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Sample records for national mammography quality

  1. Quality assurance in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosmark, H.; Olerud, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines in mammography are given, including competence of staff, performance of equipment and quality control procedures. The purpose of the guidelines is to ensure optimum diagnostic quality. 5 refs

  2. Mammography quality assurance in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaoui, F.; Talsmat, K.; Lalaoui, K.

    2001-01-01

    The 'Centre National de l'Energie, des Sciences et des Techniques Nucleaires' (CNESTEN) realised, from February 1999 to March 2000, a quality control of 41 mammography facilities in Morocco. The protocol and standards adopted for achieving the control of elements constituting the mammography chain are those elaborated by GIM and Qualix association. Statistics and conformities results are presented. The program was performed in order to demonstrate to the practitioners in mammography field, the utility and necessity to have a national quality assurance policy. The main objective of CNESTEN is to be accredited by the Moroccan government as a reference laboratory in quality control and dose evaluation in medical imaging and radiotherapy. To achieve this goal the CNESTEN has set up Medical Physic Unit well trained and equipped with the necessary instruments. (author)

  3. Image quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, A.G.; Doi, K.; Metz, C.E.; Bernstein, J.

    1976-01-01

    In mammography, image quality is a function of the shape, size, and x-ray absorption properties of the anatomic part to be radiographed and of the lesion to be detected; it also depends on geometric unsharpness, and the resolution, characteristic curve and noise properties of the recording system. X-ray energy spectra, modulation transfer functions, Wiener spectra, characteristic and gradient curves, and radiographs of a breast phantom and of a resected breast specimen containing microcalcifications are used in a review of some current considerations of the factors, and the complex relationship among factors, that affect image quality in mammography. Image quality and patient radiation exposure in mammography are interrelated. An approach to the problem of evaluating the trade-off between diagnostic certainty and the cost or risk of performing a breast imaging procedure is discussed

  4. Evaluation of the quality of the mammography study in the radio-diagnostic service of the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio Laverde, Alba Lucia; Pineros Petersen, Marion; Betancourt Gil, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    The development of mammography quality control programs at radiology services has had an important progress in the last decades, mainly in developed countries. Although breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality and incidence in Colombia, quality control programs for mammography screening are just beginning to be considered. This article describes the results of a baseline evaluation aimed at establishing a quality control program at the Radiology Unit of the National Cancer Institute, in Colombia. The mammography equipment, the film processing, and all main physical parameters were checked and compared to international standards. Quality of the image in 301 mammographic X-ray plates was evaluated. In order to implement a good quality control program, the need for acquiring essential instruments, improving physical facilities and starting a continuous training program is imperative

  5. Experience with the european quality assurance guidelines for digital mammography systems in a national screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullagh, J.; Keavey, E.; Egan, G.; Phelan, N.

    2013-01-01

    The transition to a fully digital breast screening programme, utilising three different full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems has presented many challenges to the implementation of the European guidelines for physico-technical quality assurance (QA) testing. An analysis of the QA results collected from the FFDM systems in the screening programme over a 2-y period indicates that the three different systems have similar QA performances. Generally, the same tests were failed by all systems and failure rates were low. The findings provide some assurance that the QA guidelines are being correctly implemented. They also suggest that there is more scope for the development of the relevance of the guidelines with respect to modern FFDM systems. This study has also shown that a summary review of the QA data can be achieved by simple organisation of the QA data storage and by automation of data query and retrieval using commonly available software. (authors)

  6. Quality assurance programme at Slovak mammography departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    2004-01-01

    A co-ordinated research program (CRP) for optimisation of image quality in mammography in some Eastern European countries has been initiated by IAEA between 1999 and 2001 and the Slovak Republic took part in this program. The aim of this program was to implement the European QA/QC protocol in a sample of mammography departments and to achieve improvement of the image quality and patient dose reduction. On the national level 28 mammography units were chosen in accordance with equipment performance for quality control programme at this departments, for the first part of the mammography audit in the years 2002-2004. Realisation of CRP project contains: 1) Collection and evaluation of clinical images in agreement with EC criteria; 2) Evaluation of the image quality using mammography test phantom; 3) Measurements of the ESD at patients using TLD; 4) Intercomparison of TLD system calibration with IAEA laboratory; 5) Film reject analysis; 6) Implementation of QC program to the mammography units. The measurements of ESD on patients were performed with TLD (LiF 700 Harshaw). In the 6 month period were collected the results of measurements of: 1) object thickness compensation (measured weekly); 2) long time reproducibility (measured daily); 3) phantom image quality on the standard RMI 156 phantom (measured weekly); 4) ESD on phantom with TLD (once during the audit). Automatic Exposure Control compensation for the object thickness variation was measured by exposing different PMMA plates of thickness ranging from 20 to 60 mm, using the clinical settings. The long term reproducibility has been assessed from the measurements of the optical density and mAs product resulted from the exposure on the PMMA plates. In order to estimate the quality of the images the RMI 156 mammography accreditation phantom was chosen. The accreditation phantom contains test objects which simulate small structures seen in the breast (microcalcifications, fibrils, and tumor like masses). Results of

  7. Quality assurance programme for screen film mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The application of radiation in human health, for both the diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. In the area of diagnostic radiology, this work is focused on quality assurance methods to both the promotion of the effective use of radiation for diagnostic outcome, through achieving and maintaining appropriate image quality, and also on dose determination to allow the monitoring and reduction of dose to the patient. In response to heightened awareness of the importance of patient dose contributed by radiology procedures, the IAEA published Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice (Technical Reports Series No. 457) in 2007, to form a basis for patient dose determination for the Member States. Further to this, it is recognized that for complex diagnostic procedures, such as mammography, a detailed guidance document is required to give the professionals in the clinical centre the knowledge necessary to assess the patient dose, as well as to ensure that the procedure gives the maximal patient benefit possible. It is well documented that without the implementation of a quality culture and a systematic quality assurance programme with appropriate education, the detection of breast cancer cannot be made at an early enough stage to allow effective curative treatment to be undertaken. Currently there are a number of established quality assurance protocols in mammography from national and regional institutions, however, many of these protocols are distinctive and so a harmonized approach is required. This will allow the Member States to facilitate quality assurance in mammography in a standardized way which will also facilitate the introduction of national quality assurance programmes that are needed to underpin effective population screening programmes for breast cancer. Development of a quality assurance document for screen film mammography was started in 2005 with the appointment of a drafting

  8. Control of quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The present protocol of quality control/quality assurance in mammography is the result of the work of two regional projects realised in Latin America within the frame of ARCAL with the support of the IAEA. The first is ARCAL LV (RLA/6/043) project on quality assurance/quality control in mammography studies which analysed the present situation of the mammography in the member countries of the project which include: Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic and Republic of Venezuela and the second is ARCAL XLIX (RLA/9/035) project, whose members were Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, and Peru, worked the application of Basic Safety Standards for the protection against ionising radiation with the aim to improve radiation protection in X-ray diagnosis medical practices through the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) related to x-ray diagnosis in selected hospitals located in each country involved in the project. The work of both projects had been consolidated and harmonized in the present publication

  9. Image Quality and Patient Dose Optimisation in Mammography in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Prikazska, M.

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer represents also in Slovakia the greatest cancer risk for women, with great incidence and mortality. Conventional film-screen mammography is still the primary breast imaging modality with increasing number of mammography units and mammography examinations. From the radiation protection point of view achievement of good practice in mammography department by implementation of quality assurance play an important role for reduction of patients doses. Introduction of QA needs trained and experienced staff and requires close collaboration between radiologists, medical physicist and radiographers. At the beginning of nineties at the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine we started with a survey of mean glandular doses at 15 existing mammography units in the country. On the basis of a questionnaire in the year 1991 were performed 10 488 mammography examinations, where due to out of date mammography units the mean glandular dose reached more as 3 mGy. In the following years the claim to the modern mammography units kept growing and in the year 1999 the total number of 63 mammography units were operating in Slovakia providing about 101 471 mammography examinations. According to the alarming increase of the number of mammography examinations it is absolutely necessary to work out criteria and principles for Quality Control at mammography workplaces in our country and make it obligatory for the staff of all mammography units. Summarising the CRP results it can be stated that they: 1) Initiated the suggestion of unified QA/QC criteria in mammography and the urgent need to implement them into the national program of radiology image quality improvement; 2) Remitted on unhomogenity not only in the equipment outfit but also in the procedure of evaluation of the measured parameters and imaging quality; 3) Revealed the shortcomings in the everyday practice of mammography units which can be removed only by comprehensive by training of personal in imaging radiology

  10. A phantom for quality control in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambaccini, M.; Rimondi, O.; Marziani, M.; Toti, A.

    1989-01-01

    A phantom for evaluating image quality in mammography has been designed and will be used in the Italian national programme ''Dose and Quality in Mammography''. The characteristics of the phantom are (a) about the same X-ray transmission as a 5 cm 50% fat and 50% water breast for energies between 15 and 50 keV and (b) optimum energies for imaging of the test objects (included in the phantom) in very close agreement with the optimum energies for imaging of calcifications and tumours in a 5 cm 50% fat and 50% water breast. An experimental comparison between the prototype and some commercial phantoms was carried out. Measurements are in progress to test the phantom's ability to evaluate the performances of mammographic systems quantitatively. (author)

  11. Quality control of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, K.G.

    1986-01-01

    Random checks of mammograms allow to clearly assess quality controls concerning correct application and operation of the radiographic system indicated by rich contrast in breast tissue images, complete imaging of the mammary parenchyma, freedom from blurs due to motion, efficient breast compression, correct film labelling and perfect maintenance of the film screen system. In addition to these subjective assessments, the following points should be considered when using objective measurement procedures and phantoms: Testing the correct function of X-ray and radiographic equipment by means of test specimens to measure KV standard (KV=Association of German Panel Doctors), mAS and automatic exposure timer; comparing dose and density to initial values and checking film processing by using a sensitometer. Quality assurance handling varies from one KV to the next. That is why the users need to obtain the guidelines of the respective KV relative to radiological quality assurance and to proceed according to these. (orig.) [de

  12. Interdisciplinary group of mammography (IGM). Quality assurance in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Assurance quality must be a preoccupation of each day in mammography. To be efficient and of low cost it must be discussed between radiologists and physicists; some countries like Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom, Scandinavia and Netherlands engaged actions to make assurance quality a daily practice

  13. Implementation of Quality Control Protocol in Mammography: A Serbian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj Bjelac, O.; Kosutic, D.; Arandjic, D.; Kovacevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Mammography is method of choice for early detection of breast cancer. In Serbia, mammography is performed only clinically, although there is a long term plan to introduce mammography as screening method. Currently there are 60 mammography units in practice in Serbia, resulting with 70 000 mammographies annually. The purpose of this paper is preliminary evaluation of the mammography practice in Serbia, having in mind the annual number of examinations and fact that part of examination is performed on women without any clinical signs. For pilot implementation of Quality Control (QC) protocol in mammography, five hospitals with highest workload have been selected, representing the typical mammography practice in Serbia. Developed QC protocol, based on European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, actual practice and resources, includes equipment testing and maintenance, staff training and QC management and allocation of responsibilities. Subsequently, it should be applied on the national scale. The survey demonstrated considerable variations in technical parameters that affect image quality and patients doses. Mean glandular doses ranged from 0.12 to 2.8 mGy, while reference optical density ranged from 1.2 to 2.8. Main problems were associated with film processing, viewing conditions and optical density control. The preliminary survey of mammography practice highlighted the need for optimization of radiation protection and training of operating staff, although the survey itself was very valuable learning process for all participants. Furthermore, systematic implementation of QC protocol should provide reliable performance of mammography units and maintain satisfactory image quality and keep patient doses as low as reasonably practical.(author)

  14. Quality control of mammography departments in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Considering the fact that mammary gland is the most sensitive organ to ionizing radiation, the Commission of the Ministry of Health of SR for QA in radiology organized a pilot two-run country wide audit conducted in 42 mammography departments that have met the beforehand criteria. During the audit the methods for establishing the individual parameters in technical and clinical part of quality assurance in mammography were elaborated and implemented. Technical and clinical parameters of the imaging process that mostly affect the quality of diagnostic information were followed up. These parameters included: the object thickness compensation, optical density deviation, evaluation of the film quality by means of special phantom, etc. Important measurement of ESDs at participating departments enabled to compare the radiation load of mammography patients in Slovakia with reference values in European guidelines. The uniform standard method for QA at mammography departments was elaborated and published as the regulation of the Ministry of Health for performance of preventive mammography examinations in SR. The presented results show the improved quality of mammography examinations due to regular check-ups of technical and clinical parameters and fulfilment of the required values in all parameters. The audit results are the basis for continuous quality assessment of mammography departments as a main prerequisite for conducting preventive examinations and for health insurance purposes.

  15. Quality Imaging - Comparison of CR Mammography with Screen-Film Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin Nieto, J.; Iran Diaz Gongora, J. A.; Arreola, M.; Casian Castellanos, G.; Perdigon Castaneda, G. M.; Franco Enriquez, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is a quality imaging comparison of CR mammography images printed to film by a laser printer with screen-film mammography. A Giotto and Elscintec dedicated mammography units with fully automatic exposure and a nominal large focal spot size of 0.3 mm were used for the image acquisition of phantoms in screen-film mammography. Four CR mammography units from two different manufacturers and three dedicated x-ray mammography units with fully automatic exposure and a nominal large focal spot size of 0.3 mm were used for the image acquisition of phantoms in CR mammography. The tests quality image included an assessment of system resolution, scoring phantom images, Artifacts, mean optical density and density difference (contrast). In this study, screen-film mammography with a quality control program offers a significantly greater level of quality image relative to CR mammography images printed on film

  16. Quality control tests for conventional mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawod, Alnazer Ahmed Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Mammography is this the test that allows the radiologist to look at images of the inside of the breasts. Mammograms help detect breast cancer early successful treatment of breast cancer depends on that early diagnosis. Breast cancer is a very common condition. About one in every nine women develops breast cancer by the age of eighty. In addition to the clinical examination and self-examination, mammography plays important role in the detection of breast cancer before they become clinically visible tumors. The mammography is the most common test for early detection of breast cancer. Quality control techniques that done ensured importance of this programme to produce images with good diagnostic values and help radiologist to diagnose breast discase easily and avoid exposing patient to radiation hazards.(Author)

  17. Implementation of the qualities of radiodiagnostic: mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacífico, Leonardo; Magalhães, Luís A.G.; Fernandes, Elisabeth; Peixoto, José Guilherme P.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expanded uncertainty and present the result of the internal audit performed at the Laboratory of Radiological Sciences (LCR). The qualities of the mammographic bundles that are references in the LCR calibrations had their uncertainties and conformities with the standard evaluated. The expanded uncertainty was 1.40%, and the result of the internal audit was satisfactory. We conclude that LCR can perform calibrations on mammography qualities for end users. (author)

  18. Implementation of the qualities of radiodiagnostic: mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacífico, Leonardo; Magalhães, Luís A.G.; Fernandes, Elisabeth, E-mail: leonardocpacifico@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Peixoto, José Guilherme P. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expanded uncertainty and present the result of the internal audit performed at the Laboratory of Radiological Sciences (LCR). The qualities of the mammographic bundles that are references in the LCR calibrations had their uncertainties and conformities with the standard evaluated. The expanded uncertainty was 1.40%, and the result of the internal audit was satisfactory. We conclude that LCR can perform calibrations on mammography qualities for end users. (author)

  19. Establishment of qualities mammography according to the standard IEC-61267 in the laboratory of metrology of ionizing radiation of the National Center of Dosimetry and enlargement of the accreditation by ENAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig Petit, F.; Mestre de Juan, V.; Alabau Albors, J.; Palma Copete, J.; Ruiz Rodriguez, J. C.; Pons Mocholi, S.

    2013-01-01

    The extension of the accreditation of the laboratory of the National Center Dosimetry (No. 58/LC10.036) by the national accreditation entity (ENAC), according to the ISO 17025 standard [2], for the standard qualities of mammography by the IEC 61267 comes to meet part of the needs that demand our health care environment in terms of radiation measuring instruments calibration. This work intends to publicize this enlargement commenting on the different phases of the process to get the accreditation. (Author)

  20. Quality Control in Mammography: Image Quality and Patient Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj Bjelac, O.; Arandjic, D.; Boris Loncar, B.; Kosutic, D.

    2008-01-01

    Mammography is method of choice for early detection of breast cancer. The purpose of this paper is preliminary evaluation the mammography practice in Serbia, in terms of both quality control indicators, i.e. image quality and patient doses. The survey demonstrated considerable variations in technical parameters that affect image quality and patients doses. Mean glandular doses ranged from 0.12 to 2.8 mGy, while reference optical density ranged from 1.2 to 2.8. Correlation between image contrast and mean glandular doses was demonstrated. Systematic implementation of quality control protocol should provide satisfactory performance of mammography units and maintain satisfactory image quality and keep patient doses as low as reasonably practicable. (author)

  1. Implementation of the qualities of radiodiagnostic: mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacífico, L. C.; Magalhães, L. A. G.; Peixoto, J. G. P.; Fernandes, E.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expanded uncertainty of the mammographic calibration process and present the result of the internal audit performed at the Laboratory of Radiological Sciences (LCR). The qualities of the mammographic beans that are references in the LCR, comprises two irradiation conditions: no-attenuated beam and attenuated beam. Both had satisfactory results, with an expanded uncertainty equals 2,1%. The internal audit was performed, and the degree of accordance with the ISO/IEC 17025 was evaluated. The result of the internal audit was satisfactory. We conclude that LCR can perform calibrations on mammography qualities for end users.

  2. Thermoluminescence dosimetry in quality imaging in CR mammography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G. [UAM-Xochimilco, 04960 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [UAM-Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Diaz G, J.A.I. [CICATA, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, 11599 mexico D.F. (Mexico); Arreola, M. [Department of Radiology, Shands Hospital at UF, PO Box 100374, Gainesville, FL 32610-0374 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the average glandular dose with Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) and comparison with quality imaging in CR mammography. For measuring dose, FDA and ACR use a phantom, so that dose and image quality are assessed with the same test object. The mammography is a radiological image to visualize early biological manifestations of breast cancer. Digital systems have two types of image-capturing devices, Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) and CR mammography. In Mexico, there are several CR mammography systems in clinical use, but only one CR mammography system has been approved for use by the FDA. Mammography CR uses a photostimulable phosphor detector (PSP) system. Most CR plates are made of 85% BaFBr and 15% BaFI doped with europium (Eu) commonly called barium fluoro halide. We carry out an exploratory survey of six CR mammography units from three different manufacturers and six dedicated x-ray mammography units with fully automatic exposure. The results show three CR mammography units (50%) have a dose that overcomes 3.0 mGy and it doesn't improve the image quality and dose to the breast will be excessive. The differences between doses averages from TLD system and dosimeter with ionization chamber are less than 10%. TLD system is a good option for average glandular dose measurement. (Author)

  3. Thermoluminescence dosimetry in quality imaging in CR mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G.; Azorin N, J.; Diaz G, J.A.I.; Arreola, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the average glandular dose with Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) and comparison with quality imaging in CR mammography. For measuring dose, FDA and ACR use a phantom, so that dose and image quality are assessed with the same test object. The mammography is a radiological image to visualize early biological manifestations of breast cancer. Digital systems have two types of image-capturing devices, Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) and CR mammography. In Mexico, there are several CR mammography systems in clinical use, but only one CR mammography system has been approved for use by the FDA. Mammography CR uses a photostimulable phosphor detector (PSP) system. Most CR plates are made of 85% BaFBr and 15% BaFI doped with europium (Eu) commonly called barium fluoro halide. We carry out an exploratory survey of six CR mammography units from three different manufacturers and six dedicated x-ray mammography units with fully automatic exposure. The results show three CR mammography units (50%) have a dose that overcomes 3.0 mGy and it doesn't improve the image quality and dose to the breast will be excessive. The differences between doses averages from TLD system and dosimeter with ionization chamber are less than 10%. TLD system is a good option for average glandular dose measurement. (Author)

  4. Descriptive study of the quality control in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Perdigon C, G.M.; Casian C, G.A.; Azorin N, J.; Diaz G, J.A.I.; Arreola, M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of mammography is to provide contrast between a lesion that is possible residing within the breast and normal surrounding tissue. Quality control is essential for maintaining the contrast imaging performance of a mammography system and incorporate tests that are relevant in that they are predictive of future degradation of contrast imaging performance. These tests will also be done at frequency that is high enough to intercept most drifts in quality imaging or performance before they become diagnostically significant. The quality control study has as objective to describe the results of the assessment of quality imaging elements (film optical density, contrast (density difference), uniformity, resolution and noise) of 62 mammography departments without quality control program and comparison these results with a mammography reference department with a quality control program. When comparing the results they allow seeing the clinical utility of to have a quality control program to reduce the errors of mammography interpretation. (Author)

  5. Mammography in Norway: Image quality and total performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.B.; Skretting, A.; Widmark, A.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes a method for assessing the total performance in mammography based on Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the time period from December 1993 to March 1994 the method was applied to assess the total performance of all the 45 Norwegian mammography laboratories operative at that time. Image quality characteristics in each laboratory was established by use of well-known phantoms

  6. Technical quality control - constancy controls for digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.; Landmark, I.D.; Bredholt, K.; Hauge, I.H.R.

    2009-04-01

    To ensure the quality of mammographic images, so-called constancy control tests are performed frequently. The report contains a programme for constancy control of digital mammography systems, encompassing the mammography unit, computed radiography (CR) systems, viewing conditions and displays, printers, and procedures for data collection for patient dose calculations. (Author)

  7. Reproducibility of Mammography Units, Film Processing and Quality Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of the problems of quality control in mammography and processors units as a diagnosis of the current situation of mammography facilities. Measurements of reproducibility, optical density, optical difference and gamma index are included. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the Mexican Republic. Mammography is a radiographic examination specially designed for detecting breast pathology. We found that the problems of reproducibility of AEC are smaller than the problems of processors units because almost all processors fall outside of the acceptable variation limits and they can affect the mammography quality image and the dose to breast. Only four mammography units agree with the minimum score established by ACR and FDA for the phantom image

  8. A study of quality assurance in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briquet, Claudia; Mota, Helvecio C.; Costa, Marcos R.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Nowadays mammography has two definitive important roles: as a complementary tool to confirm clinical findings and for the detection of early breast cancer. To reach and maintain the standards of image quality within the frontiers of reasonable radiation doses, the facilities must follow a QA program. The objective of this study is to accomplish such a program in three school hospitals in Rio de Janeiro. We made assessment of clinical images using the Accreditation American Phantom and measured the patients skin entrance doses with TLD 100. In each facility we evaluated the technical parameters of the mammographic units using a Victoreen 4000 M+ and an evaluation of the compression devices. The 3 hospitals studied use film and screen Min R Kodak and have Kodak processors, none of them dedicated to mammograms. The tube voltage, measured was not significantly different from the indicated values, the variations were lesser than 5%. In one of the hospitals the kVp did not show reproducibility, the coefficient of variation was too high - 1,02. The same facility showed an exposure time with variation of 7% and we asked for corrective action. Measures of HVL showed the same value for the 3 hospitals the compression were adequate. The patients skin entrance doses were measured with TLD 100 and showed the range 3,25 a 10,26 mGy. This range is due to differences in density and thickness of the breast. The doses values were in accordance with the Quality Criteria for Mammography of the Commission of the European Communities

  9. TL dosimetry for quality control of CR mammography imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, E.; Nieto, J. A.; Góngora, J. A. I. D.; Arreola, M.; Enríquez, J. G. F.

    The aim of this work is to estimate the average glandular dose with thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry and comparison with quality imaging in computed radiography (CR) mammography. For a measuring dose, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) use a phantom, so that dose and image quality are assessed with the same test object. The mammography is a radiological image to visualize early biological manifestations of breast cancer. Digital systems have two types of image-capturing devices, full field digital mammography (FFDM) and CR mammography. In Mexico, there are several CR mammography systems in clinical use, but only one system has been approved for use by the FDA. Mammography CR uses a photostimulable phosphor detector (PSP) system. Most CR plates are made of 85% BaFBr and 15% BaFI doped with europium (Eu) commonly called barium flourohalideE We carry out an exploratory survey of six CR mammography units from three different manufacturers and six dedicated X-ray mammography units with fully automatic exposure. The results show three CR mammography units (50%) have a dose greater than 3.0 mGy without demonstrating improved image quality. The differences between doses averages from TLD system and dosimeter with ionization chamber are less than 10%. TLD system is a good option for average glandular dose measurement for X-rays with a HVL (0.35-0.38 mmAl) and kVp (24-26) used in quality control procedures with ACR Mammography Accreditation Phantom.

  10. Quality control in digital mammography: the noise components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro; Duran, Maria Paz; Dantas, Marcelino; Ubeda, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To measure the linearity of the detector and determine the noise components (quantum, electronic and structural noise) that contributed to losing image quality and to determine the signal noise ratio (SNR) and contrast noise ratio (CNR). This paper describes the results of the implementation of a protocol for quality control in digital mammography performed in two direct digital mammography equipment (Hologic, Selenia) in Santiago of Chile. Shows the results of linearity and noise analysis of the images which establishes the main cause of noise in the image of the mammogram to ensure the quality and optimize procedures. The study evaluated two digital mammography's Selenia, Hologic (DR) from Santiago, Chile. We conducted the assessment of linearity of the detector, the signal noise ratio, contrast noise ratio and was determined the contribution of different noise components (quantum, electronics and structural noise). Used different thicknesses used in clinical practice according to the protocol for quality control in digital mammography of Spanish society of medical physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. The Selenia mammography software was used for the analysis of images and Unfors Xi detector for measuring doses. The mammography detector has a linear performance, the CNR and SNR did not comply with the Protocol for the thicknesses of 60 and 70 mm. The main contribution of the noise corresponds to the quantum noise, therefore it is necessary to adjust and optimize the mammography system. (author)

  11. Quality control in digital mammography: the noise components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyton, Fernando [Universidade de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile). Centro de Estudios en Ciencias Radiologicas; Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Maria do Socorro, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Duran, Maria Paz [Clinica Alemana, Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Radiologia; Dantas, Marcelino, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Ubeda, Carlos, E-mail: cubeda@uta.c [Universidade de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile). Fac. de Ciencias de la Salud

    2011-07-01

    To measure the linearity of the detector and determine the noise components (quantum, electronic and structural noise) that contributed to losing image quality and to determine the signal noise ratio (SNR) and contrast noise ratio (CNR). This paper describes the results of the implementation of a protocol for quality control in digital mammography performed in two direct digital mammography equipment (Hologic, Selenia) in Santiago of Chile. Shows the results of linearity and noise analysis of the images which establishes the main cause of noise in the image of the mammogram to ensure the quality and optimize procedures. The study evaluated two digital mammography's Selenia, Hologic (DR) from Santiago, Chile. We conducted the assessment of linearity of the detector, the signal noise ratio, contrast noise ratio and was determined the contribution of different noise components (quantum, electronics and structural noise). Used different thicknesses used in clinical practice according to the protocol for quality control in digital mammography of Spanish society of medical physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. The Selenia mammography software was used for the analysis of images and Unfors Xi detector for measuring doses. The mammography detector has a linear performance, the CNR and SNR did not comply with the Protocol for the thicknesses of 60 and 70 mm. The main contribution of the noise corresponds to the quantum noise, therefore it is necessary to adjust and optimize the mammography system. (author)

  12. Traceability and quality control in mammography: measurements and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira

    2002-10-01

    The success of a treatment or diagnosis using radiation, depends on the optimization of the dose determination to be administered for the patient and on the beam radiation quality. It is recognized by the international guidelines that it is necessary to improve calibration services for mammography beams in order to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis. Major efforts have been made by several laboratories in order to establish an appropriate and traceable calibration infrastructure and to provide the basis for a quality control program in mammography. The contribution of the radiation metrology network to the mammography services is reviewed in this work. Steps required for the implementation of a mammography calibration system using a constant potential x-ray and a clinical mammography x-ray machine are presented. The various qualities of mammography radiation discussed in this work are in accordance with the IEC 61674 and the AAPM recommendations. This work also presents the methodology and the procedures to maintain and to disseminate the traceability at the x-ray mammography range, describing the interlaboratory comparison performed at LNMRI/IRD/CNEN and at the IPEN/CNEN using the secondary standard ionization chambers traceable with the international standard. It assesses the inter-laboratory comparison consistency and decides whether a questionable value should or not be accepted, using the residual method. This thesis discusses the uncertainties involved in all steps of the calibration chain in accord once with the ISO recommendations. (author)

  13. Film quality in film mammography. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.; Weskamp, P.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1976-01-01

    During consideration of three film mammographic systems, the concept of signal/noise ratio is developed as a quantitative measure of film quality. The ability to recognise detail related to detail size, film blackening and exposure geometry was studied for various systems, and the quality profiles are discussed. There is a considerable difference in quality between industrial films without screens and film-screen combinations; however, exposure geometry during mammography has a considerable effect which tends to reduce the difference. Consequently, detail sizes of 200 μ to 1,000 μ (including the majority of mammographic micro-calcifications) are shown about equally well. Contrast for the lo-dose system is somewhat less than for adequately exposed industrial film. Over-exposure with the lo-dose system, contrary to industrial film, rapidly leads to unsatisfactory results. On the other hand it is often not possible to obtain an adequate exposure when using industrial film. For these reasons it is often an advantage to examine large breasts and the dense breasts of young women with a film-screen combination which requires approximately one eighth of the dose necessary for industrial film. For small or easily compressable breasts best results are obtained, using an adequate exposure by employing industril film; radiation dose it then acceptable. (orig./ORU) [de

  14. Image Quality in Screening Mammography in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brnic, Z.; Klasic, B.; Popic-Ramac, J.; Ljevar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality reduction through screening mammography (SMG) is possible only with examination of high image quality (IQ), which should be performed with acceptable patient breast radiation dose (BRD). Besides film processing control, equipment assessment with breast phantom and dosimetry, periodical external mammographic IQ assessment (MIQA) is needed, including image labelling (L), breast positioning (BP), exposure (EX) and artefacts (AR) assessment. The nationwide breast cancer screening program (NBSP) has been introduced in Croatia in 2006, and the MIQA is initiated as the first step in establishing quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) framework in breast imaging in Croatia. The current study was aimed: (1) to provide objective evidence about the technical MIQ in NBSP in Croatia, (2) to compare MIQ between different types of mammographic units (MUs), (3) to identify the common deficiencies, and (4) to propose corrective activities. Mammograms (MGs) for IQA were collected from a total of 84 MUs which participate in NBSP, which represents 70 % of all MUs nationwide: A total of 420 MG examinations were reviewed. Each MU was requested to submit ''what they consider to be their five best representative MGs, each one performed in one of five consecutive workdays''. Mean age of MG machines was 7.76 years (range 2 - 21), with no difference between four MU types. This very first study of MIQ in Croatia corroborated our intuitive impression of inadequate IQ, staff training and equipment in many MUs nationwide. As MIQ strongly influences BC detection rate, suboptimal QA/QC always carries a risk to compromise the success of NBSP. Deficiencies in SMG, especially in ID and BP reflect different level of competency of radiological staff in Croatia. Differences in MIQ in various MU types are determined by their organization, equipment, education, working habits and motivation. More efforts are needed to train both RTs and radiologists to implement and maintain QA/QC in their

  15. Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer Whether there is any harm from breast cancer screening, such as side effects from testing or overtreatment of cancer when it's discovered Mammography is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is ...

  16. The dose and image quality in mammography in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Mean Glandular Dose (MGD), dose distribution, phantom and quality of the real mammogram were studied for the first time in Macedonia. The study was conducted to review the condition of mammography equipment, to access the dose and image quality in mammography practices in Macedonia.. The purpose was to find out the weak points in the mammography practices in order to suggest improvements in the practices and establish quality control procedures. Under evaluation were 12 monographic machines. MGD was estimated using Entrance Surface Air KERMA at the breast surface K f measured free in air and appropriate conversion factors. Dose survey was curried by measurement and calculated of the HVLs and radiation output for 25-32 kVp and keeping record of the clinical parameters (breast thickness, kVp, mAs). Image quality was evaluated using the Mammographic Accreditation Phantom Gammex 156, PMMA plates and test tool for film processing.

  17. Quality assurance and quality control in mammography: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BenComo, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    A mammogram is among the most technically demanding radiographic procedures. The early detection of breast cancer relies on the radiologist's ability to perceive subtle changes in the image that are only perceptible with high-quality imaging. Early detection of breast cancer is only as reliable as the mammogram with which a diagnosis is made, and a mammogram is only as accurate as the system that produces it. A quality assurance (QA) program maximizes the likelihood that the mammographic images will provide adequate diagnostic information for the least possible radiation exposure and cost to the patient. The QA program monitors each phase of operation of the imaging facility beginning with the request for an examination and ending with the interpretation of the referring physician and ensures that the imaging equipment used for the examination will yield the information desired. Because image quality is the most important technical aspect of mammography, this review summarizes the most important QA and quality control issues

  18. Quality control: comparison of images quality with screen film system and digital mammography CR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Frederico L.; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2008-01-01

    The mammography screen film system should be used as part of processing chemicals, revelation process, equipment and this system has have a progressive replacing by the digital technology Full Field Digital Mammography FFDM, Computed Radiography (CR) Mammography and hardcopy. This new acquisition process of medical images has improved radiology section; however it is necessary efficient means for evaluating of the quality parameters. It should be considered taking into account the adaptation of the existent equipment and that procedures adopted for the exam, as well the adaptation of the new mammography films, the radiologist view box constitutes a part of the quality control program. This program aims at obtaining radiography with good quality that allows obtaining more information for the diagnosis and decreases the patient dose. For evaluation the quality image, this article is focused on presenting the differences regarding the acquired images through simulator mammography radiographic PMMA (Poly methyl methacrylate) in CR Mammography system and screen film system. The tests were accomplished at the same equipment of Mammography with the Automatic Exposure Control using a tension of 28 kV for both systems. The quality tests evaluated the spatial resolution, the own structures of the phantom, artifacts, optical density and contrast with conventional and laser films by mammography system. The installation for the accomplishment of the test has a quality control program. The evaluation was based on the pattern developed by the competent organ of the State of Minas Gerais. In this study, it was verified that the suitable Phantom Mama used by the Brazilian School of Radiology for conventional mammography did not obtain satisfactory result for Spatial Resolution in the digital mammography system CR. The final aim of this work is to obtain parameters to characterize the reference phantom quality image in an objective way. These parameters will be used to compare

  19. Quality assurance of mammography training courses via questionnaires. Eighth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsuma, Yoshikazu; Endo, Tokiko; Iwase, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    To maintain a sufficient number of qualified reading doctors for breast cancer mammography screening, we have held training courses across the nation. Grade-up examinations have been carried out for doctors who had failed to attain grade A or B at the training courses. We have evaluated the quality assurance of the examinations via questionnaires and reported the results on 7 previous occasions. In the present investigation, we reviewed all answers obtained from questionnaires at the previous 19 examinations, from the first one (November, 2000) until the last one (March, 2007). There were a total of 3,380 applicants, of whom 402 (11.9%) obtained grade A and 2,008 (59.4%) grade B. Thus a total 2,410 applicants (71.3%) obtained either A or B, and this rate was considerably superior to the 56% obtained in the first three examinations, although the former rate included the results of repeated applicants. These good results may have been due to an increase in the quality of the training courses and may have been affected by conducting the examinations not only in Nagoya but also in Tokyo and Osaka. In a period of about 10 months after April, 2004, the certification standard was increased and a system of certification reappraisal every 5 years was adopted. At that time, more than 75% of all applicants were A- or B-certified doctors at the 9th and 10th examinations, and the good results might have reflected the fact that many doctors tried hard to maintain a high reading ability. In February, 2005, the certification standard reverted to the previous one for various reasons, and the rate of A- or B-certified doctors decreased. In October, 2006, the examination changed from 100 questions concerning one-direction mammography to 50 one-direction questions and 50 two-direction questions, because of the adoption of two-direction mammography to age 40 years. Since it was widely recognized that the second reading at breast cancer screening should be done by A-certified doctors

  20. Physical image quality of computed radiography in mammography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norriza Mohd Isa; Muhammad Jamal Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan; Fatimah Othman

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Mammography is a screening procedure that mostly used for early detection of breast cancer. In digital imaging system, Computed Radiography is a cost-effective technology that applied indirect conversion detector. The paper presents physical image quality parameter measurements namely modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of Computed Radiography in mammography system. MTF was calculated from two different orientations of slanted images of an edge test device and NNPS was estimated using flat-field image. Both images were acquired using a standard mammography beam quality. DQE was determined by applying the MTF and NNPS values into our developed software program. Both orientations have similar DQE characteristics. (author)

  1. The results of a quality-control programme in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdale, M.L.; Hiles, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    With the introduction of a breast screening programme in the UK, quality assurance in mammography is of paramount importance in assuring optimum imaging performance with low dose. Quality control checks are an essential part of the quality-assurance system. A quality-control programme at a breast screening clinic is described. Daily checks include film sensitometry for X-ray processor control and radiography of a lucite phantom to monitor the consistency of the X-ray machine automatic exposure control. Weekly checks include additional measurements on the performance of the automatic exposure control for different breast thickness and an overall assessment of image quality using a prototype mammography test phantom. The test phantom measures low-contrast sensitivity, high-contrast resolution and small-detail visibility. The results of the quality-control programme are presented with particular attention paid to tolerances and limiting values. (author)

  2. Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This patent reveals a method and instrument for the detection and registration of breast cancer with the aid of X-radiation, i.e. mammography. The breast is irradiated with soft X-rays whereby the radiation beam is scanned with a moving 'stripform' screen and whereby the picture from the 'stripform' screen is recorded by a television camera that moves simultaneously with the strip. The image is then projected on a monitor

  3. Position paper: recommendations for a digital mammography quality assurance program V4.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, J C P; Barnes, P; Cartwright, L; Diffey, J; Tse, J; Herley, J; McLean, I D; Thomson, F J; Grewal, R K; Collins, L T

    2017-09-01

    In 2001 the ACPSEM published a position paper on quality assurance in screen film mammography which was subsequently adopted as a basis for the quality assurance programs of both the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) and of BreastScreen Australia. Since then the clinical implementation of digital mammography has been realised and it has become evident that existing screen-film protocols were not appropriate to assure the required image quality needed for reliable diagnosis or to address the new dose implications resulting from digital technology. In addition, the advantages and responsibilities inherent in teleradiology are most critical in mammography and also need to be addressed. The current document is the result of a review of current overseas practice and local experience in these areas. At this time the technology of digital imaging is undergoing significant development and there is still a lack of full international consensus about some of the detailed quality control (QC) tests that should be included in quality assurance (QA) programs. This document describes the current status in digital mammography QA and recommends test procedures that may be suitable in the Australasian environment. For completeness, this document also includes a review of the QA programs required for the various types of digital biopsy units used in mammography. In the future, international harmonisation of digital quality assurance in mammography and changes in the technology may require a review of this document. Version 2.0 represented the first of these updates and key changes related to image quality evaluation, ghost image evaluation and interpretation of signal to noise ratio measurements. In Version 3.0 some significant changes, made in light of further experience gained in testing digital mammography equipment were introduced. In Version 4.0, further changes have been made, most notably digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) testing and QC have

  4. Mammography calibration qualities establishment in a Mo-Mo clinical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, E.L.; Santos, L.R. dos; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the mammography calibration qualities were established in a clinical mammography system. The objective is to provide the IPEN instruments calibration laboratory with both mammography calibration methods (using a clinical and an industrial system). The results showed a good behavior of mammography equipment, in terms of kVp, PPV and exposure time. The additional filtration of molybdenum is adequate, air-kerma rates were determined and spectra were obtained. (author)

  5. Mammography calibration qualities establishment in a Mo-Mo clinical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, E.L.; Santos, L.R. dos; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: educorrea1905@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this study the mammography calibration qualities were established in a clinical mammography system. The objective is to provide the IPEN instruments calibration laboratory with both mammography calibration methods (using a clinical and an industrial system). The results showed a good behavior of mammography equipment, in terms of kVp, PPV and exposure time. The additional filtration of molybdenum is adequate, air-kerma rates were determined and spectra were obtained. (author)

  6. Latin American image quality survey in digital mammography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Khoury, Helen; Bitelli, Regina; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Garay, Fernando; Garcia Aguilar, Juan; Gamarra, Mirtha; Ubeda, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Under International Atomic Energy Agency regional programme TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures, Latin American countries evaluated the image quality and glandular doses for digital mammography equipment with the purpose of seeing the performance and compliance with international recommendations. Totally, 24 institutions participated from Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico, Paraguay and Venezuela. Signal difference noise ratio results showed for CR poor compliance with tolerances; better results were obtained for full-field digital mammography equipment. Mean glandular dose results showed that the majority of units have values below the acceptable dose levels. This joint Latin American project identified common problems: difficulty in working with digital images and lack of specific training by medical physicists from the region. Image quality is a main issue not being satisfied in accordance with international recommendations; optimisation processes in which the doses are increased should be very carefully done in order to improve early detection of any cancer signs. (authors)

  7. Indicators of image quality and doses in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G.; Azorin N, J.; Diaz G, J.A.I.; Arreola, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the study was to determine the values of the image quality indicators and their relationship with the dose in mammography of screen-film that they allowed the detection of a bigger number of objects in the images obtained with the mannequin (phantom) authorized of the ACR/FDA. The study was carried out in four mammography services in a period of 12 months. The indicators of the image quality are the half optic density (DOM), contrast (differences of densities), the number of observed objects in the images and the dose for image. The minimum acceptable values by the ACR/FDA are a half optical density of 1.4, contrast of 0.4 and the one numbers minimum of objects observed in the image of the mannequin of mammography of 10 (4 fibers, 3 groups of calcifications and 3 masses), with a maximum dose by image of 3 mGy. The found results are half optical density of 1.9, contrast of 0.56 and the average number of objects observed in the images of 12, with a dose in the interval of 1.6 mGy to 2.4 mGy. The doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimetry and ionization chamber. Once carried out the analysis of the tendencies of the indicators of image quality and their distributions is found that for a p < 0.05, the bigger number of objects observed in the images is in the interval from 1.8 to 1.9 of DOM. When comparing both mammography system, the system screen-film has a lower variability in the distribution of objects associated to a DOM. (Author)

  8. Development of techniques and methods for evaluation of quality of scanned image in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo Santana, P. do; Nogueira, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death in the Brazilian female population and breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. The Brazilian College of Radiology (CBR), the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and international bodies recommend standards of practice for mammography. Due to the risk of ionizing radiation, techniques that minimize dose and optimize image quality are essential to ensure that all women are submitted to mammography procedures of high quality for the detection of breast cancer. In this research were analyzed components of the image treatment via digital and developed methods and techniques of analysis aiming the detection of structures for medical diagnosis, decreasing variations due to subjectivity. It used free software Image J, to make the evaluations of the information contained in the scanned images. We use the scanned images of calibration of a simulated breast to calibrate the program Image J. Thus, it was able to correctly convert the values of the scale of shades of gray in optical density values of presenting the standard deviation for each measure held. Applying the test t-student noticed that the values obtained with the digital system to the level of contrast and spatial resolution are consistent with the results obtained so subjective, since there was no significant difference (p <0.05) for all comparisons evaluated. Since then, this methodology is recommended in routine evaluations of services of mammography. (author)

  9. Measurement of glanduler tissue dose and image quality on mammography investigation at different exposure parameters and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyol, O.

    2004-01-01

    There are many protocols suggested different international organization regarding to routine quality control and acceptance test methods of mammography systems. Users may select the most appropriate method for their routine practices according to infrastructure they have. However if there is a need for national authority to establish protocol for licesing of invidual users or in case of a screening studies for a large populations. Use of standard protocol became is important. Currently, there are more than 550 mamography system use in Turkey. However users implementing neither quality controlnor acceptance on the other hand even the national authorities. The purpose this thesis is to establishment a standard protocol than can be used for quality control and routine tests on mammography systems. This procedures were implented for 18 different mammography systems instoled at different places in Ankara

  10. The results of a quality-control programme in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdale, M.L.; Hiles, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    A quality-control programme at a breast screening clinic is described. Daily checks include film sensitometry for X-ray processor control and radiography of a lucite phantom to monitor the consistency of the X-ray machine automatic exposure control. Weekly checks include additional measurements on the performance of the automatic exposure control for different breast thickness and an overall assessment of image quality using a prototype mammography test phantom. The test phantom measures low-contrast sensitivity, high-control resolution and small-detail visibility. The results of the quality-control programme are presented with particular attention paid to tolerances and limiting values. (author)

  11. The influence of software filtering in digital mammography image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, C.; Spyropoulou, V.; Kalyvas, N.; Valais, I.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women. Several techniques have been developed to help in the early detection of breast cancer such as conventional and digital x-ray mammography, positron and single-photon emission mammography, etc. A key advantage in digital mammography is that images can be manipulated as simple computer image files. Thus non-dedicated commercially available image manipulation software can be employed to process and store the images. The image processing tools of the Photoshop (CS 2) software usually incorporate digital filters which may be used to reduce image noise, enhance contrast and increase spatial resolution. However, improving an image quality parameter may result in degradation of another. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of three sharpening filters, named hereafter sharpen, sharpen more and sharpen edges on image resolution and noise. Image resolution was assessed by means of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF).In conclusion it was found that the correct use of commercial non-dedicated software on digital mammograms may improve some aspects of image quality.

  12. The influence of software filtering in digital mammography image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michail, C; Spyropoulou, V; Valais, I; Panayiotakis, G; Kalyvas, N; Fountos, G; Kandarakis, I; Dimitropoulos, N

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women. Several techniques have been developed to help in the early detection of breast cancer such as conventional and digital x-ray mammography, positron and single-photon emission mammography, etc. A key advantage in digital mammography is that images can be manipulated as simple computer image files. Thus non-dedicated commercially available image manipulation software can be employed to process and store the images. The image processing tools of the Photoshop (CS 2) software usually incorporate digital filters which may be used to reduce image noise, enhance contrast and increase spatial resolution. However, improving an image quality parameter may result in degradation of another. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of three sharpening filters, named hereafter sharpen, sharpen more and sharpen edges on image resolution and noise. Image resolution was assessed by means of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF).In conclusion it was found that the correct use of commercial non-dedicated software on digital mammograms may improve some aspects of image quality.

