To determine the reliability coefficient, Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.968 was used. T hese data were analyzed in both descriptive and inferential statistical. Descriptive statistics was used for description of demographic and inferential statistics was including Friedman Anova test for rating criteria and Kruskal - Wallis test for hypothesis and these data were analyzed using Spss software. The highest rank is for “Goodwill work and the lack of bad records in the past” and the lowest rank is for “Enough experience coaching in league and tournaments. There was no significa nt difference among sport elites to prioritize & compare of technical background criteria in the selection of Iran’s national table tennis coach (P>0.05.

  2. Methodology applied by the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Bio fuels National Agency for detection of cartels - their limits and perspectives; Metodology adotada pela Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis para detectecao de carteis - seus limites e perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, Douglas Pereira; Sales, Orlando de Araujo Vilela; Baran, Patricia Huguenin; Paiva, Rodrigo Milao de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regulacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados, Alcool Combustivel e Gas Natural; Bicalho, Lucia Maria de Oliveira Navegantes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the present methodology used by the Defense Competition Coordination of the Petroleum National Agency for detection of vestiges of cartels in the Brazilian fuel market, their limits, in view of the instruments presently at the disposal of the Agency and perspectives of modification from the eventual availability of new instruments.

  3. Political Representation of National Minorities – Serbia in a Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša Orlović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the political representation of national minorities, with reference to solutions and practices in Serbia. Theoretical concepts of political representation in divided societies are considered in the first place, and comparative experiences and international standards are then set forth. One points to various mechanisms that ensure more adequate representation of minorities. In order to ensure easier representation of national minorities, use is made of specific solutions in the electoral system. It is common for the proportional electoral system to favour representation in divided societies. The majority system can also be suitable when minorities are territorially more concentrated. If minorities are dispersed throughout the territory, then the majority system reduces their chances for representation. National minorities in Serbia have resorted to various methods and tactics to impose themselves as representatives of their communities and ensure a place in representative bodies. After political changes in 2000, the position of national minorities has significantly improved. Despite certain shortcomings, the mechanisms ensuring more adequate representation of national minorities have a significant role in minority rights implementation, enable more satisfactory political representation and better articulation of interests, as well as a greater degree of legitimacy of institutions and systems. When minorities are better integrated and accommodated into the system, the degree of democracy in a society is higher.

  4. Hail hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, D.

    1996-01-01

    After years of being scorned and maligned, hydrogen is finding favor in environmental and process applications. There is enormous demand for the industrial gas from petroleum refiners, who need in creasing amounts of hydrogen to remove sulfur and other contaminants from crude oil. In pulp and paper mills, hydrogen is turning up as hydrogen peroxide, displacing bleaching agents based on chlorine. Now, new technologies for making hydrogen have the industry abuzz. With better capabilities of being generated onsite at higher purity levels, recycled and reused, hydrogen is being prepped for a range of applications, from waste reduction to purification of Nylon 6 and hydrogenation of specialty chemicals. The paper discusses the strong market demand for hydrogen, easier routes being developed for hydrogen production, and the use of hydrogen in the future

  5. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  6. Marché des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation des corps gras Market of Hydrogenation Catalysts for Fats and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraque M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'institut Français du Pétrole (IFP ayant acquis une grande expérience dans le domaine des catalyseurs, notamment d'hydrogénation, le Département Evaluation a effectué à diverses reprises des études qui en évaluent les marchés potentiels. L'analyse qui suit a été réalisée en vue de déterminer les débouchés possibles des catalyseurs utilisés dans l'hydrogénation des corps gras; elle couvre l'industrie alimentaire, l'hydrogénation des acides gras d'origine animale ou végétale, la production d'alcools gras et d'amines grasses. Ce marché dépasse 60 millions de dollars/an et correspond à près de 11 000 t/an de catalyseurs utilisés. Ces valeurs tiennent compte des consommations captives de catalyseurs produits par les compagnies utilisatrices. Ce chiffre d'affaires est du même ordre que celui des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation utilisés dans la synthèse des grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques. Plus de 64 % des applications concernent l'industrie alimentaire : production de margarine et shortening, hydrogénation d'huiles de salade et de friture aux États-Unis. Alors que la consommation de catalyseurs utilisés en lipochimie est très fortement concentrée dans les principales régions industrialisées : États-Unis, Europe occidentale et Japon, celle de I'lindustrie alimentaire est beaucoup plus dispersée : les 3 régions précitées représentent moins de 64 % de la consommation mondiale. Les débouchés estimés représentent des chiffres d'affaires annuels de 41×10·6 dollars pour l'industrie alimentaire, 8,3×10·6 dollars pour la production d'acide gras, 11×10·6 dollars pour la production d'alcools gras et 1,3×10·6 dollars pour la production d'amines grasses. Ces hydrogénations sont effectuées en présence de nickel sur support (industrie alimentaire, production d'acides gras et d'amines secondaires et tertiaires, en présence de nickel de Raney (production d'amines primaires ou de chromite de cuivre

  7. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  8. Business firms in national and local society: international perspectives for analysis of companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cappellin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reflections that this article provides are meant to develop a sociological analysis of businesses through a theory of embeddedness. We reject a mechanistic view of the way need and utility combine in the large Fordist firm, preferring to adopt the perspective that sees this type of organization as a complex historical construction (Granovetter e McGuire 1998, Mingione, 1999. For such purposes, our article reviews contributions of French and Italian literature which, as of the 1980s, has suggested the need to devote profound attention to the relationship between economy and society. In our conclusions, we present elements meant to bring these discussions up-to-date, particularly with regard to the dynamics of business firm and territory. We propose consideration of the limitations and possibilities of this literature, which through the concept of embeddedness has added historical dimensions to our understanding of economic phenomena. Keywords: companies, local development, economics and society, embeddedness.

  9. Alternatives to national average income data as eligibility criteria for international subsidies: a social justice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebaya, Sirine; Sutherland, Andrea; Levine, Orin; Faden, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Current strategies to address global inequities in access to life-saving vaccines use averaged national income data to determine eligibility. While largely successful in the lowest income countries, we argue that this approach could lead to significant inefficiencies from the standpoint of justice if applied to middle-income countries, where income inequalities are large and lead to national averages that obscure truly needy populations. Instead, we suggest alternative indicators more sensitive to social justice concerns that merit consideration by policy-makers developing new initiatives to redress health inequities in middle-income countries. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Hydrogen-Based Energy Conservation System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sustainable Innovations is developing a technology for efficient separation and compression of hydrogen gas. The electrochemical hydrogen separator and compressor...

  11. National Spatial Development Perspective (NSDP) and assumptions on small town economic investment by government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oranje, M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available . Small investments in small places would clearly be more in sympathy with the NSDP-logic, unless of course a particular small town actually had huge development potential that was of national significance, and would warrant large investment. This paper...

  12. Accessibility perspectives on enabling South African sign language in the South African National Accessibility Portal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available and services. One such mechanism is by embedding animated Sign Language in Web pages. This paper analyses the effectiveness and appropriateness of using this approach by embedding South African Sign Language in the South African National Accessibility Portal...

  13. Wildland fire, risk, and recovery: results of a national survey with regional and racial perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; Siew Hoon Lim; H. Ken Cordell; Gary T. Green; Sandra Rideout-Hanzak; Cassandra Y. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    We used a national household survey to examine knowledge, attitudes, and preferences pertaining to wildland fire. First, we present nationwide results and trends. Then, we examine opinions across region and race. Despite some regional variation, respondents are fairly consistent in their beliefs about assuming personal responsibility for living in fire-prone areas and...

  14. Indigenous Peoples and Indicators of Well-Being: Australian Perspectives on United Nations Global Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John

    2008-01-01

    One of the major tasks of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) following its establishment in 2000 has been to establish statistical profiles of the world's Indigenous peoples. As part of this broad task, it has recommended that the Millennium Development Goals and other global reporting frameworks should be assessed…

  15. Parent and Teacher Perspectives on Psychological Adjustment: A National Measurement Study in Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogalis, Anna Rhoad; McDermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Chao, Jessica L.; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the national standardization and psychometric properties of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents--Home Edition (ASCA-H) for use in Trinidad and Tobago. ASCA-H is a parent rating scale composed of behavioral indicators in play, social, and learning contexts. The sample was comprised of students (N = 780)…

  16. Future of National Sovereignty of the Republic of Moldova in the Perspective of European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Rusu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available By the end of XXth century, important transformations took place in the field of relations related tostate structure, especially in relations specific to federalism, affecting the political life of many states. Thenational principle of constitution of certain states became the cause of many interethnic conflicts (the nationalprinciple generates separatism together with the development of underdeveloped nations. Currentinternational situation in the field of human rights protection, protection of the rights of people andfundamental principles of international law, makes it impossible to improve the situations related to theachievement of their sovereignty by nations or, at least, avoid new conflicts, like the one in Yugoslavia. It isimpossible only if the „vectors” of international law are not changed, if the visions on the problem ofcorrelation between human rights and rights of the people and achievement of their „sovereignty” by them arenot corrected. At the same time we should mention that if national sovereignty is based namely on the right ofthe nation (not of individuals or of state to self-determination is such a complex political institution, it will benot necessary to apply it.

  17. Assessing the Effect of China's National Publicity Films from the Perspective of Public Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article empirically assessed the effect of China’s national publicity film launched in Times Square in Manhattan, New York. To this end, the author gave a set of general criteria and indicators to measure the effect of national publicity films. Whether the publicity film was effective depends on whether American people’s image perceptions of China were improved after it was launched. Quantitative indicators are: the number of reports in the target country and the predispositions of the reports; the target country people’s participation and their predispositions; and the real behavior of the target country people. The analysis revealed that the 2011 national publicity film did not achieve the anticipated effect. The number of U.S. mainstream media reports was less than expected and their evaluations were quite negative; the participation of American people was low and the extent of the favorability both of the publicity film and China was not high; and the launch of the publicity film did not trigger a travel boom to China. Accordingly, this article suggested that the future implementation of China’s national publicity films focuses on two aspects: first, pay attention to cultural differences and enhance the comprehensibility of the discourse; second, practice what it preaches and strengthen the credibility of the discourse.

  18. Adoption Agency Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Prospective Parents: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinsky, David M.; Patterson, Charlotte J.; Vaziri, Mahnoush

    2002-01-01

    A nation-wide survey of adoption agencies examined policies, practices, and attitudes regarding lesbian/gay prospective adoptive parents. Attitudes and practices were found to vary as a function of agency religious affiliation. Many adoption professionals were willing to work with lesbian/gay prospective parents, and nearly 38 percent of…

  19. Beyond the Poverty of National Security: Toward a Critical Human Security Perspective in Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the intersecting logics of human capital and national security underpinning the corporate school reform movement in the United States. Taking a 2012 policy report by the Council on Foreign Relations as an entry point, it suggests that these logics are incoherent not only on their own narrow instrumental terms, but also more…

  20. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  1. U.S. National Defense Acquisition and Budgetary Policy in an International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-03

    thing, nations that maintain a second source for most categories of armaments must, by definition , buy large quantities of weapons that they consider... Globalising the source. In L. Lumpe (Ed.), Running guns: The global black market in small arms (pp. 81–104). London, UK: Zed Books. Andersson, H. (1989

  2. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Methods. (L). Policy Perspectives, Initiatives and Cooperations: 1a National Strategies and Programmes; 1b IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement; 2. Renewable Primary Energy Potential for Hydrogen Production; 3. Environmental Impact of Hydrogen Technologies. 124 papers are separately analyzed for the ENERGY database.

  3. Social Media Platforms as a Tool for Sharing Emotions. A Perspective upon the National Security Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Diana LEON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotions importance increases even more in the context of the national security agencies. Since their mission is to protect and defend the citizens against attacks and also to provide leadership and justice services to other agencies and partners, the aim of the information they post on social media should be twofold: on the one hand, it should reflect the attitudes, values and beliefs, supported by the institution, and on the other hand, it should have an impact on citizens feeling of security. But, do they manage to meet these demands? Are they focusing on impressing the audience or they concentrate on sharing specific emotions? Is it a marketing strategy or a knowledge strategy? Starting from these, the purpose of this research is to set a nexus between emotions and the use of social media by the national security organizations. In other words, we aim (i to determine the main types of emotions, (ii to establish whether these are shared within the social media platforms, (iii to identify the purpose for which the national security organizations use social media, (iv to determine whether social media could serve as Ba for the national security organizations. In order to achieve these objectives, we employ an ethic approach and develop a longitudinal study based on quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The results prove that social media platforms may serve as Ba since they appear as a shared space which fosters individual and collective knowledge creation and sharing. The national security agencies  use social media platforms for combining the classical four types of Ba: originating Ba (it shares its emotions, feelings and thoughts through its posts, interacting Ba (through the generated reactions and comments, it ensures the development of shared models and the conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, cyber Ba (by fostering the virtual interaction among its followers and exercising Ba (by facilitating the creation of

  4. The IAEA perspective on international and national radioactive waste management information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csullog, G.W.; Falck, W.E.; Miaw, S.T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Over the last decade, two significant developments have taken place relative to international and national information systems for radioactive waste management: (1) The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management came into force 2001.06.18. It establishes commonly shared safety objectives and sets out the specific obligations of Contracting Parties aimed at achieving those objectives. Adherence to these national obligations will be monitored through an international process of peer review by the other Contracting Parties. Each Contracting Party must prepare a report on the measures taken to meet its obligations under the Joint Convention, which will be distributed for review by all Contracting Parties. In review meetings, each national report will be discussed along with the comments and questions from other Contracting Parties. (2) Agenda 21 was issued from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development that was held June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. The IAEA was assigned the responsibility to develop Indicators of Sustainable Development (ISD) for radioactive waste management. Among other issues, the ISD are to be developed according to the following criteria: primarily national in scale or scope, relevant to the objective of assessing progress towards sustainable development, and dependent on data that are readily available or available at a reasonable cost to benefit ratio, adequately documented, of known quality and updated at regular intervals. Both the reporting requirements under the Joint Convention and in support of the ISD will likely rely on nationally-based information about radioactive waste management programmes and organizations, activities, plans, policies, relevant laws and regulations and waste inventories. The full or partial use of international radioactive waste information systems to assist reporting is a matter to be decided by Contracting Parties and

  5. Evaluating Social and National Education Textbooks Based on the Criteria of Knowledge-Based Economy from the Perspectives of Elementary Teachers in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman; Hamaidi, Diala Abdul Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-based economy is a new implemented trend in the field of education in Jordan. The ministry of education in Jordan attempts to implement this trend's philosophy in its textbooks. This study examined the extent to which the (1st-3rd grade) social and national textbooks reflect knowledge-based economy criteria from the perspective of…

  6. The Mentoring Effect: Young People's Perspectives on the Outcomes and Availability of Mentoring. A Report for Mentor: The National Mentoring Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Mary; Bridgeland, John

    2014-01-01

    This report shares the findings from the first nationally representative survey of young people's perspectives on mentoring. While mentoring is needed and wanted by young people to help them stay on the path to high school graduation, college success, and productive adulthood, a significant mentoring gap exists in America, especially for at-risk…

  7. Towards a Global Innovation System in a Firm and Nation Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Li, Jizhen

    2016-01-01

    by the interaction processes by the three actors and we shall claim that the GIS is formed through three steps or stages. Much inspiration is derived from the Tripple-Helix theory, but as others actors notably the various global and national NGOs and civil society in general also play a role, we keep the model open......Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a holistic framework for the development of the Global Innovation System (GIS). The framework is configured by three drivers, i.e. actors and their interaction. The three actors are the corporations within a market system; the states represented...... by their governments and their policies, and the research institutions. Each of the three actors has their own and independent internationalization agenda at the same time as their interaction is what generate the GIS. Thus, the GIS is not just the sum of National Innovation Systems (NIS) . It is driven...

  8. Globalization and environmental policy innovations: Perspectives for national and regional pioneers

    OpenAIRE

    Jaenicke, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Is economic globalisation an obstacle to environmental policy innovations of regions or nations? Which effects will the rapid globalisation of environmental policy have? Could globalisation improve the conditions for regulatory competition and green pioneers? The presentation will describe the growing environmental policy convergence in the world, which may prevent a downward spiral of environmental standards. Global environmental policy learning will be described in terms of environmental po...

  9. The African National Congress Led Government's (Inability to Counter Public Corruption: A Forensic Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setlhomamaru Dintwe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of democracy in 1994, there has been a myriad of incidents of corruption involving the public servants in South Africa. Equally so, the government led by the African National Congress have developed various mechanisms aimed at dealing with the problem of corruption. The incidents of corruption, characterized by colossal thefts,  embezzlements and rampant bribery are the basis of erudition around the ability of the African National Congress led government in dealing with corruption. Although this article acknowledges the presence of corruption during the apartheid era, its crux is mainly on whether the programmes employed by the African National Congress proved adequate in turning the tide against the scourge of corruption, which tends to erode the fabric upon which the South Africa’s economy is built. At the same breath, it is interesting to establish if the programmes employed by the ruling party encapsulate the internationally accepted elements reminiscent of an anti-corruption programmes worldwide. These elements are  inter-alia, measurement of public perceptions, creation of public awareness, disincentivising corruption, visible sanctions, bureaucratic reform and most mportantly, the political will in dealing with corruption. Corruption is an indicator of a defective system of public accountability which involves subversion of public interest for  personal gains. An ability to deal with corruption manifests tself in two-fold paraphernalia. It encompasses understanding the causes of corruption on one hand and the calculated esponses in countering corruption on the other. It is against this background that his article endeavours to establish the advancement of the African National Congress in dealing with corruption in government.

  10. Quality of environmental disclosure by multi-national oil companies: a corporate governance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, A.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, concern about the issue of environmental sustainability\\ud has increased considerably. Closely linked to this concern is the growing disquiet\\ud over the increasing pervasiveness of multi-national companies, especially oil\\ud companies, in shaping global politics and economics. Consequently, increased\\ud awareness about the environment has led to calls for better management of global\\ud resources and for ways in which to make the corporations that benefit the most\\ud ...

  11. Determinants of livelihood diversification in Ghana from the national livelihood strategies and spatial perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mahama, Tiah Abdul-Kabiru; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2017-01-01

    It is observed that livelihood studies require spatial conception of households. Unfortunately, this has not been pursued by many scholars. Available studies focus extensively on rural areas and some other focus on urban livelihoods in isolation without analyses that would provide an integrated view of livelihood. This study uses national survey data to undertake an analysis of livelihoods and the determinants of livelihood diversification in Ghana by introducing spatial factors in the asset ...

  12. Circle of Advisors: Creating a National Perspective for Graduate Curricula in Nursing Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Barbara; Yoder-Wise, Patricia S; Kowalski, Karren E

    2017-11-01

    The CGEAN Board established a goal to support MSN administration programs to thrive and meet the need for well-prepared nurses to assume leadership roles. This column addresses how we embarked on this work through creation of a Circle of Advisors composed of national nursing leaders who came together to address specific curricular issues and more importantly to voice support for continuation of MSN administration programs.

  13. Challenges to the Croatian National Identity within the EU: the Polish perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Ławniczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to share the experience of a post-socialist country and a member of the EU since 1 May 2004 and the problem of preserving its own national identity, while also trying to promote it. The author first examines the definition of the concept and the relevance of the Nation’s Brand Identity Model with respect to Croatia. Next, he addresses the issue of how to preserve national identity facing “the winds” of unequal competition from more developed EU member countries as well as other global players – mainly United States. (perhaps even more dangerous. The issue of media ownership plays an extremely important role. Based on the evidence from the Polish experience, the author developed a new concept of “the reed effect.” In the final section of the article, he recommends public diplomacy as the potentially most efficient tool for building relations and promoting national identity. Finally, he concludes the study with a rather optimistic observation that external threats tend to strengthen national identity, yet the process is time-consuming. In the case of Poland, the appeals for “economic patriotism”, defending the purity of the Polish language, slogans like “buy Polish” and “proud to be Polish” did not emerge until 6-8 years after accession to the European Union and about 18-20 years after the beginning of the country’s economic and political transformation. This phenomenon can be observed after the first waves of enthusiasm for the “western/individualistic” value system, consumer goods, junk food, films, foreign direct investment and media “freedom”.

  14. Women, work and health between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries from a national and international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Silvana

    2014-11-16

    A few years after a series of meetings of Italian scientists were convened prior to the unification of Italy, the first women qualified in medicine and other dedicated women participated in founding a movement for the improvement of living and working conditions of women and children in Italy. analysis of Italian women's contributions in the proceedings of the International Council of Women Congresses and their impact on increasing the number of women's occupational health studies presented at the fourth National Congress on Occupational Diseases held in Rome in 1914. Analysis of the proceedings of the International Council of Women Congresses (Washington, Chicago, London), and of the Women's National Council and other documents so as to obtain a picture of Italian women's working conditions at that time. Women and children worked an excessive number of hours per day, were underpaid, and had a legal status of inferiority. The main work sectors were sewing, embroidery, lace making, ironing, cooking, washing, dressmaking, millinery, fashion design, typing, weaving, artificial flowers, etc. The same sort of work was available to Italian women who emigrated to the United States of America. The success achieved by the women's movement is shown in the paper presented by Irene de Bonis "Occupational diseases among women" and published in the proceedings of the fourth National Congress on Occupational Diseases held in Rome, 9-14 June 1914. The article outlines the main features of the women's movement at the turn of the twentieth century, focussing on their publications describing Italian women's working conditions, considered in an international context. The movement's engagement in the promotion of women's occupational health at international and national level was successful but the First World War was to transform this achievement into the women's peace movement.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in national parks, nature reserves and protected areas worldwide: a strategic perspective for their in situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2012-02-01

    Soil fungi play a crucial role in producing fundamental ecosystem services such as soil fertility, formation and maintenance, nutrient cycling and plant community dynamics. However, they have received little attention in the field of conservation biology. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial soil symbionts fulfilling a key function in the complex networks of belowground/aboveground biotic interactions as they live in association with the roots of most (80%) land plant families and influence not only soil fertility but also plant nutrition, diversity and productivity. The diversity of AMF communities can decline due to habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, especially in agro-ecosystems, and many valuable ecotypes could become extinct before they are even discovered. Consequently, long-term strategies are urgently needed to ensure their conservation in habitats where they naturally occur and have evolved. Protected areas, where living organisms are under the care of national and international authorities, represent an appropriate place for the in situ conservation of AMF, providing them with adapted situations together with established complex networks of interactions with different components within each specific ecosystem. Here, we review data available about the main present-day threats to AMF and the current state of knowledge about their occurrence in protected sites worldwide, providing a checklist of national parks and nature reserves where they have been reported. The aim was to offer a strategic perspective to increase awareness of the importance of conserving these beneficial plant symbionts and of preserving their biodiversity in the years to come.

  16. A National Residue Control Plan from the analytical perspective-The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Angelo de Q; Lins, Erick S.; Alvarenga, Marcelo B.

    2009-01-01

    Food safety is a strategic topic entailing not only national public health aspects but also competitiveness in international trade. An important component of any food safety program is the control and monitoring of residues posed by certain substances involved in food production. In turn, a National Residue Control Plan (NRCP) relies on an appropriate laboratory network, not only to generate analytical results, but also more broadly to verify and co-validate the controls built along the food production chain. Therefore laboratories operating under a NRCP should work in close cooperation with inspection bodies, fostering the critical alignment of the whole system with the principles of risk analysis. Beyond producing technically valid results, these laboratories should arguably be able to assist in the prediction and establishment of targets for official control. In pursuit of analytical excellence, the Brazilian government has developed a strategic plan for Official Agricultural Laboratories. Inserted in a national agenda for agricultural risk analysis, the plan has succeeded in raising laboratory budget by approximately 200%, it has started a rigorous program for personnel capacity-building, it has initiated strategic cooperation with international reference centres, and finally, it has completely renewed instrumental resources and rapidly triggered a program aimed at full laboratory compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements

  17. Using national hip fracture registries and audit databases to develop an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Antony; Golding, David; Brent, Louise; Close, Jacqueline; Gjertsen, Jan-Erik; Holt, Graeme; Hommel, Ami; Pedersen, Alma B; Röck, Niels Dieter; Thorngren, Karl-Göran

    2017-10-01

    Hip fracture is the commonest reason for older people to need emergency anaesthesia and surgery, and leads to prolonged dependence for many of those who survive. People with this injury are usually identified very early in their hospital care, so hip fracture is an ideal marker condition with which to audit the care offered to older people by health services around the world. We have reviewed the reports of eight national audit programmes, to examine the approach used in each, and highlight differences in case mix, management and outcomes in different countries. The national audits provide a consistent picture of typical patients - an average age of 80 years, with less than a third being men, and a third of all patients having cognitive impairment - but there was surprising variation in the type of fracture, of operation and of anaesthesia and hospital length of stay in different countries. These national audits provide a unique opportunity to compare how health care systems of different countries are responding to the same clinical challenge. This review will encourage the development and reporting of a standardised dataset to support international collaboration in healthcare audit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A National Residue Control Plan from the analytical perspective--the Brazilian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Angelo de Q; Lins, Erick S; Alvarenga, Marcelo B

    2009-04-01

    Food safety is a strategic topic entailing not only national public health aspects but also competitiveness in international trade. An important component of any food safety program is the control and monitoring of residues posed by certain substances involved in food production. In turn, a National Residue Control Plan (NRCP) relies on an appropriate laboratory network, not only to generate analytical results, but also more broadly to verify and co-validate the controls built along the food production chain. Therefore laboratories operating under a NRCP should work in close cooperation with inspection bodies, fostering the critical alignment of the whole system with the principles of risk analysis. Beyond producing technically valid results, these laboratories should arguably be able to assist in the prediction and establishment of targets for official control. In pursuit of analytical excellence, the Brazilian government has developed a strategic plan for Official Agricultural Laboratories. Inserted in a national agenda for agricultural risk analysis, the plan has succeeded in raising laboratory budget by approximately 200%, it has started a rigorous program for personnel capacity-building, it has initiated strategic cooperation with international reference centres, and finally, it has completely renewed instrumental resources and rapidly triggered a program aimed at full laboratory compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements.

  19. Dental Curriculum Revision in Iran: Dentists' Perspective on Achievement of Essential Competencies through National Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, A; Jafari, A; Khami, Mr; Seddighpour, L; Kharrazifard, Mj; Nassibi, M; Yazdani, R; Soroush, M

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current emphasis on competency-based education, as a part of need assessment phase of dental curriculum revision in Iran, in the present study the dental graduates' perspective concerning the minimum competency requirements for an Iranian general dentist has been investigated. Based on the three available major competency documents in the literature a questionnaire was developed in which the participants were asked to indicate their opinion about the necessity of each of the 142 stated competencies for an Iranian general dentist (Yes/No), and to state the degree to which they believed the current curriculum covers each competency (Completely, Partially, Not at all). In an annual meeting in June 2008, the provincial chief dental managers were asked to distribute the questionnaires among general dentists in their province (10 questionnaires in each province). The managers posted back the completed questionnaires to the researchers. Of 300 questionnaires distributed in the 30 provinces of the country, 250 questionnaires (83%) were returned. While most of the participants considered the competencies as necessary for an Iranian dentist, less than 40% of the respondents believed that the graduates acquire the most required competencies of the profession during the current educational program. A necessity exists for curriculum revision. In addition to clinical skills, in this revision more emphasis also should be placed on the non-clinical part of the curriculum.