  13. Technical and dosimetric aspects of quality control in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Wit, N.J.P. de; Broerse, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Before screening programmes using mammography are implemented, a cost benefit analysis has to be made and quality-control programme for the technical and dosimetric aspects adopted, including daily checks on film processing and total mammography procedure (radiography of a reference phantom, for which the average density, limiting value ± 0.20%, and focal charge is determined and which allows assessment of physical image quality) The installation of a MAs meter is essential for daily checks and can be used for determination of absorbed dose. Accurate determination of tube voltage (limiting value ±0.5 kV) is essential in regard to absorbed dose variations. Focal spot size should be measured rather than relying on the value specified by the manufacturer. The determination of the focal charge (mAs) value for actual radiographs of female breasts combined with a measurement of compressed breast thickness provides information on absorbed dose values for actual radiographs. An approximately 50 mm thick poly(methyl methacrylate) phantom can be used for determination of absorbed dose in mammography. (author)

  14. Quality control in diagnostic mammography: myths, realities and their importance in the final image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Mammography is the most used tool for early detection of breast cancer and reduce mortality from this cause. Studies with ionizing radiation it is important that be justified and provide a quality image to make the diagnosis, to get more benefits and fewer risks. The problem is the difficult to obtain an image of the breast. Therefore, the commitment to quality mammography is to maximize the contrast, definition, resolution and reliability, thus minimizing noise and dose. A mammogram performed without quality don't detect early breast cancer and the study doesn't have sense. Quality mammography requires trained and experienced staff, modern equipment and in good conditions, correct positioning, right technical factors and appropriate viewing conditions. In addition, quality programs are required to reach to ensure quality, control in testing techniques and image quality. (author) [es

  15. Full-field digital mammography versus computed radiology mammography: comparison in image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxia; Song Shaojuan; Liu Chuanya; Qi Hengtao; Qin Weichang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differences in image quality and radiation dose between full- field digital mammography (FFDM) system and compute radiology mammography (CRM) system. Methods: The ALVIM mammographic phantom was exposed by FFDM system with automatic exposure control (AEC) and then exposed by CRM system with the unique imaging plank on the same condition. The FFDM system applied the same kV value and the different mAs values (14, 16, 18, 22 and 24 mAs), and the emission skin dose (ESD) and the average gland dose (AGD) were recorded for the above-mentioned exposure factors. All images were read by five experienced radiologists under the same condition and judged based on 5-point scales. And then receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn and the probability (P det ) values were calculated. The data were statistically processed with ANOVA. Results: The P det values of calcifications and lesion lump were higher with FFDM system than with CRM system at the same dose (1.36 mGy). Especially, for microcalcifications and lesion lump, the largest difference of the P det value was 0.215, and that of lesion lump was 0.245. In comparison with CRM system, the radiation dose of FFDM system could be reduced at the same P det value. The ESD value was reduced by 26%, and the ACD value was reduced by 41%. When the mAs value exceed AEC value, the P det value almost had no change, though the radiation dose was increased. Conclusions: The detection rates of microcalcifications and lesion lump with FFDM system are proven to be superior to CRM system at the same dose. The radiation dose of FFDM system was less than CRM system for the same image quality. (authors)

  16. Descriptive study of the quality control in mammography; Estudio descriptivo del control de calidad en mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E.; Perdigon C, G.M.; Casian C, G.A.; Azorin N, J.; Diaz G, J.A.I.; Arreola, M. [UAM, Xochimilco 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The goal of mammography is to provide contrast between a lesion that is possible residing within the breast and normal surrounding tissue. Quality control is essential for maintaining the contrast imaging performance of a mammography system and incorporate tests that are relevant in that they are predictive of future degradation of contrast imaging performance. These tests will also be done at frequency that is high enough to intercept most drifts in quality imaging or performance before they become diagnostically significant. The quality control study has as objective to describe the results of the assessment of quality imaging elements (film optical density, contrast (density difference), uniformity, resolution and noise) of 62 mammography departments without quality control program and comparison these results with a mammography reference department with a quality control program. When comparing the results they allow seeing the clinical utility of to have a quality control program to reduce the errors of mammography interpretation. (Author)

  17. Automated daily quality control analysis for mammography in a multi-unit imaging center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, Veli-Matti; Mäkelä, Teemu; Meaney, Alexander; Kaasalainen, Touko; Savolainen, Sauli

    2018-01-01

    Background The high requirements for mammography image quality necessitate a systematic quality assurance process. Digital imaging allows automation of the image quality analysis, which can potentially improve repeatability and objectivity compared to a visual evaluation made by the users. Purpose To develop an automatic image quality analysis software for daily mammography quality control in a multi-unit imaging center. Material and Methods An automated image quality analysis software using the discrete wavelet transform and multiresolution analysis was developed for the American College of Radiology accreditation phantom. The software was validated by analyzing 60 randomly selected phantom images from six mammography systems and 20 phantom images with different dose levels from one mammography system. The results were compared to a visual analysis made by four reviewers. Additionally, long-term image quality trends of a full-field digital mammography system and a computed radiography mammography system were investigated. Results The automated software produced feature detection levels comparable to visual analysis. The agreement was good in the case of fibers, while the software detected somewhat more microcalcifications and characteristic masses. Long-term follow-up via a quality assurance web portal demonstrated the feasibility of using the software for monitoring the performance of mammography systems in a multi-unit imaging center. Conclusion Automated image quality analysis enables monitoring the performance of digital mammography systems in an efficient, centralized manner.

  18. [Quality assurance of fine-needle aspiration cytology of the organized mammography screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Mihály; Konyár, Eva; Schneider, Ferenc; Bidlek, Mária; Szabó, Eva; Nyári, Tibor; Godény, Mária; Kásler, Miklós

    2010-08-08

    The National Public Health Program has established the organized mammography screening in Hungary. The aim of our study was to determine the quality assurance of breast aspiration cytology. Cytology results were rated to 5 categories (C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5). All cytology reports were compared with the final histology diagnosis. 1361 women had aspiration cytology diagnosis performed from a total of 47718 mammography non-negative lesions. There were 805 (59.1%) benign and 187 (13.7%) malignant alterations. Sensitivity was 91%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 96.6% and negative predictive value turned to be 71% (pauditing values of fine needle aspiration cytology in our laboratory meet, or in certain aspects exceed the proposed minimum threshold values.

  19. Optimization of image quality and patient dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafqat Faaruq; Jaferi, R.A.; Nafeesa Nazlee

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Optimization of patient dose and image quality can be defined as to get the best image quality with minimum possible radiation dose to the patient by setting various parameters and modes of operation available in mammography machines. The optimization procedures were performed on two mammography units from M/S GE and Metaltronica, available at NORI, using standard mammographic accreditation phantom (Model: BR-156) and acrylic sheets of variable thicknesses. Quality assurance and quality control (QC) tests being the essential part of optimization. The QC tests as recommended by American College of Radiology, were first performed on both machines as well as X-ray film processor. In the second step, different affecting the image quality and radiation dose to patient, like film screen combination (FSC), phantom optical density (PD), kVp, mAs etc, were adjusted for various phantom thicknesses ranging from 3 cm to 6.5 cm in various modes of operation in the machines (semi-auto- and manual in GE, Auto-, semi-auto- and manual mode in Metaltronica). The image quality was studied for these optimized parameters on the basis of the number of test objects of the phantom visible in these images. Finally the linear relationship between mAs and skin entrance dose (mGy) was verified using ionization chamber with the phantom and the actual patients. Despite some practical limitations, the results of the quality assurance tests were within acceptable limits defined by ACR. The dose factor for GE was 68.0 y/mAs, while 76.0 mGy/mAs for Metaltronica at 25 kVp. Before the start of this study the only one mammography unit GE, was routinely used at NORI and normal mode of operation of this unit was semi-auto mode with fixed kVp independent of compressed breast thickness, but in this study it was concluded that selecting kVp according to beast thickness result in an appreciable dose reduction (4-5 times less) without any compromise in image quality. The

  20. Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The mamma anatomy are showed with the main characteristics for the mamography examination. The energy band, the additional filtration, the half-value thickness are also mentioned. The evaluation in the exposure and the doses in the mamography examination are described with a quality control for obtention the best image. (C.G.C.) [pt

  1. Image quality and radiation exposure in digital storage plate mammography with magnification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, E.; Aichinger, U.; Boehner, C.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Bautz, W.; Saebel, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of image quality between digital phosphor storage plate mammography in magnification technique and a conventional film screen system regarding the special aspect of radiation exposure. Materials and Methods: Radiograms of a RMI-mammography phantom were acquired using a conventional film screen system and two digital storage plate systems. Additionally, the radiograms of one digital system were postprocessed emphasizing contrast and included in the comparison. Results: The detectability of details in storage plate mammographies with magnification technique is almost equal to that of film screen mammographies. Thereby, lower radiation exposures were necessary using the digital systems. Conclusions: Based on these results, storage plate mammography in magnification technique is used in clinical routine at our institution. The correct parameters in image postprocessing are of elementary importance for detail detectability. Future studies must show, whether the lower radiation exposure in digital radiograms of the breast, revealing much higher background noise, will allow the same detail detectability as film screen mammographies. (orig.) [de

  2. Quality assurance and patient dosimetry in mammography: a retrospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, I.A.; Dance, D.R.; Davis, R.; Evans, S.H.; Jones, C.H.; Parsons, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the breast using mammography commenced at this major cancer centre in the late 1960s. Clinically useful images were first obtained using a Xerox system in the early 1970s. The development of quality assurance phantoms since this time is described, also research into the evaluation of breast dose and optimisation of the imaging chain. Physical and biological phantoms were used to evaluate available imaging configurations, and examples of the parameters investigated - target material, choice of image receptor - are given. A number of Monte Carlo programs have been developed to quantify image quality parameters and patient dose. They have been used to optimise available imaging configurations for a wide range of breast thicknesses and radiographic parameters. Examples of studies into dose reduction by the addition of filtration, choice of kV p , and the use of grids are given. (Author)

  3. Situational quality evaluation of mammography services at state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joana, Georgia S.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z.; Peixoto, Joao E.

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Currently, the most effective method for early detection of this cancer is the mammography, and to achieve the standard definition and contrast, the whole system of imaging must operate under optimal conditions. This paper presents the results of the assessment of mammography centers in the state of Minas Gerais, which was held with the aim of supporting the actions of the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography. These results indicated that less than half of mammography achieved the minimum standard of image quality, endorsing the need of a monitoring more efficient and effective, which led to the establishment, in Minas Gerais, of the monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography. (author)

  4. Mammography in Norway: Image quality and total performance; Mammografivirksomhet i Norge: Bildekvalitet og totalytelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, J.B.; Skretting, A. [Norske Radiumhospital, Oslo (Norway); Widmark, A. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1997-04-01

    This report describes a method for assessing the total performance in mammography based on Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the time period from December 1993 to March 1994 the method was applied to assess the total performance of all the 45 Norwegian mammography laboratories operative at that time. Image quality characteristics in each laboratory was established by use of well-known phantoms.

  5. Advanced Breast Cancer as Indicator of Quality Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the Mexican Republic. Mammography is the more important screening tool for detecting early breast cancer. Screening mammography involves taking x-rays from two views from each breast, typically from above (cranial-caudal view, CC) and from an oblique or angled view (mediolateral-oblique, MLO). The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of the issue of patients with advanced breast cancer who have had a screening mammography. A general result of the survey is that 22.5% of all patients (102) with advanced breast cancer that participated in the study had previous screening mammography. But we should consider that 10% of breast cancers are not detected by mammography. Only 70% of the family doctors prescribed a diagnostic mammography when the first symptoms were diagnosed

  6. Risks, radiation dose and image quality of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, V.

    1979-01-01

    For some time to come, early detection of breast cancer will remain the only way to improve the therapeutical success. Mammography is an absolutely indispensible way to take advantage of this opportunity. Today, mammography is undoubtedly the most reliable method of examination for an early detection of breast cancer. Only mammography can detect carcinomas smaller than the critical tumour size of 1cm. If carried out properly and with present dose levels, it involves hardly any radiation risk. (orig.) [de

  7. Quality control of physician-performed mammography. Importance of original attempts to improve quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Takashi; Terada, Hiroshi; Kotsuma, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    In order to perform effective breast cancer screening with mammography, family doctors should be encouraged to participate. At institutions without specific radiology technicians, physicians themselves are required to perform mammography and operate the equipment, otherwise it is difficult to consistently obtain good-quality mammograms. Our institutions have been given a grade ''A'' evaluation by the Central Committee for Quality Control of Mammographic Screening (CCQCMS), due largely to our own efforts and promotion. Here we report our experience in solving a number of problems that occurred during the establishment of our system. We used the SEPIO standard mammography apparatus with a MD-100/CM-H screen/filter system, and developed films using a TCX-202 automatic film processor. Problems due to asymmetry of the bilateral breasts and lack of retroglandular fat tissue space and inframammary folds seen on our initial mammograms were overcome by placing marks at the postion of the AEC sensor, and at both ends and the center of the film on a bucky table. We simplified the markers by removing several complicated ones. We tried to rectify areas of the image that were obscured due to the difference in size between the inside of the cassette and the screen. Physicians and a radiology technician attended a mammography study course once weekly, and attempted to improve the quality of mammograms and our reading ability by obtaining advice from members of the CCQCMS. Manufacturers responded with considerable delay to our attempt to overcome the troublesome appearance of numerous microcalfication-like artifact shadows caused by screens. In conclusion, in order to perform effective breast cancer screening with mammography, we must obtain mammograms of good quality, for which it is necessary to always try to seek new ways of improving. At the same time, manufacturers need to respond quickly to queries and problems related to quality control. (author)

  8. Optimization in mammography - monthly monitoring of image quality at the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joana, Georgia S.; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Silva, Sabrina D. da; Silva, Rafael R. da; Cesar, Adriana C.Z.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Peixoto, Joao E.

    2011-01-01

    The State Program of Quality Control in Mammography (PECQMamo) of the state of Minas Gerais was established in 2004 and consists of tests for evaluation of image quality and performance of equipment used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, and evaluation the infrastructure of mammography centers. The monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography is part of this program that has been executed since May 2009 with a character essentially educational. In the assessment of individual services that participate in the monthly monitoring, there was an increased percentage of average annual compliance from 2009 to 2010 in all 85 services with the exception of one service. Therefore, evolution of the performance of the services evaluated, since the program began, shows a positive impact on the numbers, confirming the relevance of this type of operation of Sanitary Surveillance in the area of quality in mammography. (author)

  9. ACR BI-RADS Assessment Category 4 Subdivisions in Diagnostic Mammography: Utilization and Outcomes in the National Mammography Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elezaby, Mai; Li, Geng; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Burnside, Elizabeth S; DeMartini, Wendy B

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To determine the utilization and positive predictive value (PPV) of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Data and Reporting System (BI-RADS) category 4 subdivisions in diagnostic mammography in the National Mammography Database (NMD). Materials and Methods This study involved retrospective review of diagnostic mammography data submitted to the NMD from January 1, 2008 to December 30, 2014. Utilization rates of BI-RADS category 4 subdivisions were compared by year, facility (type, location, census region), and examination (indication, finding type) characteristics. PPV3 (positive predictive value for biopsies performed) was calculated overall and according to category 4 subdivision. The χ 2 test was used to test for significant associations. Results Of 1 309 950 diagnostic mammograms, 125 447 (9.6%) were category 4, of which 33.3% (41 841 of 125 447) were subdivided. Subdivision utilization rates were higher (P use, subdivisions were utilized in the minority (33.3% [41 841 of 125 447]) of category 4 diagnostic mammograms, with variability based on facility and examination characteristics. When subdivisions were used, PPV3s were in BI-RADS-specified malignancy ranges. This analysis supports the use of subdivisions in broad practice and, given benefits for patient care, should motivate increased utilization. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  10. Quality assurance in mammography and the DQM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimondi, O.; Giambaccini, M.; Marziani, M.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the optimization program for mammography (DQM) in Italy is to achieve the best compromise between image quality and dose to patient. 272 centers agreed to the second phase of the program, from February 1987 to January 1990. Exposure, half-value layer (HVL) and focal spot size were measured according to the same methods employed in the first phase of the DQM program (1985), while image quality was evaluated by means of a new performance phantom. The average exposure was 0.96 R (2.48x10 -4 C/Kg); in 173 (64.3%) centers exposure was 5 R (12.9x10 -4 C/Kg). In every center the average whole-breast dose to a reference organ (5cm thick, composed of 50% fat +50% water) was calculated on the basis of entrance exposure, HVL, and focus-skin distance; in 63.2% of the centers doses <0.15 cGy were employed. The results allowed dose and image quality to be correlated in order to divide the centers (using a film-screen system) into groups with a different efficiency level: in 101 centers dose and image quality were good, in 64 centers too high a dose was employed, 66 centers image quality was poor, and in 38 centers dose was too high and image quality was poor. It must be stressed that the DQM program can play its role only if each center carries out its Quality Assurance activity after the methods recommended by the World Health Organization

  11. Establishment of qualities mammography according to the standard IEC-61267 in the laboratory of metrology of ionizing radiation of the National Center of Dosimetry and enlargement of the accreditation by ENAC; Establecimiento de las calidades de mamografia segun la norma IEC-61267 en el laboratorio de metrologia de radiaciones ionizantes del centro nacional de dosimetria (CND) y proceso de ampliacion de su acreditacion por ENAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig Petit, F.; Mestre de Juan, V.; Alabau Albors, J.; Palma Copete, J.; Ruiz Rodriguez, J. C.; Pons Mocholi, S.

    2013-07-01

    The extension of the accreditation of the laboratory of the National Center Dosimetry (No. 58/LC10.036) by the national accreditation entity (ENAC), according to the ISO 17025 standard [2], for the standard qualities of mammography by the IEC 61267 comes to meet part of the needs that demand our health care environment in terms of radiation measuring instruments calibration. This work intends to publicize this enlargement commenting on the different phases of the process to get the accreditation. (Author)

  12. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira

    2002-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless

  13. Digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, Ulrich; Diekmann, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference book provides in-depth coverage of all aspects of digital mammography, including detector technology, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, soft-copy reading, digital workflow, and PACS. Specific advantages and disadvantages of digital mammography in comparison to screen-film mammography are thoroughly discussed. By including authors from both North America and Europe, the book is able to outline variations in the use, acceptance, and quality assurance of digital mammography between the different countries and screening programs. Advanced imaging techniques and future developments such as contrast mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis are also covered in detail. All of the chapters are written by internationally recognized experts and contain numerous high-quality illustrations. This book will be of great interest both to clinicians who already use or are transitioning to digital mammography and to basic scientists working in the field. (orig.)

  14. Quality assurance and quality control in mammography: a review of available guidance worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cláudia; Pascoal, Ana; Sakellaris, Taxiarchis; Koutalonis, Manthos

    2013-10-01

    Review available guidance for quality assurance (QA) in mammography and discuss its contribution to harmonise practices worldwide. Literature search was performed on different sources to identify guidance documents for QA in mammography available worldwide in international bodies, healthcare providers, professional/scientific associations. The guidance documents identified were reviewed and a selection was compared for type of guidance (clinical/technical), technology and proposed QA methodologies focusing on dose and image quality (IQ) performance assessment. Fourteen protocols (targeted at conventional and digital mammography) were reviewed. All included recommendations for testing acquisition, processing and display systems associated with mammographic equipment. All guidance reviewed highlighted the importance of dose assessment and testing the Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) system. Recommended tests for assessment of IQ showed variations in the proposed methodologies. Recommended testing focused on assessment of low-contrast detection, spatial resolution and noise. QC of image display is recommended following the American Association of Physicists in Medicine guidelines. The existing QA guidance for mammography is derived from key documents (American College of Radiology and European Union guidelines) and proposes similar tests despite the variations in detail and methodologies. Studies reported on QA data should provide detail on experimental technique to allow robust data comparison. Countries aiming to implement a mammography/QA program may select/prioritise the tests depending on available technology and resources. •An effective QA program should be practical to implement in a clinical setting. •QA should address the various stages of the imaging chain: acquisition, processing and display. •AEC system QC testing is simple to implement and provides information on equipment performance.

  15. Quality control methodology and implementation of X-radiation standards beams, mammography level, following the standard IEC 61267

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Eduardo de Lima

    2010-01-01

    In this work it was developed and applied a quality control program of the X radiation system (160 kV, constant potential, target of tungsten) of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN(LCI) in the energy range relative to mammography beams (from 25 kV to 35 kV). The X radiation standards beams, level mammography, using molybdenum and aluminum as additional filtration, were established after the application of this quality control program following national and international recommendations. The reference ionization chamber has traceability to PTB and was regularly submitted to quality control tests for evaluation and analysis of its performance. The radiation qualities emerging from the X-radiation assembly (RQR-M), based on a phantom made up of an aluminum added filter (RQA-M), narrow beam condition (RQN-M) and broad beam condition (RQB-M), following the recommendations of the international standard IEC 61267 (2005) and the IAEA code of practice, TRS 457 (2007) were established. For the implantation of RQN-M and RQB-M radiation qualities, two mammography phantoms were developed. The half-value layers found are those presented by the German primary laboratory PTB, and varied from 0.35 to 1.21 mm Al. The air kerma rates were obtained for all the 15 implanted qualities. (author)

  16. Eight years of quality control in Bulgaria: impact on mammography practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramova-Cholakova, S; Lilkov, G; Kaneva, M; Terziev, K; Nakov, I; Mutkurov, N; Kovacheva, D; Ivanova, M; Vasilev, D

    2015-07-01

    The requirements for quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology were introduced in Bulgarian legislation in 2005. Hospital medical physicists and several private medical physics groups provide QC services to radiology departments. The aim of this study was to analyse data from QC tests in mammography and to investigate the impact of QC introduction on mammography practice in the country. The study was coordinated by the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. All medical physics services were requested to fill in standardised forms with information about most important parameters routinely measured during QC. All QC service providers responded. Results demonstrated significant improvement of practice since the introduction of QC, with reduction of established deviations from 65 % during the first year to 7 % in the last year. The systems that do not meet the acceptability criteria were suspended from use. Performance of automatic exposure control and digital detectors are not regularly tested because of the absence of requirements in the legislation. The need of updated guidance and training of medical physicists to reflect the change in technology was demonstrated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Quality control for the mammography screening program in Serbia: Physical and technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Bozovic, P.; Lazarevic, D.; Arandjic, D.; Kosutic, D.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the major cause of mortality among female population in Serbia. It is presumed that the introduction of screening programme will reduce mortality and therefore, 47 new mammography units were installed for the purpose of population-based screening program in 2011. In parallel, Quality assurance and Quality control (QC) in mammography has received increasing attention as an essential element of the successful breast cancer campaign that is for the first time initialed in Serbia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the need for and the possible implementation of the comprehensive QC programme for the mammography screening in Serbia, with special focus on physical and technical aspect. In the first phase, a QC protocols containing list of parameters, methodology, frequency of tests and reference values for screen-film, computed radiography and full-filed digital mammography) units, were developed. The second phase is focused on the initial implementation of these protocols. The paper presents results of tests of the selected parameters in 35 mammography units, with special emphasis on patient dose and image quality descriptors. After initial implementation at the beginning of the population based breast cancer screening campaign, it is essential to establish system of regular and periodic QC equipment monitoring and to ensure high quality mammograms with minimal possible radiation dose to population included in the screening. (authors)

  18. Image quality in conventional film screen system, digital phosphor storage plate mammography in magnification technique and digital mammography in CCD-technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Aichinger, U.; Boehner, C.; Dobritz, M.; Bautz, W.; Saebel, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of image quality between conventional film screen system, digital phosphor storage plate mammography in magnification technique and digital mammography in CCD-technique. Materials and Methods: Radiograms of a RMI-mammography phantom were acquired using a conventional film screen system, two digital storage plate systems and two digital systems in CCD-technique. Additionally, the radiograms of one digital phosphor storage plate system were post-processed emphasizing contrast and included in the comparison. Results: The detectability of details was the best with the digital mammography in CCD-technique in comparison with the conventional film screen technique resp. digital phosphor storage plate in magnification technique. Conclusions: Based on these results there is the possibility to replace the conventional film screen system by further studies - this has to be confirmed. (orig.) [de

  19. Quality control for digital mammography: Part II recommendations from the ACRIN DMIST trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaffe, Martin J.; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.

    2006-01-01

    The Digital Mammography Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST), conducted under the auspices of the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN), is a clinical trial designed to compare the accuracy of digital versus screen-film mammography in a screening population [E. Pisano et al., ACRIN 6652--Digital vs. Screen-Film Mammography, ACRIN (2001)]. Part I of this work described the Quality Control program developed to ensure consistency and optimal operation of the digital equipment. For many of the tests, there were no failures during the 24 months imaging was performed in DMIST. When systems failed, they generally did so suddenly rather than through gradual deterioration of performance. In this part, the utility and effectiveness of those tests are considered. This suggests that after verification of proper operation, routine extensive testing would be of minimal value. A recommended set of tests is presented including additional and improved tests, which we believe meet the intent and spirit of the Mammography Quality Standards Act regulations to ensure that full-field digital mammography systems are functioning correctly, and consistently producing mammograms of excellent image quality

  20. Development of special ionization chambers for a quality control program in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jonas Oliveira da

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is an imaging method that uses X-rays. The use of ionization chambers in mammography quality control programs presents an essential role which is to verify whether the parameters of the patient exposure are correct. However, the commercial ionization chambers for dosimetry in mammography represent a high cost for small and medium size clinics that wish to have this equipment or for professionals that work with quality control programs. The innovative feature of this work was to develop ionization chambers for this purpose. In this work ionization chambers for X radiation beams in the mammography energy range were designed, constructed and characterized. The ionization chambers were tested in standard X radiation beams at the LCI/IPEN. The main characterization tests performed with the ionization chambers were: saturation curve, linearity of response, angular and energy dependence. The response stability tests of the ionization chambers were also conducted at the LCI, presenting results within 2.0 % for long-term stability. The results of the remaining tests are in accordance with international standards. These ionization chambers were also submitted to quality control tests of mammography equipment: linearity of the air kerma rates, determination of half-value layers and mean glandular doses. The results for air kerma rate linearity were less than 10 %, as recommended in international standards. The mean glandular dose obtained with the developed chambers presented values comparable to those of commercial ionization chambers tested, with an estimated variation within international standards. (author)

  1. Specialized software for optimization of the quality control of the mammography units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeva, M.; Vassileva, J.

    2004-01-01

    Quality control is essential to ensure the equipment used is reliable and consistent in order to maintain radiation does as low as reasonably achievable whilst optimizing image quality and performance in mammography. The effectiveness of mammographic screening is highly dependent on the consistent production of high quality diagnostic images. Mammography is highly dependent on the equipment status, which requires an effective Quality Control (QC) program to provide tools for continuous assessment of the equipment performance and also data storage and analysis of the protocols' data. The objective of this paper is to present the specialized software for Quality Control of the Mammography Units, as tool providing additional functionality for optimizations of the Mammography QC data storage and management. The PC program was developed according to the requirements stated in the European protocol for Quality Control of the Mammography Screening and the data collected as a result of its application in several Bulgarian hospitals. The Structured Analysis method was used in order to perform a case, which resulted in the development of the specialized software with a database module, providing the following functionality: Data Storage, Preliminary Data Processing and Post-Processing, Manual Data Entry, Data Import from XLS format, Data Export to XLS format, Printing, Data Filters, Automated Calculation, Automated Graphical Representation, Archiving The development of specialized QC software with a database for mammography units facilitates the process of QC data storage and handling and minimizes the errors. The electronic format for data storage is especially useful in case of long-term storage and periodical data analysis/access. The integrated data processing functionality and the automated import/export features based on standard platform increase the compatibility of the data. (authors)

  2. Mammography Clinical Image Quality and the False Positive Rate in a Canadian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Marie-Hélène; Théberge, Isabelle; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Dufresne, Michel-Pierre; Pelletier, Éric; Brisson, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    The study sought to determine if mammography quality is associated with the false positive (FP) rate in the Quebec breast cancer screening program in 2004 and 2005. Mammography quality of a random sample of screen-film mammograms was evaluated by an expert radiologist following the criteria of the Canadian Association of Radiologists. For each screening examination, scores ranging from 1 (poor quality) to 5 (excellent quality) were attributed for positioning, compression, contrast, exposure level, sharpness, and artifacts. A final overall quality score (lower or higher) was also given. Poisson regression models with robust estimation of variance and adjusted for potential confounding factors were used to assess associations of mammography quality with the FP rate. Among 1,209 women without cancer, there were 104 (8.6%) FPs. Lower overall mammography quality is associated with an increase in the FP rate (risk ratio [RR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.1; P = .07) but this increase was not statistically significant. Artifacts were associated with an increase in the FP rate (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.3; P = .01) whereas lower quality of exposure level was related to a reduction of the FP rate (RR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.0; P = .01). Lower quality scores for all other quality attributes were related to a nonstatistically significant increase in the FP rate of 10%-30%. Artifacts can have a substantial effect on the FP rate. The effect of overall mammography quality on the FP rate may also be substantial and needs to be clarified. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation doses and some aspects of image quality in mammography facilities in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, B.D.P.; Poletti, J.L.

    1990-02-01

    Until recently, mammography in New Zealand was performed largely with adapted conventional x-ray machines with tungsten anode x-ray tubes. Over the last several years these have virtually all been replaced by dedicated mammography machines with molybdenum anode x-ray tubes. To assess current trends in radiation doses to patients and central aspects of image quality, some 37 mammography x-ray machines were surveyed during 1988-89. The mean glandular dose per film for 30 and 45 mm thick breast-equivalent phantoms was determined using thermoluminescent dosimetry. Imagings of simulated microcalcifications (specks) and a contrast-detail phantom were assessed. Accuracy of calibration of the x-ray machines and quality of film processing were also tested. Details of the survey results are given. Mean glandular tissue doses per cranio-caudal films were generally well within the recommended guidelines. Mammography facilities differed in their ability to delete simulated calcification specks. Mammographic equipment was found to be generally well adjusted. Speed and contrast of film processing were found to vary widely implying that this is a major cause of the variations in dose and image quality. An annex outlines a quality assurance programme for maintenance of optimal physical image quality and control of radiation doses. 55 refs., 21 tabs., 17 figs., 2 ills

  4. Technical aspects of quality assurance in mammography: Preliminary results from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Monika M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the method of choice for early detection of breast cancer. In Serbia, mammography is performed only clinically, although there is a plan to introduce mammography as a screening method. Currently, there are 60 mammographic units in practice, resulting in 70 000 mammographies annually. The survey was conducted in order to investigate mammographic practice in Serbia, identify weak points and suggest appropriate corrective measures. Basic technical parameters of the X-ray tube and generator, processing, image quality, and patient doses in 20 mammographic units were studied. The survey demonstrated considerable variations in technical parameters that affect image quality, and patients doses. Patient dose levels, in terms of the mean glandular dose, were fairly consistent with current European reference levels: 1.8 (0.40-4.3 mGy. However, due to inappropriate image receptors, image processing and viewing conditions and automatic exposure control adjustment, suboptimal image quality was a common finding. Simple improvements of the radiographic technique and maintenance procedure, along with the rigid implementation of the quality control procedure and training of the operating staff, would improve the performance levels of mammographic practice in Serbia, i. e. result in the production of high quality images with a reasonably low radiation risk to patients.

  5. XERG-mammography system: a solution to the dose-quality problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, M

    1981-05-01

    The XERG (Xonics-Electron-Radio-Graphy) system is the first ionographic system (High-Pressure-Gas-Iono-graphy) suitable for clinical application which became available for testing. The basic principle, the function and imaging qualities of the XERG system are described and first clinical experiences reported. The XERG mammogram is a transparent X-ray negative image, the image quality of which is characterized by good general image contrast, a moderate edge-effect and a high quantum-noise level but giving an extremely low dose rate (4.5% compared to screenless mammography film). Although the XERG quality is not satisfactory in contact technique, it yields results which are equal in quality, when using a 1.5-fold magnification technique, to the results obtained with screenless film mammography at one-tenth of the dose, and is superior to any commercially available film-screen system. Hence, in our opinion, the XERG mammography system is a step forward towards high-quality low-dose mammography.

  6. Exploratory survey of image quality on CR digital mammography imaging systems in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Rivera, T.; Arreola, M.; Franco, J.; Molina, N.; Alvarez, B.; Azorín, C.G.; Casian, G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of image quality and dose in computed radiographic digital mammography (CRDM) systems. Studies included CRDM systems of various models and manufacturers which dose and image quality comparisons were performed. Due to the recent rise in the use of digital radiographic systems in Mexico, CRDM systems are rapidly replacing conventional film-screen systems without any regard to quality control or image quality standards. Study was conducted in 65 mammography facilities which use CRDM systems in the Mexico City and surrounding States. The systems were tested as used clinically. This means that the dose and beam qualities were selected using the automatic beam selection and photo-timed features. All systems surveyed generate laser film hardcopies for the radiologist to read on a scope or mammographic high luminance light box. It was found that 51 of CRDM systems presented a variety of image artefacts and non-uniformities arising from inadequate acquisition and processing, as well as from the laser printer itself. Undisciplined alteration of image processing settings by the technologist was found to be a serious prevalent problem in 42 facilities. Only four of them showed an image QC program which is periodically monitored by a medical physicist. The Average Glandular Dose (AGD) in the surveyed systems was estimated to have a mean value of 2.4 mGy. To improve image quality in mammography and make more efficient screening mammographic in early detection of breast cancer is required new legislation. - Highlights: • Radiation dose in CR digital mammography (CRDM) systems was determined. • Image quality related with dose in CR digital mammography (CRDM) systems was analysed. • Image processing artefacts were observed and correlated with dose. • Measured entrance dose by TL phosphors could be good parameter for radiation protection optimization in patient

  7. Health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression related to mammography screening in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen

    2012-11-01

    To measure health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression ahead of mammography screening and to assess any differences in health-related quality of life compared to reference population. The study of health-related quality of life among attendees prior to mammography screening has received little attention, and increased knowledge is needed to better understand the overall health benefits of participation. A two-group cross-sectional comparative study was performed. The samples comprised 4,249 attendees to mammography screening and a comparison group of 943 women. We used the SF-36 Health Survey to assess health-related quality of life. Linear regression was used to study any differences between the groups with adjustment for age, level of education, occupation, having children and smoking status. Other normative data were also used. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Attendees scored statistically significant higher on the SF-36 than the comparison group but were in line with normative data. Attendees had anxiety mean 4·1 and depression mean 2·6. The majority of the attendees have a high health-related quality of life, low anxiety and depression ahead of screening. Anxiety and depression were less than shown in normative data from Norway. Despite a high health-related quality of life, low anxiety and depression among the majority, healthcare workers should pay special attention to the few women who are anxious and depressed, and have a lower health-related quality of life. Omitted from mammography screening may be women who are unemployed, have lower socioeconomic status, are anxious and are depressed. Further research should be performed with non-attendees and subgroups to improve the screening programme. It is important to identify which patients have the greatest need for support and caring in an organised mammography screening and who may be overlooked. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Implantation and application of a quality control program in a mammography service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Camilly A.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: camilly@bolsista.ird.gov.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to adapt and implement a technical program of quality control, on a mammography service within a university hospital. After the training of the technical staff of the Service to perform the tests, a series of evaluations was performed and some preliminary results were obtained such as the creation of habits to visually monitor and evaluate mammography and make decisions for solve the problems. They also identified the need to change the image plates for present non removable artifacts after cleaning.

  9. Implantation and application of a quality control program in a mammography service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Camilly A.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to adapt and implement a technical program of quality control, on a mammography service within a university hospital. After the training of the technical staff of the Service to perform the tests, a series of evaluations was performed and some preliminary results were obtained such as the creation of habits to visually monitor and evaluate mammography and make decisions for solve the problems. They also identified the need to change the image plates for present non removable artifacts after cleaning

  10. Effect of area x-ray beam equalization on image quality and dose in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jerry; Xu Tong; Husain, Adeel; Le, Huy; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2004-08-21

    In mammography, thick or dense breast regions persistently suffer from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) because of degraded contrast from large scatter intensities and relatively high noise. Area x-ray beam equalization can improve image quality by increasing the x-ray exposure to under-penetrated regions without increasing the exposure to other breast regions. Optimal equalization parameters with respect to image quality and patient dose were determined through computer simulations and validated with experimental observations on a step phantom and an anthropomorphic breast phantom. Three parameters important in equalization digital mammography were considered: attenuator material (Z = 13-92), beam energy (22-34 kVp) and equalization level. A Mo/Mo digital mammography system was used for image acquisition. A prototype 16 x 16 piston driven equalization system was used for preparing patient-specific equalization masks. Simulation studies showed that a molybdenum attenuator and an equalization level of 20 were optimal for improving contrast, CNR and figure of merit (FOM = CNR{sup 2}/dose). Experimental measurements using these parameters showed significant improvements in contrast, CNR and FOM. Moreover, equalized images of a breast phantom showed improved image quality. These results indicate that area beam equalization can improve image quality in digital mammography.

  11. Quality assurance for screening mammography data collection systems in 22 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klabunde, C.N.; Sancho-Garnier, H.; Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Thoresen, S.; Rodrigues, V.J.; Ballard-Barbash, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To document the mammography data that are gathered by the organized screening programs participating in the International Breast Cancer Screening Network (IBSN), the nature of their procedures for data quality assurance, and the measures used to assess program performance and impact.

  12. Evaluation of the image quality criteria and study of doses in a mammography department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Marcela Costa

    2009-01-01

    The mammographic image quality criteria published by European Commission were implemented in three mammography equipment of a same radiology department in a hospital of Sao Paulo city. Among the mammography equipment, two use the screen-film system and one of them uses the indirect digital system. During the data collection, it was noted the need to conduct a study about image rejection in each mammography equipment. Therefore, this study was realized and, after that, the results in each mammography equipment of image rejection and image percentage that present each quality criterion it were compared. At the same time of this studies, it was realized other study about surface entrance dose and average glandular dose. These doses it was estimated based on different methods published by different groups of researcher, for all combinations anode filter available in the equipment. To estimate the surface entrance dose following the methodology published in Avenue's' guide and the average glandular dose following the Wu' methodology, it was developed a phantom, in different thicknesses of acrylic, to simulate a breast. Finally, the image quality it was associated with the dose received by patient. The digital equipment shows better results in the evaluation of quality criteria, lower rate of image rejection and lower values of average glandular dose and surface entrance dose in all methods studied. But it is not sufficient, because is not adequate for patients with great breast. (author)

  13. A special ionisation chamber for quality control of diagnostic and mammography X ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.M.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2003-01-01

    A quality control program for X ray equipment used for conventional radiography and mammography requires the constancy check of the beam qualities in terms of the half-value layers. In this work, a special double-faced parallel-plate ionisation chamber was developed with inner electrodes of different materials, in a tandem system. Its application will be in quality control programs of diagnostic and mammography X ray equipment for confirmation of half-value layers previously determined by the conventional method. Moreover, the chamber also may be utilised for measurements of air kerma values (and air kerma rates) in X radiation fields used for conventional radiography and mammography. The chamber was studied in relation to the characteristics of saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effects, leakage current, and short-term stability. The energy dependence in response of each of the two faces of the chamber was determined over the conventional radiography and mammography X ray ranges (unattenuated beams). The different energy responses of the two faces of the chamber allowed the formation of a tandem system useful for the constancy check of beam qualities. (author)

  14. A special ionisation chamber for quality control of diagnostic and mammography X ray equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A M; Caldas, L V E

    2003-01-01

    A quality control program for X ray equipment used for conventional radiography and mammography requires the constancy check of the beam qualities in terms of the half-value layers. In this work, a special double-faced parallel-plate ionisation chamber was developed with inner electrodes of different materials, in a tandem system. Its application will be in quality control programs of diagnostic and mammography X ray equipment for confirmation of half-value layers previously determined by the conventional method. Moreover, the chamber also may be utilised for measurements of air kerma values (and air kerma rates) in X radiation fields used for conventional radiography and mammography. The chamber was studied in relation to the characteristics of saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effects, leakage current, and short-term stability. The energy dependence in response of each of the two faces of the chamber was determined over the conventional radiography and mammography X ray ranges (unattenuated beams). The different energy response of the two faces of the chamber allowed the formation of a tandem system useful for the constancy check of beam qualities.

  15. Clinical evaluation of a new set of image quality criteria for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, A.; Hemdal, B.; Andersson, I.; Ruschin, M.; Thilander-Klang, A.; Boerjesson, S.; Tingberg, A.; Mattsson, S.; Haakansson, M.; Baath, M.; Maansson, L. G.; Medin, J.; Wanninger, F.; Panzer, W.

    2005-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) quality criteria for screen-film mammography are used as a tool to asses image quality. A new set of criteria was developed and initially tested in a previous study. In the present study, these criteria are further evaluated using screen-film mammograms that have been digitised, manipulated to simulated different image quality level and reprinted on film. Expert radiologists have evaluated these manipulated to simulate different image quality levels and reprinted on film. Expert radiologists have evaluated these manipulated images using both the original (EC) and the new criteria. A comparison of three different simulated dose levels that the new criteria yield a larger separation of image criteria scores than the old ones. These results indicated that the new set of image quality criteria has a higher discriminative power than the old set and thus seems to be more suitable for evaluation of image quality in mammography. (authors)

  16. Pilot program of quality control in mammography and conventional equipment in the Antioquia Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, P.; Puerta, J.A.; Morales, J.; Beltran, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Sectional Health Division of Antioquia and the National University of Colombia- Medellin Headquarters formalized an agreement for the realization of the quality control of thirty mammographs and twenty-five conventional X-ray equipment located in the one metropolitan area of Medellin, and ten municipalities of the nine regions in that the antioquen county is divided. The National University of Colombia- Headquarters Medellin possesses a program for the formation in quality control and radiological protection at master level in physics for that which endowed a radiodiagnostic laboratory for these purposes. In the Antioquia department only exists an institution, the San Vicente of Paul University Hospital that possesses a quality control program in radiodiagnostic; this hospital given its great volume of studies in radiodiagnostic has a medical physicist and of that instrumental necessary to maintain the program. The quality control programs have not been implemented in the rest of health institutions, public or private, big or small, until the moment. The project then allowed to carry out an initial evaluation of the pertinent parameters of the quality control of the facilities like its are those that refer to the state of the x-ray generator, the disposition of the installation, the dark room, the film processor and negatoscopies room; these its were carried out with base in the protocol produced in the ARCAL XLIX project in which participated six Latin American countries. The dose average in mammography, following the proposed course in the ARCAL LXXV, where its participate eleven Latin American countries was also evaluated. This study pilot serves like reference of the current state of the regional radiodiagnostic services, with base in this sampling that is representative. The obtained data gave the necessary information so that the Sectional Division of Health of Antioquia can generate tending actions to the implementation of quality guarantee programs and

  17. Evaluation of quality in Service of Mammography of the State of Pernambuco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Claudio J.M.; Hwang, Suy F.; Peixoto, Joao Emilio

    2001-01-01

    The cancer of breast is what more contributes to mortality among women in the world. In 2000, it is considered that happened about 28.300 new cases and 8.200 death in Brazil. Thus, programs of precocious detection have been transmitted and driven the professionals of health and the population, where the used method and indicated for the diagnosis it is the mammography. However, to be capable to detect small lesions, still without clinical expression, the Service of Mammography should have mechanisms that guarantee the quality and effectiveness of the exam, assuring the great levels of sensibility and of specific. That work has as objective to evaluate the quality of the Services of Mammography of the State of Pernambuco, seeking to adapt them to the effective norms, guaranteeing like this the success of programs of precocious detection. Results show that 55% of the Services present problems in the envisage of the bunch of ray-X, 57% of the apparels do not present system of automatic control of the exhibition (CAE) regulated or it does not exist, by force of compression of 37% of the apparels they were out of the interval of tolerance (11 to 18 kg) and 36% of the processor were just in conformity with the operation patterns for mammography. Of the one of the 31 Services evaluated 3 they were just totally approved, while 10 did not present minimum quality for the diagnosis. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the Slovak national mammography QA audit and the consequences for mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M; Nikodemova, D.

    2005-01-01

    Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM establishes that member states shall ensure that practitioners and technical staff in medical practice have adequate theoretical and practical training for the purpose of radiological practices as well as relevant competence in radiation protection. This is considered as a basic aspect of optimization of medical exposure. A general background of the required level of training in radiation protection is given in Guidelines on education and training in radiation protection in medical exposures published by European Commission (116/2000/EURATOM). The aim of our paper is to refer about a new education system. Recommendation for continuing education and training is given and new techniques are implemented. The introduced quality assurance and quality control programs were realized in the framework of activities of the Committee of QA and QC in radiology under auspice of Slovak Health (authors)

  19. Daily quality control in computed radiography mammography using the manufacturer phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubiak, Rosangela R.; Messias, Pricila C.; Oliveira, Carlla M.

    2011-01-01

    The quality control (QC) in mammography system involves a large amount of test tools, which implies a large space for storage and a high number of exposure. This work describes a QC system using a phantom, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) One Shot Phantom M Plus, that evaluates several parameters with just one exposure. The software offers tests with annual, semi-annual, quarterly, weekly and daily periodicity, and analyzes the conformities of the mammography equipment, image plate and cassettes. Because of the high number of tests, it was evaluated the daily test only for seven months in two mammography equipment. The test, through the software and its image, allows the analysis of ten parameters in QC. The evaluation of these parameters was realized by the average of the values provided by the software. Only one of the evaluated items showed not conformity, but this was observed and the necessary corrections were realized. The monitoring of use of FCR Mammography QC software with the FCR One Shot Phantom M Plus was realized and through this we could investigate that the quality program provided by the system is appropriate for the radiology services that has the Fuji Computed Radiography system. (author)

  20. Survey of mammography practice in Croatia: Equipment performance, image quality and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faj, D.; Stimac, D.; Ivezic, Z.; Kasabasic, M.; Ivkovic, A.; Posedel, D.; Kubelka, D.; Ilakovac, V.; Brnic, Z.; Bjelac, O.C.

    2008-01-01

    A national audit of mammography equipment performance, image quality and dose has been conducted in Croatia. Film-processing parameters, optical density (OD), average glandular dose (AGD) to the standard breast, viewing conditions and image quality were examined using TOR(MAM) test object. Average film gradient ranged from 2.6 to 3.7, with a mean of 3.1. Tube voltage used for imaging of the standard 45 mm polymethylmethacrylate phantom ranged from 24 to 34 kV, and OD ranged from 0.75 to 1.94 with a mean of 1.26. AGD to the standard breast ranged from 0.4 to 2.3 mGy with a mean of 1.1 mGy. Besides clinical conditions, the authors have imaged the standard phantom in the referent conditions with 28 kV and OD as close as possible to 1.5. Then, AGD ranged from 0.5 to 2.6 mGy with a mean of 1.3 mGy. Image viewing conditions were generally unsatisfying with ambient light up to 500 lx and most of the viewing boxes with luminance between 1000 and 2000 cd per m 2 . TOR(MAM) scoring of images taken in clinical and referent conditions was done by local radiologists in local image viewing conditions and by the referent radiologist in good image viewing conditions. Importance of OD and image viewing conditions for diagnostic information were analysed. The survey showed that the main problem in Croatia is the lack of written quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures. Consequently, equipment performance, image quality and dose are unstable and activities to improve image quality or to reduce the dose are not evidence-based. This survey also had an educational purpose, introducing in Croatia the QC based on European Commission Guidelines. (authors)

  1. Digital information management: a progress report on the National Digital Mammography Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Barbara G.; Schnall, Mitchell D.

    2002-05-01

    Digital mammography creates very large images, which require new approaches to storage, retrieval, management, and security. The National Digital Mammography Archive (NDMA) project, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is developing a limited testbed that demonstrates the feasibility of a national breast imaging archive, with access to prior exams; patient information; computer aids for image processing, teaching, and testing tools; and security components to ensure confidentiality of patient information. There will be significant benefits to patients and clinicians in terms of accessible data with which to make a diagnosis and to researchers performing studies on breast cancer. Mammography was chosen for the project, because standards were already available for digital images, report formats, and structures. New standards have been created for communications protocols between devices, front- end portal and archive. NDMA is a distributed computing concept that provides for sharing and access across corporate entities. Privacy, auditing, and patient consent are all integrated into the system. Five sites, Universities of Pennsylvania, Chicago, North Carolina and Toronto, and BWXT Y12, are connected through high-speed networks to demonstrate functionality. We will review progress, including technical challenges, innovative research and development activities, standards and protocols being implemented, and potential benefits to healthcare systems.

  2. The outcome of a quality-controlled mammography screening program: Experience from a population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huay-Ben Pan

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: From the outcome review of this national mammography screening, there is still room to ameliorate our performance through comprehensive and continued education, to improve the competence of cancer detection and decrease false negative (FN cases.

  3. Quality assurance programme in mammography of the Sociedad Espanola de Diagnosticos por Imagen de la Mama (SEDIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, B.; Gonzalez, C.; Hernando, I.; Iribar, M.; Lopez, J.A.; Salvador, R.; Vega, A.; Vizcaino

    2001-01-01

    The European Union Council Directive 97/43/Euratom of 30 June 1997 on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure has been partially transposed to the Spanish national law by the Real Decreto 1976/1999, which establishes the quality criteria in Diagnostic Radiology. A key instrument in this legal regulation is the so-called Quality Assurance Program (QAP) which has to be implemented in each Diagnostic Radiology unit. The Spanish Breast Imaging Diagnostic Society (Sociedad Espanola de Diagnostico por Imagen de la Mama, SEDIM) has proposed a reference QAP to be used as a guide in all the mammography units in the country. Its main issues are displayed in the present paper. The SEDIM QAP includes some items related to justification and optimization of mammography exams as well as a proposal for the assignment of functions and responsibilities. A guide for the image and technical parameters quality evaluation is also included. Some keys on equipment acquisition, maintenance and on continuing education and information management can also be found in that document. (author)

  4. Evaluation of low-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography images by comparing them to full-field digital mammography using EUREF image quality criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lalji, U. C.; Jeukens, C. R. L. P. N.; Houben, I.; Nelemans, P. J.; van Engen, R. E.; van Wylick, E.; Beets-Tan, R. G. H.; Wildberger, J. E.; Paulis, L. E.; Lobbes, M. B. I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) examination results in a low-energy (LE) and contrast-enhanced image. The LE appears similar to a full-field digital mammogram (FFDM). Our aim was to evaluate LE CESM image quality by comparing it to FFDM using criteria defined by the European Reference Organization for Quality Assured Breast Screening and Diagnostic Services (EUREF). Methods A total of 147 cases with both FFDM and LE images were independently scored by two experienced r...

  5. Quality control, mean glandular dose estimate and room shielding calculation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotomalala, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses in the importance of Radiation Protection in mammography. A good control of the radiological risk depends on the dose optimization, room shielding calculation and the quality of equipment. The work was carried out in the three private medical centers called A, B, and C. Dosimetry estimates were made on the equipment of the three centers. Values has been compared with the Diagnostic Reference Levels established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Conformity control of the radiological devices has also been done with the Mammographic Quality Control Kit of the INSTN-Madagascar. Verifications of shields of the room containing the mammography equipment were done by theoretical calculations using the method provided by NCRP 147. [fr

  6. Results of a 2011 national questionnaire for investigation of mean glandular dose from mammography in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Y; Suzuki, S; Minami, K; Shirakawa, S

    2014-03-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for mammography have yet to be created in Japan. A national questionnaire investigation into radiographic conditions in Japan was carried out for the purpose of creating DRLs. Items investigated included the following: tube voltage; tube current; current-time product; source-image distance; craniocaudal view; automatic exposure control (AEC) settings; name of mammography unit; image receptor system (computed radiography (CR), flat panel detector (FPD), or film/screen (F/S)); and supported or unsupported monitor diagnosis (including monitor resolution). Estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for mammography was performed and compared with previous investigations. The MGD was 1.58(0.48) mGy, which did not significantly differ from a 2007 investigation. In relation to image receptors, although no difference in average MGD values was observed between CR and FPD systems, F/S systems had a significantly decreased value compared to both CR and FPDs. Concerning digital systems (FPDs), the MGD value of the direct conversion system was significantly higher than the indirect conversion system. No significant difference in MGD value was evident concerning type of monitor diagnosis for either the CR or the FPD digital systems; however, hard copies were used more often in CR. No significant difference in the MGD value was found in relation to monitor resolution. This report suggests ways to lower the doses patients undergoing mammography receive in Japan, and serves as reference data for 4.2 cm compressed breast tissue of 50% composition DRLs. Furthermore, our findings suggest that further optimisation of FPD settings can promote a reduction in the MGD value.

  7. Implantation of radiation qualities for mammography in accordance with the IEC 61627 and TRS 457 criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Evandro J.; David, Mariano G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de

    2009-01-01

    In this work it is discussed the technical conditions of the implantation of radiation qualities adequate for dosemeter applied to mammography at the Radiological Science Laboratory (RSL) of the University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It performed tests for evaluation the homogeneity of the radiation field, the scattering, the half-layers and the system stability. The test results point for adequacy of the laboratory installed at the LCR for calibration of the mentioned dosemeters in seven qualities of radiation and the expanded uncertainty with better capacity of measurement at those qualities was of ±1.8% (k = 2)

  8. Study about diagnostic quality in a public-center of mammography of Santa Fe, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, R.; Kiguen, J.; Gaitan, L.; Caspani, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objective is to apply a method that allows us to evaluate the diagnostic quality of a public-center of mammography and to validate it. The representative centers of a social class were grouped; this one is evaluated measuring the mechanics, electrics, dosimetrics and personal parameters of the process to get the mammography diagnostic. The original study and the respective report was submitted to the valuation of a panel of experts, who evaluated image, techniques and diagnostics. The equipment and techniques used are described in this case. The judgment of the ACR and the Argentine legislation are applied. The dosimetric results of the mammography practice serve to determine the local reference levels. The people who intervened in the diagnosis are evaluated, as well as the services that can influence it. Seeking the parametric sensibility in relationship with the succeeded and precocious diagnosis, the success of it is confirmed by the panel of experts. We conclude by indicating that the success percentage in the diagnosis is about 98,36%, that there is 100% of coincidence among the perception and the value of the study quality. The valuation of the image reaches 69,2% of the maximum score, and the placement technique, 73,9%. The parametric sensibilities of the principal variables are discussed. (author)

  9. Image quality control of mammography equipment -Mammography System MX-300- of the Teachers Hospital of UNSA and dose measurement in breasts with radiographic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quispe F, L. K.; Vega R, J.

    2015-10-01

    This work is part of medical imaging for the evaluation of quality. Will have an accredited breast phantom Rmi-156 that allows evaluating the image quality of mammography equipment and through a series of techniques and processes that will submit to mammography films we obtain characteristic curves, which allows to evaluate different parameters that will serve for our study. Images were acquired with different k Vp and m As of the equipment, also with different thicknesses of the breast phantom. Also we want to use the lowest possible dose for obtaining our images. In this paper we develop a simple protocol that aims to unify the conditions under which are acquired the images for later evaluation. By obtaining these characteristic curves demonstrate that the Kodak film is the most suitable for our study because it requires lower dose for obtaining our images. (Author)

  10. An Exploration of Changes in the Measurement of Mammography in the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Felisa A; Willis, Gordon B; Breen, Nancy; Yan, Ting; Cronin, Kathy A; Taplin, Stephen H; Yu, Mandi

    2017-11-01

    Background: Using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the effect of question wording on estimates of past-year mammography among racially/ethnically diverse women ages 40-49 and 50-74 without a history of breast cancer. Methods: Data from one-part ("Have you had a mammogram during the past 12 months?") and two-part ("Have you ever had a mammogram"; "When did you have your most recent mammogram?") mammography history questions administered in the 2008, 2011, and 2013 NHIS were analyzed. χ 2 tests provided estimates of changes in mammography when question wording was either the same (two-part question) or differed (two-part question followed by one-part question) in the two survey years compared. Crosstabulations and regression models assessed the type, extent, and correlates of inconsistent responses to the two questions in 2013. Results: Reports of past-year mammography were slightly higher in years when the one-part question was asked than when the two-part question was asked. Nearly 10% of women provided inconsistent responses to the two questions asked in 2013. Black women ages 50 to 74 [adjusted OR (aOR), 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16-1.93] and women ages 40-49 in poor health (aOR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.09-4.52) had higher odds of inconsistent responses; women without a usual source of care had lower odds (40-49: aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.85; 50-74: aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.24-0.74). Conclusions: Self-reports of mammography are sensitive to question wording. Researchers should use equivalent questions that have been designed to minimize response biases such as telescoping and social desirability. Impact: Trend analyses relying on differently worded questions may be misleading and conceal disparities. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1611-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Screen film vs full-field digital mammography: image quality, detectability and characterization of lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenauer, S.; Luftner-Nagel, S.; Heyden, D. von; Baum, F.; Grabbe, E.; Munzel, U.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare screen-film mammography (SFM) to full-field digital mammography (FFDM) regarding image quality as well as detectability and characterization of lesions using equivalent images of the same patient acquired with both systems. Two mammography units were used, one with a screen-film system (Senographe DMR) and the other with a digital detector (Senographe 2000D, both GEMS). Screen-film and digital mammograms were performed on 55 patients with cytologically or histologically proven tumors on the same day. Together with these, 75 digital mammograms of patients without tumor and the corresponding previous screen-film mammograms not older than 1.5 years were reviewed by three observers in a random order. Contrast, exposure, and the presence of artifacts were evaluated. Different details, such as the skin, the retromamillary region, and the parenchymal structures, were judged according to a three-point ranking scale. Finally, the detectability of microcalcifications and lesions were compared and correlated to histology. Image contrast was judged to be good in 76%, satisfactory in 20%, and unsatisfactory in 4% of screen-film mammograms. Digital mammograms were judged to be good in 99% and unsatisfactory in 1% of cases. Improper exposure of screen-film system occurred in 18% (10% overexposed and 8% underexposed). Digital mammograms were improperly exposed in 4% of all cases but were of acceptable quality after post-processing. Artifacts, most of them of no significance, were found in 78% of screen-film and in none of the digital mammograms. Different anatomical regions, such as the skin, the retromamillary region, and dense parenchymal areas, were better visualized in digital than in screen-film mammography. All malignant tumors were seen by the three radiologists; however, digital mammograms allowed a better characterization of these lesions to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADSZZZ;) categories (FFDM better than

  12. Detection and optimization of image quality and dose in digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semturs, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: During the last few years, mammography institutes have replaced their conventional mammography systems (FSM) with digital mammography systems (FFDM). This happened mainly in direction to digital computed radiography systems (FFDM-CR), where the mammography device could be kept in operation. Consequently also the AEC-parameters have not been changed and therefore the same dose as for FFM was used. Following the main theme of the thesis "Optimization of image quality and dose", also measurements with such CR-Systems have been performed in relation to image quality and dose behavior. Optimization in this context means - in following the ALARA principle - the reduction of dose while ensuring required clinical image quality. With other words - image quality is of higher value compared to dose. Considering this, it has been found out through measurements during this thesis, that FFDM-CR Systems need considerable more dose for achieving image quality comparable with FFM. On the other hand, it has been shown with measurements during this thesis, that the newest FFDM-CR technology (needle structure) supports dose reduction (optimization) to a certain degree without compromising image quality. Dose increase, as recommended in this thesis, could also increase the danger of more radiation induced carcinoma. There are several studies (which are also discussed in this thesis), which show that the benefit of not missing cancers because of higher dose dramatically overrides any health concerns. Such an optimization of image quality and dose is now described in more detail by comparing the new CR needle technology with the older power based CR technology. Material and Methods: The image quality and dose behavior for multiple breast thicknesses (simulated with PMMA slabs) of a CR needle crystal detector system is optimized by considering also different beam qualities. Technical image quality is determined with a low contrast phantom (CDMAM phantom) and from

  13. Quality control as a way to find out doses as low as reasonably practicable in mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.F.; Nogueira, M.S.; Peixoto, J.E.; Paraguay, Y.V.

    2008-01-01

    The breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to guarantee the effectiveness of the diagnosis taking into account the patient radiation safety, it is mandatory to perform the quality control tests of the mammographic equipment. The main objective of this work has been to evaluate the relationship between the image quality and the total performance of the medical equipment. Primary data were collected from several radiological facilities during the quality control inspections performed by the local regulatory authorities of the Brazilian health, the National Commission of Nuclear Energy and the Brazilian College of Radiology. The main important functioning parameters were evaluated as well as the image quality using the simulator 'phantom mama'. In spite of the fact that high quality images could suggest delivering large radiation doses to patients it has been demonstrated that it is possible to acquire images with a good quality for clinical diagnosis without delivering high doses if the system is working properly. It has been concluded that following an optimized quality control program could avoid the complex dosimetric studies to guarantee good images quality. (author)

  14. A new test phantom with different breast tissue compositions for image quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachoud, Marc; Lepori, D; Valley, Jean-Francois; Verdun, Francis R

    2004-01-01

    Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of image quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue compositions, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution, spatial resolution and image noise. The phantom was imaged over a range of kV using a Contour 2000 (Bennett) mammography unit with a Kodak MinR 2190-MinR L screen-film combination and a Senograph 2000D (General Electric) digital mammography unit. Objective image quality assessments for different breast tissue compositions were performed using the phantom for conventional and digital mammography. For a similar mean glandular dose (MGD), the digital system gives a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than the screen-film system for 100% glandular tissue. In conclusion, in mammography, a range of exposure conditions is used for imaging because of the different breast tissue compositions encountered clinically. Ideally, the patient dose-image quality relationship should be optimized over the range of exposure conditions. The test phantom presented in this work permits image quality parameters to be evaluated objectively for three different types of breast tissue. Thus, it is a useful tool for optimizing the patient dose-image quality relationship

  15. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  16. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lucy M; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M; Wallis, Matthew G; Chakraborty, Dev P; Dance, David R; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC (AFROC) area decreased from

  17. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC

  18. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C. [National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jarvis Breast Screening and Diagnostic Centre, Guildford GU1 1LJ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, St. George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15210 (United States); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC

  19. Comparison between the implementation of quality criteria of radiographic image in conventional and digital mammography equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.C.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Furquim, T.A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The mammographic examination needs a strict quality control. A publication of the European Commission provides guidelines on quality criteria for the images of the breast, quantifying the quality obtained in the image. Following the recommendations of the European Commission, two kinds of mammographic equipments, at a same institution, were evaluated to compare the quality of the conventional and digital images. Besides of that, the Average Glandular Dose (AGD) and the Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) were measured by using an ionization chamber (Radcal, 6M) in the radiation beams of each equipment. The digital equipment fulfills more quality criteria than the conventional equipment, provided ESD values, AGD values and a rejection index lower than the conventional equipment. Therefore, the digital mammography can be considered more adequate than the conventional one, both for criteria analyses and for dose optimization. (author)

  20. Regulation EM-GT-8. Guidance for quality control of mammography equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To provide practical guidance of technical procedures for carrying out quality control in mammography equipment. Scope: This guide applies to mammography equipment. A number of methods which require the appointed instrumentation described, some of which can be implemented in radiology services own country given the low complexity of themselves and others that require specific equipment and can be performed by specialized groups external to these units. The guide does not constitute a mandatory, however, the parameters evaluated according to the tests described therein and their tolerances form the basis of regulations that establish the CCEEM about these teams. Overview: The success of mammographic studies depends on obtaining high-quality images combined with a low rate of patient dose. To ensure this objective the establishment of quality assurance programs on all aspects involving these services is necessary. This guide provides a number of quality control procedures aimed at x-ray equipment, which must be performed at least on an annual basis or when some maintenance occurs at x-ray equipment.

  1. Correlation between the physical performances measured from detectors and the diagnostic image quality in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ponce, H.

    2009-05-01

    In digital mammography two approaches exist to estimate image quality. In the first approach, human observer assesses the lesion detection in mammograms. Unfortunately, such quality assessment is subject to interobserver variability, and requires a large amount of time and human resources. In the second approach, objective and human-independent parameters relating to image spatial resolution and noise (MTF and NPS) are used to evaluate digital detector performance; even if these parameters are objective, they are not directly related to lesion detection. A method leading to image quality assessment which is both human independent, and directly related to lesion detection is very important for the optimal use of mammographic units. This Ph.D thesis presents the steps towards such a method: the computation of realistic virtual images using an 'X ray source/digital detector' model taking into account the physical parameters of the detector (spatial resolution and noise measurements) measured under clinical conditions. From results obtained in this work, we have contributed to establish the link between the physical characteristics of detectors and the clinical quality of the image for usual exposition conditions. Furthermore, we suggest the use of our model for the creation of virtual images, in order to rapidly determine the optimal conditions in mammography, which usually is a long and tedious experimental process. This is an essential aspect to be taken into account for radioprotection of patients, especially in the context of organized mass screening of breast cancer. (author)

  2. Image quality of digital mammography images produced using wet and dry laser imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Khalifah, K.; Brindhaban, A.; AlArfaj, R.; Jassim, O.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A study was carried out to compare the quality of digital mammographic images printed or processed by a wet laser imaging system and a dedicated mammographic dry laser imaging system. Material and methods: Digital images of a tissue equivalent breast phantom were obtained using a GE Senographe 2000D digital mammography system and different target/filter combinations of the X-ray tube. These images were printed on films using the Fuji FL-IM D wet laser imaging system and the Kodak DryView 8600 dry laser imaging system. The quality of images was assessed in terms of detectability of microcalcifications and simulated tumour masses by five radiologists. In addition, the contrast index and speed index of the two systems were measured using the step wedge in the phantom. The unpaired, unequal variance t-test was used to test any statistically significant differences. Results: There were no significant (p < 0.05) differences between the images printed using the two systems in terms of microcalcification and tumour mass detectability. The wet system resulted in slightly higher contrast index while the dry system showed significantly higher speed index. Conclusion: Both wet and dry laser imaging systems can produce mammography images of good quality on which 0.2 mm microcalcifications and 2 mm tumour masses can be detected. Dry systems are preferable due to the absence of wet chemical processing and solid or liquid chemical waste. The wet laser imaging systems, however, still represent a useful alternative to dry laser imaging systems for mammography studies

  3. National Performance Benchmarks for Modern Screening Digital Mammography: Update from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Constance D; Arao, Robert F; Sprague, Brian L; Lee, Janie M; Buist, Diana S M; Kerlikowske, Karla; Henderson, Louise M; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; Rauscher, Garth H; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To establish performance benchmarks for modern screening digital mammography and assess performance trends over time in U.S. community practice. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study measured the performance of digital screening mammography interpreted by 359 radiologists across 95 facilities in six Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registries. The study included 1 682 504 digital screening mammograms performed between 2007 and 2013 in 792 808 women. Performance measures were calculated according to the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, 5th edition, and were compared with published benchmarks by the BCSC, the National Mammography Database, and performance recommendations by expert opinion. Benchmarks were derived from the distribution of performance metrics across radiologists and were presented as 50th (median), 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, with graphic presentations using smoothed curves. Results Mean screening performance measures were as follows: abnormal interpretation rate (AIR), 11.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.5, 11.6); cancers detected per 1000 screens, or cancer detection rate (CDR), 5.1 (95% CI: 5.0, 5.2); sensitivity, 86.9% (95% CI: 86.3%, 87.6%); specificity, 88.9% (95% CI: 88.8%, 88.9%); false-negative rate per 1000 screens, 0.8 (95% CI: 0.7, 0.8); positive predictive value (PPV) 1, 4.4% (95% CI: 4.3%, 4.5%); PPV2, 25.6% (95% CI: 25.1%, 26.1%); PPV3, 28.6% (95% CI: 28.0%, 29.3%); cancers stage 0 or 1, 76.9%; minimal cancers, 57.7%; and node-negative invasive cancers, 79.4%. Recommended CDRs were achieved by 92.1% of radiologists in community practice, and 97.1% achieved recommended ranges for sensitivity. Only 59.0% of radiologists achieved recommended AIRs, and only 63.0% achieved recommended levels of specificity. Conclusion The majority of radiologists in the BCSC surpass cancer detection recommendations for screening

  4. Software application for quality control protocol of mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjosevski, Vladimir; Gershan, Vesna; Ginovska, Margarita; Spasevska, Hristina

    2010-01-01

    Considering the fact that the Quality Control of the technological process of the mammographic system involves testing of a large number of parameters, it is clearly evident that there is a need for using the information technology for gathering, processing and storing of all the parameters that are result of this process. The main goal of this software application is facilitation and automation of the gathering, processing, storing and presenting process of the data related to the qualification of the physical and technical parameters during the quality control of the technological process of the mammographic system. The software application along with its user interface and database has been made with the Microsoft Access 2003 application which is part of the Microsoft Office 2003 software packet and has been chosen as a platform for developing because it is the most commonly used office application today among the computer users in the country. This is important because it will provide the end users a familiar environment to work in, without the need for additional training and improving the computer skills that they posses. Most importantly, the software application is easy to use, fast in calculating the parameters needed and it is an excellent way to store and display the results. There is a possibility for up scaling this software solution so it can be used by many different users at the same time over the Internet. It is highly recommended that this system is implemented as soon as possible in the quality control process of the mammographic systems due to its many advantages.(Author)

  5. Plans of the German Radiology Society and the Professional Association for Quality Assurance in Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heywang-Koebrunner, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    A high level of quality is an unequivocal prerequisite for obtaining the highest possible accuracy in symptomatic patients and for reproducing the results concerning mortality reduction, which were obtained in large screening trials. Present deficiencies in Germany are due to legal regulations, which have not been updated and which are thus below European standard. Furthermore, the quality assurance program has not proven sufficiently effective for mammography. In order to promote mammographic quality assurance, the German Roentgen Society proposes an accreditation program. The accreditation, which concerns (A.) mammographic technique and positioning and (B.) mammographic reporting is not obligatory, but will allow acquisition of special official certificates, which may support the patients to find doctors who perform and read mammograms with high quality and expertise. The accreditation shall be performed by personel and/or institutions who are specifically trained surveyed. (orig.) [de

  6. An alternative method for noise analysis using pixel variance as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.; Young, K.; Lazzari, B.; Ravaglia, V.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Engen, R. van

    2009-01-01

    According to the European Guidelines for quality assured breast cancer screening and diagnosis, noise analysis is one of the measurements that needs to be performed as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems. However, the method recommended in the European Guidelines does

  7. A phantom using titanium and Landolt rings for image quality evaluation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De las Heras Gala, Hugo; Schöfer, Felix; Tiller, Britta; Chevalier, Margarita; Zwettler, Georg; Semturs, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    A phantom for image quality evaluation of digital mammography systems is presented and compared to the most widely used phantoms in Europe and the US. The phantom contains objects for subjective detection of Landolt rings (four-alternative, forced-choice task) and for objective calculation of signal-difference-to-noise ratios (SDNR), both in a titanium background within a 12-step wedge. Evaluating phantom images corresponding to exposures between 15 and 160 mAs (average glandular dose between 0.2 and 2 mGy), the resulting scores were compared to the scores obtained following the European EPQC and American College of Radiology (ACR) protocols. Scores of the Landolt test equal to 19 and 8.5 and SDNR equal to 20 and 11 were found to be equivalent to the acceptable limiting values suggested by EPQC and ACR. In addition, the Landolt and SDNR tests were shown to take into account the anatomical variations in thickness and tissue density within the breast. The simplified evaluation method presented was shown to be a sensitive, efficient and reliable alternative for image quality evaluation of mammography systems. (fast track communication)

  8. A phantom using titanium and Landolt rings for image quality evaluation in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Heras, Hugo; Schöfer, Felix; Tiller, Britta; Chevalier, Margarita; Zwettler, Georg; Semturs, Friedrich

    2013-04-01

    A phantom for image quality evaluation of digital mammography systems is presented and compared to the most widely used phantoms in Europe and the US. The phantom contains objects for subjective detection of Landolt rings (four-alternative, forced-choice task) and for objective calculation of signal-difference-to-noise ratios (SDNR), both in a titanium background within a 12-step wedge. Evaluating phantom images corresponding to exposures between 15 and 160 mAs (average glandular dose between 0.2 and 2 mGy), the resulting scores were compared to the scores obtained following the European EPQC and American College of Radiology (ACR) protocols. Scores of the Landolt test equal to 19 and 8.5 and SDNR equal to 20 and 11 were found to be equivalent to the acceptable limiting values suggested by EPQC and ACR. In addition, the Landolt and SDNR tests were shown to take into account the anatomical variations in thickness and tissue density within the breast. The simplified evaluation method presented was shown to be a sensitive, efficient and reliable alternative for image quality evaluation of mammography systems.

  9. Development of a methodology for automated assessment of the quality of digitized images in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo

    2010-01-01

    The process of evaluating the quality of radiographic images in general, and mammography in particular, can be much more accurate, practical and fast with the help of computer analysis tools. The purpose of this study is to develop a computational methodology to automate the process of assessing the quality of mammography images through techniques of digital imaging processing (PDI), using an existing image processing environment (ImageJ). With the application of PDI techniques was possible to extract geometric and radiometric characteristics of the images evaluated. The evaluated parameters include spatial resolution, high-contrast detail, low contrast threshold, linear detail of low contrast, tumor masses, contrast ratio and background optical density. The results obtained by this method were compared with the results presented in the visual evaluations performed by the Health Surveillance of Minas Gerais. Through this comparison was possible to demonstrate that the automated methodology is presented as a promising alternative for the reduction or elimination of existing subjectivity in the visual assessment methodology currently in use. (author)

  10. Introduction of computed radiography in two mammography services: image quality and dose analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubiak, Rosangela R.; Gamba, Humberto R.; Ramos, Maria M.; Faversani, Gislene G.; Peixoto, Joao E.

    2008-01-01

    This study has evaluated the impact of the introduction of CR technology in the routine of two mammography services operating with Lorad Affinity X-ray units and CR Fuji Profect One system. Mean glandular dose was determined to set Automatic Exposure Control parameters according to optimal image quality. Reject analysis of patient images was made to establish the overall impact in routine work. As regards to dose evaluation, the results show that in 44% of mammography exams the MGD were above action levels. It is due to inadequate AEC adjustment and insufficient training of the staff in operating CR systems. In addition, common errors with screen/film systems like wrong breast positing and selection of exposure parameters, as well as X-ray unit failures like insufficient anti scatter grid movement still occurs. This is an indication that ongoing efforts should be concentrated in the constancy of AEC adjustment for CR image plates and staff training. Until now, brazilian health authorities did not implement any program to evaluate digital systems performance, but efforts are being done in order to provide guidelines to breast screening aiming the control of breast dose compatible with optimal image quality. (author)

  11. Software to implement the IAEA-TECDOC 1517: quality control in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Mammography quality control is presented; also, guidelines for establishing a quality control program through tests to be performed, equipment, frequencies and tolerances. The work is intended for radiologists, medical physicists and technologists. Also examples of data collection sheets, minimum equipment list and overview of a quality control program are included. Two projects (RLA/9/057 and RLA/9/067) raised the goal of developing a software that allows a simple and effective way to automate the evidence contained in the TECDOC. The V1 is presented in the IRPA 12 (2008), which was tested in some countries to detect problems in their use and include possible improvements. However, the final revised version for distribution in member countries was get in 2010. The way of work on the project is described and who has worked. Also, a complete program, its importance and the projection of the Universidad de Costa Rica to work with the same. (author) [es

  12. Controle de qualidade e artefatos em mamografia Quality control and artifacts in mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Ataliba Caldas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A mamografia, na atualidade, é o método mais efetivo de diagnóstico precoce do câncer de mama. Um exame com alto padrão de qualidade pode visualizar, em 85% a 90% dos casos, um tumor com mais de dois anos de antecedência de ocorrer acometimento ganglionar, em mulheres com mais de 50 anos de idade. A diferença radiográfica entre o tecido normal e o doente é extremamente tênue, logo, a alta qualidade do exame é indispensável para alcançar resolução de alto contraste que permita essa diferenciação. Para alcançar alto padrão é imperativo que o exame mamográfico siga protocolos rígidos e pré-estabelecidos. Os artefatos são defeitos no processamento do filme que comprometem o resultado final da imagem, podendo resultar em informações perdidas ou mascaradas. Há numerosos tipos de artefatos derivados de diversas fontes na aquisição da imagem, como o processador, o desempenho do técnico de radiologia, o mamógrafo ou o paciente, todos resultando na degradação da imagem obtida. O presente artigo tem o objetivo de revisar métodos eficazes no controle de qualidade do exame mamográfico e analisar os artefatos mais importantes na prática diária, com ilustrações e dicas de como evitá-los.Currently, mammography is the most effective method for an early diagnosis of breast cancer. In 85% to 90% of the cases, a high quality mammography allows the visualization of a tumor more than two years before the occurrence of lymph nodes involvement in women over 50 years of age. The radiological appearance of a normal and a sick tissue is very similar, therefore, a high quality of the scan is essential to obtain high contrast resolution to allow distinguishing them. Strict and preestablished protocols must be followed during mammography in order to reach high quality standards. Artifacts are defects occurred during film processing that interfere in the quality of the final image and can result in loss or masked information. Several

  13. Impact of a program of diagnostic imaging quality control in mammography centers of the Federal District, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira; Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN/CNEN-CO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)]. E-mail: rcorrea@cnen.gov.br; Peixoto, Joao Emilio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silver, Lynn Dee [New York Health Department, New York, NY (United States); Dias, Cintia Melazo [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Diplan/CNEN), Braslia, DF (Brazil). Distrito do Planalto Central; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hwang, Suy Ferreira [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating the quality and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education in mammography centers of the Federal District, Brazil. Materials and methods: Forty one mammography centers in the Federal District were studied in the period between 2000 and 2002. The intervention involved an initial inspection followed by a training activity and notification of mammography centers by the Federal District Sanitary Vigilance authority. The imaging quality was compared before and after the intervention. Results: None of the 36 centers which completed the study reached more than 90% compliance with the standard imaging quality prior to the interventions, whereas ten were above 90% afterwards. Major improvements were observed in chassis maintenance, breast compression and visualization of microcalcifications. Conclusion: Despite the availability of a great number of mammography centers in the Federal District, most of them did not meet the required quality standards. The intervention has shown to be effective for improving the imaging quality, however a continued action is required to solve the remaining problems and increase the impact of the program. (author)

  14. Experience with digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Korzhenkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital techniques in mammography has become a last step for completing the process of digitization in diagnostic imaging. It is assumed that such a spatial decision will be required for digital mammography, as well as for high-resolution intensifying screen-film systems used in conventional mammography and that the digital techniques will be limited by the digitizer pixel size on detecting minor structures, such as microcalcifications. The introduction of digital technologies in mammography involves a tight control over an image and assures its high quality.

  15. Situational quality evaluation of mammography services at state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; Avaliacao situacional da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joana, Georgia S.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z., E-mail: georgia.santos@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.cavalcanti@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: adrianac@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.oliveira@saude.mg.gov.b [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Minas Gerais (SVS/SES-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Superintendencia de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Nogueira, Maria do S., E-mail: marcio.alves@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Joao E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Currently, the most effective method for early detection of this cancer is the mammography, and to achieve the standard definition and contrast, the whole system of imaging must operate under optimal conditions. This paper presents the results of the assessment of mammography centers in the state of Minas Gerais, which was held with the aim of supporting the actions of the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography. These results indicated that less than half of mammography achieved the minimum standard of image quality, endorsing the need of a monitoring more efficient and effective, which led to the establishment, in Minas Gerais, of the monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography. (author)

  16. Picture quality in mammography, and interrelation of radiation exposure. Invisible patient care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Takahide; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In these days when there are rumors about medical radiation exposure, it is the greatest keyword which it was inflicted with to radioactive ray's worker to secure radiation exposure reduction. I assume International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BSS (Basic Safety Standards) guidance level, the medical radiation exposure reduction targeted value by JART (Japan Association of Radiological Technologists) a reasonable standard and, besides, must be able to tie equality and high quality medical care to an offer of security for a patient by getting rid of a difference in each institution. In mammography that needs is high in cancer death rate high rank of a woman as a background, authorization engineer system and institution authorization system establish it with a made guideline by a mammography precision management central committee, and not only an offer of a high quality picture depicting a minute mental change caused by a disease but also consideration of radiation exposure with the photography is done. Radiation exposure dose of radioactivity reduction by operation of a picture is nominated for possibility in digital system, but that radiation exposure dose of radioactivity increase than S/F system is felt uneasy about because actually I aim at the institution authorization acquisition. Maintain the high quality picture and to consider radiation exposure reduction are real invisible patient care, and I report the picture quality and interrelation of radiation exposure, and also speak a consideration method of the picture of the always equal tolerance level/tolerance level of the radiation exposure that a gap is not over in each institution. (author)

  17. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets : Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Janine; ten Voorde, Marloes; van Engen, Ruben E.; van Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary; Pijnappel, Ruud; Droogh-de Greve, Kitty; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. Methods: 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have

  18. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets: Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Janine; ten Voorde, Marloes; van Engen, Ruben E.; van Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary; Pijnappel, Ruud; Droogh-de Greve, Kitty; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have one additional image

  19. Evaluation of physical parameters and implementation of quality control in mammography diagnosed for a pilot of breast cancer screening in the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Angulo, Carolina Maria

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of mammography has been to provide the contrast between the lesion and adjacent healthy tissue of the breast. The quality control which should be performed in mammography services is essential to obtain the necessary contrast in mammography and thus achieve a prompt detection of breast lesions. The quality control program has helped to obtain exact diagnosis in mammography and has contributed to reduce mortality from breast cancer in Costa Rica. The Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS) has sought to improve the quality of mammograms performed in the different health centers by implementing quality control programs in the services. The evaluation of the physical parameters has had as aim to perform an assessment of the equipment used in mammography facilities. The image quality, dosimetry, optical density, performance, accuracy and repeatability of voltage applied to the tube, filtration and Half-value layer in system of screen film mammography have been evaluated. The usefulness of quality control programs and needs of the services to implement a pilot plan for breast screening, can be seen when comparing the obtained results. The protocol of Mammography Quality Control, TECDOC 1517 from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is implemented with this project and the associated software in four of the six hospitals evaluated in this study. (author) [es

  20. Assessment of image quality and patient doses in mammography in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, W.E.; Lema, U.S.; Lyimo, R.; Dharsee, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this work was to investigate on pilot scale the potential for optimization of screen-film based mammography practice in Tanzania. Two hospitals participated in the study and were Samaritan (with Siemens unit, model MAMMOMAT 5427901X059) and AgaKhan Medical Centre (with a Philips unit, model MD 4000). Image quality assessment was done by the radiologist at the hospital in two phases each of 2 weeks by scoring the images with assistance of image quality criteria supplied by IAEA. The causes for poor image quality were also identified. A quality assurance (QA) program was then implemented and corrective actions applied based on image quality assessment and equipment performance. In the second phase, image quality assessment was repeated followed by the estimation of entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) on 4.5 cm PMMA. The results show that the magnitude of poor image quality was up to 50% for Siemens in the first phase and decreased up to 30% after implementation of QA programme. With Philips unit, the magnitude of poor image quality was up to 70% and decreased up to 39% after implementation of QA programme. Generally, the main causes of poor images at all hospitals were over and under exposure, artefacts and breast misplacement. Others were unsharpness of skin structure (rosette from pores) along pectoral muscle, unsharpness of vascular structure (seen through most dense parenchyma), media breast tissue, and vessels and fibrous strands, pectoral muscle margin. Major image quality improvement in terms of percentage points were 10 (over or under exposure), 11 (artefacts) and 9 (skin structure (rosettes from pores-visually not sharp). However, the influence of some causes could not be reduced with QA program, presumably due to skill or equipment related reasons. The ESAK was determined to be 7.1 mGy (30 kVp, Mo/Mo) for Siemens and 3.1 mGy (28 kVp, Mo/Mo) for Philips unit. The ESAK values were well below the recommended diagnostic reference level

  1. A review of methods of clinical image quality evaluation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanpeng; Poulos, Ann; McLean, Donald; Rickard, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Consistency in evaluation of mammography images in research and clinical practice is dependent on a standardised clinical image quality evaluation system. Currently two such systems are available-one developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the other by the European Commission (EU guidelines). The purpose of this study was to review mammography clinical evaluation methods in research studies and their adherence to these systems. Method: A total of 23 research articles were reviewed from the period 2000-2006, 11 of these studies used digital images. The focus of the review was the criteria and rating scales used. Results: Only 5 studies used either the ACR (3) or EU guidelines (2). The remainder included aspects of these systems together with a range of other criteria and rating scales. Variation was found in the categories of criteria used, number of criteria, the descriptors of the criteria and the instructions used to evaluate the criteria. Instructions were frequently not specific and open to individual interpretation. Although breast density is an important criterion of image quality and contributes to perception of breast lesions, inclusion of this criterion was not universal, and even when used the area of breast density to be evaluated was not identified, thus enhancing inter-observer variability. Scales that were absolute or relative were used for evaluation, all of which incorporated inconsistent numbers of steps. Conclusion: Low adherence to ACR and EU Guidelines has resulted in considerable variation in the evaluation methods used in research studies. The implications of this variability are considerable both for evaluation of image quality in research outcomes and clinical practice.

  2. Influence of different anode/filter combination on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Liu Peifang; Zhang Lianlian; Ma Wenjuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of different anode/filter combination on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography, so as to choose optimal anode/filter combination to reduce radiation injury without scarifying image quality. Methods: Mammography accredition phantoms with the thickness from 1.6 cm to 8.6 cm were used to simulate human breast tissue. The same exposure conditions, pressure, compression thickness. and different anode/filter combination were employed under the automatic and manual exposure modes. The image kV, mAs, pressure, filter, average glandular dose (ACD), contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were recorded and the figure of merit (FOM) was calculated. SPSS 17.0 and one-way analysis of variance were used in the statistical analysis. Results: As the phantom thickness increase, the ACD values which were acquired with Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, and W/Ag three different anode/filter combinations were increased, but CNR and FOM values were decreased, ACD, CNR, and FOM values which were acquired in the phantom with different thickness, and three different anode/filter combinations were statistically different (P=0.000, respectively). The ACD values of Mo/Mo were lowest. For 1.6 cm-2.6 cm phantom thicknesses, the FOMs of Mo/Rh were lowest, and for 3.6 cm-8.6 cm phantom thicknesses, the FOMs of W/Ag were lowest. Conclusion: Phantom thickness in 1.6 cm-2.6 cm and 3.6 cm-8.6 cm. Mo/Rh combination and W/Ag combination respectively can achieve the highest FOM, and can provide the best imaging quality with low radiation dose. (authors)

  3. Correlation study of effect of additional filter on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Liu Peifang; Wang Hongbin; Zhang Shuping; Liu Xueou

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of different additional filters on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography. Methods: Hologic company's Selenia digital mammography machine and the post-processing workstations and 5 M high resolution medical monitor were used in this study. Mammography phantoms with the thickness from 1.6 cm to 8.6 cm were used to simulate human breast tissue. The same exposure conditions, pressure, compression thickness, the anode were employed with the additional filters of Mo and Rh under the automatic and manual exposure mode. The image kV, mAs, pressure, filter, average glandular dose (AGD), entrance surface dose (ESD), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image score according to ACR criteria were recorded for the two additional filters. Paired sample t test was performed to compare the indices of Mo and Rh groups by using SPSS 17.0. Results: AGD and ESD of Rh and Mo group were both higher with the increase of the thickness of all the phantoms. AGD, ESD and their increased value of Rh filter(1.484 ± 1.041, 7.969 ± 7.633, 0.423 ± 0.190 and 3.057 ± 2.139) were lower than those of Mo filter (1.915 ± 1.301, 12.516 ± 11.632, 0.539 ±0.246 and 4.731 ± 3.294), in all the phantoms with different thickness (t values were 4.614, 3.209, 3.396 and 3.605, P<0.05). SNR, CNR, and image score of Rh and Mo group both decreased with the increase of the thickness of all the phantoms. There were no statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusions: Compared with Mo filter, Rh filter could reduce the radiation dose, and this advantage is more obvious in the thicker phantom when the same image quality is required. (authors)

  4. Image quality of mammography in Croatian nationwide screening program: Comparison between various types of facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brnić, Zoran; Blašković, Darko; Klasić, Branimir; Ramač, Jelena Popić; Flegarić-Bradić, Mirjana; Štimac, Damir; Lubina, Ivan Zvonimir; Brnić, Vedran; Faj, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study was aimed to provide objective evidence about the mammographic image quality in Croatia, to compare it between different types of MG facilities and to identify the most common deficiencies and possible reasons as well as the steps needed to improve image quality. Materials and methods: A total of 420 mammographic examinations collected from 84 mammographic units participating in the Croatian nationwide breast cancer screening program were reviewed in terms of four image quality categories: identification of patient and examination, breast positioning and compression, exposure and contrast, and artifacts. Those were rated using image evaluating system based on American College of Radiology and European Commission proposals. The results were compared among different types of mammographic units, and common image quality deficiencies were identified. Results: Total image quality scores of 12.8, 16.1, 13.0 and 13.7 were found for general hospitals, university hospitals, private clinics and public healthcare centres, respectively. Average score for all mammographic units was 13.5 (out of 25 points). University hospitals were significantly better than all other mammography units in overall image quality, which was mostly contributed by better breast positioning practices. Private clinics showed the worst results in identification, exposure, contrast and artifacts. Conclusions: Serious deficiencies in identification and breast positioning, which might compromise breast cancer screening outcome, were detected in our material. They occur mainly due to subjective reasons and could be corrected through additional staff training and improvement of working discipline.

  5. Design and Construction of a Test Phantom for Screen/Film Mammography Quality Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, Hector; Grabski, Varlen; Ruiz, Cesar; Brandan, Maria-Ester; Villasenor, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    A 10 x 10 x 4 cm Lucite phantom for quality control tests in mammography has been designed and built. It contains internal elements to quantify contrast and resolution, a mixture of talc and Lucite fibers to simulate the breast architecture, a 9-step aluminum wedge to verify the constancy of the film developing process, and metallic foils to evaluate kVp. Associated with an ionization chamber, the mean glandular dose can be evaluated. Its performance has been compared against the phantom accredited by the American College of Radiology. For a series of kV, both phantoms OD are similar within 5%. The step wedge can detect developer temperature changes of ±1 deg. C. Relative metal foils/acrylic OD permits to calculate kVp with precision of ±0.43 kV. Radiological measurements have been interpreted by numerical calculations

  6. Image quality and dose in mammography in 17 countries in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe: Results from IAEA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Avramova-Cholakova, Simona; Beganovic, Adnan; Economides, Sotirios; Faj, Dario; Gershan, Vesna; Grupetta, Edward; Kharita, M.H.; Milakovic, Milomir; Milu, Constantin; Muhogora, Wilbroad E.; Muthuvelu, Pirunthavany; Oola, Samuel; Setayeshi, Saeid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective is to study mammography practice from an optimisation point of view by assessing the impact of simple and immediately implementable corrective actions on image quality. Materials and methods: This prospective multinational study included 54 mammography units in 17 countries. More than 21,000 mammography images were evaluated using a three-level image quality scoring system. Following initial assessment, appropriate corrective actions were implemented and image quality was re-assessed in 24 units. Results: The fraction of images that were considered acceptable without any remark in the first phase (before the implementation of corrective actions) was 70% and 75% for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique projections, respectively. The main causes for poor image quality before corrective actions were related to film processing, damaged or scratched image receptors, or film-screen combinations that are not spectrally matched, inappropriate radiographic techniques and lack of training. Average glandular dose to a standard breast was 1.5 mGy (mean and range 0.59–3.2 mGy). After optimisation the frequency of poor quality images decreased, but the relative contributions of the various causes remained similar. Image quality improvements following appropriate corrective actions were up to 50 percentage points in some facilities. Conclusions: Poor image quality is a major source of unnecessary radiation dose to the breast. An increased awareness of good quality mammograms is of particular importance for countries that are moving towards introduction of population-based screening programmes. The study demonstrated how simple and low-cost measures can be a valuable tool in improving of image quality in mammography

  7. Impact on dose and image quality of a software-based scatter correction in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Teresa; Prieto, Elena; Barbés, Benigno; Pina, Luis; Elizalde, Arlette; Fernández, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2014, Siemens developed a new software-based scatter correction (Progressive Reconstruction Intelligently Minimizing Exposure [PRIME]), enabling grid-less digital mammography. Purpose To compare doses and image quality between PRIME (grid-less) and standard (with anti-scatter grid) modes. Material and Methods Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured for various polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thicknesses and dose values provided by the mammograph were recorded. CDMAM phantom images were acquired for various PMMA thicknesses and inverse Image Quality Figure (IQF inv ) was calculated. Values of incident entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and average glandular dose (AGD) were obtained from the DICOM header for a total of 1088 pairs of clinical cases. Two experienced radiologists compared subjectively the image quality of a total of 149 pairs of clinical cases. Results CNR values were higher and doses were lower in PRIME mode for all thicknesses. IQF inv values in PRIME mode were lower for all thicknesses except for 40 mm of PMMA equivalent, in which IQF inv was slightly greater in PRIME mode. A mean reduction of 10% in ESAK and 12% in AGD in PRIME mode with respect to standard mode was obtained. The clinical image quality in PRIME and standard acquisitions resulted to be similar in most of the cases (84% for the first radiologist and 67% for the second one). Conclusion The use of PRIME software reduces, in average, the dose of radiation to the breast without affecting image quality. This reduction is greater for thinner and denser breasts.