  20. Oncologists' perspectives on concurrent palliative care in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Ahles, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand oncology clinicians' perspectives about the care of advanced cancer patients following the completion of the ENABLE II (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a concurrent oncology palliative care model. This was a qualitative interview study of 35 oncology clinicians about their approach to patients with advanced cancer and the effect of the ENABLE II RCT. Oncologists believed that integrating palliative care at the time of an advanced cancer diagnosis enhanced patient care and complemented their practice. Self-assessment of their practice with advanced cancer patients comprised four themes: (1) treating the whole patient, (2) focusing on quality versus quantity of life, (3) “some patients just want to fight,” and (4) helping with transitions; timing is everything. Five themes comprised oncologists' views on the complementary role of palliative care: (1) “refer early and often,” (2) referral challenges: “Palliative” equals “hospice”; “Heme patients are different,” (3) palliative care as consultants or co-managers, (4) palliative care “shares the load,” and (5) ENABLE II facilitated palliative care integration. Oncologists described the RCT as holistic and complementary, and as a significant factor in adopting concurrent care as a standard of care.

  1. U.S. national issues on environmental hydrology and hydrogeology - Local and emerging global perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, J.M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In the US, hydrologic considerations have risen to the forefront of a number of important national issues. These issues focus on aspects of water availability and quality, but also impact other environmental, economic, and social situations. Surface-water resources in the US are essentially allocated and new socioenvironmental concerns may limit further surface-water exploitation. Ground-water use is increasing, but availability is not uniform. Some areas suffer from ground-water depletion and associated social and economic hardships. The quality of US coastal waters, rivers, lakes, and ground-water resources has seriously deteriorated in the last fifty years. Pollution is ubiquitous; vast sums of money have been spent in attempts at remediation. New methods for the disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, and nuclear wastes and for water treatment must be developed. Furthermore, the widespread agricultural contamination of ground water is just now being documented. This is leading to development of well-head protection criteria, a small but important venture into land-use planning. It is in comprehensive land-use planning that hydrology and hydrogeology should be of greatest value. The loss of prime agricultural lands and wildlife habitat as well as localized problems, such as flooding, subsidence, and pollution of water resources are problems which require vigorous emerging global issues will place great reliance on hydrologists and hydrogeologists of the future. Potential climate changes may alter our water resources base; population growth and third-world development will stress global water resources; aerosols are polluting water resources; and pollution does not stop at national boundaries. How to solve these newly emerging global problems is also an important US national issue

  2. Territorial Contradictions of the Rise of China: Geopolitics, Nationalism and Hegemony in Comparative-Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahan Savas Karatasli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is debate in the literature regarding whether China can become a new world hegemonic power in the 21st century. Most existing analyses focus on economic aspects of world hegemony-building processes and ignore its macro-political dimensions. This article starts with the premise that reshaping the geopolitical configuration of the inter-state system is an important part of world hegemony-building processes. One of the ways in which previous and current world hegemonic powers established their world hegemonies was through the inclusion of new nations by co-opting, supporting or sometimes selectively leading a section of nationalist movements into independence. Our comparative analysis shows that, as of now, contemporary China has not been following this historical pattern. Compared to Mao-era China, which was perceived as a champion of national liberation—at least when colonial and semi-colonial areas were at stake—today’s People’s Republic of China (PRC is emerging as a champion of the global geo-political status quo. The current Chinese government is not actively pursuing the transformation of the inter-state system or seeking to create instabilities at different levels. This is because, unlike previous and current world hegemonic powers, during its rise to global preeminence, Chinese territorial integrity has been challenged due to rapid escalation of nationalist/secessionist movements within its own state boundaries. Hence, the PRC's foreign policy has consistently been concerned with creating and preserving macro-political stability at national and international levels.

  3. Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Azenkeng, Alexander; McCollor, Donald; Galbreath, Kevin; Jensen, Robert; Lahr, Brent

    2012-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting research on gasification for six decades. One of the objectives of this gasification research has been to maximize carbon conversion and the water–gas shift process for optimal hydrogen production and syngas quality. This research focus and experience were a perfect fit for the National Center for Hydrogen Technology ® (NCHT®) Program at the EERC for improving all aspects of coal gasification, which ultimately aids in the production and purification of hydrogen. A consortia project was developed under the NCHT Program to develop an improved predictive model for ash formation and deposition under the project entitled “Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III: Development of the CABRE III Model.” The computer-based program is now applicable to the modeling of coal and ash behavior in both entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasification systems to aid in overall gasification efficiency. This model represents a significant improvement over the CABRE II model and runs on a Microsoft Windows PC platform. The major achievements of the CABRE III model are partitioning of inorganic transformations between various phases for specific gas cleanup equipment; slag property predictions, including standard temperature–viscosity curves and slag flow and thickness; deposition rates in gasification cleanup equipment; provision for composition analysis for all input and output streams across all process equipment, including major elements and trace elements of interest; composition analysis of deposit streams for various deposit zones, including direct condensation on equipment surfaces (Zone A), homogeneous particulate deposition (Zone B), and entrained fly ash deposition (Zone C); and physical removal of ash in cyclones based on D50 cut points. Another new feature of the CABRE III model is a user-friendly interface and detailed reports that are easily exportable into Word documents, Excel

  4. Flood management in urban Senegal: an actor-oriented perspective on national and transnational adaptation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline; Thiam, Mame Demba; Nygaard, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In Senegal, considerable development assistance has been allocated to addressing the problem of repeated flooding in urban areas, involving changing thematic objectives, from short-term disaster relief to wide-ranging sanitation and drainage programmes. In spite of these numerous flood management...... interventions, the number of flood victims in Senegal’s urban centres has increased steadily since 1999. This article contributes empirically and conceptually to recent studies highlighting poor national disaster risk-management frameworks in West Africa, by investigating how floods have been managed in Senegal...

  5. The discourse of tourism and national heritage: a constrastive study from a cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Magyar, Claudia Elena

    2014-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Departamento de Filología Inglesa. Fecha de lectura: 20-11-2014 This thesis presents a research study in the field of online tourism promotion. It focuses on the national online promotion of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, in two different types of websites –institutional and commercial– from three countries, Great Britain, Spain and Romania. The study analyses the way each country pres...

  6. Air pollution abatement around the Baltic Sea. From a national to an international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanpaeae, K.; Aittoniemi, P.; Kaessi, T. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental burden and environmental protection activities, together with the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction and the economic possibilities of financing the environmental investments, vary greatly between the countries around the Baltic Sea. The objective of this presentation is to outline solutions based on a new approach to emission reflection, larger than the national scale. Especially the applications of the recently introduced Joint Implementation (JI) principle will be discussed. The presentation mainly deals with the acidic sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions related to power production. (author)

  7. Local Organisation and Cultural Identity in Greenland in a National Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Susanne

    1991-01-01

    Important contributions have been made to understand the function of locality in the construction of cultural identity. Focus has variously been directed at the role of place and the role of aspects of social organisation in creating a symbolic bond between members of local communities. The article...... discusses contextual meanings of locality in Greenland and sketches possible implications for the symbolic integration of locality and nation. Proceeding by way of an outline of the importance of 'place' underlying the social organisation of communities in the traditional-contact Inuit society......, it is concluded that the symbolic importance of local communities is a function of their integration into the wider social structure....

  8. Sepsis in general surgery: the 2005-2007 national surgical quality improvement program perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura J; Moore, Frederick A; Todd, S Rob; Jones, Stephen L; Turner, Krista L; Bass, Barbara L

    2010-07-01

    To document the incidence, mortality rate, and risk factors for sepsis and septic shock compared with pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction in the general-surgery population. Retrospective review. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program institutions. General-surgery patients in the 2005-2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set. Incidence, mortality rate, and risk factors for sepsis and septic shock. Of 363 897 general-surgery patients, sepsis occurred in 8350 (2.3%), septic shock in 5977 (1.6%), pulmonary embolism in 1078 (0.3%), and myocardial infarction in 615 (0.2%). Thirty-day mortality rates for each of the groups were as follows: 5.4% for sepsis, 33.7% for septic shock, 9.1% for pulmonary embolism, and 32.0% for myocardial infarction. The septic-shock group had a greater percentage of patients older than 60 years (no sepsis, 40.2%; sepsis, 51.7%; and septic shock, 70.3%; P surgery resulted in more cases of sepsis (4.5%) and septic shock (4.9%) than did elective surgery (sepsis, 2.0%; septic shock, 1.2%) (P surgery, and the presence of any comorbidity. This study emphasizes the need for early recognition of patients at risk via aggressive screening and the rapid implementation of evidence-based guidelines.

  9. Sustainable Livestock Production in The Perspective of National Food Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeppy D Soedjana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the role that livestock play in various dimensions of food security. Food security is defined as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of individuals to consume food according to their respective socio-economic conditions are important dimensions. It describes the place of livestock products in human nutrition, the contribution of livestock to the national food supply and the way that livestock can affect food access, as a direct source of food and a source of income. Access to food is the most basic human right, especially for Indonesia with more than 240 million people with annual growth of 1.3%. To secure food availability, a sustainable food production growth more than 2% per year, including animal protein sources, is needed. It is necessary to strengthen food supply by maximizing available resources; improve food distribution system to guarantee a stable food supply and public access; encourage diversified food consumption; and prevent as well as resolve food scarcity. Furthermore, within the national objectives for self-sufficiency in rice, corn, soybean, and white sugar, the current annual percapita consumption of livestock products has reached 6.96 kg (meat, 7.3 kg (eggs and 16.5 kg (milk, which indicates good progress to stimulate sustainable domestic livestock production.

  10. Navajo Nation Brain Drain: An Exploration of Returning College Graduates’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintina Ava Bearchief-Adolpho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available American Indian tribes face the phenomenon known across the world as the brain drain. They invest millions of dollars in educating their members only to have little return on their investment. Many nation members leave reservations to get postsecondary education but never return. Those who get education off the reservation and choose to return are the exception to this rule. Although there is an abundance of literature regarding brain drain across the world, there has been little research done with American Indians. In order to begin to understand the brain drain phenomenon, this study analyzed unstructured qualitative interviews with 17 Navajo Nation members who left their reservation, obtained a degree, and returned to work on the reservation. Themes resulting from the hermeneutic analysis of transcribed interviews were (a Family Support, (b Community, (c Cultural Identity, (d the Simple Life, (e Reservation Economy, and (f Commitment to the Reservation. The analysis found that constant, lengthy, and meaningful relationships were motivating factors in drawing participants back to contribute to their reservations. Further study is needed to understand how communities and tribes can ensure that these relationships are built and maintained.

  11. Virtual Relationship Violence and Perspectives on Punishment: Do Gender or Nationality Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marganski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasingly popular use of socially interactive technology (SIT, it is believed that the way in which individuals communicate and experience relationships has drastically been changing. For those who partake in this electronic world, damaging behaviors akin to those found in the real world have emerged. Yet, we know little about the extent of these behaviors in the context of romantic relationships, especially from a gender or cultural standpoint. Research on dating violence generally indicates that women experience in-person victimization at higher rates than men, although some research has called this into question. It also suggests that some national groups experience higher rates of violence than others. However, research is almost non-existent when it comes to exploring violence in the digital world. This study investigated gender and nationality in (1 the nature and extent of socially interactive intimate violence, and (2 perceptions of the seriousness of virtual relationship violence. Using a sample of students from the United States and Poland, findings revealed that socially interactive technology may serve as a new avenue for aggressing against partners, as virtual relationship violence was not uncommon and reflected some patterns present in the real world. Some unexpected patterns also emerged. The results of this research signal a possible transferability of covert intimate violence and highlight ways in which inequalities may exist in our virtual worlds.

  12. Comparing national home-keeping and the regulation of translational stem cell applications: An international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Chekar, Choon Key; Faulkner, Alex; Heitmeyer, Carolyn; Marouda, Marina; Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka; Chang, Hung-Chieh Jessica; Ely, Adrian; Kato, Masae; Patra, Prasanna K; Su, Yeyang; Sui, Suli; Suzuki, Wakana; Zhang, Xinqing

    2016-03-01

    A very large grey area exists between translational stem cell research and applications that comply with the ideals of randomised control trials and good laboratory and clinical practice and what is often referred to as snake-oil trade. We identify a discrepancy between international research and ethics regulation and the ways in which regulatory instruments in the stem cell field are developed in practice. We examine this discrepancy using the notion of 'national home-keeping', referring to the way governments articulate international standards and regulation with conflicting demands on local players at home. Identifying particular dimensions of regulatory tools - authority, permissions, space and acceleration - as crucial to national home-keeping in Asia, Europe and the USA, we show how local regulation works to enable development of the field, notwithstanding international (i.e. principally 'western') regulation. Triangulating regulation with empirical data and archival research between 2012 and 2015 has helped us to shed light on how countries and organisations adapt and resist internationally dominant regulation through the manipulation of regulatory tools (contingent upon country size, the state's ability to accumulate resources, healthcare demands, established traditions of scientific governance, and economic and scientific ambitions). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogen highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2008-01-01

    The USA Administration would like to consider the US power generating industry as a basis ensuring both the full-scale production of hydrogen and the widespread use of the hydrogen related technological processes into the economy [ru

  14. 6 CFM Electrochemical Hydrogen Pump and Compressor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hydrogen is an essential resource for space missions. NASA has a need for equipment to generate, handle and store hydrogen. In terms of handling hydrogen,...

  15. 6 CFM Electrochemical Hydrogen Pump and Compressor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hydrogen is an essential resource for space missions. NASA has a need for equipment to generate, handle and store hydrogen. In terms of handling hydrogen,...

  16. Hydrogen - A new green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnu, Franck

    2013-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of the role hydrogen might have as energy in the energy transition policy, a review of different areas of research related to the hydrogen sector, and presentations of some remarkable innovations in different specific fields. Hydrogen might be an asset in energy transition because production modes (like electrolysis) result in an almost carbon-free or at least low-carbon hydrogen production. Challenges and perspectives are evoked: energy storage for intermittent energies (the MYRTE platform), the use of a hydrogen-natural mix (GRHYD program), the development of fuel cells for transport applications, and co-generation (Japan is the leader). Different French research organisations are working on different aspects and areas: the H2E program by Air Liquide, fuel cell technologies by GDF Suez, power electrolyzers and cells by Areva. Some aspects and research areas are more specifically detailed: high temperature electrolysis (higher efficiencies, synthesis of methane from hydrogen), fuel cells (using less platinum, and using ceramics for high temperatures), the perspective of solid storage solutions (hydrogen bottles in composite materials, development of 'hydrogen sponges', search for new hydrides). Innovations concern a project car, storage and production (Greenergy Box), the McPhy Energy storage system, an electric bicycle with fuel cell, easy to transport storage means by Air Liquide and Composites Aquitaine, development of energy autonomy, fuel cells for cars, electrolyzers using the Proton Exchange Membrane or PEM technology

  17. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - Identifying Policy Translation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders' views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. In the study, interviewees referred to both 'hard and soft' elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main 'hard elements' include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The 'soft' elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years, amounting to a process best conceived as germination as opposed

  18. Versatile Hydrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H m . Some of these compounds have fascinating structures (1,2,3). However the most interesting interaction of hydrogen, is the hydrogen bond. When a hydrogen atom is bound to an electronegative element it acquires a slight positive charge. As a result, it is attracted to other atoms such as nitrogen or oxygen in the ...

  19. Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  20. Flood management in urban Senegal: an actor-oriented perspective on national and transnational adaptation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline; Thiam, Mame Demba; Nygaard, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In Senegal, considerable development assistance has been allocated to addressing the problem of repeated flooding in urban areas, involving changing thematic objectives, from short-term disaster relief to wide-ranging sanitation and drainage programmes. In spite of these numerous flood management...... interventions, the number of flood victims in Senegal’s urban centres has increased steadily since 1999. This article contributes empirically and conceptually to recent studies highlighting poor national disaster risk-management frameworks in West Africa, by investigating how floods have been managed in Senegal...... and why this management has not led to the results expected by the population. The article finds that the configuration of flood management policies and programmes in urban Senegal points towards three key intertwined issues which have influenced the limited achievements of flood management in urban areas...

  1. Flood management in urban Senegal: an actor-oriented perspective on national and transnational adaptation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline; Thiam, Mame Demba; Nygaard, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    interventions, the number of flood victims in Senegal’s urban centres has increased steadily since 1999. This article contributes empirically and conceptually to recent studies highlighting poor national disaster risk-management frameworks in West Africa, by investigating how floods have been managed in Senegal....... These include, but are not restricted to, the political and personal appropriation of flood management-related processes, the reinforcement of the dichotomy between central government and municipalities, and a fragmented institutional framework with overlapping institutions.......In Senegal, considerable development assistance has been allocated to addressing the problem of repeated flooding in urban areas, involving changing thematic objectives, from short-term disaster relief to wide-ranging sanitation and drainage programmes. In spite of these numerous flood management...

  2. Ozone depletion and solar ultraviolet radiation: ocular effects, a United nations environment programme perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Anthony P

    2011-07-01

    To describe he role played by the United Nations Environmental Effects Panel with respect to the ocular effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and present the essence of the Health Chapter of the 2010 Assessment. A consideration of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface as it is affected by atmospheric changes and how these influence sunlight-related eye diseases. A review of the current Assessment with emphasis on pterygium, cataract, ocular melanoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Although the ozone layer is projected to recover slowly in the coming decades, continuing vigilance is required regarding exposure to the sun. Evidence implicating solar UVR, especially UVB, in every tissue of the eye continues to be amassed. The need for ocular UV protection existed before the discovery of the depletion of the ozone layer and will continue even when the layer fully recovers in approximately 2100.

  3. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human-health effects of radium: an epidemiolgic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the clasical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed.

  5. Human health effects of radium: an epidemiologic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the classical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed

  6. Human-health effects of radium: an epidemiolgic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the clasical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed

  7. A national perspective on paleoclimate streamflow and water storage infrastructure in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle; Lall, Upmanu; Sun, Xun; Cook, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale water storage infrastructure in the Conterminous United States (CONUS) provides a means of regulating the temporal variability in water supply with storage capacities ranging from seasonal storage in the wetter east to multi-annual and decadal-scale storage in the drier west. Regional differences in water availability across the CONUS provides opportunities for optimizing water dependent economic activities, such as food and energy production, through storage and transportation. However, the ability to sufficiently regulate water supplies into the future is compromised by inadequate monitoring of non-federally-owned dams that make up around 97% of all dams. Furthermore, many of these dams are reaching or have exceeded their economic design life. Understanding the role of dams in the current and future landscape of water requirements in the CONUS is needed to prioritize dam safety remediation or identify where redundant dams may be removed. A national water assessment and planning process is needed for addressing water requirements, accounting for regional differences in water supply and demand, and the role of dams in such a landscape. Most dams in the CONUS were designed without knowledge of devastating floods and prolonged droughts detected in multi-centennial paleoclimate records, consideration of projected climate change, nor consideration of optimal operation across large-scale regions. As a step towards informing water supply across the CONUS we present a paleoclimate reconstruction of annual streamflow across the CONUS over the past 555 years using a spatially and temporally complete paleoclimate record of summer drought across the CONUS targeting a set of US Geological Survey streamflow sites. The spatial and temporal structures of national streamflow variability are analyzed using hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and wavelet analyses. The reconstructions show signals of contemporary droughts such as the Dust Bowl (1930s

  8. [Prehospital thrombolysis: A national perspective. Pharmaco-invasive strategy for early reperfusion of STEMI in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Nava, Roberto; Valencia-Sánchez, Jesús-Salvador; Rosas-Peralta, Martin; Garrido-Garduño, Martin; Calderón-Abbo, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    To review the existing evidence on the role of prehospital thrombolysis in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) as part of a strategy of cutting edge to reduce the time of coronary reperfusion and as a consequence improves both the survival and function. We used the technique of exploration-reduction-evaluation-analysis and synthesis of related studies, with an overview of current recommendations, data from controlled clinical trials and from the national and international registries about the different strategies for STEMI reperfusion. In total, we examined 186 references on prehospital thrombolysis, 130 references in times door-treatment, 139 references in STEMI management and national and international registries as well as 135 references on rescue and primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI. Finally the 48 references that were more relevant and informative were retained. The «time» factor is crucial in the success of early reperfusion in STEMI especially if thrombolysis is applied correctly during the prehospital time. The primary percutaneous coronary intervention is contingent upon its feasibility before 120 min from the onset of symptoms. In our midst to internationally, thrombolysis continues to be a strategy with great impact on their expectations of life and function of patients. Telecommunication systems should be incorporate in real time to the priority needs of catastrophic diseases such as STEMI where life is depending on time. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Public perspectives on nuclear security. US national security surveys, 1993--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). UNM Inst. for Public Policy

    1998-08-01

    This is the third report in a series of studies to examine how US attitudes about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era and to identify trends in public perceptions and preferences relevant to the evolution of US nuclear security policy. It presents findings from three surveys: a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public; a written survey of randomly selected members of American Men and Women of Science; and a written survey of randomly selected state legislators from all fifty US states. Key areas of investigation included nuclear security, cooperation between US and Russian scientists about nuclear issues, vulnerabilities of critical US infrastructures and responsibilities for their protection, and broad areas of US national science policy. While international and US national security were seen to be slowly improving, the primary nuclear threat to the US was perceived to have shifted from Russia to China. Support was found for nuclear arms control measures, including mutual reductions in stockpiles. However, respondents were pessimistic about eliminating nuclear armaments, and nuclear deterrence continued to be highly values. Participants favored decreasing funding f/or developing and testing new nuclear weapons, but supported increased investments in nuclear weapons infrastructure. Strong concerns were expressed about nuclear proliferation and the potential for nuclear terrorism. Support was evident for US scientific cooperation with Russia to strengthen security of Russian nuclear assets. Elite and general public perceptions of external and domestic nuclear weapons risks and external and domestic nuclear weapons benefits were statistically significantly related to nuclear weapons policy options and investment preferences. Demographic variables and individual belief systems were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and to policy and spending preferences.

  10. Empire, War and Nation: Heritage Management Perspectives from Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tunbridge

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers recent insights on contested heritage from Canada and Malta. These contrasting geographical extremes span a range of heritage dissonances but share a common historical identity as successor states to the British Empire, entailing familiar postcolonial heritage equivocations. Dissonances between colonial and indigenous heritage meanings are discussed. The principal focus of the paper is the Empire at war, as an issue of heritage management in Ottawa, the capital of Canada, and in Malta; comparative insights are generated with resonance for other imperial successor states such as Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. In Ottawa the National Capital Commission is engaged in a delicate management of heritage evolution from the imperial past to the multicultural present, involving adjustment and diversification of heritage meanings in which the indigenous peoples and Canada's wartime/military history figure prominently. Malta's time-depth generates an embarrassment of heritage resources, necessitating choices as it moves from 'blue' seacoast to 'grey' heritage tourism; while earlier eras are favoured, the British imperial and military heritage is inescapable, especially the heroic shared defence of 1940-3, generating management issues over recency, postcoloniality, the naval legacy and the problem of marketing to the former enemy populations. Questions of whose heritage, using which resources of what period, for whose benefit and how managed, elicit a different range of answers in the two cases: British colonial heritage is too diverse to be value-generalised, and there is no single, immutable colonial template for postcolonial identity. However, the particular legacy of the Empire at war is notably formative in the evolution of succeeding national identities.

  11. The Italian hydrogen programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffaele Vellone

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen could become an important option in the new millennium. It provides the potential for a sustainable energy system as it can be used to meet most energy needs without harming the environment. In fact, hydrogen has the potential for contributing to the reduction of climate-changing emissions and other air pollutants as it exhibits clean combustion with no carbon or sulphur oxide emissions and very low nitrogen oxide emissions. Furthermore, it is capable of direct conversion to electricity in systems such as fuel cells without generating pollution. However, widespread use of hydrogen is not feasible today because of economic and technological barriers. In Italy, there is an ongoing national programme to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This programme aims to promote, in an organic frame, a series of actions regarding the whole hydrogen cycle. It foresees the development of technologies in the areas of production, storage, transport and utilisation. Research addresses the development of technologies for separation and sequestration of CO 2 , The programme is shared by public organisations (research institutions and universities) and national industry (oil companies, electric and gas utilities and research institutions). Hydrogen can be used as a fuel, with significant advantages, both for electric energy generation/ co-generation (thermo-dynamic cycles and fuel cells) and transportation (internal combustion engine and fuel cells). One focus of research will be the development of fuel cell technologies. Fuel cells possess all necessary characteristics to be a key technology in a future economy based on hydrogen. During the initial phase of the project, hydrogen will be derived from fossil sources (natural gas), and in the second phase it will be generated from renewable electricity or nuclear energy. The presentation will provide a review of the hydrogen programme and highlight future goals. (author)

  12. Volcano art at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park—A science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Ben; Kauahikaua, James P.

    2018-03-26

    Long before landscape photography became common, artists sketched and painted scenes of faraway places for the masses. Throughout the 19th century, scientific expeditions to Hawaiʻi routinely employed artists to depict images for the people back home who had funded the exploration and for those with an interest in the newly discovered lands. In Hawaiʻi, artists portrayed the broad variety of people, plant and animal life, and landscapes, but a feature of singular interest was the volcanoes. Painters of early Hawaiian volcano landscapes created art that formed a cohesive body of work known as the “Volcano School” (Forbes, 1992). Jules Tavernier, Charles Furneaux, and D. Howard Hitchcock were probably the best known artists of this school, and their paintings can be found in galleries around the world. Their dramatic paintings were recognized as fine art but were also strong advertisements for tourists to visit Hawaiʻi. Many of these masterpieces are preserved in the Museum and Archive Collection of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, and in this report we have taken the opportunity to match the artwork with the approximate date and volcanological context of the scene.