  8. Digital mammography--DQE versus optimized image quality in clinical environment: an on site study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Nadia; Fracchetti, Alessandro; Springeth, Margareth; Moroder, Ehrenfried

    2010-04-01

    The intrinsic quality of the detection system of 7 different digital mammography units (5 direct radiography DR; 2 computed radiography CR), expressed by DQE, has been compared with their image quality/dose performances in clinical use. DQE measurements followed IEC 62220-1-2 using a tungsten test object for MTF determination. For image quality assessment two different methods have been applied: 1) measurement of contrast to noise ratio (CNR) according to the European guidelines and 2) contrast-detail (CD) evaluation. The latter was carried out with the phantom CDMAM ver. 3.4 and the commercial software CDMAM Analyser ver. 1.1 (both Artinis) for automated image analysis. The overall image quality index IQFinv proposed by the software has been validated. Correspondence between the two methods has been shown figuring out a linear correlation between CNR and IQFinv. All systems were optimized with respect to image quality and average glandular dose (AGD) within the constraints of automatic exposure control (AEC). For each equipment, a good image quality level was defined by means of CD analysis, and the corresponding CNR value considered as target value. The goal was to achieve for different PMMA-phantom thicknesses constant image quality, that means the CNR target value, at minimum dose. All DR systems exhibited higher DQE and significantly better image quality compared to CR systems. Generally switching, where available, to a target/filter combination with an x-ray spectrum of higher mean energy permitted dose savings at equal image quality. However, several systems did not allow to modify the AEC in order to apply optimal radiographic technique in clinical use. The best ratio image quality/dose was achieved by a unit with a-Se detector and W anode only recently available on the market.

  9. Image Quality and Radiation Dose Assessment of a Digital Mammography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, N. M.; Hassan, W. M. S. W.; Abdullah, W. A. K. W.; Othman, F.; Ramli, A. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Image quality and radiation dose of a direct amorphous selenium digital mammography system were considered in terms of contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and average glandular dose (AGD). They were measured for various qualities and breast phantom thicknesses with different types of breast tissue composition to determine optimal radiation quality and dose. Three sets of breast tissue equivalent slabs (30%:70%, 50%:50% and 70%:30% glandular-adipose) with thickness of 2 cm to 7 cm and 0.2 mm aluminum foil were used to provide certain CNR. Two different combinations of anode/ilter material and a wide range of tube voltages were employed for each phantom thickness. Phantom images with grid were acquired using automatic exposure control (AEC) mode for each thickness. Phantom images without grid were also obtained in manual exposure mode by selecting the same anode/filter combination and kVp as the image obtained with grid at the same thickness, but varying mAs of 10 to 200 mAs. Optimization indicated that relatively high energy beam qualities should be used with a greater dose to compensate for lower energy x-rays. The results also indicate that current AEC setting for a fixed detector is not optimal.

  10. Feasibility study on an integrated AEC-grid device for the optimization of image quality and exposure dose in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Tae; Yun, Ryang-Young; Han, Moo-Jae; Heo, Ye-Ji; Song, Yong-Keun; Heo, Sung-Wook; Oh, Kyeong-Min; Park, Sung-Kwang

    2017-10-01

    Currently, in the radiation diagnosis field, mammography is used for the early detection of breast cancer. In addition, studies are being conducted on a grid to produce high-quality images. Although the grid ratio of the grid, which affects the scattering removal rate, must be increased to improve image quality, it increases the total exposure dose. While the use of automatic exposure control is recommended to minimize this problem, existing mammography equipment, unlike general radiography equipment, is mounted on the back of a detector. Therefore, the device is greatly affected by the detector and supporting device, and it is difficult to control the exposure dose. Accordingly, in this research, an integrated AEC-grid device that simultaneously performs AEC and grid functions was used to minimize the unnecessary exposure dose while removing scattering, thereby realizing superior image quality.

  11. Dose reduction in mammography as a consequence of quality assurance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staniszewska, M. A.; Jankowski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Mammography became one of more frequent radiological examinations in the most of European countries. This is accepted as a sensitive method for detection of early breast cancers. On the other hand, this is the special imaging technique, where reliability of result is strongly influenced by technical conditions. Hence, the exposure parameters should have been chosen in dependence on image recording system. In opposite, an informative quality of the produced image is not sufficient for a true clinical diagnosis. Thus, optimisation of the practice is not achieved and a benefit for patient is none. Implementation of Quality Assurance programme can prevent the situation: systematic quality control of mammographic x-ray units allows finding the technical and methodological incorrectness. If these findings are followed by the appropriate remedial actions, the main aim will be achieved, i.e. good quality of image with reasonable low doses to patients. This approach was verified on 15 mammographic units in Lodz, covered by full cycle of quality control programme. Doses were measured during CC projection for over 100 patients. Quality of image was evaluated for RMI 156 accreditation phantom as a standard object. The main technical incorrectness was found for automatic exposure control system, and especially for compensation of object thickness. The available remedial actions allowed reducing the doses to patients by 21% (on average). Additionally, after the remedial action quality of phantom image was found better for 3 facilities where primary had been below the acceptance level. The main points of Quality Assurance programme are available for most of x-ray diagnostic facilities and should have been obligatory. (authors)

  12. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM format

  13. Influence of different exposure modes on image quality and radiation dose in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Wang Xia; Li Xiaokang; Liu Peifang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different exposure modes on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography, and to explore how to reduce patient's radiation injury by choosing proper exposure mode and exposure conditions without sacrifice image quality. Methods: A breast phantom was exposed by using automatic exposure mode (60 mAs, 28 k/V) and manual exposure modes (37.5 to 70 mAs range, 24 to 32 kV range) respectively. Same oppression thickness and pressure were set for all modes. The average glandular dose (AGD), entrance surface dose (ESD), and image quality score according to American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria were recorded for each image. Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the image quality scores between automatic and manual modes. All statistic analyses were performed by using SPSS17.0. Results: Compared to automatic exposure mode (60 mAs, 28 k/V), the overall score of image quality of manual modes (45 to 70 mAs range, 26 to 32 kV range) had no significant difference. Both ESD and ACD decreased 26.1% and increased 15.4% when the tube loading was changed from 60 mAs to 45 mAs and 70 mAs respectively. The ESD and ACD decreased 22.6%, 28.2% and increased 47.0%, 62.7% when the tube voltage was changed from 28 kV to 26 kV and 32 kV respectively. Conclusion: When the image quality reaches to a certain level, it will not be raised by a higher photographic condition. Without sacrifice image quality, the tube loading and tube voltage can be manually decreased to reduce radiation dose. (authors)

  14. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubiak, R R; Gamba, H R; Neves, E B; Peixoto, J E

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in both

  15. Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography: Modality-Specific Artifacts and Other Factors Which May Interfere with Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Chandni; Li, Luna; Liao, Lydia; Roth, Robyn G; Tinney, Elizabeth; Germaine, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) uses full field digital mammography with the added benefit of intravenous contrast administration to significantly reduce false-positive and false-negative results and improve specificity while maintaining high sensitivity. For CESM to fulfill its purpose, one should be aware of possible artifacts and other factors which may interfere with image quality, and attention should be taken to minimize these factors. This pictorial demonstration will depict types of artifacts detected and other factors that interfere with image acquisition in our practice since CESM implementation. Many of the artifacts and other factors we have encountered while using CESM have simple solutions to resolve them. The illustrated artifacts and other factors interfering with image quality will serve as a useful reference to anyone using CESM. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil; Impacto de um programa de avaliacao da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira

    2002-07-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless

  17. A study on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Kim, Hak Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Huh, Joon

    2002-01-01

    We came to the following conclusion as the results of experiment on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose using 4 apparatuses at 3 hospital in Seoul. Whereas the measurement of half value layer showed no differences among the apparatuses, the measurement by an attenuation curve method showed some differences by 5.9%. There were 9.1% differences in the measurement by aluminum conversion method. The basic density of an automatic exposure control unit must be D = 1.40, but there was no automatic exposure unit adjusted precisely at any hospital. The unit at the B hospital exceeded the allowable limit by ± 0.15. In the photographing using an automatic exposure control unit and the management of an automatic film processor using a sensitometer, most automatic film processors were well kept. But in some cases the mean value of a fluctuation coefficient exceeded the allowable limit. There is a need for more cautious management. The image quality of breast phantom photography was affected by the screen/film system among the hospital. The average glandular dose at a breast of 4.2 cm thickness depended on the tube voltage, In the case of Mo/Mo, it was measured 0.26 ∼ 1.39 mGy less than ACR standard 3.0 mGy

  18. Defects of a mammography quality control phantom visualized by synchrotron radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Keiko; Fukuda, Mamoru; Ehara, Norishige; Miyamoto, Keiko; Kanemaki, Yoshihide; Ogata, Haruki; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging of an RMI 156 mammography quality control phantom, serial number 156-15330, revealed some defects which degraded the visibility of calcification specks. SR imaging was performed at SPring-8, in Harima, Japan by using a monochromatic energy of 20 keV with a field-of-view of 24 X 24 mm. Different kinds of images were obtained by changing sample-to-detector distances; absorption images and refraction-enhanced images. Specks were embedded in a wax matrix and were imaged as black in an absorption image. In a refraction-enhanced image, they were imaged as a black region with white margins. Foreign objects with opposite contrast were detected near, or overlapped with, some specks. As they were depicted as white in the absorption image and as white with a black margin in the refraction-enhanced image, it seemed that they had low X-ray attenuation and a low refraction index compared with the surrounding wax. They might presumable be air bubbles. Visibility of specks in an absorption image was seriously interfered with when those object(s) overlapped with specks. This kind of defect may cause a difficulty in meeting quality assurance specifications when a facility inadvertently purchases defective phantoms. (author)

  19. Quality controls in two mammography of the Institute of Oncology Angel H. Roffo - C.A.B.A - Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirchio, R.; Sánchez, H.; Lerman, Y.; Ángel H. Roffo, Av. San Martín 5481 - C1417DTO, C.A.B.A, Buenos Aires (Argentina))" data-affiliation=" (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Oncología Ángel H. Roffo, Av. San Martín 5481 - C1417DTO, C.A.B.A, Buenos Aires (Argentina))" >Casal, M.

    2013-01-01

    National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) under the Technical Cooperation Project with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) “ARG/6/013 Implementing a Dosimetric System in Diagnostic Radiology to Minimize Doses Received by Patients” for the biennium 2012-2013, is carrying on courses for physicians, technicians and physicist working on radiodiagnost and studies about quality control in mammography equipment. The goal of this project is minimizing the dose received by patients who undergo diagnostic studies X-rays. The first controls were performed at the Institute of Oncology Angel H. Roffo of C.A.B.A – Buenos Aires. The mammographs used were: the digital FujiFilm Amulet and ther hybrid General Electric (GE) Senographe DMR, out of order. The latter was used to adjust protocols and equipment. Quality controls of mamography equipments were done according to the following IAEA documents: Technical Reports Series (TRS) N° 457, Technical Document (TECDOC) -1517 and IAEA Human Health Series N° 17. Among the checks performed are mentioned: mechanical (visual inspection), compression, compression thickness, mean glandular dose for Mo-Mo 28 kV and Mo-Rh 28 kV, repeatability and linearity, half-value layer, accuracy and repeatability voltage, leakage radiation and focus- tray distance. The Radcal calibrated equipment, used for the measurements was provided by the IAEA as part of the project. They are: reader, chamber for mammography, chamber for leakage, voltage meter and other elements such as aluminum plates. In addition, dosimeters TLDs rods 700 and 200 of the Personal Dosimetry Laboratory - CNEA, and dosimetry films of the Medical University - Personal Dosimetry Laboratory and Radiological Protection - were calibrated in the GE mammograph in Mo-Mo for the incident air kerma values of 2.28, 4.58, 6.38, 9.15, 10.96, 14.71 and 18.34 mGy. For both TLDs dosemeters, the effective energy response has been studied for: 14.4, 15, 15.4, 15.7 y 16.1 kev

  20. An alternative method for noise analysis using pixel variance as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, R; Broeders, M; Van Engen, R; Young, K; Lazzari, B; Ravaglia, V

    2009-01-01

    According to the European Guidelines for quality assured breast cancer screening and diagnosis, noise analysis is one of the measurements that needs to be performed as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems. However, the method recommended in the European Guidelines does not discriminate sufficiently between systems with and without additional noise besides quantum noise. This paper attempts to give an alternative and relatively simple method for noise analysis which can divide noise into electronic noise, structured noise and quantum noise. Quantum noise needs to be the dominant noise source in clinical images for optimal performance of a digital mammography system, and therefore the amount of electronic and structured noise should be minimal. For several digital mammography systems, the noise was separated into components based on the measured pixel value, standard deviation (SD) of the image and the detector entrance dose. The results showed that differences between systems exist. Our findings confirm that the proposed method is able to discriminate systems based on their noise performance and is able to detect possible quality problems. Therefore, we suggest to replace the current method for noise analysis as described in the European Guidelines by the alternative method described in this paper.

  1. Computation of beam quality parameters for Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh, and W/Al target/filter combinations in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrati, Hedi; Zarrad, Boubaker

    2003-01-01

    A computer program was implemented to predict mammography x-ray beam parameters in the range 20-40 kV for Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh, and W/Al target/filter combinations. The computation method used to simulate mammography x-ray spectra is based on the Boone et al. model. The beam quality parameters such as the half-value layer (HVL), the homogeneity coefficient (HC), and the average photon energy were computed by simulating the interaction of the spectrum photons with matter. The checking of this computation was done using a comparison of the results with published data and measured values obtained at the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and International Atomic Energy Agency. The predicted values with a mean deviation of 3.3% of HVL, 3.7% of HC, and 1.5% of average photon energy show acceptable agreement with published data and measurements for all target/filter combinations in the 23-40 kV range. The accuracy of this computation can be considered clinically acceptable and can allow an appreciable estimation for the beam quality parameters

  2. Indicators of image quality and doses in mammography; Indicadores de calidad de imagen y dosis en mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G. [UAM-X, Calz. del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J.; Diaz G, J.A.I. [CICATA-IPN, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Arreola, M. [Shands Hospital at UF, PO Box 100374, Gainesville FL 32610-0374 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The purpose of the study was to determine the values of the image quality indicators and their relationship with the dose in mammography of screen-film that they allowed the detection of a bigger number of objects in the images obtained with the mannequin (phantom) authorized of the ACR/FDA. The study was carried out in four mammography services in a period of 12 months. The indicators of the image quality are the half optic density (DOM), contrast (differences of densities), the number of observed objects in the images and the dose for image. The minimum acceptable values by the ACR/FDA are a half optical density of 1.4, contrast of 0.4 and the one numbers minimum of objects observed in the image of the mannequin of mammography of 10 (4 fibers, 3 groups of calcifications and 3 masses), with a maximum dose by image of 3 mGy. The found results are half optical density of 1.9, contrast of 0.56 and the average number of objects observed in the images of 12, with a dose in the interval of 1.6 mGy to 2.4 mGy. The doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimetry and ionization chamber. Once carried out the analysis of the tendencies of the indicators of image quality and their distributions is found that for a p < 0.05, the bigger number of objects observed in the images is in the interval from 1.8 to 1.9 of DOM. When comparing both mammography system, the system screen-film has a lower variability in the distribution of objects associated to a DOM. (Author)

  3. A comparison of digital and screen-film mammography using quality control phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undrill, Peter E.; O'Kane, Arlene D.; Gilbert, Fiona J.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To compare the performance of a direct digital mammography system with normal-view and magnified-view conventional screen-film methods using quality control phantoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a Siemens Mammomat [reg] 3000 and an Opdima [reg] digital spot imaging and biopsy attachment, film and direct digital images of two phantoms [DuPont and TOR (MAM)] were obtained under normal operating conditions. These were assessed by three groups of observers with differing expertise -- radiologists, radiographers and medical physicists. Each observer was asked to compare the direct digital image with films taken in standard view and magnified view, providing scores for object visibility and confidence. For the digital images, observers were allowed to vary the image presentation parameters. RESULTS: Both phantoms showed that overall the direct digital view and the magnified view film performed significantly better (P < 0.05) than standard view film. For certain small or low contrast objects the differences became very highly significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Only the TOR (MAM) phantom showed any significant difference between digital and magnified modalities, with magnified views performing better for fine, faint filaments and digital acquisition better for low contrast objects. Almost no difference existed between the three observer groups. Undrill, P.E. (2000). Clinical Radiology 53, 782-790

  4. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  5. Mammography: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions (National Cancer Institute) Mammography for Women with Breast Implants (American Cancer Society) Also in Spanish Mammography: What You Need to Know (Food and Drug Administration) Nipple Aspirate Test Is ... Specifics Breast Tomosynthesis (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of ...

  6. Assessment of automatic exposure control performance in digital mammography using a no-reference anisotropic quality index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Bruno; Borges, Lucas R.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.; Schiabel, Homero; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) is used in mammography to obtain acceptable radiation dose and adequate image quality regardless of breast thickness and composition. Although there are physics methods for assessing the AEC, it is not clear whether mammography systems operate with optimal dose and image quality in clinical practice. In this work, we propose the use of a normalized anisotropic quality index (NAQI), validated in previous studies, to evaluate the quality of mammograms acquired using AEC. The authors used a clinical dataset that consists of 561 patients and 1,046 mammograms (craniocaudal breast views). The results show that image quality is often maintained, even at various radiation levels (mean NAQI = 0.14 +/- 0.02). However, a more careful analysis of NAQI reveals that the average image quality decreases as breast thickness increases. The NAQI is reduced by 32% on average, when the breast thickness increases from 31 to 71 mm. NAQI also decreases with lower breast density. The variation in breast parenchyma alone cannot fully account for the decrease of NAQI with thickness. Examination of images shows that images of large, fatty breasts are often inadequately processed. This work shows that NAQI can be applied in clinical mammograms to assess mammographic image quality, and highlights the limitations of the automatic exposure control for some images.

  7. Image quality and patient exposure in mammography, tomography, angiography, and bone radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, A.G.; Rossmann, K.; Doi, K.; Chiles, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    In diagnostic radiology, the physical factors affecting image quality and patient exposure are complex and must be studied for each individual procedure. They are a function of recording system unsharpness, geometric unsharpness, image noise, and of the shape, size, and absorption properties of the anatomic part radiographed and the lesion to be detected. The choice of recording system has a significant effect on image quality, and the speed of the recording system is directly related to patient exposure for each procedure. In this presentation, the complexities involved in the selection of recording systems for four radiologic procedures are discussed. We describe in detail our most recent work on mammography with the Lo-Dose system, whereby a significant reduction in exposure may not reduce, but may even increase the diagnostic accuracy by reducing geometric unsharpness. We also describe several examples: (a) in tomography, image resolution is not decreased and diagnostic certainty is affected by a change from a medium-speed screen to a high-speed screen recording system (patient exposure is reduced by a factor of 2); (b) in fine-detail skeletal radiography, the diagnostic information is increased significantly by a change from a conventional screen-film technique to a non-screen technique with fine-grain film and optical magnification, but at the cost of increased patient exposure; and (c) in cerebral angiography, diagnostic information can be increased by use of a screen-film recording system of higher resolution, but lower speed for imaging of small blood vessels. Modulation Transfer Functions and clinical examples are used to illustrate each procedure. (U.S.)

  8. Image quality and patient exposure in mammography, tomography, angiography and bone radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, A.G.; Rossmann, K.; Doi, K.; Chiles, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    In diagnostic radiology, the physical factors affecting image quality and patient exposure are complex and must be studied for each individual procedure. They are a function of recording system unsharpness, geometric unsharpness, image noise, and of the shape, size, and absorption properties of the anatomic part radiographed and the lesion to be detected. The choice of recording system has a significant effect on image quality, and the speed of the recording system is directly related to patient exposure for each procedure. This paper discusses the complexities involved in the selection of recording systems for four radiologic procedures. The authors describe in detail their most recent work on mammography with the Lo-Dose system, whereby a significant reduction in exposure may not reduce, but may even increase, the diagnostic accuracy by reducing geometric unsharpness. We also describe several examples: (a) in tomography, image resolution is not decreased and diagnostic certainty is affected by a change from a medium-speed screen to a high-speed screen recording system (patient exposure is reduced by a factor of 2); (b) in fine-detail skeletal radiography, the diagnostic information is increased significantly by a change from a conventional screen-film technique to a non-screen technique with fine-grain film and optical magnification, but at the cost of increased patient exposure; and (c) in cerebral angiography, diagnostic information can be increased by use of a screen-film recording system of higher resolution, but lower speed for imaging of small blood vessels. Modulation transfer functions and clinical examples are used to illustrate each procedure. (author)

  9. Evaluation of low-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography images by comparing them to full-field digital mammography using EUREF image quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalji, U C; Jeukens, C R L P N; Houben, I; Nelemans, P J; van Engen, R E; van Wylick, E; Beets-Tan, R G H; Wildberger, J E; Paulis, L E; Lobbes, M B I

    2015-10-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) examination results in a low-energy (LE) and contrast-enhanced image. The LE appears similar to a full-field digital mammogram (FFDM). Our aim was to evaluate LE CESM image quality by comparing it to FFDM using criteria defined by the European Reference Organization for Quality Assured Breast Screening and Diagnostic Services (EUREF). A total of 147 cases with both FFDM and LE images were independently scored by two experienced radiologists using these (20) EUREF criteria. Contrast detail measurements were performed using a dedicated phantom. Differences in image quality scores, average glandular dose, and contrast detail measurements between LE and FFDM were tested for statistical significance. No significant differences in image quality scores were observed between LE and FFDM images for 17 out of 20 criteria. LE scored significantly lower on one criterion regarding the sharpness of the pectoral muscle (p < 0.001), and significantly better on two criteria on the visualization of micro-calcifications (p = 0.02 and p = 0.034). Dose and contrast detail measurements did not reveal any physical explanation for these observed differences. Low-energy CESM images are non-inferior to FFDM images. From this perspective FFDM can be omitted in patients with an indication for CESM. • Low-energy CESM images are non-inferior to FFDM images. • Micro-calcifications are significantly more visible on LE CESM than on FFDM. • There is no physical explanation for this improved visibility of micro-calcifications. • There is no need for an extra FFDM when CESM is indicated.

  10. Screening mammography. A missed clinical opportunity? Results of the NCI [National Cancer Institute] Breast Cancer Screening Consortium and national health interview survey studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Data from seven studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) were used to determine current rates of breast cancer screening and to identify the characteristics of and reasons for women not being screened. All seven studies were population-based surveys of women aged 50 to 74 years without breast cancer. While over 90% of non-Hispanic white respondents had regular sources of medical care, 46% to 76% had a clinical breast examination within the previous year, and only 25% to 41% had a mammogram. Less educated and poorer women had fewer mammograms. The two most common reasons women gave for never having had a mammogram were that they did not known they needed it and that their physician had not recommended it. Many physicians may have overlooked the opportunity to recommend mammography for older women when performing a clinical breast examination and to educate their patients about the benefit of screening mammography

  11. Heterogeneity in mammography use across the nation: separating evidence of disparities from the disproportionate effects of geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Laurel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammography is essential for early detection of breast cancer and both reduced morbidity and increased survival among breast cancer victims. Utilization is lower than national guidelines, and evidence of a recent decline in mammography use has sparked concern. We demonstrate that regression models estimated over pooled samples of heterogeneous states may provide misleading information regarding predictors of health care utilization and that comprehensive cancer control efforts should focus on understanding these differences and underlying causal factors. Our study population includes all women over age 64 with breast cancer in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER cancer registries, linked to a nationally representative 5% reference sample of Medicare-eligible women located in 11 states that span all census regions and are heterogeneous in racial and ethnic mix. Combining women with and without cancer in the sample allows assessment of previous cancer diagnosis on propensity to use mammography. Our conceptual model recognizes the interplay between individual, social, cultural, and physical environments along the pathways to health care utilization, while delineating local and more distant levels of influence among contextual variables. In regression modeling, we assess individual-level effects, direct effects of contextual factors, and interaction effects between individual and contextual factors. Results Pooling all women across states leads to quite different conclusions than state-specific models. Commuter intensity, community acculturation, and community elderly impoverishment have significant direct impacts on mammography use which vary across states. Minorities living in isolated enclaves with others of the same race/ethnicity may be either advantaged or disadvantaged, depending upon the place studied. Conclusion Careful analysis of place-specific context is essential for understanding differences across

  12. Quality evaluation of mammography systems: identification of the best region by the transfer function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiabel, H.; Frere, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of mammography systems behaviour, using the conventional analysis method of transfer function is discussed. An investigation for evaluating the behaviour of modulation transfer function on several direction of orifices in the radiation field is also presented. (C.G.C.)

  13. Development of special ionization chambers for a quality control program in mammography; Desenvolvimento de camaras de ionizacao especiais para controle de qualidade em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonas Oliveira da

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is an imaging method that uses X-rays. The use of ionization chambers in mammography quality control programs presents an essential role which is to verify whether the parameters of the patient exposure are correct. However, the commercial ionization chambers for dosimetry in mammography represent a high cost for small and medium size clinics that wish to have this equipment or for professionals that work with quality control programs. The innovative feature of this work was to develop ionization chambers for this purpose. In this work ionization chambers for X radiation beams in the mammography energy range were designed, constructed and characterized. The ionization chambers were tested in standard X radiation beams at the LCI/IPEN. The main characterization tests performed with the ionization chambers were: saturation curve, linearity of response, angular and energy dependence. The response stability tests of the ionization chambers were also conducted at the LCI, presenting results within 2.0 % for long-term stability. The results of the remaining tests are in accordance with international standards. These ionization chambers were also submitted to quality control tests of mammography equipment: linearity of the air kerma rates, determination of half-value layers and mean glandular doses. The results for air kerma rate linearity were less than 10 %, as recommended in international standards. The mean glandular dose obtained with the developed chambers presented values comparable to those of commercial ionization chambers tested, with an estimated variation within international standards. (author)

  14. The quality of tumor size assessment by contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and the benefit of additional breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbes, Marc B I; Lalji, Ulrich C; Nelemans, Patty J; Houben, Ivo; Smidt, Marjolein L; Heuts, Esther; de Vries, Bart; Wildberger, Joachim E; Beets-Tan, Regina G

    2015-01-01

    Background - Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a promising new breast imaging modality that is superior to conventional mammography for breast cancer detection. We aimed to evaluate correlation and agreement of tumor size measurements using CESM. As additional analysis, we evaluated whether measurements using an additional breast MRI exam would yield more accurate results. Methods - Between January 1(st) 2013 and April 1(st) 2014, 87 consecutive breast cancer cases that underwent CESM were collected and data on maximum tumor size measurements were gathered. In 57 cases, tumor size measurements were also available for breast MRI. Histopathological results of the surgical specimen served as gold standard in all cases. Results - The Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC) of CESM versus histopathology and breast MRI versus histopathology were all >0.9, p1 cm between the two imaging modalities and histopathological results, we did not observe any advantage of performing an additional breast MRI after CESM in any of the cases. Conclusion - Quality of tumor size measurement using CESM is good and matches the quality of these measurement assessed by breast MRI. Additional measurements using breast MRI did not improve the quality of tumor size measurements.

  15. Use of different simulators to quality evaluation of image quality in digital mammography; Utilizacao de diferentes simuladores na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Leslie S.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: leslie@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Luis A.G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com, E-mail: cea71@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the digital images were acquired with different exposure simulators to evaluate the quality of the image, noting the tumor mass detection, microcalcification fiber and representing regions of interest during mammography. The technical parameters of exposure depends on the thickness and composition of the breast, thus affecting the dose and image quality. The simulators were used: ACR, SBP 1054, BREAST PHANTOM CIRS and for evaluation of image quality, as well as measures kerma incident on the entrance surface (Ki) and calculating the mean glandular dose (MGD)

  16. Estimate of average glandular dose (AGD) in national clinics of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Segura, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The breast cancer represents the second cause of death by cancer in the femme population of our country. The specialized equipment for the obtaining of the mammographic images is higher every day and its use increases daily. The quality of the radiographic study is linked to the dose that this tissue intrinsically sensible receives to the ionizing radiations. The present work makes the first national study to quantify the average glandular doses and to connect them with the diagnostic quality and the recommendations to international scale. (Author) [es

  17. Studies of dose optimization and image quality in technological transition in mammography; Estudos de otimizacao de dose e qualidade de imagem em processos de transicao tecnologica em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Tania C.; Nersissian, Denise Y., E-mail: tfurquim@iee.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2011-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies in mammography may improve image quality; however, it may unnecessarily increase doses if optimization processes are not studied. In this work, radiation doses of the moment of transition of conventional to digital mammography have been analyzed. The presented data have been acquired from 2005 to 2009, in hospitals and clinics of Sao Paulo city, to 4 conventional and 5 digital equipment. The results show that even after optimization processes, new technologies still impart higher doses. Thus, individualized studies are needed when technological transitions occur, in order to maintain image quality without significant dose increase. (author)

  18. Should processed or raw image data be used in mammographic image quality analyses? A comparative study of three full-field digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Mark; Badr, Ishmail; Royle, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare a number of measured image quality parameters using processed and unprocessed or raw images in two full-field direct digital units and one computed radiography mammography system. This study shows that the difference between raw and processed image data is system specific. The results have shown that there are no significant differences between raw and processed data in the mean threshold contrast values using the contrast-detail mammography phantom in all the systems investigated; however, these results cannot be generalised to all available systems. Notable differences were noted in contrast-to-noise ratios and in other tests including: response function, modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, normalised noise power spectra and detective quantum efficiency as specified in IEC 62220-1-2. Consequently, the authors strongly recommend the use of raw data for all image quality analyses in digital mammography. (authors)

  19. Ultrasonic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueneke, B.

    1982-01-01

    608 women are examined by means of ultrasonic mammography during the period of 1 year. 432 patients were examined with the compound method with the U.I. Octoson, a water tank scanner, and 176 patients with the real time method with a directly connected linear-array-scanner. The following results were obtained at the end of the examination period: In the ultrasonic and also in the X-ray mammogram tumour diameters can be determined with an error rate of +- 30%. In the diagnosing of carcinomas, a significant dependence of the exactness on the sice of the tumour is found for the combination of the five methods tested (clinical examination, X-ray mammography, ultrasonic mammography, thermography, cytology). Classifying the individual methods with regard to their exactness, X-ray mammography ranks in front of ultrasonic mammography. Mastopathic changes in the breast can be screened by means of ultrasonic mammography. The structure of the changes can be determined more exactly than with an X-ray picture which is due to the possibility of differentiating solid and cystic structures. In diagnosing fibro-adenomas and establishing diagnoses on young women with dense gland bodies, ultrasonic mammography is superior to radiology both in the ability of screening a finding of a fibro-adenoma (US=88%, X-ray=75%) and in the possibility of classifying it as ''more benign than malignant''. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  1. Influence of diagnostic quality scanning technique with CR mammography; Influencia de la tecnica de exploracion en la calidad diagnostica de la mamografia ocn CR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas Ballarin, M. A.; Ruiz Manzano, P.; Ortega Pardina, P.; Laliena Bielsa, V.; Calvo Carrillo, S.; Garcia Romero, A.; Millan Cebrian, E.

    2013-07-01

    Image quality criteria laid down in the Spanish Protocol of Control of quality in Radiology (PECCR) to a team of mammography with CR imaging system are applied in this work and evaluated the dosimetry impact implied by the modification of the technique of exposure required for the fulfilment of those criteria. Is also analyzes the impact on the image quality of the new radiographic technique, evaluated by three radiologists. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of quality in Service of Mammography of the State of Pernambuco; Levantamento da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do Estado de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Claudio J.M.; Hwang, Suy F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: cjmm@elogica.com.br; Peixoto, Joao Emilio [Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: joao.emilio@anvisa.gov.br

    2001-07-01

    The cancer of breast is what more contributes to mortality among women in the world. In 2000, it is considered that happened about 28.300 new cases and 8.200 death in Brazil. Thus, programs of precocious detection have been transmitted and driven the professionals of health and the population, where the used method and indicated for the diagnosis it is the mammography. However, to be capable to detect small lesions, still without clinical expression, the Service of Mammography should have mechanisms that guarantee the quality and effectiveness of the exam, assuring the great levels of sensibility and of specific. That work has as objective to evaluate the quality of the Services of Mammography of the State of Pernambuco, seeking to adapt them to the effective norms, guaranteeing like this the success of programs of precocious detection. Results show that 55% of the Services present problems in the envisage of the bunch of ray-X, 57% of the apparels do not present system of automatic control of the exhibition (CAE) regulated or it does not exist, by force of compression of 37% of the apparels they were out of the interval of tolerance (11 to 18 kg) and 36% of the processor were just in conformity with the operation patterns for mammography. Of the one of the 31 Services evaluated 3 they were just totally approved, while 10 did not present minimum quality for the diagnosis. (author)

  3. Image quality control of mammography equipment -Mammography System MX-300- of the Teachers Hospital of UNSA and dose measurement in breasts with radiographic films; Control de calidad de imagen del equipo de mamografia -Mammography System MX-300- del Hospital de Docentes de la UNSA y medicion de dosis en mamas con peliculas radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quispe F, L. K.; Vega R, J., E-mail: karinaqflores839@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin, Escuela Profesional de Fisica, Arequipa (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    This work is part of medical imaging for the evaluation of quality. Will have an accredited breast phantom Rmi-156 that allows evaluating the image quality of mammography equipment and through a series of techniques and processes that will submit to mammography films we obtain characteristic curves, which allows to evaluate different parameters that will serve for our study. Images were acquired with different k Vp and m As of the equipment, also with different thicknesses of the breast phantom. Also we want to use the lowest possible dose for obtaining our images. In this paper we develop a simple protocol that aims to unify the conditions under which are acquired the images for later evaluation. By obtaining these characteristic curves demonstrate that the Kodak film is the most suitable for our study because it requires lower dose for obtaining our images. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of the weekly quality control of a digital mammography machine; Evaluacion del control de calidad semanal de un mamografo digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo Pain, E.; Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Urena Llinares, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M. A.; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Castro Ramirez, I.; Gonzalez Aquino, P.; Aguirre Huelga, M. J.

    2013-07-01

    In the new edition of the PCCRD (2011) has been established as weekly quality control testing for digital mammography equipment the analysis of artifacts from the team and defective items in the DR, the constancy of the functioning of the CAE, the accuracy of the thickness determined by the compression system, constancy in the uniformity and quality of the image. The objective of the study is to evaluate data collected during the first year of operation of the equipment. (Author)

  5. Slit aperture technique for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1984-01-01

    Following a discussion of various principles used in the elimination of scatter, the prototype of a simple slit aperture mammography apparatus is described (modified Mammomat, Siemens). The main advantage of this technique compared with grid mammography is a halving of the radiation dose for identical image quality, using an identical film system. The technical requirements (heavy duty tube, new generator) are, however, considerable. If the film-screen systems currently in use are to remain the common systems for the future, then the development of a multi-lamellar slit diaphragm technique carries much promise for mammography. (orig.) [de

  6. Mammography practice in Serbia: Evaluation and optimisation of image quality and the technical aspects of the mammographic imaging chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosutic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Arandjic, D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess mammography practice in Serbia and its appropriateness for both diagnostic service and potential screening by implementing quality control (QC) protocol in three large teaching hospitals. Corrective actions were suggested, accordingly. In addition to technical aspects of QC, image quality was assessed using image grading before and after the introduction of corrective measures. The survey demonstrated considerable variations in technical parameters that affect image quality and patients doses. Average glandular doses ranged from 1.8 to 2.8 mGy, while reference optical density (OD) ranged from 1.0 to 2.6. Image grading resulted in a very high percentage of images with poor quality (12-70% for cranio-caudal projection and 8-66% for medio-lateral oblique projection). Main problems were associated with film processing, viewing conditions and OD control. Following introduction of corrective measures, the image grading results were improved in some hospitals, so the percentage of images without any remarks has been increased. (authors)

  7. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients: Image quality and dose in mammography (co-ordinated research in Europe). Results of the coordinated research project on optimization of protection mammography in some eastern European States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    Mammography is an extremely useful non-invasive imaging technique with unparalleled advantages for the detection of breast cancer. It has played an immense role in the screening of women above a certain age or with a family history of breast cancer. The IAEA has a statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for the worldwide application of those standards. A fundamental requirement of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (BSS) and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, issued by the IAEA and co-sponsored by FAO, ILO, WHO, PAHO and NEA, is the optimization of radiological protection of patients undergoing medical exposure. In keeping with its responsibility on the application of standards, the IAEA programme on Radiological Protection of Patients attempts to reduce radiation doses to patients while balancing quality assurance considerations. IAEA-TECDOC-796, Radiation Doses in Diagnostic Radiology and Methods for Dose Reduction (1995), addresses this aspect. The related IAEA-TECDOC-1423 on Optimization of the Radiological Protection of Patients undergoing Radiography, Fluoroscopy and Computed Tomography, (2004) constitutes the final report of the coordinated research in Africa, Asia and eastern Europe. The preceding publications do not explicitly consider mammography. Mindful of the importance of this imaging technique, the IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Project on Optimization of Protection in Mammography in some eastern European States. The present publication is the outcome of this project: it is aimed at evaluating the situation in a number of countries, identifying variations in the technique, examining the status of the equipment and comparing performance in the light of the norms established by the European Commission. A number of important aspects are covered, including: - quality control of mammography equipment; - imaging

  8. Optimization in mammography - monthly monitoring of image quality at the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; Otimizacao em mamografia - monitoramento mensal da qualidade da imagem no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joana, Georgia S.; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Silva, Sabrina D. da; Silva, Rafael R. da; Cesar, Adriana C.Z.; Oliveira, Mauricio de, E-mail: georgia.santos@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.cavalcanti@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: adrianac@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.oliveira@saude.mg.gov.b [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Minas Gerais (SVS/SES-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Superintendencia de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Nogueira, Maria do S., E-mail: marcio.alves@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Joao E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The State Program of Quality Control in Mammography (PECQMamo) of the state of Minas Gerais was established in 2004 and consists of tests for evaluation of image quality and performance of equipment used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, and evaluation the infrastructure of mammography centers. The monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography is part of this program that has been executed since May 2009 with a character essentially educational. In the assessment of individual services that participate in the monthly monitoring, there was an increased percentage of average annual compliance from 2009 to 2010 in all 85 services with the exception of one service. Therefore, evolution of the performance of the services evaluated, since the program began, shows a positive impact on the numbers, confirming the relevance of this type of operation of Sanitary Surveillance in the area of quality in mammography. (author)

  9. Patients Mammographic Dose Survey in a Sample of Slovak Mammography Departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Horvathova, M.; Gbelcova, L.

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the most frequent cause of cancer induced deaths in Europe. Demographic trends indicate a continuing increase in this substantial public health problem. Systematic early detection, effective diagnostic pathways and high quality services have the ability for lowering the breast cancer mortality rates and for reducing the burden of this disease in the population The widespread use of mammography for early breast cancer detection is highly accepted all over the world. For achievement of a successful national mammography programme in Slovakia, a national QA/QC mammography system was introduced. Coming from alarming values of increase of malignant neoplasm of breast in Slovakia a national mammography audit has been initiated, performed in three runs and working in three phases: assessment of existing status of practice and equipment performance, as well as education and training of radiologists and radiographers of 42 mammography departments; implementation of technical quality programme and patient dose evaluation; clinical image evaluation. Preventive mammography in spite of being a reasonable examination, which represents health benefit for patient, exceed also the health risk. In 1991-1996 mammographic examination created 1.3% from all medical radiodiagnostic expositions made in Slovakia. In 2005 there were realized 241 208 mammographic examinations, 140 798 of them were noticed like preventive examinations. In 2006 the number of all mammographic examinations in Slovakia increased to 271 755 and of them 156 199 were preventive mammographic examinations. In our presentation we tried to establish the average absorbed glandular doses of patients undergoing mammography examinations in 10 selected departments and to compare the obtained results with European diagnostic reference values. The obtained values were used for the proposal of a new national diagnostic reference value for mammography examinations

  10. Evaluation of the quality of CR mammography images in Chugoku Rosai Hospital. Visual evaluation and digital evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihata, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Tomoya; Aomori, Masaji; Hara, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    New mammography system (50-micrometer system) composed of Fuji computed tomography (FCR) both sides IP, 5000MA and dry imager was introduced in the Department of Physical Checkup of Chugoku Rosai Hospital in 2003. We performed visual evaluation and digital evaluation using 50-micrometer system in accordance with (the quality control guidance of) Non-Profit Organization the Central Committee on Quality Control of Mammographic Screening. In visual evaluation using RMI156 phantom the system cleared the quality control guidance about a fiber, calcification, and masses. On step phantom, it passed about 10 steps, masses, and calcifications. Since a success standard was not announced officially, the performance in digital evaluation cannot be judged and only the result is presented. In digital evaluation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 14.9, root of mean squares (RMS) is 32.9, SNRC is 16.4, SNRT is 3.65. This system image has high sharpness and is considered from the result in visual evaluation to have the ability of offering images with a high degree of information. (author)

  11. Validation of image quality in full-field digital mammography: Is the replacement of wet by dry laser printers justified?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, Gerd; Kaindl, Elisabeth; Langenberger, Herbert; Stadler, Alfred; Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Semturs, Friedrich; Helbich, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Dry laser printers have replaced wet laser printers to produce hard copies of high-resolution digital images, primarily because of environmental concerns. However, no scientific research data have been published that compare the image quality of dry and wet laser printers in full-field digital mammography (FFDM). This study questions the image quality of these printers. Materials and methods: Objective image quality parameters of both printers were evaluated using a standardized printer test image, i.e., optical density and detectability of specific image elements (lines, curves, and shapes). Furthermore, mammograms of 129 patients with different breast tissue composition patterns were imaged with both printers. A total of 1806 subjective image quality parameters (brightness, contrast, and detail detection of anatomic structures), the detectability of breast lesions, as well as diagnostic performance according to the BI-RADS classification were evaluated. In addition, the presence of film artifacts was investigated. Results: Optical density values were equal for the dry and the wet laser printer. Detection of specific image elements on the printer test image was not different. Ratings of subjective image quality parameters were equal, as were the detectability of breast lesions and the diagnostic performance. Dry laser printer images showed more artifacts (164 versus 27). However, these artifacts did not influence image quality. Conclusion: Based on the evidence of objective and subjective parameters, a dry laser printer equals the image quality of a wet laser printer in FFDM. Therefore, not only for reasons of environmental preference, the replacement of wet laser printers by dry laser printers in FFDM is justified

  12. Organization and standards of screening and diagnostic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderbraten, L.D.; Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Rozhkova, N.I.

    1999-01-01

    Problem of organizing and standards of the reference and diagnostic mammography in our country is discussed. Attention is paid to the terminology, accreditation of mammographic establishments and specialists, specifications of equipment, image quality, mammography results processing, radiation doses [ru

  13. Image processing techniques to evaluate mammography screening quality; Tecnicas de processamento de imagem para avaliar a qualidade de exames de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, Clara; Tirao, German [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valente, Mauro [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Mammography imaging has proved to be the best noninvasive method for breast cancer diagnosis, but it requires that irradiation parameters are set within Protocols recommendations (minimal dose delivering). This work presents an investigation on mammography image formation by means of validated Monte Carlo simulations along with further image analysis and mathematical processing. Several image processing methods have been suitably introduced and investigated according to their capability for micro-calcification detection and quality evaluation. The obtained results suggest the feasibility of all the proposed methods. Furthermore, it was possible to characterize the reliability of each and to infer the corresponding advantages or disadvantages, obtaining an image quality evaluation as a function of several parameters configurations. (author)

  14. Interobserver agreement and performance score comparison in quality control using a breast phantom: screen-film mammography vs computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Satake, Hiroko; Ishigaki, Satoko; Sawaki, Akiko; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate interobserver agreement and to compare the performance score in quality control of screen-film mammography and computed radiography (CR) using a breast phantom. Eleven radiologists interpreted a breast phantom image (CIRS model X) by four viewing methods: (a) original screen-film; (b) soft-copy reading of the digitized film image; (c) hard-copy reading of CR using an imaging plate; and (d) soft-copy reading of CR. For the soft-copy reading, a 17-in. CRT monitor (1024 x 1536 x 8 bits) was used. The phantom image was evaluated using a scoring system outlined in the instruction manual, and observers judged each object using a three-point rating scale: (a) clearly seen; (b) barely seen; and (c) not seen. For statistical analysis, the kappa statistic was employed. For ''mass'' depiction, interobserver agreement using CR was significantly lower than when using screen-film (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the kappa value for detecting ''microcalcification''; however, the performance score of ''microcalcification'' on CR hard-copy was significantly lower than on the other three viewing methods (p<0.05). Viewing methods (film or CR, soft-copy or hard-copy) could affect how the phantom image is judged. Paying special attention to viewing conditions is recommended for quality control of CR mammograms. (orig.)

  15. Review of the first 50 cases completed by the RACR mammography QA programme; Phantom image quality, processor control and dose considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.; Chan, W.; Eckert, M.; Heard, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Mammography Quality Assurance Programme, recently established by the Royal Australasian College of Radiologists, has processed the first 50 applications. This programme, which closely follows the programme of the American College of Radiology (ACR), utilizes phantom film images, thermoluminescent dosimetry measurement of mean glandular dose, processor control charts, clinical images, equipment reports and required survey information to establish that a centre conforms to a minimum standard in mammography. The present paper describes the initial results of the first phantom images, dose measurements, processor control and survey information. Fifty films have been evaluated up to the present time with a failure rate of 26%. The major causes of failure were unacceptable film artefacts and poor contrast (as indicated by reduced fibre and mass visibility). A surprising result was the high failure in processing, where 23% of units reviewed had significant problems, including failure to keep the processor within required control limits. Only one centre recorded a mean glandular dose above 2 mGy with no centre over the 3 mGy limit. A review of the frequency of the quality control testing shows that the acceptance of quality assurance in mammography, while greater than in the initial stages of the ACR programme, is less than current US practice. These initial results for the accreditation process probably reflect an initial period of adjustment, as seen by the high pass rate achieved by centres that have re submitted material to gain accreditation. (authors)

  16. Hardware for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkova, N.I.; Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Ryudiger, Yu.G.; Kochetova, G.P.; Lisachenko, I.V.; Yakobs, O.Eh.

    2000-01-01

    The comparative studies on various visualization means, in particular, the intensifying screens and films with application of quantitative methods for determining small details on photographs, including measurements of corresponding exposures, absorbed doses and verification of conclusions through the analysis of clinical observations are carried out. It is shown, that technical equipment of the modern mammography room should include the X-ray mammographic apparatus, providing for the image high-quality by low dose loads with special film holders, meeting the mammography requirements, the corresponding X-ray film and the automatic photolaboratory process, provided by one and the same company. The quality of photographs under such conditions is guarantied, the defects and errors by the image interpretation are excluded. The modern computerized information technologies for work with medical images on the basic of creating new generations of diagnostic instrumentation with digital video channels and computerized working places dispose of many medical, technological, organizational and financial problems [ru

  17. Medical and physical problems of mammography. 2. Studies on optimum quality of radiation and on radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barke, R; Geissler, S; Rosenkranz, G [Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik

    1980-02-01

    Problems concerning the implications of the radiation energy in relation to the image contrast and the radiation exposure are discussed, and measurements of the energy distribution are described. The effects of the voltage and of the filter on the energy distribution were determined, with and without a molybdenum filter, in the voltage range of 25 - 50 kV. The form of the spectral energy distribution depends but slightly on the output voltage. On the other side, the radiation exposure can be expressed as a function of the radiographic kilovoltage. The effects of the quantum energy and of the scattered radiation on the contrast and the optimal energy were studied on a model. With regard to the importance of the detection of microcalcifications, the effects of the scattered radiation on the contrast behaviour of details of varying size were investigated. The direct proportionality of the contrast to the detail size is lost under the influence of the scattered radiation. For this reason, minimal kV values are required for imaging very small details. Studies on the imaging geometry of the DG 40 mammographical device permit to conclude that the necessary resolving power (..gamma.. = 5 mm/sup -1/) is reached with the TF 13 and XR 10 films. On the basis of the relevant literature, the present views on radiation exposure and especially on cancer induction by mammography are discussed. To estimate the risk, the radiation exposure must be determined in the own system. By means of thermoluminescent dosimetry in patients, using LiF and CaSO/sub 4/, the surface dose, the exit dose and the sternal exposure, adding the XR 10 and the TF 13 to the DG 40 (the mean values at 30 kV were 49 and 34 ..mu..Gy, respectively) were determined. An increase in voltage leads to a reduction of the dose, but impairs the quality of the image. The values obtained are compared with data from the literature. Conclusions are drawn as to the use of mammography in practice.

  18. Mammography accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, P.

    1993-12-31

    In the mid-1980`s, the movement toward the use of dedicated mammography equipment provided significant improvement in breast cancer detection. However, several studies demonstrated that this change was not sufficient to ensure optimal image quality at a low radiation dose. In particular, the 1985 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends identified the wide variations in image quality and radiation dose, even from dedicated units. During this time period, the American Cancer Society (ACS) launched its Breast Cancer Awareness Screening Campaign. However, there were concerns about the ability of radiology to respond to the increased demand for optimal screening examinations that would result from the ACS program. To respond to these concerns, the ACS and the American College of Radiology (ACR) established a joint committee on mammography screening in 1986. After much discussion, it was decided to use the ACR Diagnostic Practice Accreditation Program as a model for the development of a mammography accreditation program. However, some constraints were required in order to make the program meet the needs of the ACS. This voluntary, peer review program had to be timely and cost effective. It was determined that the best way to address these needs would be to conduct the program by mail. Finally, by placing emphasis on the educational nature of the program, it would provide an even greater opportunity for improving mammographic quality. The result of this effort was that, almost six years ago, in May 1987, the pilot study for the ACR Mammography Accreditation Program (MAP) began, and in August of that year, the first applications were received. In November 1987, the first 3-year accreditation certificates were awarded.

  19. Mammography accreditation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, P.

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-1980's, the movement toward the use of dedicated mammography equipment provided significant improvement in breast cancer detection. However, several studies demonstrated that this change was not sufficient to ensure optimal image quality at a low radiation dose. In particular, the 1985 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends identified the wide variations in image quality and radiation dose, even from dedicated units. During this time period, the American Cancer Society (ACS) launched its Breast Cancer Awareness Screening Campaign. However, there were concerns about the ability of radiology to respond to the increased demand for optimal screening examinations that would result from the ACS program. To respond to these concerns, the ACS and the American College of Radiology (ACR) established a joint committee on mammography screening in 1986. After much discussion, it was decided to use the ACR Diagnostic Practice Accreditation Program as a model for the development of a mammography accreditation program. However, some constraints were required in order to make the program meet the needs of the ACS. This voluntary, peer review program had to be timely and cost effective. It was determined that the best way to address these needs would be to conduct the program by mail. Finally, by placing emphasis on the educational nature of the program, it would provide an even greater opportunity for improving mammographic quality. The result of this effort was that, almost six years ago, in May 1987, the pilot study for the ACR Mammography Accreditation Program (MAP) began, and in August of that year, the first applications were received. In November 1987, the first 3-year accreditation certificates were awarded

  20. Implementation of quantitative methods of analysis of the image quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Rodriguez, Ana Mariela

    2012-01-01

    A proper diagnosis of a mammogram requires optimal contrast and maximum resolution, this allows to visualize different structures with low contrast and diameter of the order of millimeters. The evaluation of image quality allows to characterize the physical properties of the system of image acquisition, such assessment is one of the cornerstones in a quality control program. The image quality of the ACR phantom was evaluated with the IAEA TECDOC 1517 protocol. Analytical methods have determined quality parameters of the dummy image TOR MAS. A method is developed to analyze the image quality of both mammographic phantoms by use of computational techniques with the ImageJ program, in doing this, more information was able to objectively characterize the image quality of the dummies. Furthermore, these parameters will serve to compare the images obtained at different mammographic centers of the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS) and eventually the time evolution in a particular installation. (author) [es

  1. Comparison of image quality between mammography dedicated monitor and UHD 4K monitor, using standard mammographic phantom: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, You Sung; Kim, Jeong A [Dept. of Radiology, Inje Unveristy Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Using standard mammographic phantom images, we compared the image quality obtained between a mammography dedicated 5 megapixel monitor (5M) and a UHD 4K (4K) monitor with digital imaging and communications in medicine display, to investigate the possibility of clinical application of 4K monitors. Three different exposures (autoexposure, overexposure and underexposure) images of mammographic phantom were obtained, and six radiologists independently evaluated the images in 5M and 4K without image modulation, by scoring of fibers, groups of specks and masses within the phantom image. The mean score of each object on both monitors was independently analyzed, using t-test and interobserver reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of SPSS. The overall mean scores of fiber, group of specks, and mass in 5M were 4.25, 3.92, and 3.28 respectively, and scores obtained in 4K monitor were 3.81, 3.58, and 3.14, respectively. No statistical difference was seen in scores of fiber and mass between the two monitors at all exposure conditions, but the score of group of specks in 4K was statistically lower in the overall (p = 0.0492) and in underexposure conditions (p = 0.012). The ICC for interobserver reliability was excellent (0.874). Our study suggests that since the mammographic phantom images are appropriate with no significant difference in image quality observed between the two monitors, the 4K monitor could be used for clinical studies. Since this is a small preliminary study using phantom images, the result may differ in actual mammographic images, and subsequent investigation with clinical mammographic images is required.

  2. Stability of two measuring systems used in quality control of mammography; Estabilidade de dois sistemas de medicao utilizados no controle de qualidade de mamografos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreira, Jacqueline Sales; Vivolo, Vitor, E-mail: jacsales@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The use of X-Rays for diagnosis is very important for medicine, including mammographic exam. A quality control program is necessary to control the radiation systems performance. The objective of this paper is evaluation of stability of measurement working system and measurement standard system, collecting meters of charge and dose using one source of Strontium 90 (Sr-90). The results of this test are very important to determine if the instruments are calibrated for use in quality control program for a mammography equipment. (author)

  3. Experimental investigations of image quality in X-ray mammography with conventional screen film system (SFS), digital phosphor storage plate in/without magnification technique (CR) and digital CCD-technique (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Aichinger, U.; Boehner, C.; Dobritz, M.; Wenkel, E.; Bautz, W.; Saebel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of image quality in X-ray mammography between conventional film screen film system (SFS), digital phosphor storage plate in and without magnification technique (CR) and digital CCD-technique (CCD). Radiograms of an RMI-mammography phantom were acquired using a conventional screen film system, three digital storage plate systems and two digital systems in CCD-technique. Additionally the radiograms of one digital phosphor storage plate system were post-processed regarding contrast and included in the comparison. The detectability of details was best with the digital mammography in CCD-technique. After confirming these promising results in clinical studies, digital mammography should be able to replace conventional screen film technique. (orig.)

  4. Mammography in public hospitals at Rio de Janeiro: a quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briquet, C.; Coutinho, C.M.C.; Mota, H.C.; Tavares, E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results and the methodology followed by the implementation of a Quality Assurance Program in public hospitals at Rio de Janeiro. We observed that the main problems of image are due to the processing. None facility has a dedicated processor and the processor daily quality control is a concern not yet adopted. (Author)

  5. Evaluation of image quality versus doses in service of mammography of Belo Horizonte, MG, BR; Avaliacao da qualidade da imagem versus doses em servicos de mamografia de Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.; Nogueira, M.S.; Guedes, E. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Seguranca Nuclear; Andrade, M.C. [Superintendencia Estadual de Vigilancia Sanitaria, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, J.E. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Radiologia; Silva, V.L.S.; Borges, J.C. [Vigilancia Sanitaria da Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Belo horizonte (VISA/PBH), MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the radiation protection and quality of 37 services out a total of 82 mammography facilities existing in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Two instruments were used: a proposed evaluation protocol of the Health Surveillance -VISA and a protocol for evaluation of image quality. Of the 37 services who completed the study, none was achieved 100% conformity in image quality. The results of radiation protection requirements according to the VISA protocol bore close relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection (p>0.05)

  6. Developing a Mass Media Campaign to Promote Mammography Awareness in African American Women in the Nation's Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Oppong, Bridget; Iddirisu, Marquita; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2017-12-26

    This study developed and examined the reach and impact of a culturally appropriate mass media campaign pilot, designed to increase awareness about the importance of mammography screening and the available community mammography services for low-income African American women ages 40 and above. We conducted formative research using focus groups to inform campaign development, resulting in five emergent themes-good breast health, holistic views of healthiness, cancer fatalism, fear of mammogram machines, and mammogram affordability. The campaign targeted specific low-income African American communities in the District of Columbia via print ads in Metro stations and on buses, print ads in the Washington Informer, and online ads on a local TV network website. Data were collected before, during, and after campaign implementation to assess reach and impact. Reach was measured by number of impressions (number of people exposed to the campaign), while impact was assessed via online ad click-through rates, website use and referrals, and mammography center calls. The campaign was successful in reaching the target audience, with a total combined reach from all media of 9,479,386 impressions. In addition, the mammography center received significant increases in new website visitors (1482 during the campaign, compared to 24 during the preceding period) as well as 97 calls to the dedicated phone line. Further research involving a more long-term investment in terms of funding and campaign run time, coupled with a more robust evaluation, is needed to assess if culturally appropriate mass media campaigns can generate increased mammography screening rates and decrease breast-cancer-related mortality.

  7. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality......, but it is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational requirements...... for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  8. Evaluation of mammography equipment performance, dose and image quality in five Latin American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandan, M.-E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Caspani, C. E. M.; Fleitas, I.; de-la-Mora, R.; Miranda, A. A.; Plazas, M.-C.; Betancourt, C.-M.; Borras, C.

    2001-10-01

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of radiology experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities. Evaluation of the equipment performance and dose measurements in 21 mammographic units show that, on the average, 75% of the units comply with recommendations issued by various organizations. An independent evaluation of the quality of the clinical images show strong variations among the different radiological services.

  9. Evaluation of mammography equipment performance, dose and image quality in five Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandan, M.-E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Caspani, C. E. M.; Fleitas, I.; Mora, R. de la; Miranda, A. A.; Plazas, M.-C.; Betancourt, C.-M.; Borras, C.

    2001-01-01

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of radiology experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities. Evaluation of the equipment performance and dose measurements in 21 mammographic units show that, on the average, 75% of the units comply with recommendations issued by various organizations. An independent evaluation of the quality of the clinical images show strong variations among the different radiological services

  10. Initial Image Quality and Clinical Experience with New CR Digital Mammography System: A Phantom and Clinical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enriquez, Jesus Gabriel Franco; Alfonso, Beatriz Y. Alvarez; Castellanos, Gustavo Casian

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the first CR digital mammography system ( registered Konica-Minolta) in Mexico in clinical routine for cancer detection in a screening population and to determine if high resolution CR digital imaging is equivalent to state-of-the-art screen-film imaging. The mammograms were evaluated by two observers with cytological or histological confirmation for BIRADS 3, 4 and 5. Contrast, exposure and artifacts of the images were evaluated. Different details like skin, retromamillary space and parenchymal structures were judged. The detectability of microcalcifications and lesions were compared and correlated to histology. The difference in sensitivity of CR Mammography (CRM) and Screen Film Mammography (SFM) was not statistically significant. However, CRM had a significantly lower recall rate, and the lesion detection was equal or superior to conventional images. There is no significant difference in the number of microcalcifications and highly suspicious calcifications were equally detected on both film-screen and digital images. Different anatomical regions were better detectable in digital than in conventional mammography

  11. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  12. Quality assurance in X-ray mammography. Comparison of proposed EUREF guidelines with relevant German regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaers, J.; Brix, G.; Woudenberg, S. van

    1997-01-01

    The Program 'Europe against Cancer' published the 2nd edition of quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening in June 1996. For the enforcement of these guidelines, a European network of reference centres (EUREF) is being established. Although the EUREF protocol contains guidelines for all disciplines involved in breast cancer screening, this article concentrates on the physical and technical aspect. The comparison with the German regulations (DIN Norms) demonstrates the high requirements requested by the EUREF guidelines with its tighter limits and more extensive and more frequent tests. (orig.) [de

  13. Mammography fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkes, J.L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A device is described for compressing a pendant breast during tomographic mammography using X-rays. The device utilises a thin, elastic membrane pressurised by a fluid whose X-ray absorption properties are similar to those of soft human tissue. The membrane changes the normal conical shape of a pendant breast into a substantially cylindrical shape. The breast is surrounded by a second fluid medium whose X-ray absorption properties are also similar to that of soft human tissue and tomography transmission is carried out through the second fluid medium and the breast. This patent claims the advantages of eliminating high gradients in X-ray absorption density and the effective detection of breast tumours with minimum radiation dosage and processing time. (UK)

  14. Radiographic techniques for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Katsuhei

    2007-01-01

    Since the differences in X-ray absorption between various breast tissues are small, a dedicated X-ray system for examination of the breast and a high-contrast, high-resolution screen/film system (SFM) (light-receiving system) are employed for X-ray diagnosis. Currently, however, there is a strong trend toward digital imaging in the field of general radiography, and this trend is also reflected in the field of mammographic examination. In fact, approximately 70% of facilities purchasing new mammography systems are now selecting a digital mammography system (DRM). Given this situation, this report reviews the differences between SFM and DRM and discusses the radiographic techniques and quality assurance procedures for digital mammography. (author)

  15. Mammography image assessment; validity and reliability of current scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.; Robinson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographers currently score their own images according to criteria set out by Regional Quality Assurance. The criteria used are based on the ‘Perfect, Good, Moderate, Inadequate’ (PGMI) marking criteria established by the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) in their Quality Assurance Guidelines of 2006 1 . This document discusses the validity and reliability of the current mammography image assessment scheme. Commencing with a critical review of the literature this document sets out to highlight problems with the national approach to the use of marking schemes. The findings suggest that ‘PGMI’ scheme is flawed in terms of reliability and validity and is not universally applied across the UK. There also appear to be differences in schemes used by trainees and qualified mammographers. Initial recommendations are to be made in collaboration with colleagues within the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP), Higher Education Centres, College of Radiographers and the Royal College of Radiologists in order to identify a mammography image appraisal scheme that is fit for purpose. - Highlights: • Currently no robust evidence based marking tools in use for the assessment of images in mammography. • Is current system valid, reliable and robust? • How can the current image assessment tool be improved? • Should students and qualified mammographers use the same tool? • What marking criteria are available for image assessment?

  16. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  17. Investigation on calibration parameter of mammography calibration facilities at MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Md Saion Salikin; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Azuhar Ripin; Norriza Mohd Isa

    2004-01-01

    A mammography calibration facility has been established in the Medical Physics Laboratory, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). The calibration facility is established at the national level mainly to provide calibration services for radiation measuring test instruments or test tools used in quality assurance programme in mammography, which is being implemented in Malaysia. One of the accepted parameters that determine the quality of a radiation beam is the homogeneity coefficient. It is determined from the values of the 1 st and 2 nd Half Value Layer (HVL). In this paper, the consistency of the mammography machine beam qualities that is available in MINT, is investigated and presented. For calibration purposes, five radiation qualities namely 23, 25, 28, 30 and 35 kV, selectable from the control panel of the X-ray machine is used. Important parameters that are set for this calibration facility are exposure time, tube current, focal spot to detector distance (FDD) and beam size at specific distance. The values of homogeneity coefficient of this laboratory for the past few years tip to now be presented in this paper. Backscatter radiations are also considered in this investigation. (Author)

  18. Comparative effectiveness of combined digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening for women with dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Cevik, Mucahit; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Sprague, Brian L; Tosteson, Anna N A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Stout, Natasha K; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Ramsey, Scott D; Lehman, Constance D

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of combined biennial digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening, compared with biennial digital mammography screening alone, among women with dense breasts. An established, discrete-event breast cancer simulation model was used to estimate the comparative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of biennial screening with both digital mammography and tomosynthesis versus digital mammography alone among U.S. women aged 50-74 years with dense breasts from a federal payer perspective and a lifetime horizon. Input values were estimated for test performance, costs, and health state utilities from the National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, Medicare reimbursement rates, and medical literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the implications of varying key model parameters, including combined screening sensitivity and specificity, transient utility decrement of diagnostic work-up, and additional cost of tomosynthesis. For the base-case analysis, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained by adding tomosynthesis to digital mammography screening was $53 893. An additional 0.5 deaths were averted and 405 false-positive findings avoided per 1000 women after 12 rounds of screening. Combined screening remained cost-effective (less than $100 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) over a wide range of incremental improvements in test performance. Overall, cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to the additional cost of tomosynthesis. Biennial combined digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening for U.S. women aged 50-74 years with dense breasts is likely to be cost-effective if priced appropriately (up to $226 for combined examinations vs $139 for digital mammography alone) and if reported interpretive performance metrics of improved specificity with tomosynthesis are met in routine practice.

  19. Magnification mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickles, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lack of detail, a situation commonly encountered, renders unreliable the diagnostic criteria described above, leading to equivocal radiographic interpretations. Standard practice calls for biopsy of such equivocal lesions in order to rule out malignancy; indeed, this is necessary to detect as many small cancers as possible. An unfortunate consequence of this approach, however, is that several benign lesions have to be removed for each cancer discovered. In some circumstances, especially when malignancy is thought to be unlikely, biopsy is deferred in favor of a series of follow-up mammographic examinations. It is even more unfortunate, if this latter course of action is chosen, when the underlying lesion proves to be cancerous and appropriate treatment is thereby delayed. One potential solution to this double-edged problem of equivocal interpretations is to substantially improve the sharpness and detail of the radiographic image, thus permitting one to utilize more fully the standard mammographic interpretive criteria that otherwise might be ignored. If this approach proves successful, some equivocal interpretations will be converted into more definitive diagnoses, either benign or malignant. The technique of direct radiographic magnification has been shown to be very helpful in this regard. Not only are magnification images known to display improved sharpness and detail, but magnification techniques have already been applied successfully to mammography, angiography, and skeletal radiography, resulting in increased diagnostic accuracy for these examinations

  20. Characterization of microcalcification: can digital monitor zooming replace magnification mammography in full-field digital mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Oh, Ki Keun; Han, Mooyoung

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy and image quality of microcalcifications in zoomed digital contact mammography with digital magnification mammography. Three radiologists with different levels of experience in mammography reviewed 120 microcalcification clusters in 111 patients with a full-field digital mammography system relying on digital magnification mammogram (MAG) images and zoomed images from contact mammography (ZOOM) using commercially available zooming systems on monitors. Each radiologist estimated the probability of malignancy and rated the image quality and confidence rate. Performance was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. All three radiologists rated MAG images higher than ZOOM images for sensitivity with statistical significance (average value, 92% vs. 87%, P<0.05) and performance by ROC analysis improved with MAG imaging. The confidence rate for diagnosis decision and the assessment of lesion characteristics were also better in MAG images than in ZOOM images with statistical significance (P<0.0001). Digital magnification mammography can enhance diagnostic performance when characterizing microcalcifications. Images zoomed from digital contact mammography cannot serve as an alternative to direct magnification digital mammography. (orig.)

  1. Radiogenic breast cancer risk and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaprakash, Shobha; Nair, C.P.R.; Rao, B.S.; Sawant, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    There is a general concern that the risks from mammography screening in inducting radiogenic breast cancer may outweigh the possible benefits to be derived from it. A review of epidemiological, case-control and cohort studies of radiogenic breast cancer, age-specific incidence and dose and dose-rate relationship reveals that such a fear is unfounded. The dose to the breast tissues in a quality assured mammography screening programme falls far below the levels that were observed to produce increased relative risk. The age-specific incidence rates also indicate that the need for mammography is for the women of age at which the relative risk is minimum

  2. Investigation of actual conditions of mammography in Kagoshima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Natsuki; Tanimoto, Eriko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kuma, Kouji

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed the actual conditions of mammography with regard to image quality and radiation dose at 44 facilities in Kagoshima prefecture in 1999. In April 2004, guidelines for mammography newly included the standard of digital mammography. From September to October 2005, the survey was conducted at 48 facilities, and the results of the survey were compared with that in 1999. We visited 44 of the 48 facilities, and visually evaluated the image quality of mammograms for RMI156 and clinical mammograms. In addition, we measured average mammary gland dose at each facility. The number of the mammography device that satisfied the specified guideline criterion was larger than that in 1999. Image quality for the RMI156 mammograms improved. However, the results of the present survey revealed several problems. First, the number of facilities that had quality control instruments for mammography are few. Second, radiological technologists, medical doctors, and nurses did not share knowledge or information regarding mammography. Finally, there were differences in devices and image quality for mammography among the facilities. We achieved an understanding of the actual conditions of mammography in Kagoshima prefecture by visiting many facilities, evaluating image quality, and communicating with many staff members. Our results may be useful for the development of mammography examinations. (author)

  3. Control of image quality in mammography. Influence of assessing subjective image of a test object; Control de calidad de imagen en mamografia. Influencia de la valoracion subjetiva de la imagen de un objeto de prueba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Concepcion, E.; Garrido Breton, C.; Batista Arce, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    . The object of this work is to assess the influence of the observer in the control of image quality to the digital mammography machine of our hospital, establishing reference values and tolerances that take into account the variability between observers. (Author)

  4. Pilot program of quality control in mammography and conventional equipment in the Antioquia Department; Programa piloto de control de calidad en mamografia y equipos convencionales en el Departamento de Antioquia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P. [Direccion Seccional de Salud de Antioquia (Colombia); Puerta, J.A.; Morales, J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin (Colombia); Beltran, C.C. [Asociacion Colombiana de Proteccion Radiologica (Colombia)]. e-mail: japuerta@unal.edu.co

    2006-07-01

    The Sectional Health Division of Antioquia and the National University of Colombia- Medellin Headquarters formalized an agreement for the realization of the quality control of thirty mammographs and twenty-five conventional X-ray equipment located in the one metropolitan area of Medellin, and ten municipalities of the nine regions in that the antioquen county is divided. The National University of Colombia- Headquarters Medellin possesses a program for the formation in quality control and radiological protection at master level in physics for that which endowed a radiodiagnostic laboratory for these purposes. In the Antioquia department only exists an institution, the San Vicente of Paul University Hospital that possesses a quality control program in radiodiagnostic; this hospital given its great volume of studies in radiodiagnostic has a medical physicist and of that instrumental necessary to maintain the program. The quality control programs have not been implemented in the rest of health institutions, public or private, big or small, until the moment. The project then allowed to carry out an initial evaluation of the pertinent parameters of the quality control of the facilities like its are those that refer to the state of the x-ray generator, the disposition of the installation, the dark room, the film processor and negatoscopies room; these its were carried out with base in the protocol produced in the ARCAL XLIX project in which participated six Latin American countries. The dose average in mammography, following the proposed course in the ARCAL LXXV, where its participate eleven Latin American countries was also evaluated. This study pilot serves like reference of the current state of the regional radiodiagnostic services, with base in this sampling that is representative. The obtained data gave the necessary information so that the Sectional Division of Health of Antioquia can generate tending actions to the implementation of quality guarantee programs and

  5. Tomosynthesis and contrast-enhanced digital mammography: recent advances in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, Felix; Bick, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Digital mammography is more and more replacing conventional mammography. Initial concerns about an inferior image quality of digital mammography have been largely overcome and recent studies even show digital mammography to be superior in women with dense breasts, while at the same time reducing radiation exposure. Nevertheless, an important limitation of digital mammography remains: namely, the fact that summation may obscure lesions in dense breast tissue. However, digital mammography offers the option of so-called advanced applications, and two of these, contrast-enhanced mammography and tomosynthesis, are promising candidates for improving the detection of breast lesions otherwise obscured by the summation of dense tissue. Two techniques of contrast-enhanced mammography are available: temporal subtraction of images acquired before and after contrast administration and the so-called dual-energy technique, which means that pairs of low/high-energy images acquired after contrast administration are subtracted. Tomosynthesis on the other hand provides three-dimensional information on the breast. The images are acquired with different angulations of the X-ray tube while the object or detector is static. Various reconstruction algorithms can then be applied to the set of typically nine to 28 source images to reconstruct 1-mm slices with a reduced risk of obscuring pathology. Combinations of both advanced applications have only been investigated in individual experimental studies; more advanced software algorithms and CAD systems are still in their infancy and have only undergone preliminary clinical evaluation. (orig.)

  6. Consensus review of discordant findings maximizes cancer detection rate in double-reader screening mammography: Irish National Breast Screening Program experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Colette M; Flanagan, Fidema L; Fenlon, Helen M; McNicholas, Michelle M

    2009-02-01

    To assesses consensus review of discordant screening mammography findings in terms of its sensitivity, safety, and effect on overall performance in the first 6 years of operation of the Irish National Breast Screening Program (NBSP). Women who participated in the Irish NBSP gave written informed consent for use of their data for auditing purposes. Local ethics committee approval was obtained. The study population consisted of women who participated in the Irish NBSP and underwent initial screening mammography at one of the two screening centers serving the eastern part of Ireland between 2000 and 2005. Independent double reading of mammograms was performed. When the readers disagreed regarding referral, the case was reviewed by a consensus panel. Of the 128 569 screenings performed, 1335 (1%) were discussed by consensus. Of the 1335 cases discussed by consensus, 606 (45.39%) were recalled for further assessment. This resulted in an overall recall rate of 4.41%. In those recalled to assessment, 71 cases of malignant disease were diagnosed (ductal carcinoma in situ, n = 24; invasive cancer, n = 47). The remaining 729 patients were returned to biennial screening. Of these 729 patients, seven had false-negative findings that were identified in the subsequent screening round. Use of the highest reader recall method, in which a patient is recalled if her findings are deemed abnormal by either reader, could potentially increase the cancer detection rate by 0.6 per 1000 women screened but would increase the recall rate by 12.69% and the number of false-positive findings by 15.37%. The consensus panel identified 71 (7.33%) of 968 cancers diagnosed. Consensus review substantially reduced the number of cases recalled and was associated with a low false-negative rate.

  7. Design and image-quality performance of high resolution CMOS-based X-ray imaging detectors for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, B. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Yun, S.; Cho, G.; Kim, H. K.; Seo, C.-W.; Jeon, S.; Huh, Y.

    2012-04-01

    In digital X-ray imaging systems, X-ray imaging detectors based on scintillating screens with electronic devices such as charge-coupled devices (CCDs), thin-film transistors (TFT), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) flat panel imagers have been introduced for general radiography, dental, mammography and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. Recently, a large-area CMOS active-pixel sensor (APS) in combination with scintillation films has been widely used in a variety of digital X-ray imaging applications. We employed a scintillator-based CMOS APS image sensor for high-resolution mammography. In this work, both powder-type Gd2O2S:Tb and a columnar structured CsI:Tl scintillation screens with various thicknesses were fabricated and used as materials to convert X-ray into visible light. These scintillating screens were directly coupled to a CMOS flat panel imager with a 25 × 50 mm2 active area and a 48 μm pixel pitch for high spatial resolution acquisition. We used a W/Al mammographic X-ray source with a 30 kVp energy condition. The imaging characterization of the X-ray detector was measured and analyzed in terms of linearity in incident X-ray dose, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE).

  8. Comparison of standard reading and computer aided detection (CAD) on a national proficiency test of screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciatto, Stefano; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Risso, Gabriella; Catarzi, Sandra; Bonardi, Rita; Viterbo, Valeria; Gnutti, Pierangela; Guglielmoni, Barbara; Pinelli, Lelio; Pandiscia, Anna; Navarra, Francesco; Lauria, Adele; Palmiero, Rosa; Indovina, Pietro Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of computer aided detection (CAD) in improving the interpretation of screening mammograms Material and methods: Ten radiologists underwent a proficiency test of screening mammography first by conventional reading and then with the help of CAD. Radiologists were blinded to test results for the whole study duration. Results of conventional and CAD reading were compared in terms of sensitivity and recall rate. Double reading was simulated combining conventional readings of four expert radiologists and compared with CAD reading. Results: Considering all ten readings, cancer was identified in 146 or 153 of 170 cases (85.8 vs. 90.0%; χ 2 =0.99, df=1, P=0.31) and recalls were 106 or 152 of 1330 cases (7.9 vs. 11.4%; χ 2 =8.69, df=1, P=0.003) at conventional or CAD reading, respectively. CAD reading was essentially the same (sensitivity 97.0 vs. 96.0%; χ 2 =7.1, df=1, P=0.93; recall rate 10.7 vs. 10.6%; χ 2 =1.5, df=1, P=0.96) as compared with simulated conventional double reading. Conclusion: CAD reading seems to improve the sensitivity of conventional reading while reducing specificity, both effects being of limited size. CAD reading had almost the same performance of simulated conventional double reading, suggesting a possible use of CAD which needs to be confirmed by further studies inclusive of cost-effective analysis

  9. A comparison of digital mammography detectors and emerging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    The overall diagnostic accuracy of digital mammography in the context of screening has been shown to be similar or slightly better than screen-film mammography. However, digital mammography encompasses both Computed Radiography (CR) and integrated Digital Radiography (DR) and there is increasing evidence to suggest that differences in detector technology are associated with variations in cancer detection rate, dose and image quality. These differences are examined in detail. Although digital mammography offers many advantages compared to screen-film, there are still some limitations with its use as a screening tool and reduced cancer detection in dense breasts remains an issue. Digital mammography detectors have paved the way for emerging technologies which may offer improvements. Taking the definition of mammography to only include X-ray imaging of the breast, this article focuses on tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, stereoscopic mammography and dedicated breast computed tomography. Advanced software applications such as Computed Aided Detection (CAD) and quantitative breast density assessment are also presented. The benefits and limitations of each technique are discussed. - Highlights: • Digital detector technology affects cancer detection rate, dose and image quality. • Digital detectors have facilitated new technologies such as tomosynthesis. • 3-D techniques reduce superimposition and increase cancer detection in dense breasts. • Contrast-enhanced mammography demonstrates improved sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Computer assisted visualization of digital mammography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Breiter, N.; Grabbe, E.; Netsch, T.; Biehl, M.; Peitgen, H.O.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: In a clinical study, the feasibility of using a mammography workstation for the display and interpretation of digital mammography images was evaluated and the results were compared with the corresponding laser film hard copies. Materials and Methods: Digital phosphorous plate radiographs of the entire breast were obtained in 30 patients using a direct magnification mammography system. The images were displayed for interpretation on the computer monitor of a dedicated mammography workstation and also presented as laser film hard copies on a film view box for comparison. The images were evaluted with respect to the image handling, the image quality and the visualization of relevant structures by 3 readers. Results: Handling and contrast of the monitor displayed images were found to be superior compared with the film hard copies. Image noise was found in some cases but did not compromise the interpretation of the monitor images. The visualization of relevant structures was equal with both modalities. Altogether, image interpretation with the mammography workstation was considered to be easy, quick and confident. Conclusions: Computer-assisted visualization and interpretation of digital mammography images using a dedicated workstation can be performed with sufficiently high diagnostic accuracy. (orig.) [de

  11. Mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyers, S., E-mail: steven.weyers@ugent.b [Department of Gynecology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Villeirs, G.; Vanherreweghe, E. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Verstraelen, H. [Department of Gynecology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Monstrey, S. [Department of Plastic Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Van den Broecke, R.; Gerris, J. [Department of Gynecology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Data on the necessity of performing screening mammographies in transsexual women are lacking. The main objective of this study was to assess the possibility to perform mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women. Fifty Dutch-speaking transsexual women were interviewed about the following: attitude towards mammography and breast sonography, importance attributed to and satisfaction with breast appearance, opinion about the necessity of breast check-up, expectations regarding discomfort during the exams and knowledge about the breast surgery. A fasting blood sample, clinical breast exam, mammography and breast sonography were performed. At mammography the following parameters were noted: density, technical quality, location of the prostheses, presence of any abnormalities and painfulness. At sonography the following parameters were recorded: density, presence of cysts, visualisation of retro-areolar ducts or any abnormalities. Twenty-three percent of patients are not aware of the type of breast implants and 79% do not know their position to the pectoral muscles. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of their breasts was rather high (7.94 on a scale of 0-10). Mean expected and experienced pain from mammography was low (4.37 and 2.00 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in expected pain between those who already had mammography and those who did not. There was a significant positive correlation between the expected and the experienced pain. Mammography and breast sonography were technically feasible and no gross anomalies were detected. Since both exams were judged as nearly painless, 98% of transsexual women intended to come back if they would be invited. Since breast cancer risk in transsexual women is largely unknown and breast exams are very well accepted, breast screening habits in this population should not differ from those of biological women.

  12. Mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyers, S.; Villeirs, G.; Vanherreweghe, E.; Verstraelen, H.; Monstrey, S.; Van den Broecke, R.; Gerris, J.

    2010-01-01

    Data on the necessity of performing screening mammographies in transsexual women are lacking. The main objective of this study was to assess the possibility to perform mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women. Fifty Dutch-speaking transsexual women were interviewed about the following: attitude towards mammography and breast sonography, importance attributed to and satisfaction with breast appearance, opinion about the necessity of breast check-up, expectations regarding discomfort during the exams and knowledge about the breast surgery. A fasting blood sample, clinical breast exam, mammography and breast sonography were performed. At mammography the following parameters were noted: density, technical quality, location of the prostheses, presence of any abnormalities and painfulness. At sonography the following parameters were recorded: density, presence of cysts, visualisation of retro-areolar ducts or any abnormalities. Twenty-three percent of patients are not aware of the type of breast implants and 79% do not know their position to the pectoral muscles. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of their breasts was rather high (7.94 on a scale of 0-10). Mean expected and experienced pain from mammography was low (4.37 and 2.00 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in expected pain between those who already had mammography and those who did not. There was a significant positive correlation between the expected and the experienced pain. Mammography and breast sonography were technically feasible and no gross anomalies were detected. Since both exams were judged as nearly painless, 98% of transsexual women intended to come back if they would be invited. Since breast cancer risk in transsexual women is largely unknown and breast exams are very well accepted, breast screening habits in this population should not differ from those of biological women.

  13. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography; Desenvolvimento de objetos de teste para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM

  14. Guideline for determining the mean glandular dose according to DIN 6868-162 and threshold contrast visibility according to the quality assurance guideline for digital mammography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, A; Schopphoven, S; Land, I; Blaser, D; Sobczak, T

    2014-05-01

    As part of the physico-technical quality assurance of the German breast cancer screening program, the threshold contrast visibility and the average glandular dose of every digital mammography system have to fulfill the requirements of the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" (4th Edition). To accomplish uniform measurements in all federal states of Germany, the physical board of the reference centers developed a special guideline in 2009. Due to recent changes in the guidelines and standards, a second version of the guideline was developed by the reference centers. This guideline describes the determination of the average glandular dose as well as the CDMAM image acquisition and the CDMAM image evaluation. The determination of the threshold contrast visibility can be performed visually or automatically. The determination of the average glandular dose is based on DIN 6868 - 162 and the threshold contrast visibility test is based on the German "Quality Assurance Guideline". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Early experience in the use of quantitative image quality measurements for the quality assurance of full field digital mammography x-ray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N W

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative image quality results in the form of the modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are presented for nine full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems. These parameters are routinely measured as part of the quality assurance (QA) programme for the seven FFDM units covered by our centre. Just one additional image is required compared to the standard FFDM protocol; this is the image of an edge, from which the MTF is calculated. A variance image is formed from one of the flood images used to measure the detector response and this provides useful information on the condition of the detector with respect to artefacts. Finally, the NNPS is calculated from the flood image acquired at a target detector air kerma (DAK) of 100 μGy. DQE is then estimated from these data; however, no correction is currently made for effects of detector cover transmission on DQE. The coefficient of variation (cov) of the 50% point of the MTF for five successive MTF results was 1%, while the cov for the 50% MTF point for an a-Se system over a period of 17 months was approximately 3%. For four a-Se based systems, the cov for the NNPS at 1 mm -1 for a target DAK of 100 μGy was approximately 4%; the same result was found for four CsI based FFDM units. With regard to the stability of NNPS over time, the cov for four NNPS results acquired over a period of 12 months was also approximately 4%. The effect of acquisition geometry on NNPS was also assessed for a CsI based system. NNPS data acquired with the antiscatter grid in place showed increased noise at low spatial frequency; this effect was more severe as DAK increased. DQE results for the three detector types (a-Se, CsI and CR) are presented as a function of DAK. Some reduction in DQE was found for both the a-Se and CsI based systems at a target DAK of 12.5 μGy when compared to DQE data acquired at 100 μGy. For the CsI based systems, DQE at 1 mm -1 fell from 0

  16. Screen-film mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, W.W.; Janus, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of screen-film mammography has resulted in the re-emergence of confidence, rather than fear, in mammography. When screen-film mammography is performed with state-of-the-art dedicated equipment utilizing vigorous breast compression and a ''soft'' x-ray beam for improved contrast, screen-film images are equivalent or superior to those of reduced-dose xeromammography and superior to those of nonscreen film mammography. Technological aids for conversion from xeromammographic or nonscreen film mammographic techniques to screen-film techniques have been described. Screen-film mammography should not be attempted until dedicated equipment has been obtained and the importance of vigorous compression has been understood

  17. The Danish national quality database for births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database: The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population: The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables: Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous...... Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion: Measuring quality of care during...

  18. Average glandular dose in paired digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis acquisitions in a population based screening program: effects of measuring breast density, air kerma and beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge Østerås, Bjørn; Skaane, Per; Gullien, Randi; Catrine Trægde Martinsen, Anne

    2018-02-01

    The main purpose was to compare average glandular dose (AGD) for same-compression digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisitions in a population based screening program, with and without breast density stratification, as determined by automatically calculated breast density (Quantra™). Secondary, to compare AGD estimates based on measured breast density, air kerma and half value layer (HVL) to DICOM metadata based estimates. AGD was estimated for 3819 women participating in the screening trial. All received craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views of each breasts with paired DM and DBT acquisitions. Exposure parameters were extracted from DICOM metadata. Air kerma and HVL were measured for all beam qualities used to acquire the mammograms. Volumetric breast density was estimated using Quantra™. AGD was estimated using the Dance model. AGD reported directly from the DICOM metadata was also assessed. Mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.10 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. Mean DBT/DM AGD ratio was 1.24. For fatty breasts: mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.27 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. For dense breasts: mean AGD was 1.73 and 1.79 mGy, for DM and DBT, respectively. For breasts of similar thickness, dense breasts had higher AGD for DM and similar AGD for DBT. The DBT/DM dose ratio was substantially lower for dense compared to fatty breasts (1.08 versus 1.33). The average c-factor was 1.16. Using previously published polynomials to estimate glandularity from thickness underestimated the c-factor by 5.9% on average. Mean AGD error between estimates based on measurements (air kerma and HVL) versus DICOM header data was 3.8%, but for one mammography unit as high as 7.9%. Mean error of using the AGD value reported in the DICOM header was 10.7 and 13.3%, respectively. Thus, measurement of breast density, radiation dose and beam quality can substantially affect AGD estimates.

  19. Slovak National Prize for Quality 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steflik, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Competition for the Slovak National Prize for Quality is a milestone in the history of the Mochovce NPP. The Mochovce NPP won the prize in 2004. The article describes in detail the preparatory efforts including not only technological issues but also various administrative challenges. The impacts of this achievement on the plant's subsequent development are also highlighted. (orig.)

  20. National Quality Improvement Center on Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Charlyn Harper

    2014-01-01

    The national Quality Improvement Center on early Childhood (QIC-eC) funded four research and demonstration projects that tested child maltreatment prevention approaches. The projects were guided by several key perspectives: the importance of increasing protective factors in addition to decreasing risk factors in child maltreatment prevention…

  1. Mammography image quality and evidence based practice: Analysis of the demonstration of the inframammary angle in the digital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuur, Kelly; Webb, Jodi; Poulos, Ann; Nielsen, Sharon; Robinson, Wayne

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the clinical rates of the demonstration of the inframammary angle (IMA) on the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view of the breast on digital mammograms and to compare the outcomes with current accreditation standards for compliance. Relationships between the IMA, age, the posterior nipple line (PNL) and compressed breast thickness will be identified and the study outcomes validated using appropriate analyses of inter-reader and inter-rater reliability and variability. Differences in left versus right data were also investigated. A quantitative retrospective study of 2270 randomly selected paired digital mammograms performed by BreastScreen NSW was undertaken. Data was collected by direct measurement and visual analysis. Intra-class correlation analyses were used to evaluate inter- and intra-rater reliability. The IMA was demonstrated on 52.4% of individual and 42.6% of paired mammograms. A linear relationship was found between the posterior nipple line (PNL) and age (p-value PNL was predicted to increase by 0.48 mm for every one year increment in age. The odds of demonstrating the IMA reduced by 2% for every one year increase in age (p-value = 0.001); are 0.4% higher for every 1 mm increase in PNL (p-value = 0.001) and 1.6% lower for every 1 mm increase in compressed breast thickness, (p-valuePNL while there was 100% agreement for the demonstration of the IMA. Analysis of the demonstration of the IMA indicates clinically achievable rates (42.6%) well below that required for compliance (50%-75%) to known worldwide accreditation standards for screening mammography. These standards should be aligned to the reported evidence base. Visualisation of the IMA is impacted negatively by increasing age and compressed breast thickness but positively by breast size (PNL). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital mammography; Mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, M.; Torres, R.

    2010-07-01

    Mammography represents one of the most demanding radiographic applications, simultaneously requiring excellent contrast sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. Film/screen is the most widely extended image receptor in mammography due to both its high spatial resolution and contrast. The film/screen limitations are related with its narrow latitude, structural noise and that is at the same time the medium for the image acquisition, storage and presentation. Several digital detector made with different technologies can overcome these difficulties. Here, these technologies as well as their main advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. Also it is discussed its impact on the mammography examinations, mainly on the breast screening programs. (Author).

  3. Implantation of radiation qualities for mammography in accordance with the IEC 61627 and TRS 457 criteria; Implantacao das qualidades de radiacao para mamografia, segundo os criterios da IEC 61627 e do TRS 457

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Evandro J.; David, Mariano G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: pires@lcr.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab de Ciencias Radiologicas; Peixoto, J. Guilherme, E-mail: guilhem@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work it is discussed the technical conditions of the implantation of radiation qualities adequate for dosemeter applied to mammography at the Radiological Science Laboratory (RSL) of the University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It performed tests for evaluation the homogeneity of the radiation field, the scattering, the half-layers and the system stability. The test results point for adequacy of the laboratory installed at the LCR for calibration of the mentioned dosemeters in seven qualities of radiation and the expanded uncertainty with better capacity of measurement at those qualities was of {+-}1.8% (k = 2)

  4. Quality system in Malaysian National Tissue Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go Boon Thong; Firdaus, M. N.; Abd Rani Shamsudin

    1999-01-01

    Quality System in Malaysian National Tissue Bank is based on the Quality Manual which has been drawn up by the chairman, who is the Dean, School of Medical Sciences. The Quality Manual include general standard for Tissue Banking in University Science of Malaysia which describe and explain a set of general standard similar to the EATB standard. The primary aim of the quality system is to produce a safe and effective tissue graft for successful clinical use and to ensure the safety of tissue bank operators. The Quality Manual also related the role of a Technical Manual, which explain the standard of technical aspect of tissue bank in a Quality Assurance. The safe working environment and Good Laboratory Practice is highlight in Quality System. Documentation of tissue bank activities is the key to the administration to tissue bank. Finally Quality System in tissue banking will never be complete without a Tissue Bank Auditing System which allow the tissue bank coordinator and staff to look into the problem and further enhance the progress of the tissue bank

  5. Mammography and radiation risk; Mammographie und Strahlenrisiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie

    1998-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasia among women in Germany. The use of mammography as the most relevant diagnostic procedure has increased rapidly over the last decade. Radiation risks associated with mammography may be estimated from the results of numerous epidemiological studies providing risk coefficients for breast cancer in relation to age at exposure. Various calculations can be performed using the risk coefficients. For instance, a single mammography examination (bilateral, two views of each breast) of a women aged 45 may enhance the risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime numerically from about 12% of 12.0036%. This increase in risk is lower by a factor of 3,300 as compared to the risk of developing breast cancer in the absence of radiation exposure. At the age of 40 or more, the benefit of mammography exceeds the radiation risk by a factor of about 100. At higher ages this factor increases further. Finally, the dualism of individual risk and collective risk is considered. It is shown that the individual risk of a patient, even after multiple mammography examinations, is vanishingly small. Nevertheless, the basic principle of minimising radiation exposure must be followed to keep the collective risk in the total population as low as reasonably achievable. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Mammakarzinom ist in Deutschland die haeufigste Krebserkrankung der Frau, und entsprechend oft wird die Mammographie als das derzeit wichtigste Diagnoseverfahren eingesetzt. Zur Beurteilung des mit einer mammographischen Untersuchung verbundenen Strahlenrisikos liegen die Resultate einer groesseren Anzahl strahlenepidemiologischer Studien vor. Diese liefern den Risikokoeffizienten fuer Brustkrebs in Abhaengigkeit vom Lebensalter bei Strahlenexposition und ermoeglichen somit die Berechnung des altersabhaengigen Strahlenrisikos. Beispielsweise wird durch eine einmalige Mammographie-Untersuchung (bilateral, je zwei Aufnahmen in zwei Ebenen) bei einer 45

  6. Characterization of radiation qualities used in diagnostic X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.; Zahili, M.; Al Ahmad, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to adjust the radiation beams emitted from X-ray tubes installed at the National Radiation Metrology Laboratory in the field of diagnostic radiology (radiology and mammography) according to the IAEA protocol code number TRS 457, the second goal of this study is to establish various radiation qualities used fordiagnostic radiology applications: RQR, RQA and RQT and the radiation qualities related to mammography applications: RQA-M and RQR-M (author).

  7. Establishing daily quality control (QC) in screen-film mammography using leeds tor (max) phantom at the breast imaging unit of USTH-Benavides Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acaba, K. J. C.; Cinco, L. D.; Melchor, J. N.

    2016-03-01

    Daily QC tests performed on screen film mammography (SFM) equipment are essential to ensure that both SFM unit and film processor are working in a consistent manner. The Breast Imaging Unit of USTH-Benavides Cancer Institute has been conducting QC following the test protocols in the IAEA Human Health Series No.2 manual. However, the availability of Leeds breast phantom (CRP E13039) in the facility made the task easier. Instead of carrying out separate tests on AEC constancy and light sensitometry, only one exposure of the phantom is done to accomplish the two tests. It was observed that measurements made on mAs output and optical densities (ODs) using the Leeds TOR (MAX) phantom are comparable with that obtained from the usual conduct of tests, taking into account the attenuation characteristic of the phantom. Image quality parameters such as low contrast and high contrast details were also evaluated from the phantom image. The authors recognize the usefulness of the phantom in determining technical factors that will help improve detection of smallest pathological details on breast images. The phantom is also convenient for daily QC monitoring and economical since less number of films is expended.