  13. National breast cancer brachytherapy survey in France: Results and perspectives in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannoun-Levi, J.M.; Hennequin, C.; Pommier, P.; Izar, F.; Thomas, L.; Le Scodan, R.; Lesaunier, F.; Nguyen, T.; Heymann, S.; Truc, G.; Peiffert, D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To present the national survey patterns in France for breast cancer brachytherapy in 2009. Material and method A written questionnaire was sent to the academic and general hospitals and the anticancer centres. The different items were type of institution; breast cancer clinical trial participation; number of breast brachytherapy per year; its indications; material and dose rate used. Results Among the 76 sent questionnaires, 35 (46 %) answers were available: 9 % of academic hospitals and 50 % of cancer centres performed breast brachytherapy. The number of breast brachytherapy per year ranged between 300 and 350. The indications were boost (100 %), partial breast irradiation (20 %) and second conservative treatment for local recurrence (53 %). The implanted material consisted in needles (27 %) and plastic tubes (73 %). The dose rate was low (50 %), pulsed (25 %) and high (25 %). Conclusion Breast brachytherapy appears as a validated technique in case of boost but remains under investigation for partial breast irradiation and second conservative treatments. Good clinical practice rules as well as technical and dosimetric guidelines are needed. A cost-effective analysis of breast brachytherapy is warranted. (authors)

  14. Cross-cultural communication capabilities of U.S. military trainers: host nation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Alameri, Ali; Jawad, Shakir; Alani, Yasir; Zuerlein, Scott; Nakano, Gregg; Anderson, Warner; Beadling, Charles

    2013-06-01

    A survey was conducted to assess trainee perception of the cross-cultural communication competency of U.S. military trainers and their satisfaction with the training they received. Findings from the survey show that U.S. military trainers rely significantly on local interpreters. This indicates variability in the ability of the trainers to communicate effectively with host nation partners, the variability being dependent on the capabilities of the individual interpreter. The findings illustrate the importance of providing military health personnel with training on how to work effectively with interpreters. The use of supplementary resources such as electronic translation devises when the interpreter is not capable of conveying health-related training information with the desired level of accuracy is recommended. Expanding the availability of general cultural training, which provides baseline information on local values, traditions, and customs in addition to health-specific cultural orientation, is also recommended to help military health trainers customize their training content and methods to fit the local environment. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. EMPLOYEE PROMOTION PLANNING IN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS PERSPECTIVE: STUDY ON NATIONAL PUBLIC PROCUREMENT AGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuningtyas A.K.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The promotion process is part of the career development conducted by Civil State Apparatus Employee (Pegawai Aparatur Sipil Negara which should be implemented by applying merit system. Employee-related strategic decision making has not applied merit system as mandated in applied laws. It occurred due to Public Service Appointment Board (Badan Pertimbangan Jabatan dan Kepangkatan not possessing assessment model and criteria which could be used to support promotion process implementation in the appropriate structural position based on employee competence and performance. This study aims to describe and analyze assessment criteria and subcriteria required to be considered in State Civil Servant Officers promotion planning by applying Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method in National Public Procurement Agency (Lembaga Kebijakan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah. This study uses the explanative quantitative univariate method. Data collection technique used questionnaire instrument. Analytical tool used was AHP. Research result exhibits that ASN employee promotion planning using assessment model is described as follows: Employee Performance Assessment consist of Employee Work Performance element with three criteria and Employee Work Behavior with twenty-three criteria; and Evaluation of Employee Promotion Implementation with eleven criteria. Through the use of AHP methods employee, promotion planning could be utilized as a tool for Baperjakat to produce employee decisions that will be promoted objectively and effectively.

  16. Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  17. Medical student perspective: reducing patient waiting times in the UK National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vink J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jasper Vink, Folashade Oyewole, Shiraz Jamshaid, Rohin Patel, Zubair Froogh, Maninder Bhambra Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKWe read with great interest the article by Zaghloul and El Enein and agree with the conclusions made in particular regarding overbooking of outpatient services due to a mismatching of resources and the need for efficient outpatient scheduling. We believe these points to be relevant to the current status of the National Health Service (NHS, which is facing an ever growing demand for its services, leading to increasing waiting times as a result. Across NHS England, 838,600 patients were waiting for a key diagnostic test at the end of November 2015, a 5.6% increase from November 2014. Waiting times have been associated with lower patient satisfaction and reduced clinical outcomes. It is therefore crucial that management teams take an active approach to reducing waiting times.   View the original paper by Zaghloul and El Enein

  18. National implementation and regional cooperation from the perspective of Ethiopia: points for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekuriaw, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for a comprehensive global verification regime that includes International Monitoring System (IMS). Ethiopia is expected to contribute to the system through a seismic station to be upgraded and a radionuclide station to be established yet. The capacity built at and the experience gained by the geographical observatory of the Addis Ababa University seismic monitoring makes it the leading institution on implementing activities related to verification of the treaty in Ethiopia. Assessment of the current situation indicates that the implementation is going on at a relatively slow rate. There is a general understanding that the country's contribution to and the benefits to be gained from the CTBT implementation related activities would be enhanced if it works in close collaborartion with other East and Southern African countries. However, this could be realised if and only if higher priorities are accorded to the establishment and strengthening of national monitoring and data processing capabilities and the cooperation program is provided with adequate funding. (author)

  19. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 predictors - Epidemiological perspective from a national database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharydah, Ahmad; Loo, Nathaniel H; Minhajuddin, Abu; Kandil, Enas S

    2017-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 is a disabling pain disorder with unclear etiology. It is usually triggered by an injury to a limb with or without specific nerve injury. The objective of this study is to explore the risk factors and predictors for this disease utilizing a large national database. Retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2007 to 2011 in the United States. Adult inpatients diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Chi-square, simple and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. The regression model was adjusted to the patient's demographics and comorbidities. There were 22,533 patients with the discharge diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 of an inpatient sample of 33,406,123. It peaks between age 45 and 55. Female gender, Caucasian race, higher median household income, headache, depression, drug abuse and private insurance patients (vs Medicaid patients) were associated with higher rate of complex regional pain syndrome type 1. On the other hand, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, and anemia were associated with a lower rate. Utilizing a large database, our study added more information to the risk profile of the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 in an inpatient population. Such information should be useful for physician for early recognition, diagnosis of patients at risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perspectives on the value of advanced medical imaging: a national survey of primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine M; Kramer, Erich; Colamonico, Jennifer; Duszak, Richard

    2015-05-01

    To understand perceptions of primary care physicians (PCPs) about the value of advanced medical imaging. A national quantitative survey of 500 PCPs was conducted using an online self-administered questionnaire. Questions focused on advanced medical imaging (CT, MRI, and PET) and its perceived impact on the delivery of patient care. Responses were stratified by physician demographics. Large majorities of the PCPs indicated that advanced imaging increases their diagnostic confidence (441; 88%); provides data not otherwise available (451; 90%); permits better clinical decision making (440; 88%); increases confidence in treatment choices (438; 88%), and shortens time to definitive diagnosis (430; 86%]). Most (424; 85%) believe that patient care would be negatively affected without access to advanced imaging. PCPs whose clinical careers predated the proliferation of advanced imaging modalities (>20 years of practice) assigned higher value to advanced imaging on several dimensions compared with younger physicians whose training overlapped widespread technology availability. By a variety of metrics, large majorities of PCPs believe that advanced medical imaging provides considerable value to patient care. Those whose careers predated the widespread availability of advanced imaging tended to associate it with even higher value. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  2. Power Up for Health-Participants' Perspectives on an Adaptation of the National Diabetes Prevention Program to Engage Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, Lindsey; Kamler, Alexandra; Weiss, Linda; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Hodge, Michael E; Pagán, José A; Walker, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    The National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) has been effectively translated to various community and clinical settings; however, regardless of setting, enrollment among men and lower-income populations is low. This study presents participant perspectives on Power Up for Health, a novel NDPP pilot adaption for men residing in low-income communities in New York City. We conducted nine interviews and one focus group with seven participants after the program ended. Interview and focus group participants had positive perceptions of the program and described the all-male aspect of the program and its reliance on male coaches as major strengths. Men felt the all-male adaptation allowed for more open, in-depth conversations on eating habits, weight loss, body image, and masculinity. Participants also reported increased knowledge and changes to their dietary and physical activity habits. Recommendations for improving the program included making the sessions more interactive by, for example, adding exercise or healthy cooking demonstrations. Overall, findings from the pilot suggest this NDPP adaptation was acceptable to men and facilitated behavior change and unique discussions that would likely not have occurred in a mixed-gender NDPP implementation.

  3. Graduating general surgery resident operative confidence: perspective from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Annabelle L; Reddy, Vikram; Longo, Walter E; Gusberg, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    General surgical training has changed significantly over the last decade with work hour restrictions, increasing subspecialization, the expanding use of minimally invasive techniques, and nonoperative management for solid organ trauma. Given these changes, this study was undertaken to assess the confidence of graduating general surgery residents in performing open surgical operations and to determine factors associated with increased confidence. A survey was developed and sent to general surgery residents nationally. We queried them regarding demographics and program characteristics, asked them to rate their confidence (rated 1-5 on a Likert scale) in performing open surgical procedures and compared those who indicated confidence with those who did not. We received 653 responses from the fifth year (postgraduate year 5) surgical residents: 69% male, 68% from university programs, and 51% from programs affiliated with a Veterans Affairs hospital; 22% from small programs, 34% from medium programs, and 44% from large programs. Anticipated postresidency operative confidence was 72%. More than 25% of residents reported a lack of confidence in performing eight of the 13 operations they were queried about. Training at a university program, a large program, dedicated research years, future fellowship plans, and training at a program that performed a large percentage of operations laparoscopically was associated with decreased confidence in performing a number of open surgical procedures. Increased surgical volume was associated with increased operative confidence. Confidence in performing open surgery also varied regionally. Graduating surgical residents indicated a significant lack of confidence in performing a variety of open surgical procedures. This decreased confidence was associated with age, operative volume as well as type, and location of training program. Analyzing and addressing this confidence deficit merits further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Innovation attributes and adoption decisions: perspectives from leaders of a national sample of addiction treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on diffusion theory to further knowledge about evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs), this study describes the perceived importance of innovation attributes in adoption decisions within a national sample of SUD treatment organizations. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with leaders of 307 organizations. A typology differentiated organizations reporting: (1) adoption of a treatment innovation in the past year ("recent adoption"), (2) plans to adopt an innovation in the upcoming year ("planned adoption"), or (3) no actual or planned adoption ("non-adoption"). About 30.7% of organizations reported recent adoption, 20.5% indicated planned adoption, and 48.8% were non-adopters. Leaders of organizations reporting recent adoption (n=93) or planned adoption (n=62) rated the importance of innovation attributes, including relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability, on these adoption decisions using a Likert scale that ranged from 0 to 5. Innovation attributes most strongly endorsed were consistency with the program's treatment philosophy (mean=4.47, SD=1.03), improvement in the program's reputation with referral sources (mean=4.00, SD=1.33), reputational improvement with clients and their families (mean=3.98, SD=1.31), and reductions in treatment dropout (mean=3.75, SD=1.54). Innovation characteristics reflecting organizational growth and implementation costs were less strongly endorsed. Adopters and planners were generally similar in their importance ratings. There were modest differences in importance ratings when pharmacological innovations were compared to psychosocial interventions. These findings are consistent with diffusion theory and suggest that efforts to link EBPs with client satisfaction and potential reputational benefits may enhance the diffusion of EBPs. Attention to these attributes when developing and evaluating SUD treatment interventions may enhance efforts to increase

  5. A cross-national comparative perspective on racial inequities in health: the USA versus Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A; Nguyen, Q C

    2010-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons allow the examination of the malleability of associations between race and health. Racial inequities in chronic conditions, indicators of health status and behavioural risk factors between two similar advanced capitalist countries were compared. It was hypothesised that racial inequities will be mitigated in Canada compared with the USA. Population-based, cross-sectional data from the 2002-3 Joint Canada-USA Survey of Health (JCUSH) with 4953 adult respondents from the USA and 3455 from Canada. Models adjusted for age, sex, foreign birth, marital status, health insurance, education, income and home ownership. Compared with the USA, racial inequities in health were attenuated in Canada. In the USA, racial inequities in chronic diseases and fair or poor self-rated health were largely driven by inequities found among the native born. Strikingly, in Canada, however, there were few significant racial inequities and those occurred exclusively among the foreign born. Within strata of race and foreign birth, Canadians fared better, with both white people and non-white people reporting better health than their American counterparts. Foreign-born Canadians and Americans were more similar to each other in terms of health than native-born Canadians and Americans. Only among the native born did American white people and American non-white people have higher adjusted odds of hypertension, diabetes and obesity than Canadian white people and Canadian non-white people respectively. Self-rated health was worse for non-white Americans than non-white Canadians regardless of foreign birth. The influence of race on health is context dependent. There is no necessary link between race and a variety of health indicators.

  6. Injuries and Illnesses in the National Basketball Association: A 10-Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Chad

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To present an overview of the medical conditions experienced by athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) from the 1988-1989 through the 1997-1998 seasons. Design and Setting: Athletic trainers completed profiles that provided demographic information for each player. Injury reports indicated when and where the injury occurred, pathology, onset, activity, and the mechanism of injury. The amount of time lost, injured list status, hospitalization, and surgery were also reported. Reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care being rendered. Subjects: A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (mean, 3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Mean player demographics were age 26.7 (± 3.7) years, NBA playing experience 4.1 (± 3.7) years, height 200.8 (± 9.9) cm, and weight 100.2 (± 13.5) kg. Players averaged 52 (± 34.7) games and 1263.1 (± 1073.8) minutes played. Measurements: The frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates were then calculated. Results: Ankle sprains were the most frequently occurring orthopaedic injury (942, 9.4%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (803, 8.1%), lumbar strains (491, 5.0%), and knee sprains (258, 2.3%). The greatest number of days missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (7569, 11.5%), knee sprains (5712, 8.6%), ankle sprains (5122, 7.7%), and lumbar strains (3365, 5.1%). Conclusions: Professional athletes in the NBA experience a rate of game-related injuries that is twice as high as their collegiate counterparts. Patellofemoral inflammation is a significant problem among NBA players. PMID:16558626

  7. A National Perspective on ECMO Utilization Use in Patients with Burn Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, Lauren B; McLawhorn, Melissa M; Vigiola Cruz, Mariana; Chen, Jason H; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2017-12-27

    Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO) has become an increasingly utilized used strategy to support patients in cardiac and cardiopulmonary failure. The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports adult survival rates between 40 and 50%. Utilization Use and outcomes for burned patients undergoing ECMO are poorly understood. The National Burn Repository (version 8.0) was queried for patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) procedure codes for ECMO. Demographics, comorbidities, mechanism, injury details, and clinical outcomes were recorded. ECMO patients were matched one-to-one to those not requiring ECMO based on age, gender, TBSA, and inhalation injury. Group comparisons were made utilizing using χ2 and Mann-Whitney U tests. Thirty ECMO-treated burn patients were identified. Patients were predominantly male (80.0%) and Caucasian (63.3%) with mean age 38.9 ± 20.3 years. The majority were flame injuries (80.0%) of moderate size (17.0 ± 18.7% TBSA), affecting predominantly upper limbs and trunk. Inhalation injury was reported in 26.7%. Respiratory failure was reported in nine, acute respiratory distress syndrome in three, and pneumonia in nine. Fourteen patients survived to discharge. The ECMO cohort had significantly higher rates of cardiovascular comorbidities, concomitant major thoracic trauma, pneumonia, acute renal failure, and sepsis than non-ECMO patients (P < .05). Ventilator usage, intesive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and mortality were also significantly higher in those treated by ECMO (P < .05). Although burn patients placed on ECMO have significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those not requiring ECMO, the mortality rate is equivalent to patients reported by Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. ECMO is a viable option for supporting critically injured burn patients.

  8. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  9. The impact of slow economic growth on health sector reform: a cross-national perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B

    2018-01-24

    This paper assesses recent health sector reform strategies across Europe adopted since the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. It begins with a brief overview of the continued economic pressure on public funding for health care services, particularly in tax-funded Northern European health care systems. While economic growth rates across Europe have risen a bit in the last year, they remain below the level necessary to provide the needed expansion of public health sector revenues. This continued public revenue shortage has become the central challenge that policymakers in these health systems confront, and increasingly constrains their potential range of policy options. The paper then examines the types of targeted reforms that various European governments have introduced in response to this increased fiscal stringency. Particularly in tax-funded health systems, these efforts have been focused on two types of changes on the production side of their health systems: consolidating and/or centralizing administrative authority over public hospitals, and revamping secondary and primary health services as well as social services to reduce the volume, cost and less-than-optimal outcomes of existing public elderly care programs. While revamping elderly care services also was pursued in the social health insurance (SHI) system in the Netherlands, both the Dutch and the German health systems also made important changes on the financing side of their health systems. Both types of targeted reforms are illustrated through short country case studies. Each of these country assessments flags up new mechanisms that have been introduced and which potentially could be reshaped and applied in other national health sector contexts. Reflecting the tax-funded structure of the Canadian health system, the preponderance of cases discussed focus on tax-funded countries (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, England, Ireland), with additional brief assessments of recent changes in the SHI

  10. National choices in a European perspective. Proceedings of the European Forum 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sido, Bruno; Lamoureux, Francois; ); Herzog, Philippe; ); Barre, Bertrand; Bataille, Christian; Colombani, Pascal; Gonzalez Gomez, Jose Luis; Lescoeur, DBruno; Perez, Serge; Weh, Rudolf; Westerlind, Magnus; Houssin, Didier; Nagashima, Hideo; Pavlopoulos, Panagiotis; Linkohr, Rolf; ); Allemeersch, Antoine; Beveridge, George; Bonnemains, Jacky; Fritschi, Markus; Piguet, Jack-Pierre; Rigny, Paul; Streydio, Jean-Marie; Tallec, Michele; Vasa, Ivo; Pancher, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    In 2003, the 'Entretiens europeens' engaged a dialogue between stakeholders of various socio-professional backgrounds from several countries and with the European Commission, in order to compare the selected options of management of radioactive waste and materials and to emphasize the best experiments, which could inspire an innovating European policy in the world. This document is the proceedings of this first European Forum on this topic. Content: 1 - Introduction by Bruno Sido, senator and chairman of the County Council of Haute-Marne; 2 - talk by Francois Lamoureux, General Director of DG TREN, European Commission. 3 - Debate with the audience. 4 - First round table chaired by Philippe Herzog, Member of the European Parliament and President of Confrontations Europe: Is a European directive feasible? Within what time frame? What flexibility is required? What democratic process is needed? With the contributions from: Bertrand Barre, Manager in charge of Scientific Communications (AREVA), Christian Bataille, Member of the French Parliament, author of the 'Bataille Law', Pascal Colombani, Administrator, British Energy (nuclear power producer in UK), Jose Luis Gonzalez Gomez, ENRESA (Spain), Bruno Lescoeur, Director of the Energy sector, EDF, Serge Perez, Trade Unionist, Member of the National Bureau, FNME CGT (France), Rudolf Weh, Head of Department Spent Fuel and Waste Management Services/Interim Storage, GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany), Magnus Westerlind, Manager Nuclear Security, SKI (Sweden). 5 - Hearing Didier Houssin, Director, Raw Materials and Hydrocarbons, DGEMP. 6 - Interventions of Hideo Nagashima, Executive Director, NUMO (Japan) and of Panagiotis Pavlopoulos, Research Director CERN, Geneva. 7 - Second round table chaired by Rolf Linkohr, Member of the European Parliament and chairman of European Energy Foundation: 'The scientific and social importance of the various options for the management of nuclear waste' With the contributions

  11. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions

  12. Finding the key to success: A visitors' perspective at a National Arts Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saayman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and/or objectives: The purpose of this article was to segment festival visitors at the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival (KKNK based on their travel motives and their ratings of the Key Success Factors (KSFs in terms of their festival experience. Problem investigated: Previous research has indicated that the success and sustainability of an arts festival is dependent on the number of tickets sold for shows and productions during the festival. Therefore, success depends on attracting visitors who attend and buy tickets for different types of shows and productions. To achieve this festival organisers need to understand the aspects that visitors regard as satisfying their needs and which create a unique festival experience. Methodology: A survey was conducted using a questionnaire at the festival. A total of 450 questionnaires were administered and 443 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Factor analysis was used to identify visitors' motivation to travel to and attend the KKNK. Cluster analysis followed the factor analysis to segments visitors based their identified travel motives. ANOVAs, Chi-square tests, two-way frequency tables and Tukey's multiple comparisons were conducted to investigate and determine any significant differences between the clusters based on demographics, behavioural variables and KSFs. Analysis and interpretation of findings: The findings of this study revealed that the travel motives that are important to visitors to the arts festival are: Festival Attractiveness, Novelty and Escape and Socialisation. Furthermore, different markets have different travel motives, clustered as Escapists, Festival Junkies and Culture Seekers. These different clusters have different tastes and needs, for example the Culture Seekers are more interested in Rock shows and all three clusters enjoy Drama, Music Theatre and Cabaret and Comedy shows and productions. Different markets also focus on different KSFs that

  13. Advantages of a Unified Earth and Space Science Approach for Geoscience Education: Perspectives from the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Barnes, T.; Bergman, J.; Carbone, L.; Eastburn, T.; Foster, S.; Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Henderson, S.; Lagrave, M.; Munoz, R.; Russell, R.; Araujo-Pradere, E.; Metcalfe, T.; Mastie, D.; Pennington, P.

    2005-05-01

    The intellectual divisions common among scientists involved in research in specific disciplines are frequently not shared by the broader community of learners. For example, in K-12 education, the Earth sciences and the space sciences have generally been taught in an integrated approach, until opportunities for more advanced courses become available at the higher grade levels in some fortunate school districts. When scientists involved in EPO activities retain a perspective limited to their particular science mission, rather than stepping back to a broader perspective that places the research in a larger context, they risk limiting the usefulness of these activities to a broad cross-section of learners that seek to learn in a contextual framework. The re-integration of Earth and space sciences within NASA's Science Mission Directorate provides an opportunity to more systematically take advantage of the fact that Earth is one of many examples of possible planetary evolution scenarios presented in our solar system and beyond. This development should encourage integration of research across the SMD into a broader context that encourages the development of higher learning skills and a systems thinking approach. At the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the interdisciplinary nature of the research problems we address requires an approach that integrates Earth and space science, and we parallel this in our education and outreach activities, ranging from our exhibits on climate change to our professional development workshops and online courses to our websites and curriculum development efforts. The Windows to the Universe project (http://www.windows.ucar.edu), initiated at the University of Michigan with support from NASA in 1995 and now developed and maintained at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, has maintained this integrated approach from its inception with great success - leading to over 6 million users of our English and Spanish language

  14. Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen; Lee, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a process resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness or ductility of a metal due to the presence of atomic hydrogen. In addition to pure hydrogen gas as a direct source for the absorption of atomic hydrogen, the damaging effect can manifest itself from other hydrogen-containing gas species such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) environments. It has been known that H2S environment may result in a much more severe condition of embrittlement than pure hydrogen gas (H2) for certain types of alloys at similar conditions of stress and gas pressure. The reduction of fracture loads can occur at levels well below the yield strength of the material. Hydrogen embrittlement is usually manifest in terms of singular sharp cracks, in contrast to the extensive branching observed for stress corrosion cracking. The initial crack openings and the local deformation associated with crack propagation may be so small that they are difficult to detect except in special nondestructive examinations. Cracks due to HE can grow rapidly with little macroscopic evidence of mechanical deformation in materials that are normally quite ductile. This Technical Memorandum presents a comprehensive review of experimental data for the effects of gaseous Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) for several types of metallic materials. Common material screening methods are used to rate the hydrogen degradation of mechanical properties that occur while the material is under an applied stress and exposed to gaseous hydrogen as compared to air or helium, under slow strain rates (SSR) testing. Due to the simplicity and accelerated nature of these tests, the results expressed in terms of HEE index are not intended to necessarily represent true hydrogen service environment for long-term exposure, but rather to provide a practical approach for material screening, which is a useful concept to qualitatively evaluate the severity of

  15. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W.; Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  16. Distributed H2 Supply for Fuel Cell Utility Vehicles Year 6 - Activity 3.5 - Development fo a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay

    2012-04-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a high-pressure hydrogen production system that reforms a liquid organic feedstock and water at operating pressures up to 800 bar (~12,000 psig). The advantages of this system include the elimination of energy-intensive hydrogen compression, a smaller process footprint, and the elimination of gaseous or liquid hydrogen transport. This system could also potentially enable distributed hydrogen production from centralized coal. Processes have been investigated to gasify coal and then convert the syngas into alcohol or alkanes. These alcohols and alkanes could then be easily transported in bulk to distributed high-pressure water-reforming (HPWR)-based systems to deliver hydrogen economically. The intent of this activity was to utilize the EERC’s existing HPWR hydrogen production process, previously designed and constructed in a prior project phase, as a basis to improve operational and production performance of an existing demonstration unit. Parameters to be pursued included higher hydrogen delivery pressure, higher hydrogen production rates, and the ability to refill within a 5-minute time frame.

  17. Extended Operations of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Pilot-Scale Compact Reformer: Year 6 - Activity 3.2 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay

    2011-10-01

    U.S. and global demand for hydrogen is large and growing for use in the production of chemicals, materials, foods, pharmaceuticals, and fuels (including some low-carbon biofuels). Conventional hydrogen production technologies are expensive, have sizeable space requirements, and are large carbon dioxide emitters. A novel sorbent-based hydrogen production technology is being developed and advanced toward field demonstration that promises smaller size, greater efficiency, lower costs, and reduced to no net carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional hydrogen production technology. Development efforts at the pilot scale have addressed materials compatibility, hot-gas filtration, and high-temperature solids transport and metering, among other issues, and have provided the basis for a preliminary process design with associated economics. The process was able to achieve a 93% hydrogen purity on a purge gasfree basis directly out of the pilot unit prior to downstream purification.

  18. Hydrogen converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, Angel V.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina developed a process of 99 Mo production from fission, based on irradiation of uranium aluminide targets with thermal neutrons in the RA-3 reactor of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. These targets are afterwards dissolved in an alkaline solution, with the consequent liberation of hydrogen as the main gaseous residue. This work deals with the use of a first model of metallic converter and a later prototype of glass converter at laboratory scale, adjusted to the requirements and conditions of the specific redox process. Oxidized copper wires were used, which were reduced to elementary copper at 400 C degrees and then regenerated by oxidation with hot air. Details of the bed structure and the operation conditions are also provided. The equipment required for the assembling in cells is minimal and, taking into account the operation final temperature and the purge with nitrogen, the procedure is totally safe. Finally, the results are extrapolated for the design of a converter to be used in a hot cell. (author)

  19. Hydrogen millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, T.K.; Benard, P.

    2000-05-01

    The 10th Canadian Hydrogen Conference was held at the Hilton Hotel in Quebec City from May 28 to May 31, 2000. The topics discussed included current drivers for the hydrogen economy, the international response to these drivers, new initiatives, sustainable as well as biological and hydrocarbon-derived production of hydrogen, defense applications of fuel cells, hydrogen storage on metal hydrides and carbon nanostructures, stationary power and remote application, micro-fuel cells and portable applications, marketing aspects, fuel cell modeling, materials, safety, fuel cell vehicles and residential applications. (author)

  20. Perspective Taking to Improve Attitudes towards International Teaching Assistants: The Role of National Identification and Prior Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Uttara; Appiah, Osei

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate students negatively evaluate international TAs in universities across the U.S. Using the social identity framework a perspective-taking intervention is proposed to improve undergraduate students' attitudes towards International TAs. Students (n?=?143) were randomly assigned to receive target-focused or self-focused perspective-taking…

  1. Hydrogen Recovery System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket test operations at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) result in substantial quantities of hydrogen gas that is flared from the facility and helium gas that is...

  2. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a method for converting metals to metal hydrides at low pressures for hydrogen storage systems with high efficiency with respect to volume...

  3. Hydrogen Recovery System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Liquid hydrogen is used extensively by NASA to support cryogenic rocket testing. In addition, there are many commercial applications in which delivery and use of...