  8. Mammography manual for the daily routine. A technical, practical and quality guide for radiologists, gynaecologists and radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth-Ganter, G.; Fischer, U.

    2002-01-01

    Gudrun Roth-Ganther presents in this book a wealth of professional experience that she has been accumulating over many years as a radiographer tutor at home and abroad. Step by step the reader will learn how to make high-quality mammographs. Important aspects: the normal radiographic anatomy of the mamma, factors influencing the image quality, technical parameters, exposure techniques, approaches for quality assessment and quality assurance, detecting and avoiding mistakes. (orig./CB) [de

  9. Performance of clinical mammography: a nationwide study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Vejborg, Ilse; Severinsen, Niels

    2006-01-01

    that clinical mammography worked best in patient populations of purely symptomatic women. Our data indicate that to increase the accuracy of clinical mammography at the community level, the presence of an experienced radiologist should be prioritized ahead of raising the clinic size.......Clinical mammography is the key tool for breast cancer diagnosis, but little is known about the impact of the organisational set-up on the performance. We evaluated whether organisational factors influence the performance of clinical mammography. Clinical mammography data from all clinics...... in Denmark in the year 2000 were collected and linked to cancer outcome. Use of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene register for identification of radiology clinics ensured comprehensive nationwide registration. We used the final mammographic assessment at the end of the imaging work-up to determine...

  10. National Program of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Samper, J. L.; Dominguez Hung, L.; Morales Lopez, J. L.; Alfonso Laguardia, R.; Garcia Yip, F.

    2001-01-01

    It tries on the establishment of a Quality Assurance Nacional System, a Quality Assurance Committee implemented in Cuba, and a Quality Auditory National Program implemented in Cuba to control and assure radiotherapy quality

  11. Mammography practices for radiation protection in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, Anthony K.

    2008-01-01

    All mammography units in the country, totaling fourteen in number at the time, were evaluated on the basis of performance and practice to come up with useful data for summing up the mammography practice in Kenya. The study was carried out by performing hands-on quality control tests on the units using internationally established protocols. Image quality and dose measurement data were generated in all the centers and clearly indicated that the practice of mammography, more so on optimization viewpoint is so much varied. A standard method was used to obtain these data by use of mammography accreditation phantom. Data from actual patients was also collected in three major centers in Nairobi. On the criteria used for evaluating phantom image quality, ten out of fourteen units did satisfy the set criterion. The average glandular dose was 2.79 mGy per cranio caudal (cc) view of the phantom and 3.27 mGy per cc view for the sampled patients. The internationally recommended dose level for such a view is 3.0 mGy. One worrying observation made was that most units failed on one of the easiest test of mammographic unit assembly. Of most concern was the lack of technique charts for the practice detailing the imaging parameters being employed for the procedure. Most centers do not take the servicing of equipment seriously and others merely ignore even the crucial issues of equipment performance like the automatic exposure control and viewing conditions of the reporting areas.The results of this study calls for the setting up of a programme of optimization of radiological protection in mammography using the experience of other countries that have put in place quality assurance programs, setting and adoption of Dose Reference Levels (DRLs) as part of Quality Assurance (QA). This practice needs an effective quality control program which should start with the selection of appropriate equipment for mammography and the use of qualified personnel including the radiologist, radiographer

  12. Assessment of mammography in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation of national mammographic equipment was conducted, due to the increasing incidence of breast cancer in Costa Rican women. From June 2002 to October 2003, 2 of the 3 global indicators of image quality were evaluated, (mean glandular dose and phantom image) in 26 mammography machines facilitated by radiologists in charge of the same. The mean glandular dose found was 1.75 ± 0.60 mGy with a range of 0.8 a 2.56. Regarding quality image, 73% of the evaluated equipment was able to see 4 or more fibers, 53% saw 3 or more groups of microcalcifications and 82% saw 3 or more mass groups. All mean glandular doses were below the international reference dose value of 3 mGy. However, the analysis of phantom images showed that only 54% of all the equipment had a total score (sum of mass groups, fibers and microcalcifications) superior or equal to 10, as expected. A correct diagnosis that could eventually save the patient's life is the main objective of a mammogram; the factors that are degrading the images must be found and it might be necessary to increase the doses to achieve this. This study demonstrates the urgent necessity to introduce permanent quality control programs that will provide excellent images with the lowest internationally recommended doses.(author) [es

  13. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...

  14. Mammography - recent technical developments and their clinical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemdal, Bengt; Mattsson, Soeren [Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Andersson, Ingvar [Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Thilander Klang, Anne [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering; Bengtsson, Gert; Jarlman, O. [Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Leitz, Wolfram [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Bjurstam, Nils [Univ. of North Norway, Troms (Norway). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-05-01

    The recent technical developments in digital as well as screen-film X-ray mammography have been reviewed in order to evaluate their clinical potential and to analyse possible lines for future development. Material and methods: The scientific literature has been reviewed, conferences covered and contacts with colleagues developed. Companies in the field have been inquired and invited for presentations. Own experience has been gathered from different screen-film and digital mammography systems. Results and conclusions: Although there are important complementary techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray mammography is still the golden standard for breast imaging. It is relatively simple and cost-effective, and it is presently the only realistic technique for screening in a large scale. It is still largely the only technique that can detect breast cancer in a pre invasive stage. Equipment for digital mammography is commercially available both with small area and full field technique (FFDM). The development of FFDM systems is now intense, as well as the development of dedicated workstations and computer-aided detection (CAD). In spite of this, the introduction of digital mammography has been very slow compared to most other X-ray examinations due to high costs and technical challenges to meet the high demands on image quality and dose in mammography as well as the demands on specialised workflow support for screening mammography and suitable display techniques. Film reading of digital mammograms has been the most common display mode so far, but to take full advantage of the digital concept, diagnostic as well as logistic, monitor reading must be applied. There is a potential of FFDM systems for significantly higher image quality or significantly lower dose than screen-film mammography (SFM), or both. Further research is necessary to fully use this potential. The investment costs are much higher for digital than screen-film mammography

  15. Mammography - recent technical developments and their clinical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemdal, Bengt; Mattsson, Soeren; Bjurstam, Nils

    2002-05-01

    The recent technical developments in digital as well as screen-film X-ray mammography have been reviewed in order to evaluate their clinical potential and to analyse possible lines for future development. Material and methods: The scientific literature has been reviewed, conferences covered and contacts with colleagues developed. Companies in the field have been inquired and invited for presentations. Own experience has been gathered from different screen-film and digital mammography systems. Results and conclusions: Although there are important complementary techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray mammography is still the golden standard for breast imaging. It is relatively simple and cost-effective, and it is presently the only realistic technique for screening in a large scale. It is still largely the only technique that can detect breast cancer in a pre invasive stage. Equipment for digital mammography is commercially available both with small area and full field technique (FFDM). The development of FFDM systems is now intense, as well as the development of dedicated workstations and computer-aided detection (CAD). In spite of this, the introduction of digital mammography has been very slow compared to most other X-ray examinations due to high costs and technical challenges to meet the high demands on image quality and dose in mammography as well as the demands on specialised workflow support for screening mammography and suitable display techniques. Film reading of digital mammograms has been the most common display mode so far, but to take full advantage of the digital concept, diagnostic as well as logistic, monitor reading must be applied. There is a potential of FFDM systems for significantly higher image quality or significantly lower dose than screen-film mammography (SFM), or both. Further research is necessary to fully use this potential. The investment costs are much higher for digital than screen-film mammography

  16. National trends in drinking water quality violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Maura; Wu, Haowei; Lall, Upmanu

    2018-02-27

    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the United States is a growing challenge in the face of aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances. In the aftermath of the Flint lead crisis, there is an urgent need to assess the current state of US drinking water. However, no nationwide assessment has yet been conducted on trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. Efforts to reduce violations are of national concern given that, in 2015, nearly 21 million people relied on community water systems that violated health-based quality standards. In this paper, we evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act using a panel dataset of 17,900 community water systems over the period 1982-2015. We also identify vulnerability factors of communities and water systems through probit regression. Increasing time trends and violation hot spots are detected in several states, particularly in the Southwest region. Repeat violations are prevalent in locations of violation hot spots, indicating that water systems in these regions struggle with recurring issues. In terms of vulnerability factors, we find that violation incidence in rural areas is substantially higher than in urbanized areas. Meanwhile, private ownership and purchased water source are associated with compliance. These findings indicate the types of underperforming systems that might benefit from assistance in achieving consistent compliance. We discuss why certain violations might be clustered in some regions and strategies for improving national drinking water quality.

  17. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems; Dose glandular e controle de qualidade da imagem em servicos de mamografia com sistema de radiografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  18. Practical digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Beverly E. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Virginia Mason Medical Center, VA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This book is meant for the radiologist who is facing the challenge of organizing a digital mammographic imaging center. This text is meant to be a practical book that provides information about digital mammographic physics and equipment which will allow one to intelligently compare technologies and systems. Some of the major challenges include: large expense; rapidly changing technology, and inconsistent connectivity; and finally, need for strong information technology support. The initial conversion cost to digital mammographic imaging is relatively expensive due to the cost of digital mammography hardware, software, and storage. Virtually all other imaging modalities are being converted to purely digital storage and transfer, and the digital trend in mammography is inevitable. Technical advantages of digital mammography are described. However, the improved flexibility in image display and transfer are some of its strongest features. In conclusion, although there are increasing imaging modalities that may be used to evaluate breast disease, mammography will continue to play a key role in detecting breast cancer. To be an effective imager, the radiologist should become familiar with digital mammography and understand its role within the increasing complex structure of breast imaging techniques.

  19. Practical digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Beverly E.

    2008-01-01

    This book is meant for the radiologist who is facing the challenge of organizing a digital mammographic imaging center. This text is meant to be a practical book that provides information about digital mammographic physics and equipment which will allow one to intelligently compare technologies and systems. Some of the major challenges include: large expense; rapidly changing technology, and inconsistent connectivity; and finally, need for strong information technology support. The initial conversion cost to digital mammographic imaging is relatively expensive due to the cost of digital mammography hardware, software, and storage. Virtually all other imaging modalities are being converted to purely digital storage and transfer, and the digital trend in mammography is inevitable. Technical advantages of digital mammography are described. However, the improved flexibility in image display and transfer are some of its strongest features. In conclusion, although there are increasing imaging modalities that may be used to evaluate breast disease, mammography will continue to play a key role in detecting breast cancer. To be an effective imager, the radiologist should become familiar with digital mammography and understand its role within the increasing complex structure of breast imaging techniques

  20. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications...-9668-2] RIN 2060-AP37 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  1. The National Security Strategy and National Interests: Quantity or Quality?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercado, Leo

    2001-01-01

    The national security strategy (NSS), National Security Strategy for a New Century, published in December 1999, categorizes national interests as vital, important, and humanitarian and other interests...

  2. A study of some technical essentials of X-ray mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Houde; Jiang Qin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To improve the quality of mammography and diagnostic accuracy by analyzing and studying some of the technical essentials of X-ray mammography. Methods: The mammography quality of 21 hospitals were investigated. The image quality of normal intensifying screen-film combination was tested and compared with computerized mammography. The filming positions and operating skills were studied. Results: The important mammography details that were displayed have low conformity with the diagnostic requirements, mainly due to non-conformity of these equipment to the requirements. The optimal pressure suitable for mammography of the Chinese women was around 12 kg. Conclusion: Necessary attention must be paid to the improvement of imaging features of these equipment. The improved operating skills will greatly raise the detecting percentage of pathological changes of breasts

  3. Teaching atlas of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, L.; Dean, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    The illustrated case reports in this teaching atlas cover practically the entire range of possible pathological changes and are based on in-patient case material and 80,000 screening documents. The two basic approaches, - detection and analysis of changes -, are taught comprehensively and in great detail. A systematic procedure for analysing the mammographies, in order to detect even the very least changes, and its practical application is explained using mammographies showing unclear findings at first sight. A system of coordinates is presented which allows precise localisation of the changes. Exercises for practising the technique of identifying the pathological changes round up the methodolical chapters. Additional imaging technical enhancements and detail enlargements are of great help in interpreting the findings. The specific approach adopted for this teaching atlas is a 'reverse procedure', which leaves the beaten track and starts with analysing the mammographies and evaluating the radiographic findings, in order to finally derive the diagnosis. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality From Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Lee, Christoph I; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2016-02-16

    Estimates of risk for radiation-induced breast cancer from mammography screening have not considered variation in dose exposure or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening results. To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening while considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation among women. 2 simulation-modeling approaches. U.S. population. Women aged 40 to 74 years. Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 years until age 74 years. Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (harms) per 100,000 women screened. Annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancer cases (95% CI, 88 to 178) leading to 16 deaths (CI, 11 to 23), relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 cases of radiation-induced breast cancer leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete examination (8% of population) were projected to have greater radiation-induced breast cancer risk (266 cancer cases and 35 deaths per 100,000 women) than other women (113 cancer cases and 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 years reduced risk for radiation-induced cancer 5-fold. Life-years lost from radiation-induced breast cancer could not be estimated. Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are affected by dose variability from screening, resultant diagnostic work-up, initiation age, and screening frequency. Women with large breasts may have a greater risk for radiation-induced breast cancer. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, National Cancer Institute.

  5. Does an increase in compression force really improve visual image quality in mammography? – An initial investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, C.E.; Hogg, P.; Cassidy, S.; Denton, E.R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Literature speculates that visual image quality (IQ) and compression force levels may be directly related. This small study investigates whether a relationship exists between compression force levels and visual IQ. Method: To investigate how visual IQ varies with different levels of compression force, 39 clients were selected over a 6 year screening period that had received markedly different amounts of compression force on each of their three sequential screens. Images for the 3 screening episodes for all women were scored visually using 3 different IQ scales. Results: Correlation coefficients between the 3 IQ scales were positive and high (0.82, 0.9 and 0.85). For the scales, the IQ scores their correlation does not vary significantly, even though different compression levels had been applied. Kappa IQ scale 1: 0.92, 0.89, 0.89. ANOVA IQ scale 2: p = 0.98, p = 0.55, p = 0.56. ICC IQ scale 3: 0.97, 0.93, 0.91. Conclusion: For the 39 clients there is no difference in visual IQ when different amounts of compression are applied. We believe that further work should be conducted into compression force and image quality as ‘higher levels’ of compression force may not be justified in the attainment of suitable visual image quality

  6. X-ray phase imaging using a X-ray tube with a small focal spot. Improvement of image quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Chika; Ohara, Hiromu; Ishisaka, Akira; Shimada, Fumio

    2002-01-01

    Phase contrast X-ray imaging has been studied intensively using X-rays from synchrotron radiation and micro-focus X-ray tubes. However, these studies have revealed the difficulty of this technique's application to practical medical imaging. We have created a phase contrast imaging technique using a molybdenum X-ray tube with a small focal spot size for mammography. We identified the radiographic conditions in phase contrast magnification mammography with a screen-film system, where edge effect due to phase contrast overcomes geometrical unsharpness caused by the 0.1 mm-focal spot of a molybdenum X-ray tube. The edge enhancement due to phase imaging was observed in an image of a plastic tube, and then geometrical configuration of the X-ray tube, the object and the screen-film system was determined for phase imaging of mammography. In order to investigate a potential for medical application of this method, we conducted evaluation of the images of the American Collage of Radiology (ACR) 156 mammography phantom. We obtained higher scores for phase imaging using high speed screen-film systems without any increase of X-ray dose than the score for contract imaging using a standard speed screen-film system. (author)

  7. Potential Cost Savings of Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavika K; Gray, Richard J; Pockaj, Barbara A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss whether the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) render it a viable diagnostic alternative to breast MRI. That CEDM couples low-energy images (comparable to the diagnostic quality of standard mammography) and subtracted contrast-enhanced mammograms make it a cost-effective modality and a realistic substitute for the more costly breast MRI.

  8. Mammography: Technique and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Ja; Bahk, Yong Whee; Lee, Don Young

    1974-01-01

    Mammography is now in world wide use, But this has received rather scanty attention in Korea. The purposes of the present communication are twofold: (1) Detailing of technical and photographic aspects of mam in ography and (2) an assessment of its diagnostic accuracy as experienced by us. The clinical materials consisted of 88 cases of mammography performed at the Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the 2 years-period from April 1972. We used nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine- grain films, and a special mammographic device that can be attached to any of the ordinary radiographic machine. Technical factors are shown in Table II. Of 88 cases 19 were operated on or biopsied. There were 7 cases of carcinoma. 8 cases of inflammatory diseases, and 4 cases of benign tumor. Mammographic diagnosis was correct in 85.7% of carcinoma and 87.5% of inflammatory diseases. One misdiagnosis of 7 cases of carcinoma was turned out to be cystosarcoma phylloides. Of 4 cases of benign tumors 2 were correctly diagnosed, and the other 2 mistaken for either inflammatory disease or simple lactating breast. However, none of the benign conditions were diagnosed as malignant process. We found that nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine-grain films, and hand-processing were necessary in obtaining the mammograms of desirable quality

  9. Digital mammography screening: average glandular dose and first performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, S.; Girnus, R.; Czwoydzinski, J.; Heindel, W.; Decker, T.; Spital, S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Protection Commission demanded structured implementation of digital mammography screening in Germany. The main requirements were the installation of digital reference centers and separate evaluation of the fully digitized screening units. Digital mammography screening must meet the quality standards of the European guidelines and must be compared to analog screening results. We analyzed early surrogate indicators of effective screening and dosage levels for the first German digital screening unit in a routine setting after the first half of the initial screening round. Materials and Methods: We used three digital mammography screening units (one full-field digital scanner [DR] and two computed radiography systems [CR]). Each system has been proven to fulfill the requirements of the National and European guidelines. The radiation exposure levels, the medical workflow and the histological results were documented in a central electronic screening record. Results: In the first year 11,413 women were screened (participation rate 57.5 %). The parenchymal dosages for the three mammographic X-ray systems, averaged for the different breast sizes, were 0.7 (DR), 1.3 (CR), 1.5 (CR) mGy. 7 % of the screened women needed to undergo further examinations. The total number of screen-detected cancers was 129 (detection rate 1.1 %). 21 % of the carcinomas were classified as ductal carcinomas in situ, 40 % of the invasive carcinomas had a histological size ≤ 10 mm and 61 % < 15 mm. The frequency distribution of pT-categories of screen-detected cancer was as follows: pTis 20.9 %, pT1 61.2 %, pT2 14.7 %, pT3 2.3 %, pT4 0.8 %. 73 % of the invasive carcinomas were node-negative. (orig.)

  10. Calibration procedures for mammography dosemeters in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwiazdowska, B.; Ulkowski, P.; Tolwinski, J.; Bulski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent tumour in women and the effectiveness of the treatment depends dramatically on the early detection of the disease. That is the reason why in Poland the mammography control examinations are strongly supported by the Centre of Oncology. In Poland there are over 400 mammography units which account for about 300,000 examinations per year. An investigation performed by the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw at about 100 mammography facilities proved that in most cases the doses absorbed by the patients could be reduced without decrease of image quality. This is one of the reasons why the Polish Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) dealing mainly with calibration of radiotherapy dosemeters is extending its activities and therefore new facilities and equipment adapted for calibration of mammographic dosemeters have been installed. The mammography dosimetry calibration equipment is permanently installed in the same laboratory room where the radiotherapy dosemeters are calibrated. A base of a mammography unit no longer in clinical use, together with its movable system has been adapted to handle ionization chamber holders. An X-ray tube with a 50 kV high frequency generator was also installed. The tube, a Varian type OEG-50-2, (designed for laboratory applications) with molybdenum anode of an anode angle 23,7 deg. and with a large focus, effective size approximately 5 mm 2 , has an inherent filtration of 0,25 mm beryllium. It is installed in a housing with 2mm lead shielding; a cone shaped beam is formed by a system of three collimators

  11. Application of the ROC method to assessment of image quality issues in mammography. Part 2. Comparative evaluation of image quality and radiation dose to thick body sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.; Saebel, M.

    2000-01-01

    For the experimental comparative assessment reported, the following radiation qualities were compared for radiation dose applied and image quality: molydenum anode, 30mum molybdenum filter, X-ray tube potential differences of 26-32 kV; molybdenum anode, 25 mum rhodium filter, X-ray tube potential differences of 26-32 kV; tungsten anode, 50 mum rhodium filter, X-ray tube potential differences of 26-32 kV. The results show that in the differentiated assessment according to the various radiation qualities, significant deviations in imaging quality of the different detail types are possible. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and image of digital mammography and film mammography in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, M.; Leyton, F.; Rodrigue, L. L.C.; Oliveira, M.A.; Joana, G.S.; Silva, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. Mammography is the best method for breast-cancer screening and is capable of reducing mortality rates To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. Digital mammography has been proposed as a substitute for film mammography given the benefits inherent to digital technology. The purpose of our study was to compare the technical performance of digital mammographic and screen-film mammography. A PMMA phantom with objects to simulate breast structures. For the screen/film (SF) technique the results showed that 54% mammography units did not achieve the minimum acceptable performance as far the image quality. Besides, 67% services showed inadequate performance in their processing systems, which had significant influence on the image quality. At the mean glandular dose only 44% of digital systems evaluated were compliant in all thicknesses of PMMA. The average glandular dose AGD was 90 % higher than in screen/film systems. (authors)

  13. Comparison of TLD air kerma measurements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.

    2002-01-01

    The mammography examination is usually targeted at asymptomatic women so the narrow balance between benefit and undesirable effects is important. During the past few decades there have been significant advances in the equipment used for mammography. Even when the latest equipment and imaging systems are used, there is considerable variation from centre-to-centre in the choice of imaging parameters and techniques. There may be quite large differences in image quality and breast dose among the centres. A Co-ordinated Research Programme on 'Image quality and patient dose optimization in mammography in Eastern European Countries' was conducted by the IAEA, aiming at defining a methodology for the implementation of a quality assurance (QA) programme in mammography and at exercising the assessment of image quality and patient doses in a sample of hospitals in East European countries. Selected mammography clinics from Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia participate in the project. The teams consisted of experienced clinicians and physicists. They were supported by a group of experts (clinicians and medical physicists) from France, Italy and Spain. As an outcome of the project, improvements in these indicators (image quality and patient dose) after the implementation of the QA programme are expected. A comparison of dosimetry systems has been organized to assure that dosimetry measurements done in the frame of the project are comparable and traceable to the international measurement system. All five East European countries plus Spain took part in the exercise. The thermoluminescent (TL) method was selected for the comparison

  14. Dose measurements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Kallinger, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dose measurements at the mamma during mammography were carried out in the form of direct measurement with thermoluminescent dosimetry. Measurement was done for the in- and outcoming doses at the mamma, the dose exposure of the sternal region and the scattered rays above the symphysis, the latter as parameter for the genetic radiation exposure. As expected, the dose of the smooth radiation used for mammography showed a strong decrease at the outcome point in comparison with the income point. Surprisingly high was the scattered radiation in the sternal region. A corresponding protection by lead plates could be taken into consideration. Extremely low is the scattered radiation above the symphysis. Even measurements with the very sensitive calcium fluoride dosimeters did not reveal any practically important dose in the symphysis region. Most measurement values remained below the determinable dose of 0.3mR. Some maximal values varied in the range of 3-1 mR. (orig.) [de

  15. Current status of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crymes, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Great progress has been made in recent years in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer; however, breast cancer continues to be the most common and lethal cancer in women today. Early diagnosis is essential in order for treatmet to be given before the tumor spreads beyond the breast. The radiation risks of mammography have been greatly reduced with the use of newer low-dose techniques, and the benefits of mammography have increased because of a better understanding of the natural history of breast cancer, as well as improved methods of treatment. Radiologists must continue to take an active role in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Continued research is needed in order to improve screening methods and to develop newer, noninvasive techniques

  16. Soft copy digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Hee

    2005-01-01

    Screen-film mammography (SFM) has been the standard method used for breast cancer screening and making a clinical diagnosis. It is a valuable modality for the detection and differentiation of breast calcifications. The advantages are the high spatital resolution, the convenient display, and inexpensiveness. However, it has some inherent limitations such as its low detective quantum efficiency and difficulty of post-processing after obtaining after an image. Digital mammography (DM) has the potential to overcome the inherent limitations of SFM. DM systems directly qualify x-ray photons and decouple the process of x-ray photon detection from the image display. The digital images can be processed by a computer and displayed in multiple formats. Thus, DM is better than SFM for the detection of mass lesions due to its high contrast resolution

  17. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  18. Trimodel Mammography with Perfect Coregistration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    background, the major confounding factor in reading mammography; the imaging characteristics suggest that this contrast mechanism would be preferable...image with enhanced edges and reduced anatomical background, the major confounding factor in reading mammography; the imaging characteristics suggest...subjects, vertebrate animals , biohazards, and/or select agents Describe significant deviations, unexpected outcomes, or changes in approved protocols

  19. Data quality in the Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell; Severinsen, Marianne Tang

    2013-01-01

    The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) has documented coverage of above 98.5%. Less is known about the quality of the recorded data.......The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) has documented coverage of above 98.5%. Less is known about the quality of the recorded data....

  20. Nationwide quality improvement of cholecystectomy: results from a national database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Kirstine M; Bardram, Linda

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether quality improvements in the performance of cholecystectomy have been achieved in Denmark since 2006, after revision of the Danish National Guidelines for treatment of gallstones.......To evaluate whether quality improvements in the performance of cholecystectomy have been achieved in Denmark since 2006, after revision of the Danish National Guidelines for treatment of gallstones....

  1. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...... inventory is able to take into account the data requirements of air quality models...

  2. Average glandular dose in routine mammography screening using a Sectra Microdose Mammography unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemdal, B.; Herrnsdorf, L.; Andersson, I.; Bengtsson, G.; Heddson, B.; Olsson, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Sectra MicroDose Mammography system is based on direct photon counting (with a solid-state detector), and a substantially lower dose to the breast than when using conventional system can be expected. In this work absorbed dose measurements have been performed for the first unit used in routine mammography screening (at the Hospitals of Helsingborg (Sweden)). Two European protocols on dosimetry in mammography have been followed. Measurement of half value layer (HVL) cannot be performed as prescribed, but this study has demonstrated than non-invasive measurements of HVL can be performed accurately with a sensitive and well collimated solid-state detector with simultaneous correction for the energy dependence. The average glandular dose for a 50 mm standard breast with 50% glandularity, simulated by 45 mm polymethylmethacrylate, was found to be 0.21 and 0.28 mGy in March and December 2004, respectively. These values are much lower than for any other mammography system on the market today. It has to be stressed that the measurement were made using the current clinical settings and that no systematic optimisation of the relationship between absorbed dose and diagnostic image quality has been performed within the present study. In order to further increase the accuracy of absorbed dose measurements for this unit, the existing dose protocols should be revised to account also for the tungsten/aluminium anode/filter combination, the multi-slit pre-collimator device and the occurrence of a dose profile in the scanning direction. (authors)

  3. Doses in mammography. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez P, F.; Acosta R, N.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Benavente, T.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Poma, M.

    2002-01-01

    Mammography is the most important method to detect lesions in the breast with this technique one can detect small tumours before clear clinical symptoms appear. Mammographic image of require high quality standards due that the extremely low contrast between the normal and pathological areas in the breast, eg.g., they have similar attenuation and absorption coefficient. The x-ray mammographic systems, used in this study are Senographe 500t and Senographe DMR, a detector with a RadCal ionization chambers calibrated to the qualities of mammographic x-ray beams, and a breast simulator that is a phantoms of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) of several thicknesses with the equivalence of 50% of the glandular tissue. The results obtained indicate that the values of doses at the entrance surface of a breast (DES) are greater the reference value 20 mGy to 5,0 cm of PMMA and the values of the mean glandular dose (MGD) exceed the reference value of 2,1 mGy for 5,1 cm of compressed thick breast. We consider that the values high of the EDS and MGD are due that the x-ray systems no meeting in good condition or for used of x-ray spectra no suitable, so is recommendable be carried out test of quality control to the x-ray systems and also realize studies, or characterize the of x-ray mammographic spectra

  4. Good Governance and Happiness in Nations: Technical Quality Precedes Democracy and Quality Beats Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Ott (Jan Cornelis)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAverage happiness differs markedly across nations and there appears to be a system in these differences. This paper considers the role of quality of governance, and in particular the role of technical quality as opposed to democratic quality. A comparison of 127 nations in 2006 shows

  5. MR mammography (MRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    The book deals with MRI for the diagnostic evaluation of malignant breast lesions. A survey of methods available for breast examination, magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) is briefly explained in terms of development and technical problems encountered in the various examinations. The clinical aspects from a central part of the book, giving information relating to the various neoplasms and a comprehensive review of cases. The book concludes with a chapter discussing the interpretation of data and images, presenting examples of normal findings and of manifestations of carcinoma, fibroadenoma, cysts, mastopathies, scars due to plastic surgery, and the lactating breast. (UWA). 648 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickles, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill

  7. Mechanistic modeling for mammography screening risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijwaard, Harmen

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Western populations show a very high incidence of breast cancer and in many countries mammography screening programs have been set up for the early detection of these cancers. Through these programs large numbers of women (in the Netherlands, 700.000 per year) are exposed to low but not insignificant X-ray doses. ICRP based risk estimates indicate that the number of breast cancer casualties due to mammography screening can be as high as 50 in the Netherlands per year. The number of lives saved is estimated to be much higher, but for an accurate calculation of the benefits of screening a better estimate of these risks is indispensable. Here it is attempted to better quantify the radiological risks of mammography screening through the application of a biologically based model for breast tumor induction by X-rays. The model is applied to data obtained from the National Institutes of Health in the U.S. These concern epidemiological data of female TB patients who received high X-ray breast doses in the period 1930-1950 through frequent fluoroscopy of their lungs. The mechanistic model that is used to describe the increased breast cancer incidence is based on an earlier study by Moolgavkar et al. (1980), in which the natural background incidence of breast cancer was modeled. The model allows for a more sophisticated extrapolation of risks to the low dose X-ray exposures that are common in mammography screening and to the higher ages that are usually involved. Furthermore, it allows for risk transfer to other (non-western) populations. The results have implications for decisions on the frequency of screening, the number of mammograms taken at each screening, minimum and maximum ages for screening and the transfer to digital equipment. (author)

  8. Estimation of patient dose in mammography screening examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Fujii, S.; Orito, T.; Asada, Y.; Koga, S.; Horita, K.; Kido, C.

    1996-01-01

    Mammography is one of the most effective examinations for detecting breast carcinoma. Although the dose is usually much higher than that in other types of X-ray examination, that is accepted by the patient because for fears of suffering cancer. Benefit of relatively high doses derived from mammographic examinations is considered to well exceed the risk of cancer induction by radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate patient dose of mammography in Japan by questionnaire sent to 531 institutions selected from whole Japan and direct measurements carried out in 28 hospitals in Aichi Prefecture. The user's guide in mammography published by NCRP and Quality Assurance Program of American College of Radiology were used to assess the exposure and image quality of mammogram. (author)

  9. [Extraction of management information from the national quality assurance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Bartels, Claus; Bobrowski, Christoph

    2007-07-15

    Starting with clinically motivated projects, the national quality assurance program has established a legislative obligatory framework. Annual feedback of results is an important means of quality control. The annual reports cover quality-related information with high granularity. A synopsis for corporate management is missing, however. Therefore, the results of the University Clinics in Greifswald, Germany, have been analyzed and aggregated to support hospital management. Strengths were identified by the ranking of results within the state for each quality indicator, weaknesses by the comparison with national reference values. The assessment was aggregated per clinical discipline and per category (indication, process, and outcome). A composition of quality indicators was claimed multiple times. A coherent concept is still missing. The method presented establishes a plausible summary of strengths and weaknesses of a hospital from the point of view of the national quality assurance program. Nevertheless, further adaptation of the program is needed to better assist corporate management.

  10. Digital mammography and their developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienbeck, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    At the present time digital mammography is a satisfactory breast diagnostic imaging in clinical as well as screening mammography in defined age groups. Nevertheless it shows beside the application of ionizing radiation in women with dense breasts limitations in the detection of non calcification breast cancers. Tomosynthesis, digital contrast-enhanced mammography and breast-CT with or without contrast media lead to better results. Especially the application of contrast media for the visualisation of the tumor angiogenesis is invariably superior to all other non-contrast imaging modalities. However, the excellent results of breast MRI will be probably accessible with none of the new procedures.

  11. Quality Management Systems for the National Qualifications Framework. Quality Assurance in Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Zealand Qualifications Authority, Wellington.

    This booklet explores the idea of quality and its management as it applies to providers of education in particular, but also as it applies to national standards bodies and workplaces offering on-the-job training. It explores the focus on quality in industry and education and defines quality in terms of the features of quality and their…

  12. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  13. ANALISIS PERBANDINGAN PENGHARGAAN KUALITAS MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD DENGAN EUROPEAN QUALITY AWARD (MBNQA vs EQA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Bakhtiar Amalia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Persaingan bisnis global saat ini makin ketat. Dengan adanya Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA dan juga European Quality Award (EQA diharapkan mampu mendorong dan memotivasi perusahaan-perusahaan, baik yang sudah sukses maupun yang sedang berkembang, untuk selalu meningkatkan mutu dan kinerja, serta sebagai kunci daya saing. Dalam makalah ini, kita akan membahas penghargaan kualitas mengenai tujuan, manfaat dan perkembangan, dan trend saat ini, terutama untuk MBNQA dan EQM (European Quality Model. Kita akan membandingkan antara MBNQA dan EQM melalui pengertian, latar belakang, metode-metode, dan kriteria-kriteria, serta aplikasinya, sehingga dapat kita lakukan analisa perbandingan untuk keduanya. Kata Kunci  : Penghargaan Kualitas, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA, European Quality Award (EQA   Emulation of global business in this time more and more to tighten. With existence of Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA as well as European Quality Award (EQA expected can push and motivate companies, both for have successful and also which is expanding, to always increase the quality and performance, and also as competitiveness key. In this paper, we will discuss about national quality award concerning target, benefit, growth, and trend in this time, especially MBNQA and EQM (European Quality Model. We will compare between MBNQA and EQM through congeniality, background, method, and criterions, and also its application,  so that earn us to analyse comparison to both of its. Keyword        : Quality Award, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA, European Quality Award (EQA

  14. A national look at water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Mueller, David K.; Zogorski, John S.; Ryker, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Most water-quality problems we face today result from diffuse "nonpoint" sources of pollution from agricultural land, urban development, forest harvesting and the atmosphere (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers et al., 1999). It is difficult to quantify nonpoint sources because the contaminants they deliver vary in composition and concentrations from hour to hour and season to season. Moreover, the nature of the contamination is complex and varied. When Congress enacted the Clean Water Act 30 years ago, attention was focused on water-quality issues related to the sanitation of rivers and streams - bacteria counts, oxygen in the water for fish, nutrients, temperature, and salinity. Now, attention is turning to the hundreds of synthetic organic compounds like pesticides used in agricultural and residential areas, volatile organics in solvents and gasoline, microbial and viral contamination, and pharmaceuticals and hormones.

  15. Response costs of mammography adherence: Iranian women's perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayarian, Mahsa; Mazloomi-Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saied; Lamyian, Minoor; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Tavangar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Mammography as the most common secondary prevention method has known to be helpful in detecting breast cancer at the early stages. Low level of participation among women toward mammography uptake due to cultural beliefs is a great concern. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of women about response costs of mammography adherence (MA) in Yazd, Iran. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was performed. Fourteen women,one oncology nurse, and a breast cancer survivor were purposefully interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by directed content analysis method based on protection motivation theory (PMT). One main theme was emerged from the analysis namely called "response costs".Two main categories were also emerged from the data; (1) psychological barriers with six subcategories including "embarrassment," "worry about being diagnosed with cancer," "preoccupation with underlying disease," "misconception about mammography," "need for an accompanying person," and "internalizing the experiences of the others," and (2) maladaptive coping modes which encompassed three subcategories: "religious faith," "fatalism," and"avoidance and denial." Useful information was provided about the response costs of mammography utilization based on the perceptions of women. Cognitive barriers may be decreased by conducting modifications in women's awareness and attitude toward MA as well as changing the national health system infrastructures. Incorporating religious and cultural belief systems into MA educational programs through motivational messages is recommended.

  16. Ultrasound as an Adjunct to Mammography for Breast Cancer Screening: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitovic-Jokic, Milica; Tu, Hong Anh; Palimaka, Stefan; Higgins, Caroline; Holubowich, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    mammography among average-risk women aged 50 years and over. In women at high risk of developing breast cancer, there is low-quality evidence that screening with mammography and adjunct ultrasound detects additional cases of disease, with improved sensitivity compared to mammography alone. Screening with adjunct ultrasound also increases the number of false-positive findings and subsequent biopsy recommendations. It is unclear if the use of screening breast ultrasound as an adjunct to mammography will reduce breast cancer–related mortality among high-risk women. The annual cost burden of using adjunct ultrasound to screen high-risk women who cannot receive MRI in Ontario would be small. PMID:27468326

  17. Use of Iodine-based contrast media in digital full-field mammography - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, F.; Diekmann, S.; Taupitz, M.; Bick, U.; Winzer, K.-J.; Huettner, C.; Muller, S.; Jeunehomme, F.; Hamm, B.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the use of iodine-based contrast media in digital full-field mammography. Methods: After performing initial phantom studies, seven patients underwent digital mammography (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, USA) using a specially filtered beam before as well as 60, 120, and 180 seconds after injection of 80 ml of iodine contrast medium (Ultravist 370, Schering AG, Germany). The precontrast mammograms were then subtracted from the postcontrast mammograms and the resulting images compared with a contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI study, performed on all women. Results: Contrast medium accumulation within the tumors was visualized with a good quality in all cases. The conditions under which successful contrast-enhanced digital mammography can be performed were determined in phantom studies. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced digital mammography has a potential for improving the visualization of breast tumors in mammography using special beam filtering, adjusted X-ray parameters, proper timing, and suitable subtraction software. (orig.) [de

  18. Exposure and roentgen-area-product in xeromammography and conventional mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxt, J H; Bushong, S C; Glaze, S; Kothari, S [Baylor Univ., Houston, Tex. (USA). Coll. of Medicine

    1976-01-01

    X-ray mammography is assuming increasing importance in the early detection of breast cancer. The principal disadvantage to conventional mammography is high patient dose. Xeromammography offers three advantages over conventional mammography: (a) lower patient dose, (b) better image quality and (c) no special mammography tube required. A transmission ionization chamber and thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure the roentgen-area-product and the exposure for three view examination. Average roentgen-area-product values of 6500 and 4200 R-cm/sup 2/ were observed for conventional mammography and xeromammography respectively. The medial surface of the breast received the highest radiation exposure for both types of examinations and this was shown to be 11.5 and 5.1 R respectively. Omission of the axillary view from the examination reduces the patient dose in both types by approximately 60 %.

  19. Focused two-dimensional antiscatter grid for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, O.V.; Moldovan, N.; Tang, C.-M.; Mancini, D.C.; Divan, R.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Ryding, D.C.; Yaeger, J.; Liu, C.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing freestanding high-aspect-ratio, focused, two-dimensional antiscatter grids for mammography using deep x-ray lithography and copper electroforming. The exposure is performed using x-rays from bending magnet beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. A 2.8-mm-thick prototype freestanding copper antiscatter grid with 25 (micro)m-wide parallel cell walls and 550 (micro)m periodicity has been fabricated. The progress in developing a dynamic double-exposure technique to create the grid with the cell walls aligned to a point x-ray source of the mammography system is discussed

  20. Digital Mammography Tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergov, I.; Alexov, G.; Rusonov, K.

    2017-01-01

    Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration with Tomosynthesis enhances the diagnostic precision in mammographic screening. The apparatus has a wide-angle tomosynthesis up to 50 degrees. The Siemens breast augmentation algorithm reconstructs multiple two-dimensional breast images into three-dimensional images at the lowest doses to help detect tumors hidden from the overlapping chest tissue, allowing for a more accurate diagnosis than standard 2-dimensional digital mammography, and reducing the number of false positive results. 3D digital tomosynthesis improves the precision of detecting and diagnosing a larger number of expansive lesions, ensures better morphological mass analysis and architectural distortion, and detecting calcifications by adding digital breast tomosynthesis to the traditional two-dimensional digital mammogram of the patient. In this way, it solves the problem of overlapping parenchyma, reduces the number of unnecessary biopsies from questionable sonomammographic findings, and the need for stressful repeating procedures, which usually contributes to both better patient outcomes and cost saving. [bg

  1. Improvements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redington, R.W.; Henkes, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipment for positioning and supporting patients during tomographic X-ray mammography is described. It is comprised of a table and fabric slings which permit the examination of a downward, pendant breast of a prone patient by allowing the breast to pass through an aperture in the table into a fluid filled container. The fluid has an X-ray absorption coefficient similar to that of soft human tissue allowing high density resolution radiography and permitting accurate detection of breast tumours. The shape of the equipment and the positioning of the patient allow the detector and X-ray source to rotate 360 0 about a vertical axis through the breast. This permits the use of relatively simple image reconstruction algorithms and a divergent X-ray geometry with multiple detectors. Successive planes of the breast are scanned by translating the detectors and source vertically to produce a three-dimensional image of the breast tissue structure. (U.K.)

  2. National Water Quality Inventory, 1975 Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document summarizes state submissions and provides a national overview of water quality as requested in Section 305(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (P.L. 92-500). This report provides the first opportunity for states to summarize their water quality and to report to EPA and Congress. Chapters of this report deal…

  3. Approach the National Quality Audit System for Radiotherapy in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Dehtjars, J; Popovs, S; Plaude, S

    2008-01-01

    It is very important to make National Quality Audit to ensure accurate conformal RT delivery. It is necessary to develop an Audit system to inspect all Conformal RT and IMRT delivery chain including the Quality checks of linear accelerator, Multileaf Collimator (MLC), Computer Tomography (CT) scanner or simulator, target and tissue delineation, plan evaluation, and delivery.

  4. The Quest for Strategic Malaysian Quality National Primary School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hairuddin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nine-point strategic leadership characteristics of Malaysian Quality National Primary School Leaders (QNPSL) and to indicate the implications of these findings for the current educational management and leadership practices in their quest for Malaysian quality education.…

  5. Mammography at reduced doses: present performance and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntz, E.P.; Wilkinson, E.; George, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    Reduced dose mammography is assessed with the aid of very recent work. It is concluded that there are technical and clinical reasons for believing that the reduced dose systems and their interpreters should perform more effectively than their predecessors. Review of known technologic achievements suggests a possible 6 to 7 reduction factor from present screen-film mammography dose levels without sacficifing image quality. Reasonable estimates of representative doses presently achieved by both xeroradiography and screen-film systems are given. The screen-film value is about 3 times higher than some previous

  6. Response costs of mammography adherence: Iranian women’sperceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Khodayarian

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Useful information was provided about the response costs of mammography utilization based on the perceptions of women. Cognitive barriers may be decreased by conducting modifications in women’s awareness and attitude toward MA as well as changing the national health system infrastructures. Incorporating religious and cultural belief systems into MA educational programs through motivational messages is recommended.

  7. Compliance with European Guidelines for Diagnostic Mammography in a Decentralized Health-Care Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.; Mikkelsen, G.J.; Vestergaard, M.; Lynge, E.; Vejborg, I.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the compliance of Danish mammography clinics with requirements concerning organization, activity volume, and assessment procedures from two European guidelines for quality assurance in diagnostic mammography (EUSOMA and EUREF). Material and Methods: We used individual records on all diagnostic mammographies performed in Denmark in 2000, and questionnaires given to Danish mammography clinics in 2000, 2002, and 2004. Results: The study showed a marked centralization of the diagnostic activity from 2000 to 2004 to a smaller number of public breast assessment centers with full multidisciplinary breast assessment. However, a relatively large number of these centers did not comply with the activity volume requirement of 2000 mammograms per clinic per year. The number of private diagnostic mammography clinics performing basic diagnostic mammography has remained fairly stable in the period 2000 to 2004. Compared with public breast assessment centers, the private diagnostic mammography clinics had a lower compliance with activity volume requirements. Conclusion: A marked proportion of Danish public breast assessment centers operate with less than optimal activity volume, suggesting that further centralization would be appropriate. The situation in private diagnostic mammography clinics may cause concern, as our study showed that the majority of these clinics did not meet the activity volume requirements

  8. Quality of water resources of the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elizabeth F.; Morris, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    Surface water and groundwater quality was documented in the Ouachita National Forest by collecting surface water quality data at 15 points and groundwater quality data at 11 sites from April 1984 through August 1985. The data were compared to drinking water standards and the results are tabulated. Surface water in the Ouachita National Forest is relatively abundant. It is low in mineralization and chemically suitable for most uses with minimal treatment. Groundwater is relatively scarce. The low yields of wells limit the use of groundwater primarily to domestic use. The water is chemically suitable for most purposes but may require treatment for the removal of iron. (Peters-PTT)

  9. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  10. Establishment of dose reference levels for mammography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalathaki, M.; Hourdakis, C.J.; Economides, S.; Tritakis, P.; Manousaridis, G.; Kalyvas, N.; Simantirakis, G.; Kipouros, P.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Diagnostic Reference Levels (D.R.L.) are dose levels established in medical practices for typical x-ray examinations concerning groups of standard size patients or standard phantoms and broadly defined types of equipment. When good and normal practice is performed, these levels are not expected to be exceeded. This work is an attempt to establish for the first time the D.R.L. for mammography in Greece. At present, there are 402 mammographic systems in clinical use all over the country. This study that lasted 3 years (2000-2003), includes 117 of these systems, 85% of which are installed in private and 15% in public sector countrywide. Measurements of entrance surface dose (E.S.D.) were performed as a part of the regular inspections performed by the Licensing and Inspections Department of Greek Atomic Energy Commission on the basis of the laboratories licensing procedure. Moreover, the entire performance of the mammographic units was assessed by quantitative and qualitative measurements of specific parameters. In order to establish the national D.R.L., a standard phantom was used during the quality control of the mammographic units and E.S.D. measurements were performed based on the clinical practice of each laboratory. The D.R.L. for this type of examination was established according to the 75. percentile of the E.S.D. curve and found equal to 7 mGy per single view. The comparison of this value with the one reported by the European Commission (10 mGy per view), indicates that the D.R.L. for mammography is lower in Greece. However, the primary concern of a mammographic examination is to keep breast dose as low as reasonably achievable while providing images with the maximum amount of diagnostic information. The quality of the produced images was therefore assessed for all systems examined, regardless of meeting or exceeding the quality criteria reference surface entrance dose. The results showed that the average total score of the

  11. European radiographers' challenges from mammography education and clinical practice - an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsälä, Eija; Richli Meystre, Nicole; Pires Jorge, José; Henner, Anja; Kukkes, Tiina; Sá Dos Reis, Cláudia

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to identify European radiographers' challenges in clinical performance in mammography and the main areas of mammography that require more and better training. An extensive search was performed to identify relevant studies focused on clinical practice, education and training in mammography published between January 2010 and December 2015 in the English language. The data were analysed by using deductive thematic analysis. A total of 27 full text articles were read, evaluating their quality. Sixteen articles out of 27 were finally selected for this integrative review. The main challenges of radiographers' mammography education/training can be divided into three groups: training needs, challenges related to radiographers, and challenges related to the organization of education. The most common challenges of clinical performance in mammography among European radiographers involved technical performance, the quality of practices, and patient-centeredness. The introduction of harmonized mammography guidelines across Europe may serve as an evidence-based tool to be implemented in practice and education. However, the variability in human and material resources as well as the different cultural contexts should be considered during this process. • Radiographers' awareness of their professional identity and enhancing multiprofessional cooperation in mammography. • Radiographers' responsibilities regarding image quality (IQ) and optimal breast imaging performance. • Patient-centred mammography services focusing on the psychosocial needs of the patient. • Challenges: positioning, QC-testing, IQ-assessment, optimization of breast compression, communication, teamwork, and patient-centred care. • Introduction of evidence-based guidelines in Europe to harmonize mammography practice and education.

  12. Radiation hazards of X-ray mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailar, J.C. III

    1978-01-01

    X-ray mammography delivers significant amounts of ionizing radiation to the breast, and the female breast is more susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis than any other human organ. On the other hand, breast cancer is least likely to cause serious illness and death when it is detected at a very early stage. The risks and benefits of mammography can be estimated. This paper summarizes current risk estimates, then proceeds to a comparison of risks and benefits. As for breast cancer mortality, the addition of mammography to a programme of annual breast examinations of average U.S. women is of questionable value for women under age 50 but it is probably beneficial for older women. However, the break-even point is closely related to the average radiation exposure of breast tissue, and would be earlier in a few centres now using optimum techniques and equipment. For women with below-average risks of breast cancer, the age would be higher, and for a few women with a high probability of developing breast cancer it would be lower. Breast cancer screening programmes have been improved significantly since criticisms were first publicized in mid-1975. Partial improvements include reduction in radiation exposure (at least in some centres), guidelines from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Cancer Society (ACS) for restricting the screening of women under age 50, and changes in the patient consent form signed by participants in the NCI-ACS programme. Professional and public awareness of the need to balance the benefits of screening with its risks and costs has rapidly and markedly increased. Future improvements should further define the optimum design and application of breast cancer screening programmes

  13. Thyroid absorbed dose using TLDs during mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez A, M.; Melendez L, M.; Davila M, P.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: In this study, the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the thyroid dose (D Thy) were measured in 200 women screened with mammography in Cranio caudal (Cc) and mediolateral oblique projections. All mammograms were performed with Giotto-Ims (6000-14-M2 Model) equipment, which was verified to meet the criteria of quality of NOM-229-Ssa-2002. During audits performance and HVL, for each anode filter combinations was measured with the camera Radcal mammography equipment 10 X 6-6M (HVL = 0.26 mm Al). D Thy measurements were performed with TLD dosimeters (LiF:Mn) , that were read with the Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. The MGD, was obtained according to the UK and European protocols for mammographic dosimetry using a plane parallel chamber (Standard Imaging, Model A-600) calibrated by a radiation beam UW-23-Mo (= 0.279 mm Al HVL). A comparative statistical analysis was carried out with the measured MGD and D thy. The thyroid mean dose was 0.063 mGy and 0.078 mGy for Cc and mediolateral oblique respectively. There is a linear correlation between the MGD and the D Thy slightly influenced by the anode-filter combination. Using a 95% for the confidence interval in MGD (1.07 mGy), the 90% of measurements are in agreement with the established uncertainty limits. The D Thy are lower than the MGD. There is no risk for cancer induction in thyroid in women due to mammography screening. (Author)

  14. Tests with films and film-screens using grid-mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.; Kallinger, G.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison was made between mammography using grid-technique with a film-screen-system and mammography without grid, and with film-screens and also using industrial films. The image-quality of grid mammography looks like the same than using conventional techniques and industrial films. The problem of soft tissue grid techniques lies in the dose requirements, which was more than using film-screen-techniques without grid. New and improved recording systems, which reduce radiation dose when using the grid technique were analyzed. (orig.) [de

  15. Performance tests of a special ionization chamber for X-rays in mammography energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.O., E-mail: jonas.silva@ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia (Brazil). Instituto de Física; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiações

    2017-07-01

    A special mammography homemade ionization chamber was developed to be applied for mammography energy range dosimetry. This chamber has a total sensitive volume of 6 cm{sup 3} and is made of a PMMA body and graphite coated collecting electrode. Performance tests as saturation, ion collection efficiency, linearity of chamber response versus air kerma rate and energy dependence were determined. The results obtained with this special homemade ionization chamber are within the limits stated in international recommendations. This chamber can be used in quality control programs of mammography energy range. All measurements were carried out at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. (author)

  16. Pain and discomfort during mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Absetz-Ylöstalo, P; Eerola, T

    1996-01-01

    was the most powerful factor explaining pain and discomfort among women with earlier mammography. However, it had no effect among women without earlier mammography, for whom screening-related nervousness and perceptions of staff were crucial. Suggested interventions include better information before screening......The aim of this prospective study was to investigate associations of mammography pain and discomfort with sociodemographics, personal history and psychological and situational factors. Subjects were women with a negative screening finding (n = 883) from a random sample of 50-year-old Finnish women...... attending their first breast cancer screening. Questionnaires were sent 1 month before the screening invitation and 2 months after screening. Sixty-one per cent reported painful and 59% uncomfortable mammograms (4% severely). Linear regression analyses showed that anticipation of pain and discomfort...

  17. Analysis of quality data based on national clinical databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon, Jan; Petri, A.L.; Christophersen, S.

    2009-01-01

    There is little agreement on the philosophy of measuring clinical quality in health care. How data should be analyzed and transformed to healthcare information is an ongoing discussion. To accept a difference in quality between health departments as a real difference, one should consider to which...... extent the selection of patients, random variation, confounding and inconsistency may have influenced results. The aim of this article is to summarize aspects of clinical healthcare data analyses provided from the national clinical quality databases and to show how data may be presented in a way which...... is understandable to readers without specialised knowledge of statistics Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9/14...

  18. Analysis of quality data based on national clinical databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon, Jan; Petri, A.L.; Christophersen, S.

    2009-01-01

    extent the selection of patients, random variation, confounding and inconsistency may have influenced results. The aim of this article is to summarize aspects of clinical healthcare data analyses provided from the national clinical quality databases and to show how data may be presented in a way which......There is little agreement on the philosophy of measuring clinical quality in health care. How data should be analyzed and transformed to healthcare information is an ongoing discussion. To accept a difference in quality between health departments as a real difference, one should consider to which...

  19. National Water Quality Inventory, 1976 Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This report summarizes the state submissions and provides a national overview of water quality as required in Section 305(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (P.L. 92-500). Topics receiving the greatest coverage include toxic substances, quantitative assessments of the percentage of waters currently meeting the goals of…

  20. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0443; FRL-9492-3] RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of Tuesday, November 22, 2011...

  1. Determinants of mammography screening behavior in Iranian women: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Moodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer remains a substantial health concern in Iran due to delay and late stage at diagnosis and treatment. Despite the potential benefits of mammography screening for early detection of breast cancer, the performance of this screening among Iranian women is low. For planning appropriate intervention, this study was carried out to identify mammography rates and explore determinants of mammography screening behavior in females of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this population-based study, 384 women of 40 years and older were interviewed by telephone. The Farsi version of Champion′s Health Belief Model scale (CHBMS was used to examine factors associated with mammography screening. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version 16.0 using statistical Chi-square, Fisher Exact test, t-test and multiple logistic regression model to identify the importance rate of socio-demographic and Health Belief Model (HBM variables to predict mammography screening behavior. In all of tests, the level of significant was considered a = 0.05. Results: Mean age ΁ SD of women was 52.24 ΁ 8.2 years. Of the 384 participants, 44.3% reported at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Logistic regression analysis indicated that women were more likely to have mammography if they heard/read about breast cancer (OR = 4.17, 95% CI 2.09, 8.34, menopause in lower age (OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.87, 0.99 and history of breast problem (OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.12, 0.32. Also, women who perceived more benefits of mammography (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.63, 2.09, fewer barriers of mammography (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.86, 0.96 and had more motivation for health (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.89, 1 were more likely to have mammography. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the rate of mammography screening among women in Isfahan province is low and highlights the need for developing a comprehensive national breast cancer control program, which should be considered as the first

  2. Mammographic image reject rate analysis and cause – A National Maltese Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercieca, N.; Portelli, J.L.; Jadva-Patel, H.

    2017-01-01

    Mammography is used as a first-line investigation in the detection of breast cancer and imaging is required to be of optimal quality and achieved without adverse effects on the health of individuals. Repeated images come at a cost in terms of radiation dose, discomfort to clients and unnecessary financial burdens. No studies investigating mammography quality in Malta had been previously undertaken. Hence, this research aimed to investigate whether mammography is being performed at an acceptable level, through the investigation of reject rates. Quantitative methodology was used to collect data from eight participating mammography units, which were utilising screen film (SFM), computed radiography (CR) and direct digital mammography (DDM). Data relating to the total number of images performed, rejects and causes was prospectively collected over two weeks, resulting in a sample of 2291 images. All units were also asked to answer a questionnaire which provided other data that could be used for analysis. The national mammography reject rate was found to be 2.62%; within the 3% acceptable range. Individual rates' analysis revealed unacceptably high or low reject rates in some units. Positioning was the main reject cause. No significant difference in rejection was found between different types of mammography units or radiographers' experience. Alternatively, radiographers' qualifications, employment conditions and use of rejection criteria were proven to affect reject rates. Whilst on a national level, images are being rejected at an acceptable rate, individual units revealed suboptimal rates; at the cost of extra radiation, added discomfort and financial burden. - Highlights: • The national reject rate complied with the European Guidelines. • Reject rates in different units were found to vary. • Positioning was the commonest cause for repeats. • The equipment used and radiographers' experience did not affect reject rates. • Qualifications

  3. Digital mammography: what do we and what don't we know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, Ulrich; Diekmann, Felix

    2007-01-01

    High-quality full-field digital mammography has been available now for several years and is increasingly used for both diagnostic and screening mammography. A number of different detector technologies exist, which all have their specific advantages and disadvantages. Diagnostic accuracy of digital mammography has been shown to be at least equivalent to film-screen mammography in a general screening population. Digital mammography is superior to screen-film mammography in younger women with dense breasts due to its ability to selectively optimize contrast in areas of dense parenchyma. This advantage is especially important in women with a genetic predisposition for breast cancer, where intensified early detection programs may have to start from 25 to 30 years of age. Tailored image processing and computer-aided diagnosis hold the potential to further improve the early detection of breast cancer. However, at present no consensus exists among radiologists on which processing is optimal for digital mammograms. Image processing may also vary significantly among vendors with so far limited interoperability. This review aims to summarize the available information regarding the impact of digital mammography on workflow and breast cancer diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological......-choice treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 767 women had FNAC performed from a total of 783 lesions at the Mammography Clinic, University Hospital Odense. All FNACs were compared with the final histology diagnosis. Nine statistical parameters were calculated according to the European guidelines. RESULTS: A total...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of mammography and clinical breast examination strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Charlotte Hsieh; Shen, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer screening by mammography and clinical breast exam are commonly used for early tumor detection. Previous cost-effectiveness studies considered mammography alone or did not account for all relevant costs. In this study, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of screening schedules recommended by three major cancer organizations and compared them with alternative strategies. We considered costs of screening examinations, subsequent work-up, biopsy, and treatment interventions after diagnosis. Methods We used a microsimulation model to generate women’s life histories, and assessed screening and treatment impacts on survival. Using statistical models, we accounted for age-specific incidence, preclinical disease duration, and age-specific sensitivity and specificity for each screening modality. The outcomes of interest were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved and total costs with a 3% annual discount rate. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were used to compare strategies. Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying some of the assumptions. Results Compared to guidelines from the National Cancer Institute and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, alternative strategies were more efficient. Mammography and clinical breast exam in alternating years from ages 40 to 79 was a cost-effective alternative compared to the guidelines, costing $35,500 per QALY saved compared with no screening. The American Cancer Society guideline was the most effective and the most expensive, costing over $680,000 for an added QALY compared to the above alternative. Conclusion Screening strategies with lower costs and benefits comparable to those currently recommended should be considered for implementation in practice and for future guidelines. PMID:19258473

  6. National Assessment of Quality Programs in Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlener, Michael; Olivieri, Patrick; Loo, George T; Munjal, Kevin; Hilton, Michael T; Potkin, Katya Trudeau; Levy, Michael; Rabrich, Jeffrey; Gunderson, Michael R; Braithwaite, Sabina A

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand the adoption of clinical quality measurement throughout the United States on an EMS agency level, the features of agencies that do participate in quality measurement, and the level of physician involvement. It also aims to barriers to implementing quality improvement initiatives in EMS. A 46-question survey was developed to gather agency level data on current quality improvement practices and measurement. The survey was distributed nationally via State EMS Offices to EMS agencies nation-wide using Surveymonkey©. A convenience sample of respondents was enrolled between August and November, 2015. Univariate, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to describe demographics and relationships between outcomes of interest and their covariates using SAS 9.3©. A total of 1,733 surveys were initiated and 1,060 surveys had complete or near-complete responses. This includes agencies from 45 states representing over 6.23 million 9-1-1 responses annually. Totals of 70.5% (747) agencies reported dedicated QI personnel, 62.5% (663) follow clinical metrics and 33.3% (353) participate in outside quality or research program. Medical director hours varied, notably, 61.5% (649) of EMS agencies had quality measures compared to fire-based agencies. Agencies in rural only environments were less likely to follow clinical quality metrics. (OR 0.47 CI 0.31 -0.72 p quality improvement resources, medical direction and specific clinical quality measures. More research is needed to understand the impact of this variation on patient care outcomes.

  7. Overview of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P.P.; Thompson, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Nation's water resources are the basis for life and our economic vitality. These resources support a complex web of human activities and fishery and wildlife needs that depend upon clean water. Demands for good-quality water for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry are rising, and as a result, the American public is concerned about the condition and sustainability of our water resources. The American public is asking: Is it safe to swim in and drink water from our rivers or lakes? Can we eat the fish that come from them? Is our ground water polluted? Is water quality degrading with time, and if so, why? Has all the money we've spent to clean up our waters, done any good? The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was designed to provide information that will help answer these questions. NAWQA is designed to assess historical, current, and future water-quality conditions in representative river basins and aquifers nationwide. One of the primary objectives of the program is to describe relations between natural factors, human activities, and water-quality conditions and to define those factors that most affect water quality in different parts of the Nation. The linkage of water quality to environmental processes is of fundamental importance to water-resource managers, planners, and policy makers. It provides a strong and unbiased basis for better decisionmaking by those responsible for making decisions that affect our water resources, including the United States Congress, Federal, State, and local agencies, environmental groups, and industry. Information from the NAWQA Program also will be useful for guiding research, monitoring, and regulatory activities in cost effective ways.

  8. Mammography in women under 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzarola, P.; Bellucci, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of breast cancer in women under 35 is quite an uncommon event, accounting only for 3.2-3.4% of all breast cancers. To determine the indications for mammography in women under 35, the authors correlated clinical, mammographic, and US findings with fine-needle aspiration/surgical biopsy and follow-up results in 1040 symptomatic women examined at the Center of Senology of the Istitute of Radiology - University of Perugia, Italy, from 1984 to June 1990. Of 1040 women, 482 (41.6%) had normal findings; benign disease was diagnosed in 558 (53.7%) cases, and malignant disease in 49 (4.7%). Mammography was very useful to diagnose malignancy in palpable breast lesions, as well as to suggest the need for biopsy, to detect metachronous cancer and to define lesion sizes. In inflammatory process - e.g., mastitis and abscesses - both mammography and US were capable as its remission after therapy. Galactography had a specific role in the evaluation of the mammary duct and demonstrated intraductal pathologic conditions. In the authors'experiences, mammography never showed occult breast cancers in women with no palpable breast lesions or hematic nipple discharge

  9. Development of an excel spreadsheet formean glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Kazuyo; Fujisaki, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Excel spreadsheet to calculate mean glandular dose (D g ) in mammography using clinical exposure data. D g can be calculated as the product of incident air kerma (K a ) and D gN (i.e., D g =K a x D gN ). According to the method of Klein et al (Phys Med Biol 1997; 42: 651-671), K a was measured at the entrance surface with an ionization dosimeter. Normalized glandular dose (D gN ) coefficients, taking into account breast glandularity, were computed using Boone's method (Med Phys 2002; 29: 869-875). D gN coefficients can be calculated for any arbitrary X-ray spectrum. These calculation procedures were input into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The resulting Excel spreadsheet is easy to use and is always applicable in the field of mammography. The exposure conditions concerning D g in clinical practice were also investigated in 22 women. Four exposure conditions (target/filter combination and tube voltage) were automatically selected in this study. This investigation found that average D g for each exposure was 1.9 mGy. Because it is recommended that quality control of radiation dose management in mammography is done using an American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom, information about patient dose is not obtained in many facilities. The present Excel spreadsheet was accordingly considered useful for optimization of exposure conditions and explanation of mammography to patients. (author)

  10. Distributional Benefit Analysis of a National Air Quality Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Under Executive Order 12898, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA must perform environmental justice (EJ reviews of its rules and regulations. EJ analyses address the hypothesis that environmental disamenities are experienced disproportionately by poor and/or minority subgroups. Such analyses typically use communities as the unit of analysis. While community-based approaches make sense when considering where polluting sources locate, they are less appropriate for national air quality rules affecting many sources and pollutants that can travel thousands of miles. We compare exposures and health risks of EJ-identified individuals rather than communities to analyze EPA’s Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD rule as an example national air quality rule. Air pollutant exposures are estimated within grid cells by air quality models; all individuals in the same grid cell are assigned the same exposure. Using an inequality index, we find that inequality within racial/ethnic subgroups far outweighs inequality between them. We find, moreover, that the HDD rule leaves between-subgroup inequality essentially unchanged. Changes in health risks depend also on subgroups’ baseline incidence rates, which differ across subgroups. Thus, health risk reductions may not follow the same pattern as reductions in exposure. These results are likely representative of other national air quality rules as well.

  11. [Controversial attitude to mammography screening in asymptomatic women between 40 and 50 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischbier, H J

    1994-01-01

    The results of screening studies conducted in the United States and in Europe in females between the ages of 40 and 50 are analysed. It is shown, that the results of this study on mortality reduction are less favourable, the poorer the technique of mammography (foregoing of general two-view mammography) and the longer the time interval between two mammography screenings. Arguments are presented, that are brought forward when declining to perform general mammography screening in this age group. The author's own results, obtained in the Hamburg mammography screening study, which included from 1971 to 1986 also premenopausal women, show, that the survival rates of patients below 50 years of age with mammographically detected carcinomas of the breast do not differ from those in patients older than 50 years, according to a relevant age group classification. The advances in the technique of mammography in recent years are analysed on the basis of the author's own patient material. It is evident, that the positive predictive value has been doubled, especially in the age group between 40 and 50. An analysis of the distribution of diagnosed noninvasive carcinomas compared with the invasive carcinomas reveals, that particularly this age group has the highest percentage of identification of prognostically favourable carcinoma stages. Further analyses show, why the randomised European mammography studies could not yield a significant mortality rate improvement. A prerequisite for the inclusion of mammography screening in the legally prescribed early detection of carcinoma examinations, however, are the quality controls, whose realisation, in our health system, will have to be confirmed by the German mammography study.

  12. Is Short-Interval Mammography Necessary After Breast Conservation Surgery and Radiation Treatment in Breast Cancer Patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hymas, Richard V.; Gaffney, David K.; Parkinson, Brett T.; Belnap, Thomas W.; Sause, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The optimum timing and frequency of mammography in breast cancer patients after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) are controversial. The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends the first posttreatment mammogram 1 year after diagnosis but no earlier than 6 months after completion of radiotherapy. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends annual mammography. Intermountain Healthcare currently follows a more frequent mammography schedule during the first 2 years in BCT patients. This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the cancer yield mammography during the first 2 years after BCT. Methods and Materials: 1,435 patients received BCT at Intermountain Healthcare between 2003 and 2007, inclusive. Twenty-three patients had bilateral breast cancer (1,458 total breasts). Patients were followed up for 24 months after diagnosis. The 1- and 2-year mammography yields were determined and compared with those of the general screening population. Results: 1,079 breasts had mammography at less than 1 year, and two ipsilateral recurrences (both noninvasive) were identified; 1,219 breasts had mammography during the second year, and nine recurrences (three invasive, six noninvasive) were identified. Of the 11 ipsilateral recurrences during the study, three presented with symptoms and eight were identified by mammography alone. The mammography yield was 1.9 cancers per 1,000 breasts the first year and 4.9 per 1,000 the second year. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the mammography yield during the first 2 years after BCT is not greater than that in the general population, and they support the policy for initiating followup mammography at 1 year after BCT.

  13. Quality of antenatal care in Zambia: a national assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the recommended interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Yet in most Sub-Saharan African countries, high rates of ANC coverage coexist with high maternal and neonatal mortality. This disconnect has fueled calls to focus on the quality of ANC services. However, little conceptual or empirical work exists on the measurement of ANC quality at health facilities in low-income countries. We developed a classification tool and assessed the level of ANC service provision at health facilities in Zambia on a national scale and compared this to the quality of ANC received by expectant mothers. Methods We analysed two national datasets with detailed antenatal provider and user information, the 2005 Zambia Health Facility Census and the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), to describe the level of ANC service provision at 1,299 antenatal facilities in 2005 and the quality of ANC received by 4,148 mothers between 2002 and 2007. Results We found that only 45 antenatal facilities (3%) fulfilled our developed criteria for optimum ANC service, while 47% of facilities provided adequate service, and the remaining 50% offered inadequate service. Although 94% of mothers reported at least one ANC visit with a skilled health worker and 60% attended at least four visits, only 29% of mothers received good quality ANC, and only 8% of mothers received good quality ANC and attended in the first trimester. Conclusions DHS data can be used to monitor “effective ANC coverage” which can be far below ANC coverage as estimated by current indicators. This “quality gap” indicates missed opportunities at ANC for delivering effective interventions. Evaluating the level of ANC provision at health facilities is an efficient way to detect where deficiencies are located in the system and could serve as a monitoring tool to evaluate country progress. PMID:23237601

  14. Digital mammography in breast cancer screening: Evaluation and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluekens, A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    With all other imaging modalities in radiology being digitised and conventional mammography being ready to phase out the transition to digital mammography was inevitable. This thesis describes the performance of digital screening mammography and the consequences of implementation in a

  15. Method for determination of the mean fraction of glandular tissue in individual female breasts using mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J T M; Veldkamp, W J H; Thijssen, M A O; Woudenberg, S van; Zoetelief, J

    2005-01-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme using mammography has been in full operation in the Netherlands since 1997. Quality control of the screening programme has been assigned to the National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening. Limits are set to the mean glandular dose and the centre monitors these for all facilities engaged in the screening programme. This procedure is restricted to the determination of the entrance dose on a 5 cm thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The mean glandular dose for a compressed breast is estimated from these data. Individual breasts may deviate largely from this 5 cm PMMA breast model. Not only may the compressed breast size vary from 2 to 10 cm, but breast composition varies also. The mean glandular dose is dependent on the fraction of glandular tissue (glandularity) of the breast. To estimate the risk related to individual mammograms requires the development of a method for determination of the glandularity of individual breasts. A method has been developed to derive the glandularity using the attenuation of mammography x-rays in the breast. The method was applied to a series of mammograms at a screening unit. The results, i.e., a glandularity of 93% within the range of 0 to 1, were comparable with data in the literature. The glandularity as a function of compressed breast thickness is similar to results from other investigators using differing methods

  16. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO[bdi2]) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2010 primary Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The EPA is issuing this rule to identify areas...

  17. International and national standardisation for quality assurance in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1992-01-01

    After a summarising description of international developments (ISO 6216, ISO 9000 series, IAEA 50 SG-QA) an overview of the total of around 200 national quality standards and regulations from almost 20 countries is given. Finally the relationships between rules of engineering and the rules of laws, mechanisms and trends in the development of nuclear energy standards with particular consideration of the possibilities for European harmonisation are presented in brief. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  18. Quality management in environmental programs: Los Alamos National Laboratory's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, L.; Day, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Since its inception in 1943, Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) primary mission has been nuclear weapons research and development, which involved the use of hazardous and radioactive materials, some of which were disposed of onsite. LANL has established an extensive Environmental Restoration Project (Project) to investigate and remediate those hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites. This paper describes LANL's identification and resolution of critical issues associated with the integration and management of quality in the Project

  19. Breast cancer early detection and quality assurance in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotelo, Elena D.

    2001-01-01

    In Uruguay, breast cancer incidence is 76.41 per 100.000, and death rate is 25.22 per 100.000. Since 1998, there is a National Programme of breast cancer early detection for females over forty years of age. We studied the state of the mammography facilities throughout the country. There are 657.000 female over forty and 51 mammography X-ray equipment. The Programme includes 2 mammography X-ray equipment in mobile units in the capital and 18 in hospitals all around the country. There are taken 120.000 mammographic exams per year, 15.000 of them belong to women who had participated in the Programme. We found that no mammography facility has established Quality Assurance Programmes. Despite the results of this study showed that is suitable the number and age of the mammography X-ray equipment, the lack of Quality Assurance Programmes will produce, in a short time, a negative cost-benefit balance. The consequences will be serious social, human an economical damages. (author)

  20. Measurement of half-value layer in mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, H; Saruwatari, R; Doi, N; Yamane, E

    2003-01-01

    The half-value layer (HVL) of an X-ray beam for film-screen mammography is considered an important parameter for image quality and patient dose. Thus, HVL must be measured in accordance with The Manual of Accuracy for Mammography printed by the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. The manual prescribes exactly the geometry of measurement, chamber position of measurement in the field, selection of chamber, and so on. However, the measurement of HVL is difficult in the actual clinical setting. This study examined the results of failure to perform the measurement of HVL in accordance with the manual for measuring HVL in the clinical setting. The investigation indicated that serious problems do not arise when measuring HVL for routine quality control even if the chamber in the field is not always set according to the manual and if a chamber for radiotherapy or diagnosis is used that is not recommended for soft X-ray by the manual. (author)

  1. Application of phase contrast imaging to mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Keiko; Yamada, Katsuhiko; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Matsuo, Satoru; Morishita, Junji

    2005-01-01

    Phase contrast images were obtained experimentally by using a customized mammography unit with a nominal focal spot size of 100 μm and variable source-to-image distances of up to 1.5 m. The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability and potential usefulness of phase contrast imaging for mammography. A mammography phantom (ACR156 RMI phantom) was imaged, and its visibility was examined. The optical density of the phantom images was adjusted to approximately 1.3 for both the contact and phase contrast images. Forty-one observers (18 medical doctors and 23 radiological technologists) participated in visual evaluation of the images. Results showed that, in comparison with the images of contact mammography, the phantom images of phase contrast imaging demonstrated statistically significantly superior visibility for fibers, clustered micro-calcifications, and masses. Therefore, phase contrast imaging obtained by using the customized mammography unit would be useful for improving diagnostic accuracy in mammography. (author)

  2. National waste terminal storage program. Supplementary quality-assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    The basic Quality Assurance Program Requirements standard for the National Waste Terminal Storage Program has been developed primarily for nuclear reactors and other fairly well established nuclear facilities. In the case of waste isolation, however, there are many ongoing investigations for which quality assurance practices and requirements have not been well defined. This paper points out these problems which require supplementary requirements. Briefly these are: (1) the language barrier, that is geologists and scientists are not familiar with quality assurance (QA) terminology; (2) earth sciences deal with materials that cannot be characterized as easily as metals or other materials that are reasonably homogeneous; (3) development and control of mathematical models and associated computer programs; (4) research and development

  3. CAD in breast imaging. Application in mammography and MR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenauer, S.; Hermann, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD-systems) are evaluated in different parts of diagnostic imaging. In breast imaging double reading which is time- and cost spending is necessary. Therefore a lot of studies evaluated the use of CAD-systems in mammography. However the rate of false-positives is too high to implement CAD-systems as double reader in routine work. In the future, improvements in this technique could perhaps change the performance of CAD-systems. (orig.)

  4. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  5. How to Improve the Quality of Screening Endoscopy in Korea: National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yu Kyung

    2016-07-01

    In Korea, gastric cancer screening, either esophagogastroduodenoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS), is performed biennially for adults aged 40 years or older. Screening endoscopy has been shown to be associated with localized cancer detection and better than UGIS. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of detecting cancer is not satisfactory. The National Endoscopy Quality Improvement (QI) program was initiated in 2009 to enhance the quality of medical institutions and improve the effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy developed quality standards through a broad systematic review of other endoscopic quality guidelines and discussions with experts. The standards comprise five domains: qualifications of endoscopists, endoscopic unit facilities and equipment, endoscopic procedure, endoscopy outcomes, and endoscopic reprocessing. After 5 years of the QI program, feedback surveys showed that the perception of QI and endoscopic practice improved substantially in all domains of quality, but the quality standards need to be revised. How to avoid missing cancer in endoscopic procedures in daily practice was reviewed, which can be applied to the mass screening endoscopy. To improve the quality and effectiveness of NCSP, key performance indicators, acceptable quality standards, regular audit, and appropriate reimbursement are necessary.

  6. Performance evaluation of contrast-detail in full field digital mammography systems using ideal (Hotelling) observer vs. conventional automated analysis of CDMAM images for quality control of contrast-detail characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delakis, Ioannis; Wise, Robert; Morris, Lauren; Kulama, Eugenia

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the contrast-detail performance of full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems using ideal (Hotelling) observer Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) methodology and ascertain whether it can be considered an alternative to the conventional, automated analysis of CDMAM phantom images. Five FFDM units currently used in the national breast screening programme were evaluated, which differed with respect to age, detector, Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) and target/filter combination. Contrast-detail performance was analysed using CDMAM and ideal observer SNR methodology. The ideal observer SNR was calculated for input signal originating from gold discs of varying thicknesses and diameters, and then used to estimate the threshold gold thickness for each diameter as per CDMAM analysis. The variability of both methods and the dependence of CDMAM analysis on phantom manufacturing discrepancies also investigated. Results from both CDMAM and ideal observer methodologies were informative differentiators of FFDM systems' contrast-detail performance, displaying comparable patterns with respect to the FFDM systems' type and age. CDMAM results suggested higher threshold gold thickness values compared with the ideal observer methodology, especially for small-diameter details, which can be attributed to the behaviour of the CDMAM phantom used in this study. In addition, ideal observer methodology results showed lower variability than CDMAM results. The Ideal observer SNR methodology can provide a useful metric of the FFDM systems' contrast detail characteristics and could be considered a surrogate for conventional, automated analysis of CDMAM images. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Digital mammography: current state and future aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U.; Baum, F. [Womens Health Care Center Goettingen, Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Hermann, K.P. [Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of digital technique in mammography has been the last step in completing the process of digitalization in diagnostic imaging. Meanwhile, some different digital techniques as well as a couple of different digital mammography systems were developed and have already been available for some years. In this review article, the relevant data of key studies are reported, the current status is defined, and perspectives of digital mammography are described. (orig.)

  8. Measurement of the radiation dose and assessment of the risk in mammography screening for early detection of cancer of the breast, in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broisman, A.; Schlesinger, T.; Alfassi, Z. B.

    2011-01-01

    The mean glandular doses to samples of women attending for mammographic screening are measured routinely at screening centres in Israel. As at present, no detailed and systematic data have been collected regarding the average glandular dose in mammography screening procedures carried out in Israel for the last 20 y. Especially data are lacking related to the glandular dose (GD) involved in mammography with the new digital mammography systems. In this work, partial results of the measurements are presented to asses the radiation dose to the breast and to the glandular tissue within the Israeli national mammography programme updated to year 2009. (authors)

  9. The self-referred mammography patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, H.E.; Jackson, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the demographics, knowledge, and attitudes of women who refer themselves for screening mammography with those who undergo mammography on the advice of their physicians. Four hundred eighty-five consecutive mammography patients (437 doctor preferred [DR], 48 self-referred [SR]) completed a survey during their mammography appointment. The sample population contained a wide range of socioeconomic groups. While similar in age, race, and employment status to DR patients, SR patients were significantly more likely to have a family income of more than 30,000 per year, be college graduates, and report that they were in good or excellent health

  10. Update on new technologies in digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson SK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie K Patterson, Marilyn A Roubidoux Division of Breast Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Despite controversy regarding mammography's efficacy, it continues to be the most commonly used breast cancer-screening modality. With the development of digital mammography, some improved benefit has been shown in women with dense breast tissue. However, the density of breast tissue continues to limit the sensitivity of conventional mammography. We discuss the development of some derivative digital technologies, primarily digital breast tomosynthesis, and their strengths, weaknesses, and potential patient impact. Keywords: screening mammography, breast cancer, contrast media, digital breast tomosynthesis

  11. Quality of mammography equipment in Health Public Network; Calidad de proceso generador de imagenes mamograficas de equipos instalados en la Red Publica de Salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruberti Filha, E. M.; Pires, S. R.; Medeiros, R. B.

    2006-07-01

    In spite of the requirements of the Brazilian Regulatory Organization to ensure that quality control verifications are made in the radiological equipment, further actions should also be carried out in order to guarantee the quality of the images and of the diagnosis. This study has as its objective to analyze the failures of the image generation system using instruments to control the quality of the radiological equipment, verify the processing image conditions and, finally, classify the mammographic findings as unacceptable, suitable and acceptable. A statistical phantom was used in which the fibers and the microcalcifications were randomly positioned. The images were then read by specialists and the level of agreement was measured by the Kappa value. It was possible to check that most of the tested equipment parameters presented a good performance, although the film processing did not generate satisfactory results and caused reading difficulties. Many of the results of these reading were classified as unacceptable. Among these images, only a small percentage of them presented the fibers and microcalcifications of the sizes required by the Brazilian legislation. We concluded that it is only possible to generate good quality images if all the steps of the process are properly controlled. Therefore, it is relevant to invest in training, calibration and maintenance of the mammographic equipment. (Author)

  12. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  13. The National System for quality control and the European experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, A.; Vassileva, J.; Ingilizova, K.; Slavchev, A. and others

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the work is to present the structure and functions of the National System for quality control (NSQC) in the medical irradiation, created to guarantee the safety and the safe use of the radiological equipment. Material and method: The approaches are studies in the development of the NSQC, applied in Bulgaria and some European Union members - such as Germany and Great Britain - and the specifics of the way in which the Directive for medical irradiation EURATOM 97/43 is implemented in national legislations. Results: The advantages and disadvantages of Bulgarian NSQC are analysed and some ideas for tis improvement are suggested. Conclusions: The developed draft NSQC for medical irradiation is in compliance with the requirement of the European Directive. The real advantages and disadvantages of the NSQC will show after its implementation in the practical radiation protection and control in the country

  14. National infection prevention and control programmes: Endorsing quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempliuk, Valeska; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar; Holder, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Core components Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition to pain and suffering, HAIs increase the cost of health care and generates indirect costs from loss of productivity for patients and society as a whole. Since 2005, the Pan American Health Organization has provided support to countries for the assessment of their capacities in infection prevention and control (IPC). More than 130 hospitals in 18 countries were found to have poor IPC programmes. However, in the midst of many competing health priorities, IPC programmes are not high on the agenda of ministries of health, and the sustainability of national programmes is not viewed as a key point in making health care systems more consistent and trustworthy. Comprehensive IPC programmes will enable countries to reduce the mobility, mortality and cost of HAIs and improve quality of care. This paper addresses the relevance of national infection prevention and control (NIPC) programmes in promoting, supporting and reinforcing IPC interventions at the level of hospitals. A strong commitment from national health authorities in support of national IPC programmes is crucial to obtaining a steady decrease of HAIs, lowering health costs due to HAIs and ensuring safer care.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories ASCI Applications Software Quality Engineering Practices; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZEPPER, JOHN D.; ARAGON, KATHRYN MARY; ELLIS, MOLLY A.; BYLE, KATHLEEN A.; EATON, DONNA SUE

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a guide to the deployment of the software verification activities, software engineering practices, and project management principles that guide the development of Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) applications software at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). The goal of this document is to identify practices and activities that will foster the development of reliable and trusted products produced by the ASCI Applications program. Document contents include an explanation of the structure and purpose of the ASCI Quality Management Council, an overview of the software development lifecycle, an outline of the practices and activities that should be followed, and an assessment tool. These sections map practices and activities at Sandia to the ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines, a Department of Energy document

  16. Radiation dose in mammography: an energy-balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    An energy-balance approach for calculation of mean, integral, and midpoint doses in mammography is introduced. Estimation of mean absorbed dose for individual applications is described. Calculations made for a range of xeromammographic techniques used at various breast cancer detection centers show that although increasing the beam h.v.l. dramatically decreases breast surface exposure, it is insignificant in lowering mean breast dose or radiation risk. Thus selection of a moderate h.v.l. to optimize image quality in xeromammography may be more beneficial than unduly increasing h.v.l. merely to reduce surface exposure. The mean breast dose per mammogram with low h.v.l. screen-film techniques was 3 to 9 times lower than for xeromammography, suggesting that general acceptance of screen-film techniques can significantly reduce the risk associated with mammography

  17. Radiation dose in mammography: an energy-balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    An energy-balance approach for calculation of mean, integral, and midpoint doses in mammography is introduced. Estimation of mean absorbed dose for individual applications is described. Differences in breast composition and thickness are accounted for by simple measurements of entrance and exit exposures. Calculations made for a range of xeromammographic techniques used at various breast cancer detection centers show that although increasing the beam h.v.l. dramatically decreases breast surface exposure, it is insignificant in lowering mean breast dose or radiation risk. Thus selection of a moderate h.v.l. to optimize image quality (soft-tissue contrast) in xeromammography may be more beneficial than unduly increasing h.v.l. merely to reduce surface exposure. The mean breast dose per mammogram with low-h.v.l. screen-film techniques was 3 to 9 times lower than for xeromammography, suggesting that general acceptance of screen-film techniques can significantly reduce the risk associated with mammography

  18. Information on mammography-screening - from deception to insight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlhauser, I.; Hoeldke, B.

    2002-01-01

    Information about mammography-screening as a basis for informed-decision making has to be evidence-based and presented in an unbiased format. This includes communication of results about effectiveness/lack of effectiveness of screening programmes (breast cancer mortality, total mortality), the quality of mammography as a screening test (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values), and possible harm (consequences of false positive and false negative results, overdiagnosis of breast cancer, overtreatment). Outcome data have to be communicated as natural frequencies rather than relative differences. In order to avoid framing of data equal emphasis has to be put on the proportion of persons who are likely to benefit and those who are unlikely to benefit or likely to be harmed. (orig.) [de

  19. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  20. Mammography parameters: compression, dose, and discomfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, S.; Di Risio, C.; Andisco, D.; Rojas, R.R.; Rojas, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To confirm the importance of compression in mammography and relate it to the discomfort expressed by the patients. Materials and methods: Two samples of 402 and 268 mammographies were obtained from two diagnostic centres that use the same mammographic equipment, but different compression techniques. The patient age range was from 21 to 50 years old. (authors) [es

  1. Organisational aspects of mammography screening in digital settings: First experiences of Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannoun, F.; Schanck, J. M.; Scharpantgen, A.; Wagnon, M. C.; Ben Daoud, M.; Back, C.

    2008-01-01

    Luxembourg has been conducting a breast cancer screening programme since 1992, like a large number of other European countries, as early detection and treatment of breast cancer have been proven to reduce mortality. The majority of these screening programmes are based on analogue X-ray technology and have optimised their organisation of transporting, archiving and reading with respect to films. Last decade is marked by enormous developments in digital mammography. Different technologies such as flat panel-, computed radiography- and scanning systems became available. Digital mammography is expected to have a major impact on quality and organisation of breast cancer screening programmes. Screening programmes are now faced with a huge challenge of incorporating the digital technology, including implementation of electronic image exchange, conception of new electronic work-flow, establishing adapted quality assurance programmes and training of radiologists and technical personnel. Initial experiences of the Luxembourg approach in organising digital mammography screening and its quality assurance are reported. (authors)

  2. Canadian National Dairy Study: Herd-level milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, C A; Barkema, H W; Dubuc, J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate Canadian national milk quality parameters and estimate the bulk tank milk (BTM) prevalence of 4 mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, and Prototheca spp., on Canadian dairy farms. A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian dairy producers. Of the 1,062 producers who completed the questionnaire, 374 producers from across the country were visited and milking hygiene was assessed. Farm-level milk quality data for all Canadian dairy producers was collected from the provincial marketing boards and combined with the questionnaire and farm visit data. In addition, a BTM sample was collected either during the farm visit or by the marketing board in November of 2015 and was tested for 4 major mastitis pathogens using the PathoProof Mastitis Major 4 PCR Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA). Apparent herd-level prevalence was 46% for S. aureus, 6% for Prototheca spp., 0% for M. bovis, and 0% for Strep. agalactiae. Due to the low prevalence of M. bovis and Strep. agalactiae and a lack of significant factors associated with farms testing positive for Prototheca spp., an association analysis could only be carried out for Staph. aureus-positive farms. Factors associated with Staph. aureus-positive farms were not fore-stripping cows before milking (odds ratio = 1.87), milking with a pipeline system (odds ratio = 2.21), and stall bases made of a rubberized surface (mats and mattresses), whereas protective factors were using blanket dry cow therapy (odds ratio = 0.49) and applying a tag or visible mark on cows known to have chronic mastitis infections (odds ratio = 0.45). The Canadian national production-weighted geometric mean somatic cell count was determined to be 208,000 cells/mL. This is the first national dairy study conducted in Canada. Participating farms had higher milk yield; were more likely to have a loose housing system, parlor, or automated milking system; and had

  3. Quality control and quality assurance philosophy introduced in national personnel dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousil, J.; Zelenka, Z.; Kvasnicka, O.

    2008-01-01

    There in National Personnel Dosimetry Service (NPDS) the implementation of the control system to guarantee the credibility of the measured personal dose equivalents results was given on the basis of the international recommendations published by the European Commission and the IAEA and in particular of the decree of the SUJB No. 132/2008 Coll. The quality control and the quality assurance are carried out in all three personal dosimetry services introduced in NPDS: in the film badge, thermoluminescent (TL) and neutron dosimetry. (authors)

  4. Managing air quality in a rapidly developing nation: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    As the world gets ready to begin the second decade of the twenty-first century, global climate change has been recognized as a real threat to civilization as we know it. The rapid and successful economic growth of developing nations, particularly China and India, is contributing to climate change. The route to initial economic success in China followed that of the developed nations through the development of industries. Unfortunately, China's environmental protection efforts have not been the same as in developed countries because China is vastly different culturally, socially, economically and, especially, politically from developed nations. When China started to deal with environmental concerns in the late 1970s, it took advantage of the experiences of other countries in establishing environmental standards and regulations, but it did not have a model to follow when it came to implementing these standards and regulations because of the abovementioned differences. Economically, China is transitioning from an agricultural base into an industrial base; however, even now, 60% of the population remains farmers. China has been and still is heavily dependent upon coal for energy, resulting in serious atmospheric particulate pollution. While growing efforts have been expended on the environment, at this juncture of its economic development, China would be well served to revisit the traditional "develop first and clean up later" approach and to find a balance between development and protecting the environment. Against this backdrop, a reflective look of the effort to manage air quality from 1949-2008 (with an emphasis on the past 30 years) in China is presented in this paper. The environmental component of the 2008 Olympic Games is examined as a special example to illustrate the current measures being used to improve air quality in China.

  5. Our trial to improve patient positioning during mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Takashi; Kotsuma, Yoshikazu; Hiramatsu, Sawako

    2007-01-01

    For effective breast cancer screening, reading of high-quality mammograms is essential, and for this purpose proper patient positioning during mammography is important. At our Shin-Osaka Mammography Seminar, which includes eight institutions, a physician and nine radiology technicians get together weekly in order to critically review mammogram reading and techniques for obtaining good mammograms. We have recognized that patient positioning has a great effect on mammogram quality, particularly for women in their 40 s who have dense mammary glands, and we have adopted a digital mammography system, or comparative mammography for such patients. Since July 2005, we have critically reviewed positioning every 3 or 4 months with the aim of improving our technique. Eight institutions have participated in this trial, each contributing mammograms taken recently from 20 to 30 consecutive participants, and the grade of positioning has been determined according to the Institutional Mammogram Estimation Standard (6 items, each scoring a maximum of 4 points, total 24 points) proposed by the Central Committee for Quality Control of Mammography Screening. The estimation has been done by both ourselves and committee members. When a total of 20 points or more is obtained and all 6 items score 3 points or more, it is considered that the positioning has been good, and this is termed ''Positioning A'' (P-A). On the other hand, if the total score is less than 20 points, and any one of the 6 items scores less than 3 points, it is considered that positioning has been inadequate, and this is termed ''Positioning-D'' (P-D). At the first review meeting, which was held before our critical study, P-A accounted for 48% of cases, and this had improved to 72% at the second meeting, and to 66% at the third. P-D accounted for 41% of cases at the first meeting, 20% at the second, and 21% at the third. Thus our trial involving discussion between a physician and technicians to critically review good

  6. National protocol for quality assurance in DXA-bone densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavchev, A.; Avramova-Cholakova, S.; Vassileva, J.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis becomes largely one of the most important socially significant and costly diseases. Modern techniques (DXA, US) are applied for bone densitometry. The paper presents a protocol for quality assurance especially of DXA-bone densitometers including quality control made in compliance with international standards (ISCD, IOF). The methodology has been tested in practice by measurements on site-functional assessment, entrance dose, radiation protection, calibration, in-vitro precision. It is expected to raise the quality of the diagnostic process in concert with the EU Medical Directive 97/43 particularly for population screening and sensitive groups. The protocol is an essential part of the National Program for constraining osteoporosis which has been elaborated at the Ministry of Health and at present under implementation throughout the country. It aims at reducing the risk, factors spreading, at diminishing the fracture risk the morbidity and the mortality from osteoporosis. An integral multidisciplinary approach to the problem solving is applied as well as training on three levels — doctors, patients, population, which effectively will contribute for obtaining real results in preventing osteoporosis.