  4. BIG hydrogen: hydrogen technology in the oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The BIG Hydrogen workshop was held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on February 13, 2006. About 60 representatives of industry, academia and government attended this one-day technical meeting on hydrogen production for the oil and gas industry. The following themes were identified from the presentations and discussion: the need to find a BIG hydrogen replacement for Steam Methane Reformer (SMR) because of uncertainty regarding cost and availability of natural gas, although given the maturity of SMR process (reliability, known capital cost) how high will H2 prices have to rise?; need for a national strategy to link the near-term and the longer-term hydrogen production requirements, which can take hydrogen from chemical feedstock to energy carrier; and in the near-term Canada should get involved in demonstrations and build expertise in large hydrogen systems including production and carbon capture and sequestration

  5. Hydrogen tomorrow: Demands and technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    National needs for hydrogen are projected and the technologies of production, handling, and utilization are evaluated. Research and technology activities required to meet the projected needs are determined.

  6. Hydrogen: the great debate. 'Power to Gas - how to cope with the challenge of electricity storage?; Hydrogen in energy transition: which challenges to be faced?; Hydrogen, essential today, indispensable tomorrow; Electrolytic hydrogen, a solution for energy transition?; Development of high power electrolysis systems: need and approach; Hydrogen as energy vector, Potential and stakes: a perspective; The Toyota Fuel Cell System: a new era for the automotive industry; Three key factors: production, applications to mobility, and public acceptance; Hydrogen, benevolent fairy or tempting demon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Boucly, Philippe; Beeker, Etienne; Mauberger, Pascal; Quint, Aliette; Pierre, Helene; Lucchese, Paul; Bouillon-Delporte, Valerie; Chauvet, Bertrand; Brisse, Annabelle; Gautier, Ludmila; Hercberg, Sylvain; De Volder, Marc; Gruson, Jean-Francois; Marion, Pierre; Grellier, Sebastien; Devezeaux, Jean-Guy; Mansilla, Christine; Le Net, Elisabeth; Le Duigou, Alain; Maire, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of contributions which address various issues related to the development of the use of hydrogen as an energy source. More precisely, these contributions discuss how to face the challenge of electricity storage by using the Power-to-Gas technology, the challenges to be faced regarding the role of hydrogen in energy transition, the essential current role of hydrogen and its indispensable role for tomorrow, the possible role of electrolytic hydrogen as a solution for energy transition, the need of and the approach to a development of high power electrolysis systems, the potential and stakes of hydrogen as an energy vector, the Toyota fuel cell system as a sign for new era for automotive industry, the three main factors (production, applications to mobility, and public acceptance) for the use of hydrogen in energy transition, and the role of hydrogen perceived either as a benevolent fairy or a tempting demon

  7. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  8. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  9. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  10. Hydrogen energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, P P; Kuznetsov, V L; David, W I F

    2007-04-15

    The problem of anthropogenically driven climate change and its inextricable link to our global society's present and future energy needs are arguably the greatest challenge facing our planet. Hydrogen is now widely regarded as one key element of a potential energy solution for the twenty-first century, capable of assisting in issues of environmental emissions, sustainability and energy security. Hydrogen has the potential to provide for energy in transportation, distributed heat and power generation and energy storage systems with little or no impact on the environment, both locally and globally. However, any transition from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system to a hydrogen-based economy involves significant scientific, technological and socio-economic barriers. This brief report aims to outline the basis of the growing worldwide interest in hydrogen energy and examines some of the important issues relating to the future development of hydrogen as an energy vector.

  11. Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

  12. Hydrogen-powered flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    As the Nation moves towards a hydrogen economy the shape of aviation will change dramatically. To accommodate a switch to hydrogen the aircraft designs, propulsion, and power systems will look much different than the systems of today. Hydrogen will enable a number of new aircraft capabilities from high altitude long endurance remotely operated aircraft (HALE ROA) that will fly weeks to months without refueling to clean, zero emissions transport aircraft. Design and development of new hydrogen powered aircraft have a number of challenges which must be addressed before an operational system can become a reality. While the switch to hydrogen will be most outwardly noticeable in the aircraft designs of the future, other significant changes will be occurring in the environment. A switch to hydrogen for aircraft will completely eliminate harmful greenhouse gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur oxides (SOx), unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke. While these aircraft emissions are a small percentage of the amount produced on a daily basis, their placement in the upper atmosphere make them particularly harmful. Another troublesome gaseous emission from aircraft is nitrogen oxides (NOx) which contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere. Nitrogen oxide emissions are produced during the combustion process and are primarily a function of combustion temperature and residence time. The introduction of hydrogen to a gas turbine propulsion system will not eliminate NOx emissions; however the wide flammability range will make low NOx producing, lean burning systems feasible. A revolutionary approach to completely eliminating NOx would be to fly all electric aircraft powered by hydrogen air fuel cells. The fuel cells systems would only produce water, which could be captured on board or released in the lower altitudes. Currently fuel cell systems do not have sufficient energy densities for use in large aircraft, but the long term potential of eliminating

  13. Hydrogen from Biomass for Urban Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, William

    2008-02-18

    The objective of this project was to develop a method, at the pilot scale, for the economical production of hydrogen from peanut shells. During the project period a pilot scale process, based on the bench scale process developed at NREL (National Renewable Energy Lab), was developed and successfully operated to produce hydrogen from peanut shells. The technoeconomic analysis of the process suggests that the production of hydrogen via this method is cost-competitive with conventional means of hydrogen production.

  14. Integrating hydrogen into Canada's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, P.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation outlines the steps in integrating of hydrogen into Canada's energy future. Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell investment is primarily driven by two government commitments - climate change commitments and innovation leadership commitments. Canada's leading hydrogen and fuel cell industry is viewed as a long-term player in meeting the above commitments. A hydrogen and fuel cell national strategy is being jointly developed to create 'Win-Wins' with industry

  15. Hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, E.

    1942-10-16

    This report mentioned that not very severe demands for purity were made on the hydrogen used in hydrogenation of coal or similar raw materials, because the catalysts were not very sensitive to poisoning. However, the hydrogenation plants tried to remove most impurities anyway by means of oil washes. The report included a table giving the amount of wash oil used up and the amount of hydrogen lost by dissolving into the wash oil used up and the amount of hydrogen lost by dissolving into the wash oil in order to remove 1% of various impurities from 1000 m/sup 3/ of the circulating gas. The amounts of wash oil used up were 1.1 m/sup 3/ for removing 1% nitrogen, 0.3 m/sup 3/ for 1% carbon monoxide, 0.03 m/sup 3/ for 1% methane. The amount of hydrogen lost was 28 m/sup 3/ for 1% nitrogen, 9 m/sup 3/ for 1% methane and ranged from 9 m/sup 3/ to 39 m/sup 3/ for 1% carbon monoxide and 1 m/sup 3/ to 41 m/sup 3/ for carbon dioxide depending on whether the removal was done in liquid phase or vapor phase and with or without reduction of the oxide to methane. Next the report listed and described the major processes used in German hydrogenation plants to produce hydrogen. Most of them produced water gas, which then had its carbon monoxide changed to carbon dioxide, and the carbon oxides washed out with water under pressure and copper hydroxide solution. The methods included the Winkler, Pintsch-Hillebrand, and Schmalfeldt-Wintershall processes, as well as roasting of coke in a rotating generator, splitting of gases formed during hydrogenation, and separation of cokery gas into its components by the Linde process.

  16. Hydrogen bonding between the QB site ubisemiquinone and Ser-L223 in the bacterial reaction centre – a combined spectroscopic and computational perspective^

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Erik; Baldansuren, Amgalanbaatar; Lin, Tzu-Jen; Samoilova, Rimma I.; Wraight, Colin A.; Dikanov, Sergei A.; O’Malley, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    In the QB site of the Rba. sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction centre the donation of a hydrogen bond from the hydroxyl group of Ser-L223 to the ubisemiquinone formed after the first flash is debatable. In this study we use a combination of spectroscopy and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to comprehensively explore this topic. We show that ENDOR, ESEEM and HYSCORE spectroscopic differences between the mutant L223SA and the wild type sample (WT) are negligible, indic...

  17. Questioning hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag, Roel; Mazza, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    As an energy carrier, hydrogen is to be compared to electricity, the only widespread and viable alternative. When hydrogen is used to transmit renewable electricity, only 51% can reach the end user due to losses in electrolysis, hydrogen compression, and the fuel cell. In contrast, conventional electric storage technologies allow between 75% and 85% of the original electricity to be delivered. Even when hydrogen is extracted from gasified coal (with carbon sequestration) or from water cracked in high-temperature nuclear reactors, more of the primary energy reaches the end user if a conventional electric process is used instead. Hydrogen performs no better in mobile applications, where electric vehicles that are far closer to commercialization exceed fuel cell vehicles in efficiency, cost and performance. New, carbon-neutral energy can prevent twice the quantity of GHG's by displacing fossil electricity than it can by powering fuel cell vehicles. The same is true for new, natural gas energy. New energy resources should be used to displace high-GHG electric generation, not to manufacture hydrogen

  18. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  19. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century

  20. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

  1. Experiences and Perspectives of African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American Psychology Graduate Students: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    2013-01-01

    A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:21341899

  2. Development of a partnership with government and industry to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen. Final report, November 1, 1996--October 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Hydrogen Association (NHA) was born out of a Hydrogen Workshop, November 16 and 17, 1988, held at the Electric Power Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. The following mission statement was adopted and remains the statement of the organization: to foster the development of hydrogen technologies and their utilization in industrial and commercial applications and to promote the transition role of hydrogen in the energy field. This final technical report provides a summary of the activities performed by the NHA. Activities are broken down by task area, and include the following: Information exchange within the NHA; Information exchange within the hydrogen industry; Information exchange with other critical industries and the public; Annual US hydrogen meeting; Codes and standards which includes establishing industry consensus on safety issues; Industry perspective and needs; and Administrative. Appendices to this report include the following: Role of the NHA in strategic planning for the hydrogen economy--An international initiative; Hydrogen safety report; and Implementation plan workshop II, whose purpose was to seek commercialization scenarios and strategies to introduce hydrogen in near-term transportation and power markets.

  3. Passive Wireless Hydrogen Sensors Using Orthogonal Frequency Coded Acoustic Wave Devices, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors for NASA application to distributed wireless hydrogen leak...

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories Perspective on Code Development and High Performance Computing Resources in Support of the National HED/ICF Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouse, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McCoy, M. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, M. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verdon, C. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Through its Advanced Scientific Computing (ASC) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) code development efforts, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides a world leading numerical simulation capability for the National HED/ICF program in support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). In addition the ASC effort provides high performance computing platform capabilities upon which these codes are run. LLNL remains committed to, and will work with, the national HED/ICF program community to help insure numerical simulation needs are met and to make those capabilities available, consistent with programmatic priorities and available resources.

  5. Hydrogen program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  6. Outcomes, costs and stakeholders' perspectives associated with the incorporation of community pharmacy services into the National Health Insurance System in Thailand: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayut, Narong; Sookaneknun, Phayom; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Saramunee, Kritsanee

    2018-02-01

    Identify costs, outcomes and stakeholders' perspectives associated with incorporation of community pharmacy services into the Thai National Health Insurance System and their values to all stakeholders. Using a combination of search terms, a comprehensive literature search was performed using the Thai Journal Citation Index Centre, Health System Research Institute database, PubMed and references from recent reviews. Identified studies were published between January 2000 and December 2014. The review included publications in English and Thai on primary research undertaken in community pharmacies associated with the National Health Insurance System. Two independent authors performed study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. The literature search yielded 251 titles, with 18 satisfying the inclusion criteria. Clinical outcomes of community pharmacy services included control and reduction in blood pressure and blood sugar, improved adherence to medications, an increase in acceptance of interventions, and an increase in healthy behaviours. Thirty-three percentage of those at risk of diabetes and hypertension achieved normal blood sugar and blood pressure levels after being followed for 2-6 months by a community pharmacist. The cost of collaborative screening by community pharmacies and primary care units was US$ 4.5. Diabetes management costs were US$ 5.1-30.7. Community pharmacists reported high satisfaction rates. Stakeholders' perspectives revealed support for the community pharmacists' roles and the inclusion of community pharmacies as partners with the National Health Insurance System. Community pharmacy services improved outcomes for diabetic and hypertensive patients. This review supports the feasibility of incorporating community pharmacies into the Thai National Health System. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Structural analysis of phospholipase A2 from functional perspective. 1. Functionally relevant solution structure and roles of the hydrogen-bonding network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C; Byeon, I J; Li, Y; Tsai, M D

    1999-03-09

    Bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a small (13.8 kDa) Ca2+-dependent lipolytic enzyme, is rich in functional and structural character. In an effort to examine its detailed structure-function relationship, we determined its solution structure by multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at a functionally relevant pH. An ensemble of 20 structures generated has an average root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of 0.62 +/- 0.08 A for backbone (N, Calpha, C) atoms and 0.98 +/- 0.09 A for all heavy atoms. The overall structure shows several notable differences from the crystal structure: the first three residues at the N-terminus, the calcium-binding loop (Y25-T36), and the surface loop (V63-N72) appear to be flexible; the alpha-helical conformation of helix B (E17-F22) is absent; helix D appears to be shorter (D59-V63 instead of D59-D66); and the hydrogen-bonding network is less defined. These differences were analyzed in relation to the function of PLA2. We then further examined the H-bonding network, because its functional role or even its existence in solution has been in dispute recently. Our results show that part of the H-bonding network (the portion away from N-terminus) clearly exists in solution, as evidenced by direct observation (at 11.1 ppm) of a strong H-bond between Y73 and D99 and an implicated interaction between D99 and H48. Analyses of a series of mutants indicated that the existence of the Y73.D99 H-bond correlates directly with the conformational stability of the mutant. Loss of this H-bond results in a loss of 2-3 kcal/mol in the conformational stability of PLA2. The unequivocal identification and demonstration of the structural importance of a specific hydrogen bond, and the magnitude of its contribution to conformational stability, are uncommon to the best of our knowledge. Our results also suggest that, while the D99.H48 catalytic diad is the key catalytic machinery of PLA2, it also helps to maintain conformational

  8. Hydrogen usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-10-22

    This short tabular report listed the number of m/sup 3/ of hydrogen required for a (metric) ton of product for various combinations of raw material and product in a hydrogenation procedure. In producing auto gasoline, bituminous coal required 2800 m/sup 3/, brown coal required 2400 m/sup 3/, high-temperature-carbonization tar required 2100 m/sup 3/, bituminous coal distillation tar required 1300 m/sup 3/, brown-coal low-temperature-carbonization tar required 850 m/sup 3/, petroleum residues required 900 m/sup 3/, and gas oil required 500 m/sup 3/. In producing diesel oil, brown coal required 1900 m/sup 3/, whereas petroleum residues required 500 m/sup 3/. In producing diesel oil, lubricants, and paraffin by the TTH (low-temperature-hydrogenation) process, brown-coal low-temperature-carbonization tar required 550 m/sup 3/. 1 table.

  9. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Naab, Fabian; Savage, Lauren; Holland, Wayne; Duggan, Jerome; McDaniel, Floyd

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen as a fuel source is an attractive, relatively clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a major limitation in its use for the application of automobiles has been the requirement for an efficient hydrogen storage medium. Current hydrogen storage systems are: physical storage in high pressure tanks, metal hydride, and gas-on-solid absorption. However, these methods do not fulfill the Department of Energy's targeted requirements for a usable hydrogen storage capacity of 6.5 wt.%, operation near ambient temperature and pressure, quick extraction and refueling, reliability and reusability.Reports showing high capacity hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes originally prompted great excitement in the field, but further research has shown conflicting results. Results for carbon nanostructures have ranged from less than 1 wt.% to 70 wt.%. The wide range of adsorption found in previous experiments results from the difficulty in measuring hydrogen in objects just nanometers in size. Most previous experiments relied on weight analysis and residual gas analysis to determine the amount of hydrogen being adsorbed by the CNTs. These differing results encouraged us to perform our own analysis on single-walled (SWNTs), double-walled (DWNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as carbon fiber. We chose to utilize direct measurement of hydrogen in the materials using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates and the University of North Texas.

  10. Depicting community perspectives: repeat photography and participatory research as tools for assessing environmental services in Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Garrard; Thomas Kohler; Urs Wiesmann; Martin F. Price; Alton C. Byers; Ang Rita Sherp

    2015-01-01

    Efforts have been made to provide a scientific basis for using environmental services as a conceptual tool to enhance conservation and improve livelihoods in protected mountain areas (MtPAS). Little attention has been paid to participatory research or locals’ concerns as environmental service (ES) users and providers. Such perspectives can illuminate the complex interplay between mountain ecosystems, environmental services and the determinants of human well-being. Repeat photography, long use...

  11. Versatile Hydrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen is probably the most intriguing ele- ment in the periodic table. Although it is only the seventh most abundant element on earth, it is the most abundant element in the uni- verse. It combines with almost all the ele- ments of the periodic table, except for a few transition elements, to form binary compounds of the type E.

  12. Metastable hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose, V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the basic physical properties of the metastable 2 2 sub(1/2) state of atomic hydrogen. Applications relying on its special properties, including measurement of the Lamb shift, production of spin-polarized protons and the measurement of molecular electric moments, are discussed. (author)

  13. Non Intrrusive, On-line, Simultaneous Multi-Species Impurity Monitor in Hydrogen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purity of hydrogen fuel is important in engine testing at SSC. The hydrogen may become contaminated with nitrogen, argon, or oxygen. The hydrogen from the fuel...

  14. Non Intrrusive, On-line, Simultaneous Multi-Species Impurity Monitor in Hydrogen, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purity of hydrogen fuel is important in engine testing at SSC. The hydrogen may become contaminated with nitrogen, argon, helium or oxygen. The hydrogen from the...

  15. Phosphorus and nitrogen limitation and impairment of headwater streams relative to rivers: A national perspective for Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study provides a first national-scale assessment of the nutrient status of British headwater streams within the wider river network, by joint analysis of the national Countryside Survey Headwater Stream and Harmonised River Monitoring Scheme datasets. The results show that, while localized nutr...

  16. U.S. Poverty and Income Security Policy in a Cross National Perspective: The War On Poverty - What Worked?

    OpenAIRE

    Smeeding, Timothy

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of tax and transfer systems in removing low income families of all ages from poverty is compared across eight nations. The paper shows the relative ineffectiveness of the U.S. tax and transfer system in meeting the needs of its poor children, elderly and adults compared to other nations.

  17. Industrial implications of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressouyre, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Two major industrial implications of hydrogen are examined: problems related to the effect of hydrogen on materials properties (hydrogen embrittlement), and problems related to the use and production of hydrogen as a future energy vector [fr

  18. DAWN GRAND MAP CERES HYDROGEN MAP V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A global map of the concentration of hydrogen within the regolith of asteroid 1 Ceres on twenty-degree quasi-equal-area pixels is provided. Hydrogen concentrations...

  19. DAWN GRAND MAP VESTA HYDROGEN ABUNDANCE V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A global map of the abundance of hydrogen in micrograms/g within the regolith of asteroid 4 Vesta is provided for two-degree equal-angle pixels. Hydrogen abundances...

  20. Hydrogen-Based Energy Conservation System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and many others often rely on delivery of cryogenic hydrogen to meet their facility needs. NASA's Stennis Space Center is one of the largest users of hydrogen,...

  1. Electrocatalysis research for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR undertakes research in the Electrocatalysis of fuel cells and for hydrogen production. The Hydrogen South Africa (HySA) strategy supports research on electrocatalysts due to their importance to the national beneficiation strategy. The work...

  2. Hydrogen - the fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiesner, R.; Prosnan, J.

    2003-01-01

    Experts see hydrogen as the best possible long-term solution of the transport problem. Hydrogen as the fuel of the future should increase the competition amongst fuel suppliers and at the same time decrease the dependence of developed countries on oil import. Hydrogen can be produced from renewable sources - biomass, water, wind or solar energy. Hydrogen can be used as power source of mobile phones, computers, printers, television sets or even whole buildings. Hydrogen can be used as fuel for traditional combustion engines of cars but the system of mixing with air would have to be adjusted. For instance car producers like BMW or Hyundai have already started tests with hydrogen engines. These would then be much 'cleaner' then the traditional engines using diesel, petrol or natural gas. But rather then using hydrogen in traditional engines the experts consider fuel cells more perspective. According to company Shell Hydrogen first transformers would produce hydrogen using natural gas or other traditional fuels but this should decrease the volume of green-house-gasses by about 50 percent. In the opinion of company Shell the use of fuel cells would represent the most effective way of using minerals. Shell currently operates hydrogen filling stations on Island and in Tokyo, recently has opened a new one in Luxembourg and by the end of this month another one should open in Amsterdam. These plans are connected to a project of city busses run in cooperation of European Union and car producer Daimler Chrysler. (Authors)

  3. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jorg

    2016-12-15

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  4. Hydrogen: the future of the car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzit, P.

    2007-01-01

    With the end of the petroleum resources, the hydrogen offers interesting perspectives in the context of a sustainable development. The authors analyze the challenges of the hydrogen vehicle: the substitution fuels, the technical interior design, the cost of this evolution, the impacts on the world energy map and the part played by the France and the automobile sector in this evolution. (A.L.B.)

  5. The intergenerational transmission of divorce in cross-national perspective: Results from the Fertility and Family Survey

    OpenAIRE

    DRONKERS, Jaap; HARKONEN, Juho

    2008-01-01

    Published online: 20 Oct 2008 We used data on women's first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys to analyse the intergenerational transmission of divorce across 18 countries and to seek explanations in macro-level characteristics for the cross-national variation. Our results show that women whose parents divorced have a significantly higher risk of divorce in 17 countries. There is some cross-national variation. When compared with the USA, the association is stronger in six coun...

  6. The African National Congress Led Government's (In)ability to Counter Public Corruption: A Forensic Criminological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Setlhomamaru Dintwe

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of democracy in 1994, there has been a myriad of incidents of corruption involving the public servants in South Africa. Equally so, the government led by the African National Congress have developed various mechanisms aimed at dealing with the problem of corruption. The incidents of corruption, characterized by colossal thefts,  embezzlements and rampant bribery are the basis of erudition around the ability of the African National Congress led government in dealing with corru...

  7. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  8. The hydrogen technology assessment, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Addison

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this phase 1 report is to begin to form the information base of the economics and energy uses of hydrogen-related technologies on which the members of the National Hydrogen Association (NHA) can build a hydrogen vision of the future. The secondary goal of this report is the development of NHA positions on national research, development, and demonstration opportunities. The third goal, with the aid of the established hydrogen vision and NHA positions, is to evaluate ongoing federal research goals and activities. The evaluations will be performed in a manner that compares the costs associated with using systems that achieve those goals against the cost of performing those tasks today with fossil fuels. From this ongoing activity should emerge an NHA information base, one or more hydrogen visions of the future, and cost and performance targets for hydrogen applications to complete in the market place.

  9. Perspectives on past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Zagozewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  10. Perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices: a community-based participatory research project in three Saskatchewan first nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-04-28

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  11. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities. PMID:21573032

  12. A European and Swedish perspective on ICT – policies and strategies in education. National and institutional pathways: crossings, blind alleys and uphill slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Hansson

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at answering the following questions: 1. What general goals do politicians in Europe express in national policy documents for the integration of information and communication technology (ICT in their education systems? To develop that theme further we explored the situation in our own country Sweden as a case. 2. What policies and strategies for ICT in education do leaders of Swedish higher education institutions develop? 3. How do Swedish national priorities and academic institutional interests match? The globalisation of education forces different value systems to meet. There is on the national level highly different political values on what kind of education system to prefer – the Scandinavian model and the American model are two extremes. There are also very different values inherent in higher education institutions, the academia, - compared with the values and visions held by the political leaders. These value differences between and within countries are elaborated and discussed. A Swedish, Scandinavian and European perspective is adopted, but a wider international outlook is also given. It is suggested that the value conflicts, often not explicit, understood or recognised, are one of the major inhibitors for systemic change. The direction of change cannot be taken for granted – the driving forces pull in opposing directions. Different visions of the future struggle to be fulfilled.

  13. Achieving work-life balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, part II: perspectives from head athletic trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ashley; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pitney, William A

    2015-01-01

    Work-life balance has been examined at the collegiate level from multiple perspectives except for the athletic trainer (AT) serving in a managerial or leadership role. To investigate challenges and strategies used in achieving work-life balance from the perspective of the head AT at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Qualitative study. Web-based management system. A total of 18 head ATs (13 men, 5 women; age = 44 ± 8 years, athletic training experience = 22 ± 7 years) volunteered. Participants journaled their thoughts and experiences in response to a series of questions. To establish data credibility, we included multiple-analyst triangulation, stakeholder checks, and peer review. We used a general inductive approach to analyze the data. Two higher-order themes emerged from our analysis of the data: organizational challenges and work-life balance strategies. The organizational challenges theme contained 2 lower-order themes: lack of autonomy and role demands. The work-life balance strategies theme contained 3 lower-order themes: prioritization of commitments, strategic boundary setting, and work-family integration. Head ATs are susceptible to experiencing work-life imbalance just as ATs in nonsupervisory roles are. Although not avoidable, the causes are manageable. Head ATs are encouraged to prioritize their personal time, make efforts to spend time away from their demanding positions, and reduce the number of additional responsibilities that can impede time available to spend away from work.

  14. THE PARADOX OF MIGRATION AND THE INTERESTS OF THE ATOMISTIC NATION-STATES: THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phazha Jimmy Ngandwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The "paradox of migration and the interests of the atomistic nation-states" interrogates the phenomenon of migration in general and in the Southern African Development Community in particular. The point of departure of the paper is the African Union and the Southern African Development Community’s legal framework on migration, as read with the national legal instruments of the different member states. Its focal point is the raison d’être of this phenomenon of migration and the corresponding approaches and attitudes of the nation-states within which migration takes place inter se. This includes the psycho-social impact of migration. Internationally as well as regionally, States are concerned with issues of sovereignty, the preservation of the welfare of the citizenry, ensuring social cohesion social, cultural and economic development including job creation, and fighting against transnational organised crime, including terrorism. The theme of the paper is that whereas migration should form the bedrock of regionalism and globalisation, the negative attitudes of the nation-states to migration are more often than not at variance with the objectives of regionalism and globalisation. The central question of the research is how states can discharge their duties and obligations vis-à-vis their nationals without perpetuating the bottlenecks to and the stigma that attaches to migration and thereby upsetting the international as well as regional integration objectives of the free movement of people. This is the issue that the paper is intended to explore. The main areas of concern are that the negative attitudes of the nation-states are manifested in the hostile treatment of migrants at all ports of entry, including illegal or ungazetted points of entry, within the nation-states in general, and in their labour markets in particular. This research therefore explores the paradoxical nature of the duties and responsibilities of states within the

  15. Hydrogen, fuel of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, B.

    2008-01-01

    The European project HyWays has drawn out the road map of hydrogen energy development in Europe. The impact of this new energy vector on the security of energy supplies, on the abatement of greenhouse gases and on the economy should be important in the future. This article summarizes the main conclusions of the HyWays study: CO 2 emissions, hydrogen production mix, oil saving abatement, economic analysis, contribution of hydrogen to the development of renewable energies, hydrogen uses, development of regional demand and of users' centers, transport and distribution. The proposals of the HyWays consortium are as follows: implementing a strong public/private European partnership to reach the goals, favoring market penetration, developing training, tax exemption on hydrogen in the initial phase for a partial compensation of the cost difference, inciting public fleets to purchase hydrogen-fueled vehicles, using synergies with other technologies (vehicles with internal combustion engines, hybrid vehicles, biofuels of second generation..), harmonizing hydrogen national regulations at the European scale. (J.S.)

  16. A European and Swedish perspective on ICT – policies and strategies in education. National and institutional pathways: crossings, blind alleys and uphill slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Hansson

    2004-04-01

    The globalisation of education forces different value systems to meet. There is on the national level highly different political values on what kind of education system to prefer – the Scandinavian model and the American model are two extremes. There are also very different values inherent in higher education institutions, the academia, - compared with the values and visions held by the political leaders. These value differences between and within countries are elaborated and discussed. A Swedish, Scandinavian and European perspective is adopted, but a wider international outlook is also given. It is suggested that the value conflicts, often not explicit, understood or recognised, are one of the major inhibitors for systemic change. The direction of change cannot be taken for granted – the driving forces pull in opposing directions. Different visions of the future struggle to be fulfilled.

  17. Dynamics of hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    weak (strained) Si–Si bond thereby apparently enhancing the hydrogen diffusion and increasing the light-induced dangling bonds. Keywords. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon; metastable electronic states; hydrogen diffusion. PACS Nos 61.43.Dq; 66.30.-h; 71.23.Cq. 1. Introduction. Hydrogen passivation of dangling bonds ...

  18. 1. European Hydrogen Energy Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This conference is the first of a series of EHA (European Hydrogen Association) conferences that will take place every two years in Europe with the collaboration of the national European Hydrogen Associations. EHEC 2003 takes place within the context of the debates on long term energy strategies organized by the international authorities and the governments of many countries. Under the patronage of the European Commission and the French government, the conference will aim at providing a comprehensive picture of the research work and demonstrations on hydrogen and fuel cells that the currently being carried out all over the globe. EHEC 2003 will provide an opportunity to define the role that hydrogen will have in tomorrow's energy landscape and, in particular, the benefits with regard to: 1)sustainable development of energy 2)control of climate change 3)development of renewable energy 4)increase demand for ground transport. (O.M.)

  19. The intergenerational transmission of divorce in cross-national perspective: results from the Fertility and Family Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Harkonen, Juho

    2008-11-01

    We used data on women's first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys to analyse the intergenerational transmission of divorce across 18 countries and to seek explanations in macro-level characteristics for the cross-national variation. Our results show that women whose parents divorced have a significantly higher risk of divorce in 17 countries. There is some cross-national variation. When compared with the USA, the association is stronger in six countries. This variation is negatively associated with the proportion of women in each cohort who experienced the divorce of their parents and with the national level of women's participation in the labour force during childhood. We conclude that differences in the contexts in which children of divorce learn marital and interpersonal behaviour affect the strength of the intergenerational transmission of divorce.

  20. Soybean exports and deforestation from a world-systems perspective: a cross-national investigation of comparative disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kelly F

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on world-system theorizing to explore the relationship between deforestation and the vertical flow of soybean exports from less-developed nations to more-developed nations as a specific form of ecologically unequal exchange. Despite overwhelming case-study research exploring soybean-deforestation dynamics in less-developed countries, the current literature lacks any cross-national investigation of this trend. Ordinary least squares regression is used to examine whether soybean exports are associated with deforestation and if the magnitude of this relationship varies by region. Overall, the findings confirm the proposed hypotheses and suggest that having a comparative advantage in soybean production is not a viable development strategy.

  1. The hydrogen; L'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The hydrogen as an energy system represents nowadays a main challenge (in a scientific, economical and environmental point of view). The physical and chemical characteristics of hydrogen are at first given. Then, the challenges of an hydrogen economy are explained. The different possibilities of hydrogen production are described as well as the distribution systems and the different possibilities of hydrogen storage. Several fuel cells are at last presented: PEMFC, DMFC and SOFC. (O.M.)

  2. Perspectives of frontline health workers on Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme before and after community engagement interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2016-01-01

    Barely a decade after introduction of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), significant successes have been recorded in universal access to basic healthcare services. However, sustainability of the scheme is increasingly threatened by concerns on quality of health service delivery in

  3. Are conflict-causing tigers different? Another perspective for understanding human-tiger conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamichhane, B.R.; Persoon, G.A.; Leirs, H.; Musters, C.J.M.; Subedi, N.; Gairhe, K.P.; Pokheral, C.P.; Poudel, S.; Mishra, R.; Dhakal, M.; Smith, J.L.D.; Iongh, H.H.

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of the problem-causing tigers in Chitwan National Park (Nepal) to determine if specific groups or individuals in the source population have higher probability to get involved in conflicts with humans. From 2007 to 2016 we identified a total of 22 such tigers including

  4. Internationalizing Higher Education in South Africa and the United States: Policy and Practice in Global, National, and Local Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    This article comparatively examines the micro-dynamics of the internationalization of higher education at two major research universities: one in South Africa and one in the United States. It is specifically concerned with understanding the multidimensional flows: global, national, and local (gloconal)--within which international education…

  5. The "Culture" of Migrant Pupils: A Nation- and Welfare-State Historical Perspective on the European Refugee Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Culture seems to function as a central explanation when refugees and other migrants are framed as a risk and a challenge in European and national politics across the member states, including educational politics. Based on the case of Denmark during the 1970s, the article unfolds how education historically has been an arena for the internal…

  6. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  7. Perspectives on the Present State and Future of Higher Education Faculty Development in Kazakhstan: Implications for National Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitova, Dinara

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at examining the present state of higher education faculty development in Kazakhstan in the context of multidimensional nationwide development reforms and exploring implications for the National Human Resource Development of the country. For the purpose of this research, theoretical human resource development (HRD) and…

  8. Legal and ethical consequences of international biobanking from a national perspective: the German BMB-EUCoop project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Jürgen W; Pickardt, Thomas; Bedau, Maren; Fuchs, Michael; Lenk, Christian; Paster, Inga; Spranger, Tarde M; Stockter, Ulrich; Bauer, Ulrike; Cooper, David N; Krawczak, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The international transfer of human biomaterial and data has become a prerequisite for collaborative biomedical research to be successful. However, although a national legal framework for 'biobanking' has already been formulated in many countries, little is known about how an international exchange of data and samples might affect the legal position of national biobanks and their donors. The German Telematics Platform and the Competence Network 'Congenital Heart Defects' jointly instigated a project (BMB-EUCoop) to (i) identify and assess the legal risks ensuing for biobanks and their donors in the context of Europe-wide research collaborations, (ii) devise practical recommendations to minimize or avoid these risks, and (iii) provide generic informational text, contracts and agreements to facilitate their practical implementation. Four different countries were included in the study; namely, the UK, Netherlands, Austria and Switzerland. The results of the study indicate that the degree of similarity between legal systems in different countries varies according to the respective field of jurisdiction. Although personality and property rights have long been enshrined in virtually identical pieces of law, the applicable medical professional regulations were found to be somewhat heterogeneous. Furthermore, clear-cut differences were often found to be lacking between regulations that reflect either 'soft law' or the nationally binding 'hard law' that has emerged from it. In view of the potential ambiguities, the experts uniformly concluded that the rights and interests of national (in this case, German) biobanks and their donors would be best protected by explicitly addressing any uncertainties in formal contractual agreements.

  9. Information needs and instrumentation availability for hydrogen control and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gun Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Jin Yong [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moo Sung [Hansung Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    This study is concerned with development of comprehensive hydrogen management strategies based on identification of a severe accident condition and formulation of hydrogen models. Reducing containment hydrogen during a severe accident will mitigate a potential containment failure mechanism. One of the hydrogen control strategies is intentional burning by the hydrogen igniter. Though intentional hydrogen burn strategy will cause pressure and temperature spikes, it is the fastest way of reducing the containment hydrogen concentration. Based on the Westinghouse owners group Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) hydrogen ignition decision tree was developed. From the information of decision tree, hydrogen ignition decision can be determined in Containment Event Tree (CET). We have examined previous hydrogen generation related models in fuel coolant interaction (FCI) and developed transient model for it. Using this model, we have simulated the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) tests which are single droplet experiments, and Fully Instrumented Test Site (FITS) tests which contain dynamic fragmentation.

  10. Factors driving employee participation in corporate BYOD programs: A cross-national comparison from the perspective of future employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuequn Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As individuals all around the world increasingly use mobile devices in their daily life, their desire to use the same devices in the workplace continuously grows. In response, organizations are more and more allowing their employees to use their own devices for both business and private purposes and offer so called ‘Bring-your-own-Device’ (BYOD programs. For organizations with global operations there is a need to examine the drivers of BYOD demand across different national cultures to assess how to develop a successful BYOD program. Based on recent literature on BYOD, we examine how different factors contribute to employees’ behavioural intention to participate in a BYOD program across different national cultures. The model was examined by surveying students from China, Germany and U.S. in their final term. The results show significant cross-cultural differences, particularly regarding the 'Perceived Threats'. Overall this study offers novel insights for cross cultural BYOD implementations.

  11. Electronic collaboration across organizational borders in the health care sector: Design and deployment from a national perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Heimly, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to make a contribution to the improvement of electronic collaboration across organizational borders in the health care sector. I have studied this problem from a sociotechnical1 point of view and have tried to find out what we can learn from the process and how lessons learned could potentially influence further development and deployment of collaboration systems at a national level. I have used electronic referrals as a case. Practice consultants are General Pra...

  12. Historical perspectives: The role of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the national space nuclear power programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Sovie, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The history of the NASA Lewis Research Center's role in space nuclear power programs is reviewed. Lewis has provided leadership in research, development, and the advancement of space power and propulsion systems. Lewis' pioneering efforts in nuclear reactor technology, shielding, high temperature materials, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mechanical and direct energy conversion, high-energy propellants, electric propulsion and high performance rocket fuels and nozzles have led to significant technical and management roles in many national space nuclear power and propulsion programs.

  13. Gender Perspectives on Climate Change & Human Security in India: An Analysis of National Missions on Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti K Parikh; Dinoj Kumar Upadhyay; Tanu Singh

    2012-01-01

    Women play a crucial role in many activities essential for coping with climate change. Indian women appear to be more vulnerable than men to differential impacts of climate change because they share most of the household managing responsibilities but have limited access to participation in decision making and governance. Most of the policies for climate change adaptation and mitigation do not specifically address the vulnerability of women. The National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC),...

  14. Promotion of Wellness and Mental Health Awareness Among Physicians in Training: Perspective of a National, Multispecialty Panel of Residents and Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskivich, Timothy J; Jardine, Dinchen A; Tseng, Jennifer; Correa, Ricardo; Stagg, Brian C; Jacob, Kristin M; Harwood, Jared L

    2015-03-01

    Physicians in training are at high risk for depression, and physicians in practice have a substantially elevated risk of suicide compared to the general population. The graduate medical education community is currently mobilizing efforts to improve resident wellness. We sought to provide a trainee perspective on current resources to support resident wellness and resources that need to be developed to ensure an optimal learning environment. The ACGME Council of Review Committee Residents, a 29-member multispecialty group of residents and fellows, conducted an appreciative inquiry exercise to (1) identify existing resources to address resident wellness; (2) envision the ideal learning environment to promote wellness; and (3) determine how the existing infrastructure could be modified to approach the ideal. The information was aggregated to identify consensus themes from group discussion. National policy on resident wellness should (1) increase awareness of the stress of residency and destigmatize depression in trainees; (2) develop systems to identify and treat depression in trainees in a confidential way to reduce barriers to accessing help; (3) enhance mentoring by senior peers and faculty; (4) promote a supportive culture; and (5) encourage additional study of the problem to deepen our understanding of the issue. A multispecialty, national panel of trainees identified actionable goals to broaden efforts in programs and sponsoring institutions to promote resident wellness and mental health awareness. Engagement of all stakeholders within the graduate medical education community will be critical to developing a comprehensive solution to this important issue.

  15. Application of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) as a stratification tool on admission in an Italian acute medical ward: A perspective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolli, Walter; Rigoni, Marta; Torri, Emanuele; Cozzio, Susanna; Vettorato, Elisa; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) as tool for patient risk stratification at admission in an acute Internal Medicine ward and to ensure patient placement in ward areas with the required and most appropriate intensity of care. As secondary objective, we considered NEWS performance in two subgroups of patients: sudden cardiac events (acute coronary syndromes and arrhythmic events), and chronic respiratory insufficiency. We conducted a perspective cohort single centre study on 2,677 unselected patients consecutively admitted from July 2013 to March 2015 in the Internal Medicine ward of the hospital of Trento, Italy. The NEWS was mandatory collected on ward admission. We defined three risk categories for clinical deterioration: low score (NEWS 0-4), medium score (NEWS 5-6), and high score (NEWS≥7). Following adverse outcomes were considered: total and early (NEWS. For patients with NEWS >4 vs patients with NEWS NEWS. National Early Warning Score assessed on ward admission may enable risk stratification of clinical deterioration and can be a good predictor of in-hospital serious adverse outcomes, although sudden cardiac events and chronic hypoxaemia could constitute some limits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prevention--a cost-effective way to fight the non-communicable disease epidemic: an academic perspective of the United Nations High-level NCD Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tanner, Marcel; Kessler, Claudia; Burri, Christian; Künzli, Nino

    2011-09-07

    The United Nations General Assembly has convened a Summit on non-communicable diseases (NCDs), an historic moment in the global combat of these disorders. Lifestyles in increasingly urban and globalised environments have led to a steep surge in NCD incidence in low and middle income countries, where two thirds of all NCD deaths occur (most importantly from cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease as well as diabetes). Treatment of NCDs is usually long term and expensive, thus threatening patients' and nations' budgets and putting them at high risk for poverty. The NCD Summit offers an opportunity for strengthening and shaping primary prevention, the most cost-effective instrument to fight major risk factors such as tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. From a Swiss perspective, we also emphasised the efforts for new laws on prevention and diagnosis registration, in accordance with the recommendations of the NCD summit in order to strengthen primary prevention and disease monitoring. In addition, the need for structural prevention across all policy sectors with leadership in environmental policy making to prevent NCDs as well as the need to adapt and strengthen primary health care are equally relevant for Switzerland. To compliment efforts in primary prevention, the field of NCDs requires special R&D platforms for affordable NCD drugs and diagnostics for neglected population segments in both Switzerland and low and middle income countries. Switzerland has a track record in research and development against diseases of poverty on a global scale that now needs to be applied to NCDs.

  17. Science, mathematics and technology education in the US: a perspective from the "frontlines of the classroom to national policy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Pertzborn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade significant emphasis has been placed on increasing the involvement and influence of the professional scientific community in America's K-12 classrooms. The origins of this thrust have arisen from a variety of real and perceived crises occurring in America's K-12 classrooms. Projections for the nation's future workforce needs indicate an increased demand for science and technically literate workers, while fewer of the nation's students are pursuing advanced degrees in these academic areas of expertise. In an effort to address these issues and to impact the overall understanding and quality of science, math and technology education, several of the federal agencies have increasingly included a percentage of research funding devoted to the objective of improving the quality of kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12, see Table 1 formal education and informal public outreach. To this end, NASA's Space Science Enterprise in particular has demonstrated a successful implementation approach and has been a national leader in forging strong partnerships with the education community to address these concerns.

  18. Teachers’ and Education Support Professionals’ Perspectives on Bullying and Prevention: Findings From a National Education Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Gulemetova, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Given growing concerns regarding the prevalence and seriousness of bullying, the National Education Association recently drew upon its membership to launch a national study of teachers’ and education support professionals’ perceptions of bullying, and need for additional training on bullying prevention efforts and school-wide policies. The data were collected from a representative sample of 5,064 National Education Association members (2,163 teachers and 2,901 education support professionals). Analyses indicated that compared to education support professionals, teachers were more likely to witness students being bullied, more likely to view bullying as a significant problem at their school, and were more likely to have students report bullying to them. Teachers were more likely to be involved in bullying policies at their school, yet both groups reported wanting more training related to cyberbullying and bullying related to students’ sexual orientation, gender issues, and racial issues. Implications for school psychologists and the development of school-wide bullying prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:25414539

  19. Science, mathematics and technology education in the US: a perspective from the "frontlines of the classroom to national policy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertzborn, R. A.

    2005-06-01

    In the past decade significant emphasis has been placed on increasing the involvement and influence of the professional scientific community in America's K-12 classrooms. The origins of this thrust have arisen from a variety of real and perceived crises occurring in America's K-12 classrooms. Projections for the nation's future workforce needs indicate an increased demand for science and technically literate workers, while fewer of the nation's students are pursuing advanced degrees in these academic areas of expertise. In an effort to address these issues and to impact the overall understanding and quality of science, math and technology education, several of the federal agencies have increasingly included a percentage of research funding devoted to the objective of improving the quality of kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12, see Table 1) formal education and informal public outreach. To this end, NASA's Space Science Enterprise in particular has demonstrated a successful implementation approach and has been a national leader in forging strong partnerships with the education community to address these concerns.

  20. The cost effectiveness of ivabradine in the treatment of chronic heart failure from the U.K. National Health Service perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, A; Paracha, N; Davies, A; Branscombe, N; Cowie, M R; Sculpher, M

    2014-07-01

    Ivabradine, a specific heart rate lowering therapy, has been shown in a randomised placebo-controlled study, Systolic HF Treatment with the If Inhibitor Ivabradine Trial (SHIfT), to significantly reduce the composite end point of cardiovascular death and hospitalisation for worsening heart failure (HF) in patients with systolic HF who are in sinus rhythm and with a heart rate ≥70 bpm, when added to optimised medical therapy (HR: 0.82, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.90, p<0.0001). We assessed the cost effectiveness of ivabradine, from a UK National Health Service perspective, based on the results of SHIfT. A Markov model estimated the cost effectiveness of ivabradine compared with standard care for two cohorts of patients with HF (heart rate ≥75 bpm in line with the EU labelled indication; and heart rate ≥70 bpm in line with the SHIfT study population). Modelled outcomes included death, hospitalisation, quality of life and New York Heart Association class. Total costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) for ivabradine and standard care were estimated over a lifetime horizon. The incremental cost per additional QALY for ivabradine plus standard care versus standard care has been estimated as £8498 for heart rate ≥75 bpm and £13 764 for heart rate ≥70 bpm. Ivabradine is expected to have a 95% chance of being cost-effective in the EU licensed population using the current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence cost effectiveness threshold of £20 000 per QALY. These results were robust in sensitivity analyses. This economic evaluation suggests that the use of ivabradine is likely to be cost-effective in eligible patients with HF from a UK National Health Service perspective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. dimensional architectures via hydrogen bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    However, the utilization of hydrogen bond supramolecular syn- thons in assembling metal–organic frameworks is relatively less explored area of research. The combi- nation of these two aspects is expected to result in more control over the network geometries and there- fore the properties. The aim of the present work is to.

  2. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  3. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells for IT Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer

    2016-03-09

    With the increased push for carbon-free and sustainable data centers, data center operators are increasingly looking to renewable energy as a means to approach carbon-free status and be more sustainable. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a world leader in hydrogen research and already has an elaborate hydrogen infrastructure in place at the Golden, Colorado, state-of-the-art data center and facility. This presentation will discuss hydrogen generation, storage considerations, and safety issues as they relate to hydrogen delivery to fuel cells powering IT equipment.

  4. 14 Years of PID Services at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB: Connected Frameworks, Research Data and Lessons Learned from a National Research Library Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Kraft

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In an ideal research world, any scientific content should be citable and the coherent content, as well as the citation itself, should be persistent. However, today’s scientists do not only produce traditional research papers – they produce comprehensive digital resources and collections. TIB’s mission is to develop a supportive framework for a sustainable access to such digital content – focusing on areas of engineering as well as architecture, chemistry, information technology, mathematics and physics. The term digital content comprises all digitally available resources such as audiovisual media, databases, texts, images, spreadsheets, digital lab journals, multimedia, 3D objects, statistics and software code. In executing this mission, TIB provides services for the management of digital content during ongoing and for finished research. This includes:   - a technical and administrative infrastructure for indexing, cataloguing, DOI registration and licensing for text and digital objects, namely the TIB DOI registration which is active since 2005,   - the administration of the ORCID DE consortium, an institutional network fostering the adoption of ORCID across academic institutions in Germany,   - training and consultancy for data management, complemented with a digital repository for the deposition and provision of accessible, traceable and citable research data (RADAR,   - a Research and Development Department where innovative projects focus on the visualization and the sustainable access to digital information, and   - the development of a supportive framework within the German research data community which accompanies the life cycle of scientific knowledge generation and transfer. Its goal is to harmonize (metadata display and exchange primarily on a national level (LEIBNIZ DATA project.

  5. Compressorless Gas Storage and Regenerative Hydrogen Purification, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microwave regenerative sorption media gas storage/delivery techniques are proposed to address both compressed gas management and hydrogen purification requirements...

  6. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is...

  7. Community perspectives on food insecurity and obesity: Focus groups with caregivers of metis and Off-reserve first nations children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Cooke, Martin J; Hanning, Rhona; Wilk, Piotr; Gonneville, Shelley L H

    2015-10-16

    Aboriginal children in Canada are at a higher risk for overweight and obesity than other Canadian children. In Northern and remote areas, this has been linked to a lack of affordable nutritious food. However, the majority of Aboriginal children live in urban areas where food choices are more plentiful. This study aimed to explore the experiences of food insecurity among Métis and First Nations parents living in urban areas, including the predictors and perceived connections between food insecurity and obesity among Aboriginal children. Factors influencing children's diets, families' experiences with food insecurity, and coping strategies were explored using focus group discussions with 32 parents and caregivers of Métis and off-reserve First Nations children from Midland-Penetanguishene and London, Ontario. Four focus groups were conducted and transcribed verbatim between July 2011 and March 2013. A thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo software, and second coders ensured reliability of the results. Caregivers identified low income as an underlying cause of food insecurity within their communities and as contributing to poor nutrition among their children. Families reported a reliance on energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, as these tended to be more affordable and lasted longer than more nutritious, fresh food options. A lack of transportation also compromised families' ability to purchase healthful food. Aboriginal caregivers also mentioned a lack of access to traditional foods. Coping strategies such as food banks and community programming were not always seen as effective. In fact, some were reported as potentially exacerbating the problem of overweight and obesity among First Nations and Métis children. Food insecurity manifested itself in different ways, and coping strategies were often insufficient for addressing the lack of fruit and vegetable consumption in Aboriginal children's diets. Results suggest that obesity prevention strategies should take a

  8. Sialoendoscopy: state of the art, challenges and further perspectives. Round Table, 101(st) SIO National Congress, Catania 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, A; Benazzo, M; Capaccio, P; De Campora, L; De Vincentiis, M; Fusconi, M; Martellucci, S; Paludetti, G; Pasquini, E; Puxeddu, R; Speciale, R

    2015-10-01

    This draft of the Official Round Table held during the 101(st) SIO National Congress is an updated review on sialoendoscopy, a technique used for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive pathologies of salivary glands in a minimally invasive fashion. This review treats many aspects of salivary gland endoscopy, starting from anatomy to deal with the more advanced surgical techniques and analyses the main decisional algorithms proposed in the literature. In addition, particular attention was directed to the current limitations of this technique and to the potential developments that sialoendoscopy could have in the near future.

  9. Industrial view of Hydrogen Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois Jackow

    2006-01-01

    Industrial Gases Companies have been mastering Hydrogen production, distribution, safe handling and applications for several decades for a wide range of gas applications. This unique industrial background positioned these companies to play a key role in the emerging Hydrogen Energy market, which can rely, at early stage of development, on already existing infrastructure, logistics and technical know-how. Nevertheless, it is important to acknowledge that Hydrogen Energy raised specific challenges which are not totally addressed by industrial gas activities. The main difference is obviously in the final customer profile, which differs significantly from the qualified professional our industry is used to serve. A non professional end-user, operating with Hydrogen at home or on board of his family car, has to be served with intrinsically safe and user-friendly solutions that exceed by far the industrial specifications already in place. Another significant challenge is that we will need breakthroughs both in terms of products and infrastructure, with development time frame that may require several decades. The aim of this presentation is to review how a company like Air Liquide, worldwide leader already operating more than 200 large hydrogen production sites, is approaching this new Hydrogen Energy market, all along the complete supply chain from production to end-users. Our contributions to the analysis, understanding and deployment of this new Energy market, will be illustrated by the presentation of Air Liquide internal development's as well as our participation in several national and European projects. (author)

  10. Hydrogenation of organic solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, W.R.K.; Kawa, W.

    1980-02-01

    Eight organic solid wastes, six cellulosic and two noncellulosic, were hydrogenated batchwise with and without a catalyst. Conversions obtained range from 64 to 98 % of moisture- and ash-free (maf) raw material; oil yields, 10 to 59 %; and gaseous hydrocarbon yields, 7 to 16 %. Based on batch hydrogenation results, the oil production from large-scale hydrogenation of the wastes is projected to be 1.6 to 3.5 bbl/ton of maf raw material; the gaseous-hydrocarbon production, 2000 to 4100 standard cubic feet (scf). Activities of the two catalysts (SnCl/sub 2// and a combination of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/S) used in the hydrogenation of the wastes are discussed. Also discussed are the chemical reactions and mechanisms involved in the hydrogenation, potential market for the product oil, and possible improvement of the oil yield. Elemental compositions of the hydrogenation oils and types of hydrocarbons including oxygenated hydrocarbons found in the oils are presented. The energy equivalent of the organic solid wastes generated in the United States in 1973 is shown to be 27 % of the nation's total 1972 energy production.

  11. Social vulnerability from a social ecology perspective: a cohort study of older adults from the National Population Health Survey of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous social factors, generally studied in isolation, have been associated with older adults’ health. Even so, older people’s social circumstances are complex and an approach which embraces this complexity is desirable. Here we investigate many social factors in relation to one another and to survival among older adults using a social ecology perspective to measure social vulnerability among older adults. Methods 2740 adults aged 65 and older were followed for ten years in the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Twenty-three individual-level social variables were drawn from the 1994 NPHS and five Enumeration Area (EA)-level variables were abstracted from the 1996 Canadian Census using postal code linkage. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify dimensions of social vulnerability. All social variables were summed to create a social vulnerability index which was studied in relation to ten-year mortality. Results The PCA was limited by low variance (47%) explained by emergent factors. Seven dimensions of social vulnerability emerged in the most robust, yet limited, model: social support, engagement, living situation, self-esteem, sense of control, relations with others and contextual socio-economic status. These dimensions showed complex inter-relationships and were situated within a social ecology framework, considering spheres of influence from the individual through to group, neighbourhood and broader societal levels. Adjusting for age, sex, and frailty, increasing social vulnerability measured using the cumulative social vulnerability index was associated with increased risk of mortality over ten years in a Cox regression model (HR 1.04, 95% CI:1.01-1.07, p = 0.01). Conclusions Social vulnerability has important independent influence on older adults’ health though relationships between contributing variables are complex and do not lend themselves well to fragmentation into a small number of discrete factors. A

  12. Has NICE got it right? An international perspective considering the case of Technology Appraisal No. 98 by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlander, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has been widely recognised as setting an international standard for high-quality health technology assessments (HTAs) including economic evaluation. A previous critical analysis of NICE Technology Appraisal No. 98 (TA98), evaluating methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and atomoxetine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, revealed a number of issues, which must cast doubt on the robustness of the NICE approach when addressing a complex clinical decision problem. The exploration of potential underlying problems will be followed by a discussion of lessons for international healthcare policy-makers, and is intended to be an invitation to further debate and inquiry, not a presentation of definitive conclusions. Pertaining to the technology assessment report, potential problems were identified relating to an unnecessarily narrow scope, data search and selection strategy, the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness, data synthesis across studies and clinical effect measures, and limitations of the economic model. The appraisal process moderated the asserted 'clear conclusions' of the assessment but could not compensate for some of its gaps. It is suggested that key issues contributing to these problems may have included a separation of clinical and economic perspectives, a highly standardised reference case analysis that was followed schematically, the absence of an effective system for quality assurance of technology assessments, and transparency deficits of the economic evaluation. Further considerations for international policy-makers looking at NICE as a potential role model for HTAs are discussed, such as institutional context, the objectives of collectively financed healthcare and related value judgments, the reliance on QALYs as a universal and comprehensive measure of health benefits, the appropriate perspective for analysis, and process

  13. The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, auricular acupuncture to support patients with substance abuse and behavioral health disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuyt EB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth B Stuyt,1 Claudia A Voyles2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Pueblo, CO, 2Department of Clinical Studies, AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine, Austin, TX, USA Abstract: The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA-standardized 3- to 5-point ear acupuncture protocol, born of a community-minded response to turbulent times not unlike today, has evolved into the most widely implemented acupuncture-assisted protocol, not only for substance abuse, but also for broad behavioral health applications. This evolution happened despite inconsistent research support. This review highlights the history of the protocol and the research that followed its development. Promising, early randomized-controlled trials were followed by a mixed field of positive and negative studies that may serve as a whole to prove that NADA, despite its apparent simplicity, is neither a reductive nor an independent treatment, and the need to refine the research approaches. Particularly focusing on the last decade and its array of trials that elucidate aspects of NADA application and effects, the authors recommend that, going forward, research continues to explore the comparison of the NADA protocol added to accepted treatments to those treatments alone, recognizing that it is not a stand-alone procedure but a psychosocial intervention that affects the whole person and can augment outcomes from other treatment modalities. Keywords: National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA, ear acupuncture, acudetox, addiction, mental health, trauma

  14. Research and development on the application of advanced control technologies to advanced nuclear reactor systems: A US national perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.D.; Monson, L.R.; Carrol, D.G.; Dayal, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Control system designs for nuclear power plants are becoming more advanced through the use of digital technology and automation. This evolution is taking place because of: (1) the limitations in analog based control system performance and maintenance and availability and (2) the promise of significant improvement in plant operation and availability due to advances in digital and other control technologies. Digital retrofits of control systems in US nuclear plants are occurring now. Designs of control and protection systems for advanced LWRs are based on digital technology. The use of small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers in these designs is the first step of an evolutionary process described in this paper. Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, GE Nuclear Energy and several universities are performing research and development in the application of advances in control theory, software engineering, advanced computer architectures, artificial intelligence, and man-machine interface analysis to control system design. The target plant concept for the work described in this paper is the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module reactor (PRISM), an advanced modular liquid metal reactor concept. This and other reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. 18 refs., 5 figs

  15. Hydrogen in metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter, TJ

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available of hydrogen in metals processing and treatment identified, and mechanisms for hydrogen entry into a ferritic surface are discussed. The differences between hydrogen attack of ferritic steels and copper alloys are contrasted, and an unusual case study...

  16. Effective hydrogen storage: a strategic chemistry challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, William I F

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current status and future potential of hydrogen storage from a chemistry perspective and is based on the concluding presentation of the Faraday Discussion 151--Hydrogen Storage Materials. The safe, effective and economical storage of hydrogen is one of the main scientific and technological challenges in the move towards a low-carbon economy. One key sector is transportation where future vehicles will most likely be developed around a balance of battery-electric and hydrogen fuel-cell electric technologies. Although there has been a very significant research effort in solid-state hydrogen storage, high-pressure gas storage combined with conventional metal hydrides is still seen as the current intermediate-term candidate for car manufacturers. Significant issues have arisen in the search for improved solid-state hydrogen storage materials; for example, facile reversibility has been a major challenge for many recently studied complex hydrides while physisorption in porous structures is still restricted to cryogenic temperatures. However, many systems fulfil the majority of necessary criteria for improved hydrogen storage--indeed, the discovery of reversibility in multicomponent hydride systems along with recent chemistry breakthroughs in off-board and solvent-assisted regeneration suggest that the goal of both improved on-board reversible and off-board regenerated hydrogen storage systems can be achieved.

  17. Photovoltaic Hydrogen Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Taher; Janesick, James R.; Lambe, John

    1989-01-01

    Photovoltaic device senses hydrogen developed to test degradation of diodes with platinum flash gates on backs. Sensing element is p/n junction rather than conventional Schottky barrier or metal oxide/silicon field-effect transistor. Hydrogen-indicating electrical signal modulated optically rather than electrically. Layered structure of hydrogen detector and principle of operation resemble silicon solar photovoltaic cell. Hydrogen detector responds to hydrogen in atmosphere within minutes and recovers quickly when hydrogen removed.

  18. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods: Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results: In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Conclusion: Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years

  19. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fusheini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650, in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the “success” of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity; and ownership and participation. Conclusion Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period

  20. Thirty-day Readmissions After Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: A National Perspective in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Smit D; Desai, Rupak; Patel, Upenkumar; Singh, Sandeep; Patel, Zinal; Patel, Neel; Zhang, Allan; Panwala, Amruta H; Khan, Vinshi N; Singh, Gagandeep; Shah, Nihar

    2018-03-20

    Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH) are 2 of the most common reasons for hospital admissions across the United States. The 30-day readmission after index admission poses a major burden on the health care infrastructure, and thus, it is important to assess the causes of 30-day readmission for patients with UGIH and LGIH. The study cohort was derived from the 2013 National Readmission Database. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) Volume 3 diagnosis codes were utilized to identify UGIH and LGIH patients from this data set. Patients who were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days within the same calendar year were further analyzed. Categorical variables and continuous variables were assessed by the χ test and the student t test, respectively. The independent predictors of unplanned 30-day readmissions were recognized by multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for stratified cluster design of National Readmission Database. SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used for data analysis. The number of index admissions identified from the National Readmission Data 2013 were 82,290 for UGIH and 133,114 for LGIH. All-cause 30-day readmission rate for UGIH versus LGIH was 14.6% (readmitted N=12,046; 56.64% age 65 y and above) versus 14.4% (readmitted N=19,128; 70.21% age 65 y and above and 49.61% men). Gastrointestinal causes were most common (33.9% vs. 39.6%), followed by cardiac (13.3% vs. 15.3%), infectious (10.4% vs. 9.1%), and respiratory causes (7.8% vs. 7.1%) for 30-day readmission for UGIH and LGIH. Significant predictors of increased 30-day readmission (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, P-value) included metastatic disease (2.15, 1.75-2.64, P3 days (1.50, 1.38-1.63, P<0.001). Predictors for 30-day readmission for LGIH included metastatic disease (1.75, 1.48-2.06, P<0.001), liver disease (1.59, 1.49-1.71, P<0.001), and drug abuse (1.38, 1

  1. Maternity care for trafficked women: Survivor experiences and clinicians' perspectives in the United Kingdom's National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Debra; Howard, Louise M; Oram, Sian; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Although trafficked women and adolescents are at risk of unprotected or forced sex, there is little research on maternity care among trafficking survivors. We explored health care needs, service use and challenges among women who became pregnant while in the trafficking situation in the United Kingdom (UK) and clinicians' perspectives of maternity care for trafficked persons. Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews with trafficking survivors recruited from statutory and voluntary sector organisations in England and qualitative interviews with maternity clinicians and family doctors undertaken to offer further insight into experiences reported by these women. Twenty-eight (29%) of 98 women who took part in a large study of trafficking survivors reported one or more pregnancies while trafficked, whose data are reported here. Twelve (42.8%) of these women reported at least one termination of pregnancy while in the trafficking situation and 25 (89.3%) experienced some form of mental health disorder. Nineteen (67.9%) women experienced pre-trafficking physical abuse and 9 (32.%) sexual abuse. A quarter of women were trafficked for sexual exploitation, six for domestic servitude and two for manual labour. Survivors and clinicians described service challenges, including restrictions placed on women's movements by traffickers, poor knowledge on how to access maternity care, poor understanding of healthcare entitlements and concerns about confidentiality. Maternity care clinicians recognised potential indicators of trafficking, but considered training would help them identify and respond to victims. Main limitations include that findings reflect women who had exited the trafficking situation, however as some had only recently exited the trafficking situation, difficulties with recall were likely to be low. More than one in four women became pregnant while trafficked, indicating that maternity services offer an important contact point for identification and care

  2. Maternity care for trafficked women: Survivor experiences and clinicians' perspectives in the United Kingdom's National Health Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Bick

    Full Text Available Although trafficked women and adolescents are at risk of unprotected or forced sex, there is little research on maternity care among trafficking survivors. We explored health care needs, service use and challenges among women who became pregnant while in the trafficking situation in the United Kingdom (UK and clinicians' perspectives of maternity care for trafficked persons.Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews with trafficking survivors recruited from statutory and voluntary sector organisations in England and qualitative interviews with maternity clinicians and family doctors undertaken to offer further insight into experiences reported by these women.Twenty-eight (29% of 98 women who took part in a large study of trafficking survivors reported one or more pregnancies while trafficked, whose data are reported here. Twelve (42.8% of these women reported at least one termination of pregnancy while in the trafficking situation and 25 (89.3% experienced some form of mental health disorder. Nineteen (67.9% women experienced pre-trafficking physical abuse and 9 (32.% sexual abuse. A quarter of women were trafficked for sexual exploitation, six for domestic servitude and two for manual labour. Survivors and clinicians described service challenges, including restrictions placed on women's movements by traffickers, poor knowledge on how to access maternity care, poor understanding of healthcare entitlements and concerns about confidentiality. Maternity care clinicians recognised potential indicators of trafficking, but considered training would help them identify and respond to victims. Main limitations include that findings reflect women who had exited the trafficking situation, however as some had only recently exited the trafficking situation, difficulties with recall were likely to be low.More than one in four women became pregnant while trafficked, indicating that maternity services offer an important contact point for identification

  3. Nuclear energy for sustainable Hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoshev, G.

    2004-01-01

    There is general agreement that hydrogen as an universal energy carrier could play increasingly important role in energy future as part of a set of solutions to a variety of energy and environmental problems. Given its abundant nature, hydrogen has been an important raw material in the organic chemical industry. At recent years strong competition has emerged between nations as diverse as the U.S., Japan, Germany, China and Iceland in the race to commercialize hydrogen energy vehicles in the beginning of 21st Century. Any form of energy - fossil, renewable or nuclear - can be used to generate hydrogen. The hydrogen production by nuclear electricity is considered as a sustainable method. By our presentation we are trying to evaluate possibilities for sustainable hydrogen production by nuclear energy at near, medium and long term on EC strategic documents basis. The main EC documents enter water electrolysis by nuclear electricity as only sustainable technology for hydrogen production in early stage of hydrogen economy. In long term as sustainable method is considered the splitting of water by thermochemical technology using heat from high temperature reactors too. We consider that at medium stage of hydrogen economy it is possible to optimize the sustainable hydrogen production by high temperature and high pressure water electrolysis by using a nuclear-solar energy system. (author)

  4. Gender Perspectives on Climate Change & Human Security in India: An Analysis of National Missions on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti K Parikh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Women play a crucial role in many activities essential for coping with climate change. Indian women appear to be more vulnerable than men to differential impacts of climate change because they share most of the household managing responsibilities but have limited access to participation in decision making and governance. Most of the policies for climate change adaptation and mitigation do not specifically address the vulnerability of women. The National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC, formulated to shape future discourse of climate change adaptation and development, recognizes the differential impacts of climate change on society, but incorporates merely a few gender specific measures. The paper suggests gender specific measures for each mission of the NAPCC to make the adaptation and development process more inclusive and sustainable in India.

  5. Ten Years After the National Accord for the Modernization of Basic Education in Mexico: Challenges, Tensions and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zorrilla Fierro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By means of the National Accord for the Modernization of Basic Education (1992, the Mexican Educational System (MES entered into a complex reform. Unlike the previous reforms, this one decentralized the system, renewed the curriculum, produced new materials and introduced compensation programs and new methods of financing and evaluation. Junior high school was made obligatory, and the school calendar was amplified. This reform has revealed the MES’s accumulated deficiencies and fatigue, so that it seems impossible to achieve the goals of quality and equity. This essay presents a critical analysis of some elements that characterize the MES at the end of the twentieth century. It focuses on the reasons for the decentralization and the educational reform; on the challenges and tensions facing the system, and especially, it approaches the theme of institutional management and delineates a proposal for its transformation.

  6. Taking up national safety alerts to improve patient safety in hospitals: The perspective of healthcare quality and risk managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Schwappach, David

    2016-01-01

    National safety alert systems publish relevant information to improve patient safety in hospitals. However, the information has to be transformed into local action to have an effect on patient safety. We studied three research questions: How do Swiss healthcare quality and risk managers (qm/rm(1)) see their own role in learning from safety alerts issued by the Swiss national voluntary reporting and analysis system? What are their attitudes towards and evaluations of the alerts, and which types of improvement actions were fostered by the safety alerts? A survey was developed and applied to Swiss healthcare risk and quality managers, with a response rate of 39 % (n=116). Descriptive statistics are presented. The qm/rm disseminate and communicate with a broad variety of professional groups about the alerts. While most respondents felt that they should know the alerts and their contents, only a part of them felt responsible for driving organizational change based on the recommendations. However, most respondents used safety alerts to back up their own patient safety goals. The alerts were evaluated positively on various dimensions such as usefulness and were considered as standards of good practice by the majority of the respondents. A range of organizational responses was applied, with disseminating information being the most common. An active role is related to using safety alerts for backing up own patient safety goals. To support an active role of qm/rm in their hospital's learning from safety alerts, appropriate organizational structures should be developed. Furthermore, they could be given special information or training to act as an information hub on the issues discussed in the alerts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. A Perspective on Promoting Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's PRIDE Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyington, Josephine E A; Maihle, Nita J; Rice, Treva K; Gonzalez, Juan E; Hess, Caryl A; Makala, Levi H; Jeffe, Donna B; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Rao, Dabeeru C; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Pace, Betty S; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Boutjdir, Mohamed

    2016-07-21

    Aspiring junior investigators from groups underrepresented in the biomedical sciences face various challenges as they pursue research independence. However, the biomedical research enterprise needs their participation to effectively address critical research issues such as health disparities and health inequities. In this article, we share a research education and mentoring initiative that seeks to address this challenge: Programs to Increase Diversity among Individuals Engaged in Health Related Research (PRIDE), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). This longitudinal research-education and mentoring program occurs through summer institute programs located at US-based academic institutions. Recruited participants are exposed to didactic and lab-based research-skill enhancement experiences, with year-round mentoring over the course of two years. Mentor-mentee matching is based on shared research interests to promote congruence and to enhance skill acquisition. Program descriptions and sample narratives of participants' perceptions of PRIDE's impact on their career progress are showcased. Additionally, we highlight the overall program design and structure of four of seven funded summer institutes that focus on cardiovascular disease, related conditions, and health disparities. Mentees' testimonials about the value of the PRIDE mentoring approach in facilitating career development are also noted. Meeting the clinical and research needs of an increasingly diverse US population is an issue of national concern. The PRIDE initiative, which focuses on increasing research preparedness and professional development of groups underrepresented in the biomedical research workforce, with an emphasis on mentoring as the critical approach, provides a robust model that is impacting the careers of future investigators.

  8. Multidisciplinary studies on hydric, energetic and environmental resources, evaluating the hydroelectric plants energy surplus as alternative for hydrogen production; Estudos multidisciplinares na area de recursos hidricos, energeticos e ambientais, avaliando-se o uso de energia excedente de hidreletricas como alternativa para producao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Naturesa, Jim Silva; Santos Junior, Joubert Rodrigues; Demanboro, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Planejamento Energetico e Sistemas Eletricos]. E-mails: cam@fec.unicamp.br; jimnaturesa@yahoo.com; joubert.dos@terra.com.br; anto1810@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The researchers on energy, hydraulic and environmental subjects have been discussing the perspective and both the technical and economic viability of using the exceeding energy of hydroelectric power plants to produce hydrogen, taking into consideration the resources optimizations and the maximization of the economic gains. The researches and technicians of the Brazilian energy sector have considered, the increasing possibility of using of exceeding energy from hydroelectric power plants to produce hydrogen, mainly for the special case of the bi-national hydroelectric of Itaipu. Nevertheless it is important to present a discussion about the use and the production of hydrogen in Brazilian context considering, mainly, the consolidated experience of certain research centers and national laboratories. The paper also presents a discussions about the main technical characteristics, the electro electronic devices used and a brief discussion about the possibility of electric energy expansion, through the use of FACTS devices, for the southeast region of the country having the hydrogen as an important fuel. (author)

  9. Hydrogen embrittlement in nickel-hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Sidney

    1989-01-01

    It was long known that many strong metals can become weakened and brittle as the result of the accumulation of hydrogen within the metal. When the metal is stretched, it does not show normal ductile properties, but fractures prematurely. This problem can occur as the result of a hydrogen evolution reaction such as corrosion or electroplating, or due to hydrogen in the environment at the metal surface. High strength alloys such as steels are especially susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Nickel-hydrogen cells commonly use Inconel 718 alloy for the pressure container, and this also is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Metals differ in their susceptibility to embrittlement. Hydrogen embrittlement in nickel-hydrogen cells is analyzed and the reasons why it may or may not occur are discussed. Although Inconel 718 can display hydrogen embrittlement, experience has not identified any problem with nickel-hydrogen cells. No hydrogen embrittlement problem is expected with the 718 alloy pressure container used in nickel-hydrogen cells.

  10. Dynamics of hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c0, c being the instantaneous concentration at a local point and c0, the average concentration of hydrogen in the hydrogenated amorphous silicon. If the system is both incompressible and isotropic, the change in Helmholtz free energy due to fluctuations in the local concentration of hydrogen is given as. 122. Pramana – J.

  11. BIOWASTE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE - PERSPECTIVE RENEWABLE FUELS

    OpenAIRE

    BESCHKOV V.; YANKOV D.; ANGELOV I.; RAZKAZOVA-VELKOVA E.; MARTINOV M.

    2017-01-01

    The enormous economical growth on a global scale in the last century has lead to extensive use of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas. The result was strong emissions of carbon dioxide and greenhouse effect with consequent climate changes. The extensive use of fossil fuels that developed and stored in Earth interior for millions of years has made it no possibleto revive vegetation and process the emitted carbon dioxide with the help of photosynthesis. One of the ways to cope with ...

  12. FY 2005 Annual Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-10-01

    In cooperation with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies, the Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program is advancing the state of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in support of the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The initiative seeks to develop hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies needed to make it practical and cost-effective for Americans to choose to use fuel cell vehicles by 2020. Significant progress was made in fiscal year 2005 toward that goal.

  13. A Delphi survey of leadership attributes necessary for national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development: an East African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj Shariff, Nilufa

    2015-01-01

    Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health services are: safe, effective, available and inexpensive. Nursing history reveals several legendary nurse leaders who have influenced policy and the course of nursing and health care. In the recent times there have been concerns regarding the availability of effective leaders physically, symbolically and functionally at clinical, organizational and national levels, who can effectively influence health policy. Exerting influence in the policy arena requires that nurse leaders acquire attributes that enable them to be effective in policy development activity. This paper reports part of a larger study whose purpose included: "build consensus on leadership attributes necessary for nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in East Africa". A Delphi survey was utilized and included the following criteria: expert panelists, three iterative rounds, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and building consensus. The study included purposively selected sample of national nurse leaders (expert panelists) from the three East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. Seventy eight (78) expert panelists were invited to participate in the study and 37 (47%) participated in the first round of these; 24 (64.8%) participated in the second round and all invited in the third round 24 (100%) participated. Data collection was done using questionnaires and collected qualitative and quantitative data. Data analysis was done utilizing the principles of qualitative analysis in the first round and descriptive statistics in the second and third rounds. The study achieved consensus on the essential leadership attributes for nurse leaders' participation in health policy and include being able to: influence; communicate effectively; build relationships; feel empowered and demonstrate professional credibility. For nursing to participate in influencing the

  14. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes

  15. National action framework for the development of alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of corresponding infrastructures in application of article 3 of the 2014/97/EU directive of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of an infrastructure for alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This report proposes a detailed overview of the present situation and perspectives of development of alternative fuels and of the corresponding infrastructures. It presents, first, the various existing alternate fuels (electricity, NVG, LNG, LPG, hydrogen, biofuels etc), then the measures taken to develop fueling infrastructures over the French territory, including harbors and inland waterways, and finally, the follow-up and perspectives of the implementation of the National action framework for the development of alternative fuels

  16. TEACHING OF BIOTECHNOLOGY: TEACHING KNOWLEDGE AND APPROACH IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE NATIONAL EXAMINATION OF MIDDLE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Silva Pinheiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The National Secondary Education Examination (Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio- ENEM aims that schools adopt an interdisciplinary and contextualized education, being a requirement for entry into higher education institutions. In biology there is an area named Biotechnology, that relates to several technological activities important to society, but with ethical, social, political questions, among others. In this context, the present study aims to examine how biotechnology is addressed by teachers of the 3rd year of high school, focusing on ENEM. In order to accomplish this, analyzes were made of ENEM’s questions from 2009 to 2015, they were applied interviews with teachers from four public schools in the city of Fortaleza / CE. In the analysis of the ENEM exams, it was found that in all editions Biotechnology was addressed directly or indirectly, as transgenic, recombinant DNA, biofuels and stem cells. It was found that biotechnology is being taught in public schools in the city of Fortaleza / CE, but with little depth, since most of interviewed showed some discomfort in teaching the subject, lack of professional renovation, preventing a more secure opinion on certain matters disclosed; such insecurity ends up reflecting the presentation of content in the classroom.

  17. School meals defined from the perspective of students catered for under the National School Feeding Program, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Janaína Braga de; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares de; Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Based on socio-anthropological studies into food and in connection with guidance from the Public Policy on Food and Nutrition Security in Brazil, this paper sought to objectively analyze students' views of the school meals given to them as part of the National School Feeding Program (PNAE). The data was produced through ethnographic exercises that were developed where the above Program (hereafter Program) had been implemented in a semi-arid municipality in the state of Bahia. The exercises also involved the production of written material and the use of focus groups with teenagers in primary school education. Of particular note in this study was the time and space the students had for their break/recreation period which brought to light the relationship between the body and food. Based on the responses given we were able to identify different understandings and meanings associated with the food served in these institutions. The study helped to shed some light on the relational aspects between habitual eating at "home-on the road-and-in school" with the right to have school meals. We were also able to obtain a broader understanding of the eating habits of teenagers that are catered for as part of the PNAE.

  18. Are conflict-causing tigers different? Another perspective for understanding human-tiger conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Lamichhane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed characteristics of the problem-causing tigers in Chitwan National Park (Nepal to determine if specific groups or individuals in the source population have higher probability to get involved in conflicts with humans. From 2007 to 2016 we identified a total of 22 such tigers including 13 that killed humans, six serial livestock killers and three tigers that threatened human safety (with no reported human and livestock casualty. Thirteen of these tigers were controlled or killed and four were relocated. We compared a subset of 15 ‘problem tigers’ involved in conflict between 2009 and 2013 with the Chitwan's tiger population obtained from three different sessions of camera trapping (2009, 2010 and 2013. We found that <5% of this source population (tigers recorded in camera trap were involved in conflict. We conclude that transient tigers without a territory or physically impaired animals are more likely to be involved in conflict and recommend an early warning system be adopted to anticipate conflicts before they occur. This system should include regular monitoring and timely identification of problem tigers followed by decisive management action to either remove the tiger or encourage local people to modify their behavior to reduce the risk of conflict.

  19. Artificial nations? The Sykes-Picot and the Islamic State’s narratives in a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Kamel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years a growing number of academic works have analyzed the past and the present of the Eastern Mediterranean region arguing that Western powers «created artificial nations» and that most of the modern states in the area are deprived of peculiar historical legacies. The narrative of the Islamic State (IS that is now trying to erase the «Sykes-Picot order» – reproduced in Western media and discourse – is largely based on similar assumptions. This article challenges these arguments and contends that, if not considered in a critical way, the ‘process of simplification’ experienced by the region between the last decades of the nineteenth and the first decades of the twentieth centuries can itself trigger simplificative assumptions. The cultural and political evolution of many of the countries in the region shows a much more complex historical development than what the Sykes-Picot (and the related IS narrative would suggest: most of the states in the region are not simply «artificial creations» and old maps should not be used, once again, to cover a complex local reality.

  20. Gait analysis of national athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction following three stages of rehabilitation program: Symmetrical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, Maryam; Amri, Saidon; Mohafez, Hamidreza; Roohi, Sharifah Ahmad; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to objectively evaluate changes in gait kinematics, kinetics and symmetry among anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed athletes during rehabilitation. Twenty-two national athletes with ACL reconstruction and 15 healthy athletes were recruited for the study. Gait data were collected between the weeks 4-5, 8-9, and 12-13 post-operation using three-dimensional motion analysis system. Five separate components, including knee range of motion (ROM), vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), their symmetries and knee extension moment were evaluated. One way and repeated measure multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to analyze the knee ROMs. The VGRF and extension moment were tested using repeated measure ANOVA and independent sample t-test. Findings indicated significant alterations in all measured components between patients' Test 1 and control group. Repeated measure analysis revealed significant effect for time in components of knee angular and VGRF (Pgait parameters except knee extension moment by 12-13 weeks post-reconstruction; however, more time is required to normalize single-stance ROM and VGRF asymmetries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogen is ready for take-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    As hydrogen is expected to be the energy vector for the future, this article proposes an overview of developments in this sector. It outlines that the transport sector seems to be taking off, notably with the influence of car manufacturers like Hyundai and Toyota which are already proposing hydrogen-fuelled vehicles whereas German manufacturers are only announcing such products, and France prefers electric vehicles. It also discusses the fact that the existence of a distribution network is an important challenge. Besides this application in transport, hydrogen has also a high potential for renewable energy storage. As it is a rather new one, this sector is in continuous change. In parallel, two perspectives are briefly discussed: the possible use of water electrolysis as a concurrent to steam reforming, and the possible use of natural hydrogen as energy source

  2. World's trend of national nuclear power policy and long-term perspective of nuclear power and supply and demand of uranium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Nishida, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Shimogoori, Kei; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Based on perspective of nuclear power reflecting latest trend of national nuclear policy, supply and demand of uranium resources until 2035 was evaluated based on latest data. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Germany and Italy dramatically changed nuclear power to phase out, while United States, Russia, France and Korea as well as China and India continued to promote nuclear power with no essential change of policy. Thus world's nuclear power capacity was foreseen to expand from 389 GW (2010) to 471 GW (2035, low growth case) and 760 GW (2035, high growth case). Following sharp increase of uranium cost after 2005, investment on natural uranium development became active and new operation start of uranium enrichment plants was anticipated in US and Europe, and then both supply and demand of natural uranium and uranium enrichment service would tend to relax until around 2020 and until 2035 extreme tightness of supply and demand might not occur even for high growth case. Uranium demand of Asian region including China and India would be largely expanded with natural uranium from Africa and Australia and uranium enrichment services from US, and Asian high overseas dependence would be continued. (T. Tanaka)

  3. [Analysis of the mainstreaming of the perspective of the Human Right to Adequate Food in the institutional design of the National School Nutrition Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Renata Lopes; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Lanes; Sperandio, Naiara; Priore, Sílvia Eloíza

    2014-01-01

    Being a signatory to international agreements that recognize the Human Right to Adequate Food (HRAF) and having enshrined this right into its Constitution, the Brazilian state imposes a duty to provide, protect and promote the HRAF. For this it is necessary to incorporate the principles of the HRAF into the process of planning and executing the actions of Food and Nutrition Security (FNS). The objective was to analyze the process of mainstreaming of the HRAF in the new institutional design of the National School Nutrition Program (NSNP). This is in line with the principles laid down in General Comment No 12 of the Guide for Policy Analysis and Public Programs and nutritional Food Security under the Perspective of Human Rights and the Organic Law on Food and Nutrition Security (OLFNS). The results show that the new regulatory framework of the NSNP indicates a paradigm shift that is characterized by a gradual decline in the perception of NSNP as policy of a welfare nature. Concomitantly, there is an increase in the concept of the benefit of school food as a right, with the caveat that the construction of a new regulatory framework, although essential, is not sufficient for full implementation of the HRAF.

  4. A bidirectional relationship between depression and the autoimmune disorders – New perspectives from the National Child Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Maughan, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background Depression and the autoimmune disorders are comorbid—the two classes of disorders overlap in the same individuals at a higher frequency than chance. The immune system may influence the pathological processes underlying depression; understanding the origins of this comorbidity may contribute to dissecting the mechanisms underlying these disorders. Method We used population cohort data from the 1958 British birth cohort study (the National Child Development Study) to investigate the ages at onset of depression and 23 autoimmune disorders. We used self-report data to ascertain life-time history of depression, autoimmune disorders and their ages at onset. We modelled the effect of depression onset on subsequent autoimmune disorder onset, and vice versa, and incorporated polygenic risk scores for depression and autoimmune disorder risk. Results In our analytic sample of 8174 individuals, 315 reported ever being diagnosed with an autoimmune disorder (3.9%), 1499 reported ever experiencing depression (18.3%). There was significant comorbidity between depression and the autoimmune disorders (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.27–2.15). Autoimmune disorder onset associated with increased subsequent hazard of depression onset (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.11–1.74, P = 0.0037), independently of depression genetic risk. Finally, depression increased subsequent hazard of autoimmune disorder onset (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.09–1.80, P = 0.0095), independently of autoimmune disorder genetic risk. Discussion Our results point to a bidirectional relationship between depression and the autoimmune disorders. This suggests that shared risk factors may contribute to this relationship, including both common environmental exposures that increase baseline inflammation levels, and shared genetic factors. PMID:28264010

  5. A bidirectional relationship between depression and the autoimmune disorders - New perspectives from the National Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euesden, Jack; Danese, Andrea; Lewis, Cathryn M; Maughan, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Depression and the autoimmune disorders are comorbid-the two classes of disorders overlap in the same individuals at a higher frequency than chance. The immune system may influence the pathological processes underlying depression; understanding the origins of this comorbidity may contribute to dissecting the mechanisms underlying these disorders. We used population cohort data from the 1958 British birth cohort study (the National Child Development Study) to investigate the ages at onset of depression and 23 autoimmune disorders. We used self-report data to ascertain life-time history of depression, autoimmune disorders and their ages at onset. We modelled the effect of depression onset on subsequent autoimmune disorder onset, and vice versa, and incorporated polygenic risk scores for depression and autoimmune disorder risk. In our analytic sample of 8174 individuals, 315 reported ever being diagnosed with an autoimmune disorder (3.9%), 1499 reported ever experiencing depression (18.3%). There was significant comorbidity between depression and the autoimmune disorders (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.27-2.15). Autoimmune disorder onset associated with increased subsequent hazard of depression onset (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.11-1.74, P = 0.0037), independently of depression genetic risk. Finally, depression increased subsequent hazard of autoimmune disorder onset (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.09-1.80, P = 0.0095), independently of autoimmune disorder genetic risk. Our results point to a bidirectional relationship between depression and the autoimmune disorders. This suggests that shared risk factors may contribute to this relationship, including both common environmental exposures that increase baseline inflammation levels, and shared genetic factors.

  6. Paediatricians’ perspectives on global health priorities for newborn care in a developing country: a national survey from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusanya Bolajoko O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the perception of paediatricians as key stakeholders in child healthcare delivery and the degree of congruence with current investment priorities is crucial in accelerating progress towards the attainment of global targets for child survival and overall health in developing countries. This study therefore elicited the views of paediatricians on current global priorities for newborn health in Nigeria as possible guide for policy makers. Methods Paediatric consultants and residents in the country were surveyed nationally between February and March 2011 using a questionnaire requiring the ranking of nine prominent and other neonatal conditions based separately on hospital admissions, mortality, morbidity and disability as well as based on all health indices in order of importance or disease burden. Responses were analysed with Friedman test and differences between subgroups of respondents with Mann-Whitney U test. Results Valid responses were received from 152 (65.8% of 231 eligible physicians. Preterm birth/low birthweight ranked highest by all measures except for birth asphyxia which ranked highest for disability. Neonatal jaundice ranked next to sepsis by all measures except for disability and above tetanus except mortality. Preterm birth/low birthweight, birth asphyxia, sepsis, jaundice and meningitis ranked highest by composite measures while jaundice had comparable rating with sepsis. Birth trauma was most frequently cited under other unspecified conditions. There were no significant differences in ranking between consultants and residents except for birth asphyxia in relation to hospital admissions and morbidity as well as sepsis and tetanus in relation to mortality. Conclusions Current global priorities for neonatal survival in Nigeria largely accord with paediatricians’ views except for neonatal jaundice which is commonly subsumed under “other“ or "miscellaneous" neonatal conditions. While the

  7. What should a fellow-in-training expect at national cardiovascular conferences? The interventional cardiology fellows' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Didier, Romain; Koifman, Edward; Negi, Smita I

    It has become challenging for cardiovascular fellows-in-training (FIT) to determine which national cardiovascular conference (NCC) to attend given the broad range of meetings and the breadth of information offered. The aim of this study was to report our own experiences of the utility and individual strengths of the NCCs and to further understand the interventional cardiology (IC) FITs' viewpoint regarding the benefits of the individual NCCs. A survey was formulated with questions and scenarios regarding topics deemed to be of highest importance for an IC-FIT. The survey emphasized experiences regarding the utility and benefits of the NCCs, time management, optimization of acquired education, and specific interests in clinical and research topics. The completely anonymous survey was sent via an email format to a total of 234, majority of IC (fourth and fifth years) and a minority of general (third year), FITs. A completed survey response was received from 131 of the fellows (56%). The results demonstrated that the IC-FITs endorsed that the small, focused sub-specialty interventional meetings vs. the large society general meetings were more beneficial in regard to the didactic education offered. In addition, the IC-FITs indicated that pre-planning for the meetings is the most beneficial approach in optimizing one's education and that the caliber of expert faculty, case-based and live-case presentations are among the most important aspects of the meetings. Interventional cardiology FITs prefer the small sub-specialty interventional meetings over the large society general NCCs in regard to the benefits of didactic learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Social inequalities in adolescent smoking: A cross-national perspective of the role of individual and macro-structural factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Richter, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    In an EU-funded project, we examined on the basis of international comparative analyses which factors were associated with and contributed to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. This paper presents the results obtained and discusses their implications for policy and research. Analyses were based on the "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)" study in 2006 and included more than 50,000 adolescents from 37 countries. The focus was on the association between family affluence and weekly smoking (regularly, at least once a week) among adolescents. Explanatory variables at the individual level refer to psychosocial resources and burdens of school, family, and peers. At the country level, national income, various tobacco control policies, and an index of external differentiation of the educational system were used. The psychosocial factors of school and family explained many of the inequalities in the smoking behavior of adolescents. In an international comparison, socioeconomic inequalities in smoking were stronger in richer countries. Absolute smoking rates were lower and inequalities in smoking smaller for boys in countries with higher tobacco prices. On the other hand, educational systems with higher degrees of external differentiation showed lower inequalities in smoking beahviour by girls, and relatively higher rates of smoking (for boys and girls). Stronger inequalities in smoking behaviour were demonstrated in countries with a greater range of preventative measures for tobacco dependence (for boys) and with higher levels of government spending on tobacco control (for girls). Experiences in richer countries revealed that tobacco control needs to be strengthened for socially disadvantaged adolescents. The reduction of smoking prevalence and socioeconomic inequalities in smoking behavior should be based not only on a strengthening of psychosocial resources in the family and at school, but also on an increase in tobacco prices.

  9. Exploring Summer Medical Care Within the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting: A Perspective From the Athletic Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Over the last few decades, the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) has made changes related to the increase in sanctioned team activities during summer athletics. These changes may affect how athletic training services are provided. Objective:  To investigate the methods by which athletic training departments of NCAA institutions manage expectations regarding athletic training services during the summer. Design:  Mixed-methods qualitative and quantitative study. Setting:  The NCAA Division I. Patients or Other Participants:  Twenty-two athletic trainers (13 men, 9 women) participated. All were employed full time within the NCAA Division I setting. Participants were 35 ± 8 years of age (range, 26−52 years), with 12 ± 7 years (range, 3−29 years) of athletic training experience. Data Collection and Analysis:  All participants completed a series of questions online that consisted of closed- (demographic and Likert-scale 5-point) and open-ended items that addressed the research questions. Descriptive statistics, frequency distributions, and phenomenologic analyses were completed with the data. Peer review and multiple-analyst triangulation established credibility. Results:  Summer athletic training services included 3 primary mechanisms: individual medical care, shared medical care, or a combination of the 2. Participants reported working 40 ± 10 hours during the summer. Likert-item analysis showed that participants were moderately satisfied with their summer medical care structure (3.3 ± 1.0) and with the flexibility of summer schedules (3.0 ± 1.2). Yet the qualitative analysis revealed that perceptions of summer medical care were more positive for shared-care participants than for individual- or combination-care participants. The perceived effect on the athletic trainer included increased workload and expectations and a negative influence on work-life balance, particularly in terms of decreased schedule flexibility and

  10. A hydrogen ice cube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C.J.; Schoonman, J.; Schrauwers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen is considered to be a highly promising energy carrier. Nonetheless, before hydrogen can become the fuel of choice for the future a number of slight problems will have to be overcome. For example, how can hydrogen be safely stored? Motor vehicles running on hydrogen may be clean in concept

  11. Energy system aspects of hydrogen as an alternative fuel in transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesohl, Stephan; Merten, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Considering the enormous ecological and economic importance of the transport sector the introduction of alternative fuels-together with drastic energy efficiency gains-will be a key to sustainable mobility, nationally as well as globally. However, the future role of alternative fuels cannot be examined from the isolated perspective of the transport sector. Interactions with the energy system as a whole have to be taken into account. This holds both for the issue of availability of energy sources as well as for allocation effects, resulting from the shift of renewable energy from the stationary sector to mobile applications. With emphasis on hydrogen as a transport fuel for private passenger cars, this paper discusses the energy systems impacts of various scenarios introducing hydrogen fueled vehicles in Germany. It identifies clear restrictions to an enhanced growth of clean hydrogen production from renewable energy sources (RES). Furthermore, it points at systems interdependencies that call for a priority use of RES electricity in stationary applications. Whereas hydrogen can play an increasing role in transport after 2030 the most important challenge is to exploit short-mid-term potentials of boosting car efficiency

  12. Carbon nanotubes for energy storage using their hydrogen adsorption capacity: state of the art and perspectives; Nanotubos de carbono para estocagem de energia por adsorcao de hidrogenio: estado da arte e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestro, Luis Fernando; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Combustiveis Alternativos], e-mail: lmaestro@ifi.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    It is presented an updated scope of the research in carbon nanotubes synthesis, their purification and a discussion of recent results in energy storage using their hydrogen adsorption capacity. The GCA activities in this area are also discussed. (author)

  13. The solar-hydrogen economy: an analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Warren D.

    2007-09-01

    The 20th Century was the age of the Petroleum Economy while the 21st Century is certainly the age of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy. The global Solar-Hydrogen Economy that is now emerging follows a different logic. Under this new economic paradigm, new machines and methods are once again being developed while companies are restructuring. The Petroleum Economy will be briefly explored in relation to oil consumption, Hubbert's curve, and oil reserves with emphasis on the "oil crash". Concerns and criticisms about the Hydrogen Economy will be addressed by debunking some of the "hydrogen myths". There are three major driving factors for the establishment of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy, i.e. the environment, the economy with the coming "oil crash", and national security. The New Energy decentralization pathway has developed many progressive features, e.g., reducing the dependence on oil, reducing the air pollution and CO II. The technical and economic aspects of the various Solar-Hydrogen energy options and combinations will be analyzed. A proposed 24-hour/day 200 MWe solar-hydrogen power plant for the U.S. with selected energy options will be discussed. There are fast emerging Solar Hydrogen energy infrastructures in the U.S., Europe, Japan and China. Some of the major infrastructure projects in the transportation and energy sectors will be discussed. The current and projected growth in the Solar-Hydrogen Economy through 2045 will be given.

  14. Electric arc hydrogen heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasypin, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental data on the electric arc burning in hydrogen are presented. Empirical and semiempirical dependences for calculating the arc characteristics are derived. An engineering method of calculating plasma torches for hydrogen heating is proposed. A model of interaction of a hydrogen arc with a gas flow is outlined. The characteristics of plasma torches for heating hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing gases are described. (author)

  15. Intercultural communication experiences of foreign students with a focus on their perspectives of national, cultural and ethnic identity : case of exchange and degree students in Jyväskylä, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Natarova, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to learn about intercultural communication experiences of foreign Exchange and Master degree students in Jyväskylä, Finland with a particular attention to the perspective of national, cultural and ethnic identity concepts. The study is qualitative in nature. The goal in creating the interview themes was to cover a variety of topics to allow the informants to speculate on different situations related to intercultural communication experiences in Jyväskylä, their co...

  16. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  17. Hydrogen fuel. Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darkrim-Lamari, F.; Malbrunot, P.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a very energetic fuel which can be used in combustion to generate heat and mechanical energy or which can be used to generate electricity and heat through an electrochemical reaction with oxygen. This article deals with the energy conversion, the availability and safety problems linked with the use of hydrogen, and with the socio-economical consequences of a generalized use of hydrogen: 1 - hydrogen energy conversion: hydrogen engines, aerospace applications, fuel cells (principle, different types, domains of application); 2 - hydrogen energy availability: transport and storage (gas pipelines, liquid hydrogen, adsorbed and absorbed hydrogen in solid materials), service stations; 3 - hazards and safety: flammability, explosibility, storage and transport safety, standards and regulations; 4 - hydrogen economy; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  18. Public-on-private dual practice among physicians in public hospitals of Tigray National Regional State, North Ethiopia: perspectives of physicians, patients and managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goitom Gigar Abera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians who work in the private sector while also holding a salaried job in a public hospital, known as “dual practice,” is one of the main retention strategies adopted by the government of Ethiopia. Dual practice was legally endorsed in Tigray National Regional State, Ethiopia in 2010. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the extent of dual practice, reasons why physicians engage in it, and its effects on public hospital services in this state in northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study using mixed methods was conducted from February to March 2011 in six geographically representative public hospitals of Tigray National Regional State. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all physicians working in the study hospitals, and an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire was used to collect data from admitted patients. Focus group discussions were conducted with hospital governing boards. Quantitative and qualitative data were used in the analysis. Results Data were collected from 31 physicians and 449 patients in the six study hospitals. Six focus group discussions were conducted. Twenty-eight (90.3% of the physicians were engaged in dual practice to some extent: 16 (51.6% owned private clinics outside the public hospital, 5 (16.1% worked part-time in outside private clinics, and 7 (22.6% worked in the private wing of public hospitals. Income supplementation was the primary reason for engaging in dual practice, as reported by 100% of the physicians. The positive effects of dual practice from both managers’ and physicians’ perspectives were physician retention in the public sector. Ninety-one patients (20.3% had been referred from a private clinic immediately prior to their current admission-a circular diversion pattern. Eighteen (19.8% of the diverted patients reported that health workers in the public hospitals diverted them. Conclusions Circular diversion

  19. A national inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG), criteria air contaminants (CAC) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) emissions by the upstream oil and gas industry : volume 1, overview of the GHG emissions inventory : technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    A detailed inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada was presented along with explanations of the methodologies and data sources used. This report is based on previous work done on methane and volatile organic compound emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector for the period of 1990 to 1995, but it includes key improvements in identifying primary types of emissions sources such as emissions from fuel combustion, flaring, venting, fugitive equipment leaks and accidental releases. It also includes criteria air contaminants and hydrogen sulfide emissions, an analysis of GHG emission intensities and a change in the definition of volatile organic compounds from comprising all non-methane hydrocarbons to comprising all non-methane and non-ethane hydrocarbons. The report covers portions of the upstream oil and gas industry in Canada plus the natural gas transmission and natural gas distribution industries with reference to well drilling, oil production, and natural gas production, processing, transmission and distribution. Accidents and equipment failures are also included. The report reveals the total GHG emissions by source type, sub-sector, facility type and sub-type for the year 2000 at the national level. In 2000, the total carbon dioxide equivalent GHG emissions from the entire oil and gas sector were 101,211 kilo tonnes. For the upstream oil and gas sector alone, total GHG emissions were 84,355 kilo tonnes, representing 12 per cent of Canada's total national emissions of GHGs in 2000. This is an increase of about 25 per cent from 1995 levels. The biggest primary source of these emissions is fuel combustion, which accounts for 40.8 per cent of the total. This report also includes a provincial breakdown of GHG emissions for the natural gas transmission, storage and distribution sub-sectors in Canada for the year 2000. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Methods for concentrating hydrogen peroxide solutions have been described. The methods utilize a polymeric membrane separating a hydrogen peroxide solution from a sweep gas or permeate. The membrane is selective to the permeability of water over the permeability of hydrogen peroxide, thereby facilitating the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide solution through the transport of water through the membrane to the permeate. By utilizing methods in accordance with the invention, hydrogen peroxide solutions of up to 85% by volume or higher may be generated at a point of use without storing substantial quantities of the highly concentrated solutions and without requiring temperatures that would produce explosive mixtures of hydrogen peroxide vapors.

  1. Hydrogen, this hallucinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the origin of hydrogen for energetic use (mainly by extraction from water), the possible uses of this cumbersome gas (in vehicles, in electricity storage), and outlines that hydrogen economy consumes a lot of other energies (nuclear, wind, sun, biomass, and so on) for a high cost, and that hydrogen is therefore not a solution for the future. Other elements are given in appendix: production methods and processes, figures of energy production, ways to use and to store hydrogen in vehicles, assessment of possibilities for a vehicle, techniques and figures for hydrogen packaging, transport and distribution, energy cost, energetic assessment of hydrogen production, problems associated with distribution (tank filling)

  2. Hydrogen in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pankove, Jacques I

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen plays an important role in silicon technology, having a profound effect on a wide range of properties. Thus, the study of hydrogen in semiconductors has received much attention from an interdisciplinary assortment of researchers. This sixteen-chapter volume provides a comprehensive review of the field, including a discussion of hydrogenation methods, the use of hydrogen to passivate defects, the use of hydrogen to neutralize deep levels, shallow acceptors and shallow donors in silicon, vibrational spectroscopy, and hydrogen-induced defects in silicon. In addition to this detailed cove

  3. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pires, Richard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ronnebro, Ewa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  4. NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L Block; Ali T-Raissi [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of the activities and results from 36 hydrogen research projects being conducted over a four-year period by Florida universities for the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The program entitled 'NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities' is managed by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). FSEC has 22 years of experience in conducting research in areas related to hydrogen technologies and fuel cells. The R and D activities under this program cover technology areas related to production, cryogenics, sensors, storage, separation processes, fuel cells, resource assessments and education. (authors)

  5. Technology issues associated with using densified hydrogen for space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.

    1992-01-01

    Slush hydrogen and triple-point hydrogen offer the potential for reducing the size and weight of future space vehicles because these fluids have greater densities than normal-boiling-point liquid hydrogen. In addition, these fluids have greater heat capacities, which make them attractive fuels for such applications as the National Aerospace Plane and cryogenic depots. Some of the benefits of using slush hydrogen and triple-point hydrogen for space missions are quantified. Some of the major issues associated with using these densified cryogenic fuels for space applications are examined, and the technology efforts that have been made to address many of these issues are summarized.

  6. Local, state, and national perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Pierpont; Ken Nehoda; Jerry T. Williams

    1995-01-01

    Prescribed fire has been recognized as a potential tool for land managers for many years. The gradual recognition of the important role of fire in wildlands has been documented many times. In the United States, this recognition probably first occurred in the longleaf pine region of the southern United States. Various agencies that once focused on fire exclusion...

  7. National perspective on waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sources of nuclear wastes are listed and the quantities of these wastes per year are given. Methods of processing and disposing of mining and milling wastes, low-level wastes, decommissioning wastes, high-level wastes, reprocessing wastes, spent fuels, and transuranic wastes are discussed. The costs and safeguards involved in the management of this radioactive wastes are briefly covered in this presentation

  8. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-09-05

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an

  9. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  10. Handbook of hydrogen energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sherif, SA; Stefanakos, EK; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    ""This book provides an excellent overview of the hydrogen economy and a thorough and comprehensive presentation of hydrogen production and storage methods.""-Scott E. Grasman, Rochester Institute of Technology, New York, USA

  11. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  12. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  13. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...

  14. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  15. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  16. Fiber Optic Sensors for Leak Detection and Condition Monitoring in Hydrogen Fuel Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal addresses the need for explosion proof, sensitive and reliable hydrogen sensors for NASA and commercial hydrogen fuel systems. It also...

  17. DAWN GRAND MAP CERES SMOOTHED HYDROGEN MAP V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A smoothed, global map of the concentration of hydrogen within the regolith of asteroid 1 Ceres on two-degree equal-angle pixels is provided. Hydrogen concentrations...

  18. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF CRYOGENIC HYDROGEN RADIATION SHIELD FOR HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hydrogen is the most mass-efficient radiation shielding material for protection against the space radiation environment. The concept of Cryogenic Hydrogen Radiation...

  19. An Affordable Autonomous Hydrogen Flame Detection System for Rocket Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has long used liquid hydrogen as a fuel and plans to continue using it in association with their advanced nuclear thermal propulsion technology. Hydrogen fire...

  20. Advanced hydrogen/methanol utilization technology demonstration. Phase II: Hydrogen cold start of a methanol vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is the Phase 11 Final Report on NREL Subcontract No. XR-2-11175-1 {open_quotes}Advanced Hydrogen/Methane Utilization Demonstration{close_quotes} between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, Golden, Colorado and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. (HCI), Littleton, Colorado. Mr. Chris Colucci was NREL`s Technical Monitor. Colorado State University`s (CSU) Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was HCI`s subcontractor. Some of the vehicle test work was carried out at the National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety (NCVECS) at CSU. The collaboration of the Colorado School of Mines is also gratefully acknowledged. Hydrogen is unique among alternative fuels in its ability to burn over a wide range of mixtures in air with no carbon-related combustion products. Hydrogen also has the ability to burn on a catalyst, starting from room temperature. Hydrogen can be made from a variety of renewable energy resources and is expected to become a widely used energy carrier in the sustainable energy system of the future. One way to make a start toward widespread use of hydrogen in the energy system is to use it sparingly with other alternative fuels. The Phase I work showed that strong affects could be achieved with dilute concentrations of hydrogen in methane (11). Reductions in emissions greater than the proportion of hydrogen in the fuel provide a form of leverage to stimulate the early introduction of hydrogen. Per energy unit or per dollar of hydrogen, a greater benefit is derived than simply displacing fossil-fueled vehicles with pure hydrogen vehicles.

  1. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Van Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R.J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H.M.; Van Niekerk, W.M.K.; Van der Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO 2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  2. The US Department of Energy hydrogen baseline survey: assessing knowledge and opinions about hydrogen technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy Cooper; Tykey Truett; R L Schmoyer

    2006-01-01

    To design and maintain its education program, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program conducted a statistically-valid national survey to measure knowledge and opinions of hydrogen among key target audiences. The Hydrogen Baseline Knowledge Survey provides a reference for designing the DOE hydrogen education strategy and will be used in comparisons with future surveys to measure changes in knowledge and opinions over time. The survey sampled four U.S. populations: (1) public; (2) students; (3) state and local government officials; and (4) potential large-scale hydrogen end-users in three business categories. Questions measured technical understanding of hydrogen and opinions about hydrogen safety. Other questions assessed visions of the likelihood of future hydrogen applications and sources of energy information. Several important findings were discovered, including a striking lack of technical understanding across all survey groups, as well as a strong correlation between technical knowledge and opinions about safety: those who demonstrated an understanding of hydrogen technologies expressed the least fear of its safe use. (authors)

  3. Hydrogen as alternative clean fuel: Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1995-03-01

    In analogy to biofuel production from biomasses, the electrolytic conversion of other renewable energies into hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel is considered. This solution allows the intermittent renewable energy sources, as photovoltaics and wind energy, to enhance their development and enlarge the role into conventional fuel market. A rough economic analysis of hydrogen production line shows the costs, added by electrolysis and storage stages, can be recovered by properly accounting for social and environmental costs due to whole cycle of conventional fuels, from production to use. So, in a perspective of attaining the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, the hydrogen, arising from intermittent renewable energy sources, will be able to compete in the energy market with conventional fuels, making sure that their substitution will occur in a significant amount and the corresponding environment

  4. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  5. Conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodineau, Luc; Menzen, Georg; Arnold, Peter Erich; Mauberger, Pascal; Roentzsch, Lars; Poggi, Philippe; Gervais, Thierry; Schneider, Guenther; Colomar, David; Buenger, Ulrich; Nieder, Babette; Zimmer, Rene; Jeanne, Fabrice; Le Grand, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 200 participants exchanged views on the different perspectives for use of hydrogen, in particular in transportation and energy storage applications. The technical production, transport and storage means were addressed too, as well as the technological models and the conditions for a large-scale industrial deployment. The economic prospects of hydrogen-energy in tomorrow's energy mix were also considered during the conference. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Hydrogen energy and Fuel Cells in France Today, and prospective (Luc Bodineau); 2 - The situation of energy Policy in Germany and the challenges for the Hydrogen Technology (Georg Menzen); 3 - Unlocking the Hydrogen Potential for Transport and Industry (Peter Erich Arnold); 4 - Hydrogen, a new energy for our planet - Hydrogen storage possibilities: example of solid storage (Pascal Mauberger); 5 - Innovative Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for H 2 Production and H 2 Storage (Lars Roentzsch); 6 - Scientific development and industrial strategy: experience feedback from the Myrte platform and energy transition-related perspectives (Philippe Poggi, Thierry Gervais); 7 - 'Power to Gas' - Important partner for renewables with big impact potential (Guenther Schneider) 8 - Developing a Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport in France and Germany - A Comparison (David Colomar, Ulrich Buenger); 9 - H 2 and Fuel-Cells as Key Technologies for the Transition to Renewable energies - The example of Herten (Babette Nieder); 10 - Social acceptance of hydrogen mobility in Germany (Rene Zimmer); 11 - Hydrogen - A development opportunity for regions? (Fabrice Jeanne)

  6. Development of Asymmetric Hydrogenation Catalysts via High Throughput Experimentation Développement de catalyseurs d’hydrogénation asymétrique par criblage haut débit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries J. G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of drugs discovery imposes severe time constraints on the development chemist in charge of implementing the large scale production of a new Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API. This results in the use of well-established and robust transformations at the expense of the cost-efficiency and the sustainability of the process. In order to cope with the short development time and allow the implementation of new more efficient production technologies such as asymmetric hydrogenation, we have turned towards the use of high throughput experimentation for the discovery of new catalysts. The protocol for the preparation of a library of chiral ligands and its application to real-life pharmaceutical molecules is described in this article. La découverte de nouvelles molécules pharmaceutiques a sa propre dynamique qui impose des contraintes temporelles très strictes au chimiste en charge de développer la production du principe actif à large échelle. En conséquence, ce dernier va se tourner vers l’utilisation de technologies éprouvées et robustes quitte à rendre le procédé plus coûteux ou plus polluant. Afin de pouvoir faire face à des temps de développement très courts et d’introduire en production des technologies modernes et non polluantes comme l’hydrogénation asymétrique, nous avons développé une plateforme de criblage haut débit pour la découverte de nouveaux catalyseurs. Dans cet article, nous décrivons une des facettes de cette plateforme qui est la synthèse de librairies de ligands chiraux et leur application au cas réel d’une molécule pharmaceutique.

  7. Long-term environmental and socio-economic impact of a hydrogen energy program in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Lutero Carmo de [Uberlandia Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Veziroglu, T. Nejat [Miami Univ., Clean Energy Research Inst., Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In this study, a program of electrolytic hydrogen generation for Brazil through the assistance of photovoltaic cell panels is proposed. The generated hydrogen will serve as an energy carrier and will be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Three scenarios have been considered: fast hydrogen introduction, slow hydrogen introduction, and no hydrogen introduction. The results show that hydrogen introduction (1) will increase the energy consumption, (2) will increase the gross national product per capita, (3) will reduce pollution, and (4) will increase the quality of life in Brazil. Fast hydrogen introduction brings the benefits by 20 years earlier. (Author)

  8. Hydrogen energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, F J; Braun, C [eds.

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to define the near term and long term prospects for the use of hydrogen as an energy delivery medium. Possible applications of hydrogen are defined along with the associated technologies required for implementation. A major focus in the near term is on industrial uses of hydrogen for special applications. The major source of hydrogen in the near term is expected to be from coal, with hydrogen from electric sources supplying a smaller fraction. A number of potential applications for hydrogen in the long term are identified and the level of demand estimated. The results of a cost benefit study for R and D work on coal gasification to hydrogen and electrolytic production of hydrogen are presented in order to aid in defining approximate levels of R and D funding. A considerable amount of data is presented on the cost of producing hydrogen from various energy resources. A key conclusion of the study is that in time hydrogen is likely to play a role in the energy system; however, hydrogen is not yet competitive for most applications when compared to the cost of energy from petroleum and natural gas.

  9. Hydrogen energy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights the outstanding role of hydrogen in energy processes, where it is the most functional element due to its unique peculiarities that are highlighted and emphasized in the book. The first half of the book covers the great natural hydrogen processes in biology, chemistry, and physics, showing that hydrogen is a trend that can unite all natural sciences. The second half of the book is devoted to the technological hydrogen processes that are under research and development with the aim to create the infrastructure for hydrogen energetics. The book describes the main features of hydrogen that make it inalienable player in processes such as fusion, photosynthesis, and metabolism. It also covers the methods of hydrogen production and storage, highlighting at the same time the exclusive importance of nanotechnologies in those processes.

  10. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Williams [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  11. EDITORIAL: Perspectives Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Richard

    2011-05-01

    In this issue, we are delighted to publish the second in a series of articles under the banner of Perspectives. The series commenced in late 2008, when Udo Kaatze [1] published an article about the powerful technique of dielectric spectrometry for liquid measurements. In addition to examining the very wide frequency range from 10-6 Hz to 10-13 Hz, an outline of possible future developments was presented. Some challenging tasks for the future were briefly outlined. The format of the article was different to the usual style of a contributed paper or review article. Instead, it represented a short summary of recent work in the field and offered a viewpoint of an expert in the area. Its commentary noted several milestones that had been recently achieved, and then looked to the future. The Perspective format allowed the author to provide some opinion about the challenges of the future not normally permitted in a Topical Review. The journal now intends to publish several more Perspectives. For example, in this issue David Birch [2] presents a Perspective about another important measurement science, namely fluorescence detections and their future directions. These are based on an old technique which provided the basis for detecting the presence of molecular species. Successful research led to an understanding and description of the phenomenon of molecular fluorescence in terms of excited state energies, transitions, symmetries and rate parameters. More recently, using fluorescence as a probe, and with the exploitation of new technologies, new applications have included the study of protein, vision, photosynthesis, membranes and DNA. Indeed nowhere has fluorescence had more impact than in the biosciences. Once again, the intention of the Perspective article has been to highlight recent milestones within the field. Importantly, it also indicates some of the future challenges. Such Perspectives are an occasional series. They are not intended to deflect from the balance of

  12. A Review on the Production and Purification of Biomass-Derived Hydrogen Using Emerging Membrane Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Yin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen energy systems are recognized as a promising solution for the energy shortage and environmental pollution crises. To meet the increasing demand for hydrogen, various possible systems have been investigated for the production of hydrogen by efficient and economical processes. Because of its advantages of being renewable and environmentally friendly, biomass processing has the potential to become the major hydrogen production route in the future. Membrane technology provides an efficient and cost-effective solution for hydrogen separation and greenhouse gas capture in biomass processing. In this review, the future prospects of using gas separation membranes for hydrogen production in biomass processing are extensively addressed from two perspectives: (1 the current development status of hydrogen separation membranes made of different materials and (2 the feasibility of using these membranes for practical applications in biomass-derived hydrogen production. Different types of hydrogen separation membranes, including polymeric membranes, dense metal membranes, microporous membranes (zeolite, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, silica, etc. are systematically discussed in terms of their fabrication methods, gas permeation performance, structure stability properties, etc. In addition, the application feasibility of these membranes in biomass processing is assessed from both practical and economic perspectives. The benefits and possibilities of using membrane reactors for hydrogen production in biomass processing are also discussed. Lastly, we summarize the limitations of the currently available hydrogen membranes as well as the gaps between research achievements and industrial application. We also propose expected research directions for the future development of hydrogen gas membrane technology.

  13. Report on the behalf of the Parliamentary Office for the Assessment of Scientific and Technological Choices on hydrogen: a vector for energy transition? - National Assembly Nr 1672, Senate Nr 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, Laurent; Pastor, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    In its first part, this report describes the role and use hydrogen may have as a possible sustainable energy vector: description of its remarkable properties, description of various production modalities and processes, issues related to storage, transport and distribution. The second part proposes an overview of applications: fuel cells, hydrogen in transports, power-to-gas, co-generation, energy autonomy, mobile devices. The third part describes and discusses the role hydrogen may have in energy transition, notably for the integration of renewable energies, and in the substitution to fossil energies. The last chapter discusses the governance for a hydrogen energy sector in France: a sector with a high potential, a needed intervention by the State, the unavoidable role of territories, the issue of regulation. A description of the situation in foreign countries is provided in appendix

  14. Hydrogen - From hydrogen to energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    More than a century ago, Jules Verne wrote in 'The Mysterious Island' that water would one day be employed as fuel: 'Hydrogen and oxygen, which constitute it, used singly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light'. Today, the 'water motor' is not entirely the dream of a writer. Fiction is about to become fact thanks to hydrogen, which can be produced from water and when burned in air itself produces water. Hydrogen is now at the heart of international research. So why do we have such great expectations of hydrogen? 'Hydrogen as an energy system is now a major challenge, both scientifically and from an environmental and economic point of view'. Dominated as it is by fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal), our current energy system has left a dual threat hovering over our environment, exposing the planet to the exhaustion of its natural reserves and contributing to the greenhouse effect. If we want sustainable development for future generations, it is becoming necessary to diversify our methods of producing energy. Hydrogen is not, of course, a source of energy, because first it has to be produced. But it has the twofold advantage of being both inexhaustible and non-polluting. So in the future, it should have a very important role to play. (author)

  15. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  16. Hydrogen energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okken, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    For the Energy and Material consumption Scenarios (EMS), by which emission reduction of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases can be calculated, calculations are executed by means of the MARKAL model (MARket ALlocation, a process-oriented dynamic linear programming model to minimize the costs of the energy system) for the Netherlands energy economy in the period 2000-2040, using a variable CO 2 emission limit. The results of these calculations are published in a separate report (ECN-C--92-066). The use of hydrogen can play an important part in the above-mentioned period. An overview of several options to produce or use hydrogen is given and added to the MARKAL model. In this report techno-economical data and estimates were compiled for several H 2 -application options, which subsequently also are added to the MARKAL model. After a brief chapter on hydrogen and the impact on the reduction of CO 2 emission attention is paid to stationary and mobile applications. The stationary options concern the mixing of natural gas with 10% hydrogen, a 100% substitution of natural gas by hydrogen, the use of a direct steam generator (combustion of hydrogen by means of pure oxygen, followed by steam injection to produce steam), and the use of fuel cells. The mobile options concern the use of hydrogen in the transportation sector. In brief, attention is paid to a hydrogen passenger car with an Otto engine, and a hydrogen passenger car with a fuel cell, a hybrid (metal)-hydride car, a hydrogen truck, a truck with a methanol fuel cell, a hydrogen bus, an inland canal boat with a hydrogen fuel cell, and finally a hydrogen airplane. 2 figs., 15 tabs., 1 app., 26 refs

  17. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide: management of hydrogen sulfide exposure victims (Preprint No. SA-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1989-04-01

    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S.A. has listed 73 industries with potential exposure to hydrogen sulphide. Though the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide is known to mankind since the beginning of seventeenth century the exact mode of its toxicity and effective therapeutic regimen remains unclear as yet. This paper presents current thoughts on the toxicity of this substance and a discussion on the role of various antidotes used in H 2 S poisoning. (autho r)

  18. Project plan hydrogen energy systems technology. Phase 1: Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the potential need for hydrogen as a source of energy in the future was presented in order to identify and define the technology requirements for the most promising approaches to meet that need. The following study objectives were discussed: (1) determination of the future demand for hydrogen, based on current trends and anticipated new uses, (2) identification of the critical research and technology advances required to meet this need considering, to the extent possible, raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects, and (3) definition and recommendation of the scope and space of a National Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology Program and outline of a Program Development Plan.

  19. Short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI-short) with and without the Future-Negative scale, verified on nationally representative samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Jaroslav; Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Lukavská, K.; Lukavský, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-192 ISSN 0961-463X Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : ZTPI * ZTPI-short * time perspective * temporal orientation * representative sample Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.206, year: 2016

  20. Hydrogen Highways: Lessons on the Energy Technology-Policy Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waegel, Alex; Byrne, John; Tobin, Daniel; Haney, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy has received increasing attention recently. Common reasons cited for investigating hydrogen energy options are improved energy security, reduced environmental impacts, and its contribution to a transition to sustainable energy sources. In anticipation of these benefits, national and local initiatives have been launched in the…

  1. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL

    2005-11-05

    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options

  2. H2 Mobilite France - Study for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle national deployment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    'Mobilite Hydrogene France', a consortium of private and public stakeholders, united by the French Association for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (AFHYPAC), launched a study in July 2013 to evaluate the potential of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in French transport. The results provide true perspectives of a deployment plan for the national territory. This French study was implemented in parallel with various initiatives initiated in other European countries (Germany, UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden..). It was funded by the participants themselves and by the European Union under the HIT (Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport) framework. On the basis of shared economic data, synchronised deployment scenarios for vehicles and refuelling stations were developed. These showed the environmental, economic and societal benefits of a transition towards Hydrogen Mobility. Hydrogen Mobility appears as a key factor of the Energy Transition. It can make a significant contribution to emission reduction of the transport sector. The established plan of the Consortium proposes an ambitious deployment in France of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, together with refuelling stations by 2030. This plan starts today, with as a first step, a progressive deployment of captive fleets. Like in other countries initiatives worldwide, the success of this deployment in France is a function of combined commitments and efforts by private industrial companies and public stakeholders (at both national and regional level). The main challenge now is in the adaptation of the regulatory frameworks and the implementation of funding, within the coordination of the European Union. The consortium is committed to implement The consortium first deployments in French early adopter territories that have embraced already the strategy of a sustainable and de-carbonized mobility

  3. Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph; Oberg, Carl L.; Russell, Larry H.

    1980-01-01

    A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

  4. National Headache Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Topic Sheets (Spanish) Headache FAQ NHF Webinars Education Modules MigrainePro™ Children’s Headache Disorders New Perspectives on Caffeine and Headache War Veterans Health Resource Initiative National Headache Foundation Brochures ...

  5. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  7. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  8. [Budget impact of the incorporation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System, Brazil, 2013-2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Márcia Ferreira Teixeira; Steffen, Ricardo; Entringer, Aline; Costa, Ana Carolina Carioca da; Trajman, Anete

    2017-10-09

    The study aimed to estimate the budget impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian National Program for Tuberculosis Control, drawing on a static model using the epidemiological method, from 2013 to 2017. GeneXpert MTB/RIF was compared with two diagnostic sputum smear tests. The study used epidemiological, population, and cost data, exchange rates, and databases from the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Sensitivity analysis of scenarios was performed. Incorporation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF would cost BRL 147 million (roughly USD 45 million) in five years and would have an impact of 23 to 26% in the first two years and some 11% between 2015 and 2017. The results can support Brazilian and other Latin American health administrators in planning and managing the decision on incorporating the technology.

  9. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  10. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  11. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  12. Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pavlovsky

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative hydrogen sensor based on palladium (Pd nanoparticle networks is described in the article. Made by Applied Nanotech Inc. sensor has a fast response time, in the range of seconds, which is increased at 80 °C due to higher hydrogen diffusion rates into the palladium lattice. The low detection limit of the sensor is 10 ppm of H2, and the high limit is 40,000 ppm. This is 100% of a lowest flammability level of hydrogen. This range of sensitivities complies with the requirements that one would expect for a reliable hydrogen sensor.

  13. Atomic hydrogen reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massip de Turville, C.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods are discussed of generating heat in an atomic hydrogen reactor which involve; the production of atomic hydrogen by an electrical discharge, the capture of nascent neutrons from atomic hydrogen in a number of surrounding steel alloy tubes having a high manganese content to produce 56 Mn, the irradiation of atomic hydrogen by the high energy antineutrinos from the beta decay of 56 Mn to yield nascent neutrons, and the removal of the heat generated by the capture of nascent neutrons by 55 Mn and the beta decay of 56 Mn. (U.K.)

  14. New hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the overall hydrogen system. There are separate sections for production, distribution, transport, storage; and applications of hydrogen. The most important methods for hydrogen production are steam reformation of natural gas and electrolysis of water. Of the renewable energy options, production of hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from wind turbines or by gasification of biomass were found to be the most economic for Finland. Direct use of this electricity or the production of liquid fuels from biomass will be competing alternatives. When hydrogen is produced in the solar belt or where there is cheap hydropower it must be transported over long distances. The overall energy consumed for the transport is from 25 to 40 % of the initial available energy. Hydrogen storage can be divided into stationary and mobile types. The most economic, stationary, large scale hydrogen storage for both long and short periods is underground storage. When suitable sites are not available, then pressure vessels are the best for short period and liquid H 2 for long period. Vehicle storage of hydrogen is by either metal hydrides or liquid H 2 . Hydrogen is a very versatile energy carrier. It can be used to produce heat directly in catalytic burners without flame, to produce electricity in fuel cells with high efficiency for use in vehicles or for peak power shaving, as a fuel component with conventional fuels to reduce emissions, as a way to store energy and as a chemical reagent in reactions

  15. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, D.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Sglavo, V.; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the technical/economic feasibility of the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel is made based on analyses of the following: the chemical- physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems - with water vapour injection, cryogenic injection, and the low or high pressure injection of hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber; the current commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. The paper concludes that, considering current costs for hydrogen fuel production, distribution and use, at present, the employment of hydrogen fuelled vehicles is feasible only in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives

  16. Study and Development of Face-Contact, Bellows Mechanical Seal for Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump

    OpenAIRE

    NOSAKA, Masataka; SUZUKI, Mineo; MIYAKAWA, Yukio; KAMIJO, Kenjiro; KIKUCHI, Masataka; MORI, Masahiro; 野坂, 正隆; 鈴木, 峰男; 宮川, 行雄; 上絛, 謙二郎; 菊池, 正孝; 森, 雅裕

    1981-01-01

    The development of a 10-ton thrust liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen (LOX and LH2) rocket engine is under way at the National Space Development Agency. In advance of the development of a liquid hydrogen turbopump, the National Aerospace Laboratory carried out study and development of a face-contact, bellows mechanical seal for a liquid hydrogen turbopump in co-operation with the National Space Development Agency. The present report describes the fundamental experiments of the mechanical seal ...

  17. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  18. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T [Ann Arbor, MI; Li, Yingwel [Ann Arbor, MI; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  19. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies, including...

  20. Radiation Shielding and Hydrogen Storage with Multifunctional Carbon, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses two vital problems for long-term space travel activities: radiation shielding and hydrogen storage for power and propulsion. While both...

  1. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible microwave plasma methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the...

  2. Missouri S&T hydrogen transportation test bed equipment & construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Investments through the National University Transportation Center at Missouri University of Science and Technology have really scored on the Centers mission areas and particularly Transition-state fuel vehicle infrastructure leading to a hydrogen ...

  3. Efficient Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Water, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical cell is proposed for the efficient generation of 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in pure water using only power, oxygen and water. H2O2 is an...

  4. Low Pressure Adsorbent for Recovery & Storage Vented Hydrogen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance fullerene-based adsorbent is proposed for recovery and storage hydrogen and separating helium via pressure-swing-adsorption (PSA) process....

  5. Hydrogen Generator by Methane Pyrolysis with Carbon Capture, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop, fabricate, and test a system to provide 99.999% hydrogen by efficiently performing methane pyrolysis. The system has three unique...

  6. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies including...

  7. Fire protection and hydrogen burn equipment survival research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the Fire Protection and Hydrogen Burn Equipment Survival Research Programs at Sandia National Laboratories, with emphasis on the experimental efforts completed in FY85 to characterize fires and fire damage and to understand equipment response to hydrogen burns. The results of fire characterization tests, electrical cabinet fire tests, and cable and relay damage threshold tests are described. The results of hydrogen burn simulation tests of cable, solenoid valves, and pressure transmitters are also described, including testing using both realistic heat flux conditions and heat fluxes beyond those anticipated during an actual hydrogen burn. Plans for FY86 analysis and testing are summarized. 17 figs

  8. Hydrogen Monitoring Requirements in the Global Technical Regulation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Hartmann, Kevin; Bubar, Max; Post, Matthew; Boon-Brett, Lois; Weidner, Eveline; Moretto, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    The United Nations Global Technical Regulation (GTR) Number 13 (Global Technical Regulation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles) is the defining document regulating safety requirements in hydrogen vehicles, and in particular fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). GTR Number 13 has been formally implemented and will serve as the basis for the national regulatory standards for FCEV safety in North America (Canada, United States), Japan, Korea, and the European Union. The GTR defines safety requirement for these vehicles, including specifications on the allowable hydrogen levels in vehicle enclosures during in-use and post-crash conditions and on the allowable hydrogen emissions levels in vehicle exhaust during certain modes of normal operation. However, in order to be incorporated into national regulations, that is, in order to be binding, methods to verify compliance to the specific requirements must exist. In a collaborative program, the Sensor Laboratories at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in the United States and the Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport in the Netherlands have been evaluating and developing analytical methods that can be used to verify compliance to the hydrogen release requirement as specified in the GTR.

  9. Passive Wireless Hydrogen Sensors Using Orthogonal Frequency Coded Acoustic Wave Devices, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the continued development of passive orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors for NASA application...

  10. Hydrogen energy and UNIDO-ICHET activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtulus, Guelbahar; Tabakoglu, F. Oeznur

    2007-01-01

    Increasing dependence on fossil fuels due to industrialization and increasing population has had many serious consequences such as air pollution, climate change and global warming. Hydrogen energy seems to be the most promising alternative to fossil fuels and Hydrogen Energy System is accepted to be the permanent solution to the depletion of fossil fuels as their reserves are finite and the environmental damage caused by their utilization. With the establishment of United Nations International Hydrogen Energy Technologies Centre (UNIDO-ICHET) in Istanbul, May 2004, Turkey has undertaken a historic mission to help convert the world to Hydrogen Economy. Among the development objectives of the Centre is to develop and strengthen global scientific and technological capabilities by closing the gap between research and development organizations, innovative enterprises and the market place, so as to stimulate appropriate applications of hydrogen energy technologies in industrial development throughout the world in general and in developing countries in particular. For the benefit of developing and developed countries it is also planned to further the application of hydrogen for peaceful aims, as well as the development and transfer of hydrogen energy related technologies, including the associated technology management processes. The Centre also aims to promote the advancement of applied research and development on hydrogen energy, with direct involvement of developing countries scientists and technologists. Additionally the Centre intends to support and strengthen programmes within developing countries for the implementation of hydrogen energy based research, development and technology transfer centers, and provide mechanisms for the support of existing as well as the creation of new industrial enterprises. ICHET achieves its objectives primarily through: studies; the sponsorship and performance of applied research in academic, industrial and governmental sectors; the

  11. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  12. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Buczek; E Wolak

    2005-01-01

    temperatures than liquefaction. Last years have brought the interest in hydrogen storage in porous carbon materials, caused by the design and accessibility of new materials, such as fullerenes, carbon nano-tubes and nano-fibers. In particular the tubular carbon structures are perspective highly adsorbing materials, for their surface adsorption (on the internal and external surface of the nano-tubes), and for the effect of capillary condensation. Data presented in Table 1 show that the amount of hydrogen adsorbed on these new materials depends of their modification and on the type of carbon precursor. In this work the concept of hydrogen storage by adsorption was analyzed. The discussion is based on measurements of hydrogen adsorption on commercial active carbon in the temperature range 77 - 298 K at pressures up to 4 MPa. The amount of gas that can be stored in an adsorption system depends on the adsorbent characteristics and the operating conditions. Adsorption method was compared with another one taking into account both technical and economical aspects. The results show that the adsorption technique could provide a viable method for hydrogen storage

  13. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczek, B.; Wolak, E.

    2005-01-01

    higher temperatures than liquefaction [3]. Last years have brought the interest in hydrogen storage in porous carbon materials, caused by the design and accessibility of new materials, such as fullerenes, carbon nano-tubes and nano-fibers. In particular the tubular carbon structures are perspective highly adsorbing materials, for their surface adsorption (on the internal and external surface of the nano-tubes), and for the effect of capillary condensation [4]. Data presented in Table 1 show that the amount of hydrogen adsorbed on these new materials depends of their modification and on the type of carbon precursor [5]. In this work the concept of hydrogen storage by adsorption was analyzed. The discussion is based on measurements of hydrogen adsorption on commercial active carbon in the temperature range 77 - 298 K at pressures up to 4 MPa. The amount of gas that can be stored in an adsorption system depends on the adsorbent characteristics and the operating conditions. Adsorption method was compared with another one taking into account both technical and economical aspects. The results show that the adsorption technique could provide a viable method for hydrogen storage. [1]G. D. Berry, A. D. Pastemak, G. D. Rambach, J. R. Smith, N. Schock, Energy. 21, 289, 1996; [2]L. Czepirski, Przem. Chem. 70, 129, 1991 (in Polish); [3]B. Buczek, L. Czepirski, Inz. Chem. Proc., 24, 545, 2003; [4]U. Huczko, Przem. Chem. 81, 19, 2002 (in Polish); [5]U. Buenger, W. Zittel, Appl. Phys. A 72, 147, 2001. (authors)

  14. Asian Perspectives on the Challenges of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS) held its annual Pacific symposium on Asian Perspectives on the Challenges of China" at the National Defense University in Washington on March 7 and 8, 2000...

  15. Hydrogen damage in metals, particularly in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funes, A.J.

    1982-03-01

    Hydrogen damage examples of practical interest for the engineer are presented, showing the scope of the problem and its importance in relation to technological development, particularly of CANDU reactor and of heavy water production plants. The fundamental triangle of the hydrogen embrittlement is established as follows: presence of hydrogen in the crystalline network, structure susceptible of damage, and effort. The initial collection of examples is classified in function of the observed effects. For the consideration of the causes of said effects three models of hydrogen interaction with the crystalline network are described, indicating their scopes and limitations. Then the use of the models is explained, both in order to obtain practical information (evaluation tests, acceptance and rejection criteria) and for the validation and improvement of the models themselves (study methods). Solutions for attenuating the hydrogen embrittlement and a programme of studies and tests are proposed to be carried out by the National Atomic Energy Commission. Among the latter, the local development of a microimpression method to detect the evaluation of absorbed hydrogen, comparable with the autoradiography of high resolution, and a mechanical test yielding results on fragility comparable with those obtained through the test of standard disks, are described. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  17. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Separation of a solution from the pure solvent by a porous partition that is impermeable to the solute leads to ... important in quantitative analysis of colligative properties such. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage. The van 't Hoff ... Hydrogen as a source of energy offers an attractive solution. Future cars could be fuelled by ...

  18. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up...

  19. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  20. Dark hydrogen fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The production of hydrogen is a ubiquitous, natural phenomenon under anoxic or anaerobic conditions. A wide variety of bacteria, in swamps, sewage, hot springs, the rumen of cattle etc. is able to convert organic matter to hydrogen, CO2 and metabolites like acetic acid, lactate, ethanol and alanine.