  7. Are data from national quality registries used in quality improvement at Swedish hospital clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Mio; Halford, Christina; Eldh, Ann Catrine; Dahlström, Tobias; Vengberg, Sofie; Wallin, Lars; Winblad, Ulrika

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the use of data from national quality registries (NQRs) in local quality improvement as well as purported key factors for effective clinical use in Sweden. Comparative descriptive: a web survey of all Swedish hospitals participating in three NQRs with different levels of development (certification level). Heads of the clinics and physician(s) at clinics participating in the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke), the Swedish National Registry of Gallstone Surgery and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (GallRiks) and the Swedish Lung Cancer Registry (NLCR). Individual and unit level use of NQRs in local quality improvement, and perceptions on data quality, organizational conditions and user motivation. Riksstroke data were reported as most extensively used at individual and unit levels (x̅ 17.97 of 24 and x̅ 27.06 of 35). Data quality and usefulness was considered high for the two most developed NQRs (x̅ 19.86 for Riksstroke and x̅ 19.89 for GallRiks of 25). Organizational conditions were estimated at the same level for Riksstroke and GallRiks (x̅ 12.90 and x̅ 13.28 of 20) while the least developed registry, the NLCR, had lower estimates (x̅ 10.32). In Riksstroke, the managers requested registry data more often (x̅ 15.17 of 20). While there were significant differences between registries in key factors such as management interest, use of NQR data in local quality improvement seems rather prevalent, at least for Riksstroke. The link between the registry's level of development and factors important for routinization of innovations such as NQRs needs investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. The U.S. Online News Coverage of Mammography Based on a Google News Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Lin, Leng Leng; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2017-12-01

    To characterize online news coverage relating to mammography, including articles' stance toward screening mammography. Google News was used to search U.S. news sites over a 9-year period (2006-2015) based on the search terms "mammography" and "mammogram." The top 100 search results were recorded. Identified articles were manually reviewed. The top 100 news articles were from the following sources: local news outlet (50%), national news outlet (24%), nonimaging medical source (13%), entertainment or culture news outlet (6%), business news outlet (4%), peer-reviewed journal (1%), and radiology news outlet (1%). Most common major themes were the screening mammography controversy (29%), description of a new breast imaging technology (23%), dense breasts (11%), and promotion of a public screening initiative (11%). For the most recent year, article stance toward screening mammography was 59%, favorable; 16%, unfavorable; and 25%, neutral. After 2010, there was an abrupt shift in articles' stances from neutral to both favorable and unfavorable. A wide range of online news sources addressed a range of issues related to mammography. National, rather than local, news sites were more likely to focus on the screening controversy and more likely to take an unfavorable view. The controversial United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines may have influenced articles to take a stance on screening mammography. As such online news may impact public perception of the topic and thus potentially impact guideline adherence, radiologists are encouraged to maintain awareness of this online coverage and to support the online dissemination of reliable and accurate information. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A method for calculating effective lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer from screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.; England, A.; McEntee, M.F.; Hogg, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a method for evaluating the effective lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer from screening mammography and to present initial data for the UK National Breast Screening Programme. Material and methods: The imaging was undertaken using a Hologic Selenia full field digital mammographic unit. The proposed method utilises an ATOM phantom containing thermoluminescent dosimeters and a perspex-polyethylene breast phantom to measure organ doses during a standard four view screening mammogram. Effective dose was calculated and effective risk was modelled for a range of client ages. The total lifetime effective risk was then calculated for the UK national screening programme. Calculation of effective risk includes the radiation dose to examined and contralateral breasts in addition to other body organs; this is an advantage over the mean glandular dose. Results: The contralateral breast, thyroid, thymus, brain, lung, salivary glands, and bone marrow all receive more than 1 μGy radiation dose during screening mammography. A major difference exists for total effective lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer between clients with average and high breast cancer risk. Differences are attributed to the commencement age of screening and time interval between screens. Conclusion: This study proposes a method to evaluate effective lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer from screening mammography in order to compare different mammography screening programmes. - Highlights: • We proposed a method for the calculation of radiation-induced cancer from screening mammography. • We measured the radiation absorbed dose of different organs during screening mammography. • There are major differences between mammography screening programme categories with regard to radiation effective risk.

  10. Evaluation of patient dose in some mammography centres in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paknyat, A.; Samarin, E. R. P.; Jeshvaghane, N. A.; Paydar, R.; Fasaei, B.; Karamloo, A.; Khosravi, H. R.; Deevband, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    High diagnostic sensitivity and specificity while maintaining the least dose to the patient is the ideal mammography. The objective of this work was to evaluate patient dose and image quality of mammograms to propose corrective actions. The image quality for 1242 patient in 7 mammography facilities in Tehran city was evaluated based on selected image quality criteria using a three-point scale. Clinical image quality, the entrance surface air kerma, the average glandular dose and optical density of films for standard PMMA phantom of 4.5 cm thickness were evaluated. The results showed that up to 72 % of mammograms were in good condition to be diagnosed, and only about 3.4 % of the images were unacceptable or with suboptimal quality. The entrance surface air kerma values were in the range of 3.8-10.5 mGy, average glandular dose 0.5-1.8 mGy and optical density of films 0.74-2.03. The image quality evaluation after correction actions, periodic image quality evaluation and using the correct equipment certainly will improve patient dose. (authors)

  11. SU-E-I-88: Mammography Imaging: Does Positioning Matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J; Szabunio, M [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In mammography, compression is imperative for quality images and glandular radiation exposure dose. The thickness of the compressed breast directly determines mammography acquisition parameters. The compressed thickness varies due to variation in technologist practice, even for the same patient imaged at different time. This study is to investigate potential effect of the variation in breast positioning on radiation dose and image quality. Methods: Radiation dose at different thicknesses was measured with a BR-12 breast phantom for both conventional craniocaudal view and tomosynthesis in a Hologic Tomosynthesis mammography system. The CIRS stereotactic needle biopsy training phantom embedded dense masses and microcalcification in various sizes were imaged for image quality evaluation. Radiologists evaluated images. Clinical mammograms from the same patient but acquired at different time were retrospectively retrieved to evaluate potential effects of variation in positioning. Results: Acquisition parameters (kVp and mAs) increase with the increased phantom thickness. Radiation exposure increases following an exponential trend. The stereotactic phantom images showed loss of spatial and contrast resolution with inappropriate positioning. The compressed pressure may not be a good indicator for appropriate positioning. The inclusion of different amount of pectoralis muscle may lead to the same compressed pressure but different compressed thickness. The initial retrospective study of 3 patients showed that there were potential large variations in positioning the same patient at different examination time, resulting in large variations in patient radiation dose and image quality. Conclusion: Variations in patient positioning potentially influence patient radiation dose and image quality. The technologist has the critical responsibility to position patient to provide quality images in spite of different breast and body types. To reduce intra and inter practice

  12. Studies of breast masses in Korean woman using tungsten anode mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, C. O.; Oh, K. K.; Lee, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    Mammography is the oldest and most popular method in the diagnosis of breast disease and received the special attention as the powerful instrument in early detection of breast cancer. In Korea, the mammography has not been widely used, yet, but nowadays, increasing incidence of breast cancer and good prognosis after early detection and proper treatment need the clinical application of mammography for management of patient with breast disease and for the detection of occult cancer. The technique obtaining the good quality film is essential for improving the diagnostic accuracy of mammography in breast disease and in general, excellent film radiographs of breast can be obtained with proper combination of Kvp, processing, selection of fine grained film, fine focus tube and compression. In present study, radiographic technique was used in which 36-40 Kvp and 200 mAs were derived from a small focus Tungsten Anode tube. Medio-lateral and Cranio-caudad view were taken using Acryl compression device, which was specially designed by authors in order to properly examine the small, dense breasts of Korean women. Non-screen fine grained mammographic films was used and processing was manual.The materials consisted of 150 cases of mammography performed at Yonsei University Medical College, Severance Hospital, since January, 1978. We analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and mammographic findings in pathologically confirmed 39 cases. The conclusions are as follows: 1. Because women are sensitive to her breast changes, mammography is very useful not only in diagnosis of breast disease and early detection of cancer, but also management of patients with breast symptom and sign. 2. We obtained the relatively good quality film and high diagnostic accuracy with our own method, using conventional Tungsten Anode tube, compression device and hand processing. 3. We also applied specimen radiography in diagnosis of breast disease, which was helpful in verification of the adequacy

  13. Assessing the quality of care in a new nation: South Sudan's first national health facility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, Sima; Lako, Richard L; Whitson, Donald; Gould, Simon; Valadez, Joseph J

    2014-10-01

    We adapted a rapid quality of care monitoring method to a fragile state with two aims: to assess the delivery of child health services in South Sudan at the time of independence and to strengthen local capacity to perform regular rapid health facility assessments. Using a two-stage lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) design, we conducted a national cross-sectional survey among 156 randomly selected health facilities in 10 states. In each of these facilities, we obtained information on a range of access, input, process and performance indicators during structured interviews and observations. Quality of care was poor with all states failing to achieve the 80% target for 14 of 19 indicators. For example, only 12% of facilities were classified as acceptable for their adequate utilisation by the population for sick-child consultations, 16% for staffing, 3% for having infection control supplies available and 0% for having all child care guidelines. Health worker performance was categorised as acceptable in only 6% of cases related to sick-child assessments, 38% related to medical treatment for the given diagnosis and 33% related to patient counselling on how to administer the prescribed drugs. Best performance was recorded for availability of in-service training and supervision, for seven and ten states, respectively. Despite ongoing instability, the Ministry of Health developed capacity to use LQAS for measuring quality of care nationally and state-by-state, which will support efficient and equitable resource allocation. Overall, our data revealed a desperate need for improving the quality of care in all states. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Quality Control in diagnostic radiology according to national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domienik, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to review the main aspects of quality control of radiological devices according to the current national regulations. Explanation of the physical principles of image formation by different test phantoms used to measure focal spot sizes is presented in appendix. The obligation for quality assurance (QA) for all X-ray systems which follows European standards was enforced in updated '' Atomic Law Act '' of 29 November 2000 . This document is the main regulatory act which establishes the basic safety standards for radiation protection in Poland. The main modifications introduced by this new Act concerned the issue of radiation protection of individuals undergoing medical examinations with the use of ionizing radiation which is regulated by EC Directive 97/43 Euratom. According to this Directive quality assurance programmes, including quality control measures need to be implemented by the holder of the radiological installation. Therefore, in the above Act the Minister of Health has been obligated to impose specific regulations describing the way of implementation of general principles laid down in the Directive. Some of these regulations, like those concerning QC tests and tolerances, have already been mentioned in the document titled '' On the conditions for safe application of ionizing radiation in medicine ''. For example, the QC program in radiography is being considered; the obligatory tests- acceptance, routine and annual- are discussed and specific procedures are being indicated. The main idea of the document '' On the conditions for safe application of ionizing radiation in medicine '' which concerns radiation protection of patients and staff against ionizing radiation used in medicine is to implement the surveillance of all X-ray systems in form of acceptance tests followed by internal tests (routine and annual) performed in accordance with European standards. (author)

  15. Development of diagnostic mammography unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, M.; Muraki, T.; Kitade, K. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    The mortality from breast cancer is gradually increasing year after year. Accordingly, it is eagerly desired that X-ray diagnosis information be obtainable with higher accuracy and ease for early detection of the disease. Meeting this demand, development has been made of a 2 x magnification mammography unit (Model MGU-01) capabel of minutely depicting microcalcifications with a size of 150 ..mu..m or thereabout and the peripheral condition of a mammary abscess. The background of the development, the substance of the unit and the examination made of the unit are described here.

  16. Development of diagnostic mammography unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Mitsuyoshi; Muraki, Takeshi; Kitade, Kooichi

    1981-01-01

    The mortality from breast cancer is gradually increasing year after year. Accordingly, it is eagerly desired that X-ray diagnosis information be obtainable with higher accuracy and ease for early detection of the disease. Meeting this demand, development has been made of a 2 x magnification mammography unit (Model MGU-01) capabel of minutely depicting microcalcifications with a size of 150 μm or thereabout and the peripheral condition of a mammary abscess. The background of the development, the substance of the unit and the examination made of the unit are described here. (author)

  17. Introduction of organised mammography screening in tyrol: results of a one-year pilot phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniaux Martin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficiency and efficacy of organised mammography screening programs have been proven in large randomised trials. But every local implementation of mammography screening has to check whether the well established quality standards are met. Therefore it was the aim of this study to analyse the most common quality indices after introducing organised mammography screening in Tyrol, Austria, in a smooth transition from the existing system of opportunistic screening. Methods In June 2007, the system of opportunistic mammography screening in Tyrol was changed to an organised system by introducing a personal invitation system, a training program, a quality assurance program and by setting up a screening database. All procedures are noted in a written protocol. Most EU recommendations for organised mammography screening were followed, except double reading. All women living in Tyrol and covered by social insurance are now invited for a mammography, in age group 40-59 annually and in age group 60-69 biannually. Screening mammography is offered mainly by radiologists in private practice. We report on the results of the first year of piloting organised mammography screening in two counties in Tyrol. Results 56,432 women were invited. Estimated participation rate was 34.5% at one year of follow-up (and 55.5% at the second year of follow-up; 3.4% of screened women were recalled for further assessment or intermediate screening within six months. Per 1000 mammograms nine biopsies were performed and four breast cancer cases detected (N = 68. Of invasive breast cancer cases 34.4% were ≤ 10 mm in size and 65.6% were node-negative. In total, six interval cancer cases were detected during one year of follow-up; this is 19% of the background incidence rate. Conclusions In the Tyrolean breast cancer screening program, a smooth transition from a spontaneous to an organised mammography screening system was achieved in a short time and with minimal

  18. Dosimetric investigations in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metges, P.J.; Lorrain, S.

    1981-01-01

    The development film-screen detectors in radiological equipment has led us to study how to improve standard mammographic pictures (focus 0.3 x 0.3 mm, focus-film distance: 65) of thick and dense breasts by the use of an anti-scatter grid and by magnification. A dosimetric study was necessary to assess the doses delivered during mammographic examinations carried out according to various procedures. The results led to modify breast examination procedures and use an anti-scatter grid for breasts thicker than 4 cm or known as dense. The dose increase due to a better quality image is the lowest provided depth penetration is increased by 2 kV as compared to a standard picture. Absorbed doses on the X-ray axis, at 3 cm depth, are below 0.1 rad [fr

  19. QUALITY OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH: FACTORS AND DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj I. Komkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic: TThe theme of this article is very relevant in the light of changes in the global geo-economic structure and changing the role and place ofRussiain world economic and geopolitical relations. The article deals with the basic aspects of national economic growth, which slowed down in the last three years. The main reason for slowing national economic growth is associated with the depletion of the reserves of the traditional export-oriented development of the Russian economy, as well as problems with sluggish innovative transformation. In this paper, based on a systematic analysis of economic processes and the interpretation of analytical data, addresses the general theoretical and methodological aspects of the quality of economic development, as well as practical guidelines and recommendations related to sustainable national socio-economic development in the context of external constraints.The purpose / objectives: The aim of the article is to analyze the theoretical and methodological aspects of the quality of economic development of the Russian economy, which happened in the face of economic sanctions. Objectives of the article: justify practical directions and recommendations related to sustainable national socio-economic development in the context of external constraints, determine the prospects for the economy of theRussian Federationin the conditions of the introduction of sectoral sanctions by Western countries. Methodology:Methodological basis of this article are the comparative and economic-statistical methods of analysis.The Results: The study revealed that the harsh environment (sanctions, depreciation of the ruble, and others. Require surgical intervention and adjustments not only the current socio-economic plans, but also to take urgent measures to ensure the development prospects. The most important decision is the degree of support advanced scientific and technical programs and the creation of new domestic

  20. Reduction in interval cancer rates following the introduction of two-view mammography in the UK breast screening programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibden, A; Offman, J; Parmar, D; Jenkins, J; Slater, J; Binysh, K; McSorley, J; Scorfield, S; Cumming, P; Liao, X-H; Ryan, M; Harker, D; Stevens, G; Rogers, N; Blanks, R; Sellars, S; Patnick, J; Duffy, S W

    2014-01-01

    Background: The introduction of two-view mammography at incident (subsequent) screens in the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) has led to an increased number of cancers detected at screen. However, the effect of two-view mammography on interval cancer rates has yet to be assessed. Methods: Routine screening and interval cancer data were collated from all screening programmes in the United Kingdom for women aged 50–64, screened between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2005. Interval cancer rates were compared based on whether two-view mammography was in use at the last routine screen. Results: The reduction in interval cancers following screening using two-view mammography compared with one view was 0.68 per 1 000 women screened. Overall, this suggests the introduction of two-view mammography at incident screen was accompanied by a 15–20% reduction in interval cancer rates in the NHSBSP. Conclusion: The introduction of two-view mammography at incident screens is associated with a reduction in incidence of interval cancers. This is consistent with previous publications on a contemporaneous increase in screen-detected cancers. The results provide further evidence of the benefit of the use of two-view mammography at incident screens. PMID:24366303

  1. Quality assurance programme at the National Calibration Laboratory in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, W.E.; Yoloye, O.; Ngaile, J.; Lema, U.S.

    2000-01-01

    A quality assurance programme at the National Calibration Laboratory for ionizing radiation in Tanzania is described. The programme focuses mainly on regular stability check source and reference output measurements, performance testing of TLD systems as well as some external audit checks. It is found that the stability check source measurements are within ± 1%. Similarly, the air kerma rate measurements agree well with calibration uncertainties, that is ± 2% for protection level measurements and ± 1.5% for clinical dosimetry. The results of comparison of dose measurements done on site and those obtained from some external audit checks are also within requirements. This shows that the working standards have been kept with good care, and that the traceability to the international measurement system is adequately maintained. Some examples on calibration transfer activities are briefly discussed

  2. Dual-energy imaging in full-field digital mammography: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taibi, A; Fabbri, S; Baldelli, P; Maggio, C di; Gennaro, G; Marziani, M; Tuffanelli, A; Gambaccini, M

    2003-01-01

    A dual-energy technique which employs the basis decomposition method is being investigated for application to digital mammography. A three-component phantom, made up of plexiglas, polyethylene and water, was doubly exposed with the full-field digital mammography system manufactured by General Electric. The 'low' and 'high' energy images were recorded with a Mo/Mo anode-filter combination and a Rh/Rh combination, respectively. The total dose was kept within the acceptable levels of conventional mammography. The first hybrid images obtained with the dual-energy algorithm are presented in comparison with a conventional radiograph of the phantom. Image-quality characteristics at contrast cancellation angles between plexiglas and water are discussed. Preliminary results show that a combination of a standard Mo-anode 28 kV radiograph with a Rh-anode 49 kV radiograph provides the best compromise between image-quality and dose in the hybrid image

  3. The mammography screening employee inreach program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joanne; Seltzer, Vicki; Lawrence, Loretta; Autz, George; Kostroff, Karen; Weiselberg, Lora; Colagiacomo, Maria

    2007-02-01

    To determine whether our health care employees were undergoing mammography screening according to American Cancer Society guidelines and to determine whether aggressive outreach, education and streamlining of mammography scheduling could improve compliance. All female employees at North Shore University Hospital (NSUH) and several other health system facilities (SF) were sent mailings to their homes that included breast health education and mammography screening guidelines, a questionnaire regarding their own mammography screening history and the opportunity to have their mammography screening scheduled by the Mammography Screening Employee Inreach Program (MSEIP) coordinator. Of the approximately 2,700 female employees aged 40 and over at NSUH and SF, 2,235 (82.7%) responded to the questionnaire, and 1,455 had a mammogram done via the MSEIP. Of the 1,455, 43% either were overdue for a mammogram or had never had one. During a second year of the MSEIP at NSUH and SF, an additional 1,706 mammograms were done. People employed in health care jobs do not necessarily avail themselves of appropriate health care screening. An aggressive program that utilized education, outreach and assistance with scheduling was effective in increasing compliance with mammography screening.

  4. A comparison of the performance of modern screen-film and digital mammography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnin, P [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gutierrez, D [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bulling, S [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Lepori, D [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center (CHUV), CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Valley, J-F [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Verdun, F R [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA), CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-06-07

    This work compares the detector performance and image quality of the new Kodak Min-R EV mammography screen-film system with the Fuji CR Profect detector and with other current mammography screen-film systems from Agfa, Fuji and Kodak. Basic image quality parameters (MTF, NPS, NEQ and DQE) were evaluated for a 28 kV Mo/Mo (HVL = 0.646 mm Al) beam using different mAs exposure settings. Compared with other screen-film systems, the new Kodak Min-R EV detector has the highest contrast and a low intrinsic noise level, giving better NEQ and DQE results, especially at high optical density. Thus, the properties of the new mammography film approach those of a fine mammography detector, especially at low frequency range. Screen-film systems provide the best resolution. The presampling MTF of the digital detector has a value of 15% at the Nyquist frequency and, due to the spread size of the laser beam, the use of a smaller pixel size would not permit a significant improvement of the detector resolution. The dual collection reading technology increases significantly the low frequency DQE of the Fuji CR system that can at present compete with the most efficient mammography screen-film systems.

  5. Mammography image compression using Wavelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuhar Ripin; Md Saion Salikin; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Norriza Md Isa

    2004-01-01

    Image compression plays an important role in many applications like medical imaging, televideo conferencing, remote sensing, document and facsimile transmission, which depend on the efficient manipulation, storage, and transmission of binary, gray scale, or color images. In Medical imaging application such Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACs), the image size or image stream size is too large and requires a large amount of storage space or high bandwidth for communication. Image compression techniques are divided into two categories namely lossy and lossless data compression. Wavelet method used in this project is a lossless compression method. In this method, the exact original mammography image data can be recovered. In this project, mammography images are digitized by using Vider Sierra Plus digitizer. The digitized images are compressed by using this wavelet image compression technique. Interactive Data Language (IDLs) numerical and visualization software is used to perform all of the calculations, to generate and display all of the compressed images. Results of this project are presented in this paper. (Author)

  6. On the possibility of reducing doses received by patients during mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolwinski, J.; Fabiszewska, E.; Gwiazdowska, B.; Bulski, W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to collect and to evaluate a set of data of a large group of patients examined with different mammography units, and to compare the individual doses (Di) with the standard average glandular dose (standard AGD) established for a particular mammography unit. The comparison was intended to allow to formulate recommendations of procedures in order to limit the exposure of patients, procedures which are beyond the scope of routine testing of mammography facilities. The presented analysis bases on the results of the measurements of the standard AGD, taken from 82 protocols of quality control of mammography equipment; - 16 histograms of dose distribution for individual patients (Di) examined with 16 different mammography units; - 2 histograms for patients examined with one mammography unit by the radiographer before and after training; - histograms of individual doses (Di), corresponding high-voltage (kV) and tube-loading (mAs) values, for one mammography unit (Elscint-Glory 2001) which was equipped with an automatic optimisation of contrast (AOC) system. The measurements were carried out according to the procedures of the American College of Radiology (ACR). Basing upon the constructed histograms we performed a comparison of the standard AGD values with the individual doses (Di). The frequency distribution of the standard AGDs (Figure 1) shows a considerable dispersion of values, ranging between 0.5 and 2.5 mGy. The histograms of the individual glandular doses (Di) calculated for individual patients, examined with different units (Figure 2) suggest that the choice of high voltage made by the radiographers may be incorrect i.e. the high voltage was not increased sufficiently with the increase of breast thickness. The incorrect value of the high voltage (low value) may be also set up by the AOC system (Figure 4). Two histograms for patients examined with one mammography unit by the radiographer before and after training (Figure 3) indicate the

  7. Study on patient exposure from mammography, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Miyao

    1983-01-01

    Risks and benefits of the patient from mammography performed in Japan were estimated, and the indication of mammography were discussed. 1) Breast cancers induced by mammography were estimated based on the average breast dose, the average life span, risks of radiation-induced breast cancer and the breast cancer significant factor. 2) The breast cancer significant factor was calculated, similar to those of leukemia significant factor by Hashizume, from latent periods of radiation-induced breast cancer and the excess breast cancer induction rate in female A-bomb survivors. 3) Numbers of the deaths and Lost-years were calculated from risks of radiation-induced breast cancer, incidence of breast cancer by mammography, cure rate of breast cancer, average life span and latent period of radiation-induced breast cancer. 4) Numbers of the increased life and years saved were calculated from the improved rate of the ability of diagnosis, frequency of mammography, the average life span and cure rate of breast cancer. 5) Induction of leukemia, lung cancer and thyroid cancer by mammography also were investigated. Its contribution was not significant, compared to the induction of breast cancer. 6) Comparing risk and benefit, the latter was much higher than the former by factors of 71-76. This was suggested the efficacy of mammography. 7) From a pointview of risk and benefit, routine mammography is contraindicative for 10-19 years old women because of large risk, the indication must be scrutinized for 20-29 years old ones, and the benefit increases with age for over 30 years old ones so that mammography was positively admitted for the symptomatic women. (author)

  8. Comparative study of dose estimation in the change a conventional mammography to digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez Vazquez, R.; Otero Martinez, C.; Soto Bua, M.; Santamarina Vazquez, F.; Carril Iglesias, S.; Lobato Busto, R.; Luna Vega, V.; Mosquera Sueiro, J.; Sqanchez Garcia, M.; Pombar Camean, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mammographic studies are now one of the most demanding radiological because of its effectiveness in detecting breast cancer early. The introduction of digital mammography has been a major advance because it has overcome some of the limitations of conventional systems. Due to the nature of the radiosensitive glandular tissue becomes very important control of the dose given to patients. In the present study is to analyze the variations in dosimetry that can exist between a conventional mammography and digital mammography.

  9. The radiation metrology network related to the field of mammography: implementation and uncertainty analysis of the calibration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, J. G. P.; de Almeida, C. E.

    2001-09-01

    It is recognized by the international guidelines that it is necessary to offer calibration services for mammography beams in order to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis. Major efforts have been made by several laboratories in order to establish an appropriate and traceable calibration infrastructure and to provide the basis for a quality control programme in mammography. The contribution of the radiation metrology network to the users of mammography is reviewed in this work. Also steps required for the implementation of a mammography calibration system using a constant potential x-ray and a clinical mammography x-ray machine are presented. The various qualities of mammography radiation discussed in this work are in accordance with the IEC 61674 and the AAPM recommendations. They are at present available at several primary standard dosimetry laboratories (PSDLs), namely the PTB, NIST and BEV and a few secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) such as at the University of Wisconsin and at the IAEA's SSDL. We discuss the uncertainties involved in all steps of the calibration chain in accord with the ISO recommendations.

  10. NAVIGATING A QUALITY ROUTE TO A NATIONAL SAFETY AWARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREVETTE SS

    2009-05-26

    Deming quality methodologies applied to safety are recognized with the National Safety Council's annual Robert W. Campbell Award. Over the last ten years, the implementation of Statistical Process Control and quality methodologies at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have contributed to improved safety. Improvements attributed to Statistical Process Control are evidenced in Occupational Safety and Health records and documented through several articles in Quality Progress and the American Society of Safety Engineers publication, Professional Safety. Statistical trending of safety, quality, and occurrence data continues to playa key role in improving safety and quality at what has been called the world's largest environmental cleanup project. DOE's Hanford Site played a pivotal role in the nation's defense beginning in the 1940s, when it was established as part of the Manhattan Project. After more than 50 years of producing material for nuclear weapons, Hanford, which covers 586 square miles in southeastern Washington state, is now focused on three outcomes: (1) Restoring the Columbia River corridor for multiple uses; (2) Transitioning the central plateau to support long-term waste management; and (3) Putting DOE assets to work for the future. The current environmental cleanup mission faces challenges of overlapping technical, political, regulatory, environmental, and cultural interests. From Oct. 1, 1996 through Sept. 30, 2008, Fluor Hanford was a prime contractor to the Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office. In this role, Fluor Hanford managed several major cleanup activities that included dismantling former nuclear-processing facilities, cleaning up the Site's contaminated groundwater, retrieving and processing transuranic waste for shipment and disposal off-site, maintaining the Site's infrastructure, providing security and fire protection, and operating the Volpentest HAMMER Training and Education

  11. Satellite teleradiology test bed for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Dudding, Kathryn E.; Abdel-Malek, Aiman A.; Mitchell, Robert J.

    1996-05-01

    Teleradiology offers significant improvement in efficiency and patient compliance over current practices in traditional film/screen-based diagnosis. The increasing number of women who need to be screened for breast cancer, including those in remote rural regions, make the advantages of teleradiology especially attractive for digital mammography. At the same time, the size and resolution of digital mammograms are among the most challenging to support in a cost effective teleradiology system. This paper will describe a teleradiology architecture developed for use with digital mammography by GE Corporate Research and Development in collaboration with Massachusetts General Hospital under National Cancer Institute (NCI/NIH) grant number R01 CA60246-01. The testbed architecture is based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard, created by the American College of Radiology and National Electrical Manufacturers Association. The testbed uses several Sun workstations running SunOS, which emulate a rural examination facility connected to a central diagnostic facility, and uses a TCP-based DICOM application to transfer images over a satellite link. Network performance depends on the product of the bandwidth times the round- trip time. A satellite link has a round trip of 513 milliseconds, making the bandwidth-delay a significant problem. This type of high bandwidth, high delay network is called a Long Fat Network, or LFN. The goal of this project was to quantify the performance of the satellite link, and evaluate the effectiveness of TCP over an LFN. Four workstations have Sun's HSI/S (High Speed Interface) option. Two are connected by a cable, and two are connected through a satellite link. Both interfaces have the same T1 bandwidth (1.544 Megabits per second). The only difference was the round trip time. Even with large window buffers, the time to transfer a file over the satellite link was significantly longer, due to the bandwidth-delay. To

  12. Screening mammography among nursing home residents in the United States: Current guidelines and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Deborah S; Epstein, Mara M; Dubé, Catherine; Clark, Robin E; Lapane, Kate L

    2018-06-04

    United States (US) guidelines regarding when to stop routine breast cancer screening remain unclear. No national studies to-date have evaluated the use of screening mammography among US long-stay nursing home residents. This cross-sectional study was designed to identify prevalence, predictors, and geographic variation of screening mammography among that population in the context of current US guidelines. Screening mammography prevalence, identified with Physician/Supplier Part B claims and stratified by guideline age classification (65-74, ≥75 years), was estimated for all women aged ≥65 years residing in US Medicare- and Medicaid- certified nursing homes (≥1 year) with an annual Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 assessment, continuous Medicare Part B enrollment, and no clinical indication for screening mammography as of 2011 (n = 389,821). The associations between resident- and regional- level factors, and screening mammography, were estimated by crude and adjusted prevalence ratios from robust Poisson regressions clustered by facility. Women on average were 85.4 (standard deviation ±8.1) years old, 77.9% were disabled, and 76.3% cognitively impaired. Screening mammography prevalence was 7.1% among those aged 65-74 years (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 6.8%-7.3%) and 1.7% among those ≥75 years (95% CI, 1.7%-1.8%), with geographic variation observed. Predictors of screening in both age groups included race, cognitive impairment, frailty, hospice, and some comorbidities. These results shed light on the current screening mammography practices in US nursing homes. Thoughtful consideration about individual screening recommendations and the implementation of more clear guidelines for this special population are warranted to prevent overscreening. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Continuing Medical Education on Rheumatologists? Performance on National Quality Measures for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sapir, Tamar; Rusie, Erica; Greene, Laurence; Yazdany, Jinoos; Robbins, Mark L.; Ruderman, Eric M.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Patel, Barry; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years researchers have reported deficits in the quality of care provided to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including low rates of performance on quality measures. We sought to determine the influence of a quality improvement (QI) continuing education program on rheumatologists’ performance on national quality measures for RA, along with other measures aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities. Performance was assessed through baseline and post-educati...

  14. Breast compression in mammography: how much is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Ann; McLean, Donald; Rickard, Mary; Heard, Robert

    2003-06-01

    The amount of breast compression that is applied during mammography potentially influences image quality and the discomfort experienced. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between applied compression force, breast thickness, reported discomfort and image quality. Participants were women attending routine breast screening by mammography at BreastScreen New South Wales Central and Eastern Sydney. During the mammographic procedure, an 'extra' craniocaudal (CC) film was taken at a reduced level of compression ranging from 10 to 30 Newtons. Breast thickness measurements were recorded for both the normal and the extra CC film. Details of discomfort experienced, cup size, menstrual status, existing breast pain and breast problems were also recorded. Radiologists were asked to compare the image quality of the normal and manipulated film. The results indicated that 24% of women did not experience a difference in thickness when the compression was reduced. This is an important new finding because the aim of breast compression is to reduce breast thickness. If breast thickness is not reduced when compression force is applied then discomfort is increased with no benefit in image quality. This has implications for mammographic practice when determining how much breast compression is sufficient. Radiologists found a decrease in contrast resolution within the fatty area of the breast between the normal and the extra CC film, confirming a decrease in image quality due to insufficient applied compression force.

  15. The quality of sample surveys in a developing nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Neva South-Bourne4, Chloe Morris1, Denise Eldemire-Shearer1, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell51Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York, USA; 4Research assistant for Paul A Bourne; 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, JamaicaBackground: In Jamaica, population census began in 1844, and many intercensal ratios obtained from the census data showed that there is a general high degree of accuracy of the data. However, statistics from the Jamaican Ministry of Health showed that there are inaccuracies in health data collected from males using sample surveys.Objectives: The objectives of the present research are to 1 investigate the accuracy of a national sample survey, 2 explore the feasibility and quality of using a subnational sample survey to represent a national survey, 3 aid other scholars in understanding the probability of using national sample surveys and subnational sample surveys, 4 assess older men’s ­evaluation of their health status, and 5 determine whether dichotomization changes self-evaluated health status.Methods: For the current study, the data used in the analysis were originally collected from 2 different sources: 1 the Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC and 2 Survey of Older Men (SOM. Cross validation of self-evaluated data of men in Jamaica was done with comparable samples of the complete JSLC data and the SOM data, where men older than 55 years were selected from each sample.Results: In study 1, 50.2% of respondents indicated at least good self-evaluated health status compared with 74.0% in study 2. Statistical associations were found between health status and survey sample (Χ2 [df = 5

  16. An evaluation of musculoskeletal discomfort experience by radiographers performing mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, A.G.; May, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether breast screening radiographers experience any problems of musculoskeletal discomfort, and if so the nature and extent of these problems. The study was then further extended to investigate and determine possible occupational, causal or contributory factors, and to suggest recommendations to help alleviate any discomfort. To investigate this problem five main approaches were undertaken. These consisted of; a national survey, an observational study, the comparison of the physical measurements of the mammography units with anthropometric data, a detailed task analysis, and a body mapping study. The national survey set out to determine if the nature and frequency of such problems were higher in mammography than in other areas of radiography or in the general population. Additionally, comparisons were made with non-radiographic staff working at the same breast screening centres. Video recordings of radiographers performing breast screening were also made and posture analysis performed on these data. A detailed task analysis was conducted to identify interaction points and possible problems between the radiographer and the equipment which she is required to use. Physical measurements of the mammography units were made and compared with anthropometric measurements and guidelines. The body mapping study measured the build up of discomfort throughout the working day on several different mammography units. The results from the survey questionnaire indicated that some breast screening radiographers do experience musculoskeletal problems, and that these are different in nature and prevalence from the musculoskeletal discomfort reported by the two control groups. The prevalence of back pain reported by radiographers undertaking mammography was higher than that present in the normal population. No comparison could be made with other body areas as data regarding other types of musculoskeletal discomfort in the general population are

  17. An evaluation of musculoskeletal discomfort experience by radiographers performing mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, A.G.; May, J

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether breast screening radiographers experience any problems of musculoskeletal discomfort, and if so the nature and extent of these problems. The study was then further extended to investigate and determine possible occupational, causal or contributory factors, and to suggest recommendations to help alleviate any discomfort. To investigate this problem five main approaches were undertaken. These consisted of; a national survey, an observational study, the comparison of the physical measurements of the mammography units with anthropometric data, a detailed task analysis, and a body mapping study. The national survey set out to determine if the nature and frequency of such problems were higher in mammography than in other areas of radiography or in the general population. Additionally, comparisons were made with non-radiographic staff working at the same breast screening centres. Video recordings of radiographers performing breast screening were also made and posture analysis performed on these data. A detailed task analysis was conducted to identify interaction points and possible problems between the radiographer and the equipment which she is required to use. Physical measurements of the mammography units were made and compared with anthropometric measurements and guidelines. The body mapping study measured the build up of discomfort throughout the working day on several different mammography units. The results from the survey questionnaire indicated that some breast screening radiographers do experience musculoskeletal problems, and that these are different in nature and prevalence from the musculoskeletal discomfort reported by the two control groups. The prevalence of back pain reported by radiographers undertaking mammography was higher than that present in the normal population. No comparison could be made with other body areas as data regarding other types of musculoskeletal discomfort in the general population are

  18. Danish Quality Database for Mammography Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Njor, Sisse Helle; Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk

    2016-01-01

    diagnosed with breast cancer between screening rounds, 7) invasive breast tumors, 8) node-negative cancers, 9) invasive tumors ≤10 mm, 10) ratio of surgery for benign vs malignant lesions, and 11) breast-conserving therapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: As of August 10, 2015, the database included data from 888...

  19. 78 FR 47674 - Judges Panel of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Performance Excellence Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899... Baldrige National Quality Award AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of... Quality Award (Award) will meet in closed session on Wednesday, August 28, 2013, 9:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m...

  20. 78 FR 63168 - Judges Panel of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Fangmeyer, Acting Director, Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, National... Baldrige National Quality Award AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of... Quality Award (Judges Panel) will meet in closed session Monday through Friday, November 4-8, 2013, 8:30 a...

  1. Quality improvement education to improve performance on ulcerative colitis quality measures and care processes aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laurence; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have reported suboptimal approaches to patient care. In the United States, the findings have motivated leading gastroenterology organizations to call for initiatives that support clinicians in aligning their practices with quality measures for IBD and priorities of the National Quality Strategy (NQS). We designed and implemented a quality improvement (QI) education program on ulcerative colitis in which patient charts were audited for 30 gastroenterologists before (n = 300 charts) and after (n = 290 charts) they participated in QI-focused educational activities. Charts were audited for nine measures, selected for their alignment with four NQS priorities: making care safer, ensuring patient engagement, promoting communication, and promoting effective treatment practices. Four of the measures, including guideline-directed vaccinations and assessments of disease type and activity, were part of the CMS Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS). The other five measures involved counseling patients on various topics in ulcerative colitis management, documentation of side effects, assessment of adherence status, and simplification of dosing. The gastroenterologists also completed baseline and post-education surveys designed to assess qualitative outcomes. One of the educational interventions was a private audit feedback session conducted for each gastroenterologist. The sessions were designed to support participants in identifying measures reflecting suboptimal care quality and developing action plans for improvement. In continuous improvement cycles, follow-up interventions included QI tools and educational monographs. Across the nine chart variables, post-education improvements ranged from 0% to 48%, with a mean improvement of 15.9%. Survey findings revealed improvements in self-reported understanding of quality measures and intentions to apply them to practice, and lower rates of perceived significant barriers to high-quality

  2. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; De Cicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary A.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.

    2017-02-01

    xml:id="wrcr22485-sec-1001" numbered="no">Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  3. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; DeCicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  4. Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of clinically suspicious breast masses. W.F. van Wyk, D Dent, E Anne Hacking, Genevieve Learmonth, R.E. Kottler, C Anne Gudgeon, A Tiltman ...

  5. Mammography: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... While standing in front of the machine, a technologist will position your breast on a small platform. ... mammography or additional 3D imaging methods, such as ultrasound or MRI, are options for you. Ochs adds: “ ...

  6. Heavy-ion mammography and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Holley, W.R.; Woodruff, K.H.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy-ion radiography is a new diagnostic imaging technique developed in our laboratory that produces superior density resolution at low radiation doses. Heavy-ion mammography has now emerged as a low-dose, safe, reliable, noninvasive diagnostic radiological procedure that can quantitate and image very small differences in soft tissue densities in the breast tissues of patients with clinical breast disease. The improved density resolution of heavy-ion mammography over conventional X-ray mammography and breast xerography provides the potential of detecting small breast cancers of less than 1 cm diameter. The radiation dose to the breast from carbon-ion mammorgraphy is about 50 mrad or less, and can potentially be only a fraction of this level. The results of the present clinical trial in progress of heavy-ion mammography in 37 patients, thus far studied, are extremely encouraging, and warrant continued study for application to the early diagnosis of breast cancer in women

  7. CONTRAST ENHANCED SPECTRAL MAMMOGRAPHY (CESM (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Rozhkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of early diagnosis of a breast cancer is extremely actual. Growth of incidence at women from 19 to 39 years increased for 34% over the last 10 years. It defines need of acceleration of development and deployment of the latest technologies of identification of the earliest symptoms of diseases. The x-ray mammography is the conducting method among of all radiological methods of diagnostics. Nevertheless a number of restrictions of method reduces its efficiency. The technologies increasing informational content of x-ray mammography – the leading method of screening – due to use of artificial contrasting and advantages of digital technologies are constantly developed. In this review it is described works, in which the authors having clinical experience of application of CESM – contrastenhanced spectral mammography on representative group of women. Positive sides and restrictions of new technology in comparison with mammography, ultrasonography and MRT are shown in this article.

  8. Mammography screening services: market segments and messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, D L; Smith, J A; Beard, T

    1991-01-01

    Mammography has become a vital tool for the early detection of breast cancer. Although many organizations and health care facilities are working to educate and motivate women to take advantage of the life saving opportunity that is offered through screening mammography, only twenty percent of women who should be screened actually have the procedure performed. In order to reach women who have not been screened, it is important to learn which factors most strongly motivate those women who do choose to have a mammogram. Depth interviews with 18 women attending a mobile mammography unit were conducted to explore the decision making process of women obtaining mammography screening services and to develop a profile of prevalent emotions, attitudes, and feelings associated with receiving breast cancer screening services. Analysis of the interview transcripts revealed several important themes to which health care professionals can direct marketing and health promotion strategies.

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at www.fda.gov/findmammography . Do private insurance companies, Medicare and Medicaid pay for digital mammography exams, ... Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  10. Cost-effective mammography screening in Korea. High incidence of breast cancer in young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soon-Young; Jeong, Seong-Hwa; Kim, Youn-Nam; Kim, Jinheum; Kang, Dae-Ryong; Kim, Hyeon-Chang; Nam, Chung-Mo

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer in Korean women are different from the characteristics reported in Western women. The highest incidence rate occurs in Korean women in their 40s. The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective screening interval and target age range for Korean women from the perspective of the national healthcare system. A stochastic model was used to simulate breast cancer screenings by varying both the screening intervals and the age ranges. The effectiveness of mammography screening was defined as the probability of detecting breast cancer in the preclinical state and the cost was based on the direct cost of mammography screening and the confirmative tests. The age-specific mean sojourn times and the sensitivity of the mammography were applied in the stochastic model. An optimal cost-effectiveness was determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and lifetime schedule sensitivity. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess parameter uncertainty. The selected cost-effective strategies were: the current biennial mammography screenings for women who are at least 40 years old; biennial screening for women between the ages of 35 and 75 years; and a combination strategy consisting of biennial screening for women aged between 45 and 54 years, and 3-year interval screening for women aged between 40 and 44 years and 55 and 65 years. Further studies should follow to investigate the effectiveness of mammography screening in women younger than 40 years in Asia as well as in Korea. (author)

  11. The Future of Contrast-Enhanced Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Matthew F; Pizzitola, Victor J; Lorans, Roxanne; Pockaj, Barbara A; Northfelt, Donald W; Appleton, Catherine M; Patel, Bhavika K

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss facilitators of and barriers to future implementation of contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) in the United States. CEM provides low-energy 2D mammographic images analogous to digital mammography and contrast-enhanced recombined images that allow assessment of neovascularity similar to that offered by MRI. The utilization of CEM in the United States is currently low but could increase rapidly given the many potential indications for its clinical use.

  12. Dual-frequency electrical impedance mammography for the diagnosis of non-malignant breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trokhanova, O V; Okhapkin, M B; Korjenevsky, A V

    2008-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) enables one to determine and visualize non-invasively the spatial distribution of the electrical properties of the tissues inside the body, thus providing valuable diagnostic information. The electrical impedance mammography (EIM) system is a specialized EIT system for diagnostics and imaging of the breast. While breast cancer is the main target for any investigation conducted in this area, the diagnosis of non-cancerous diseases is also very important because it opens the way to improve the quality of life for many women and it may also reduce the incidence of breast cancer through effective treatment of mastopathy. This paper presents the main results of a comprehensive examination of 166 women using four methods: multifrequency electrical impedance mammography, ultrasonic investigation, x-ray mammography and puncture biopsy. The objective of the investigation is to estimate the usefulness of multifrequency electrical impedance mammography for diagnosing dyshormonal mammary gland diseases. The results demonstrate the advantages of the multifrequency EIM method. In particular, dual-frequency electrical impedance mammography in contrast with the single-frequency variant enables one not only to diagnose mastopathy, but also allows accurate detection of its cystless form based on observation of the absence of any difference between average conductivity in both phases of the menstrual cycle. Because the cystless form of mastopathy is associated with a higher risk of cancer development, this method allows identification of a higher risk group of patients for more frequent investigations

  13. Evaluation of the mammography screening studies conducted in Europe and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreer, I.

    2001-01-01

    The ancient randomized-controlled trials of breast cancer screening have offered clear evidence that invitation to participate in mammography screening with/without clinical examination is effective in breast cancer mortality reduction and underline the detection sensitivity of mammography. Recently published criticism of both the effect and fundamental data handling could be shown to be untenable. Randomized studies underestimate the effect while well-designed observational studies do not systematically overestimate the magnitude of the effect. To transform high-quality study results in all-day's practice is a huge challenge, but affordable as has been demonstrated in Great Britain, the Netherlands and Sweden. (orig.) [de

  14. MRI to X-ray mammography registration using a volume-preserving affine transformation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertzanidou, T.; Hipwell, J.; Cardoso, M.J.; Zhang, X.; Tanner, C.; Ourselin, S.; Bick, U.; Huisman, H.J.; Karssemeijer, N.; Hawkes, D.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray mammography is routinely used in national screening programmes and as a clinical diagnostic tool. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is commonly used as a complementary modality, providing functional information about the breast and a 3D image that can overcome ambiguities caused by the

  15. Inequalities in the use of mammography in Spain : effect of caring for disabled family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz-Barbero, Belen; Sopacua, Maurice; Otero-Garcia, Laura; Borda-Olivas, Alfredo; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between caring for disabled household members and the use of mammography in Spain during the 2 years before the interview. Weighted cross-sectional data from the 2006 National Health Survey in Spain. Using logistic regression models we analyzed the association between the

  16. 77 FR 77035 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... to Dawn Bailey, Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 1020, National... Commerce is responsible for the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program (BPEP) and the Malcolm Baldrige... Collection; Comment Request; Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and Examiner Applications AGENCY...

  17. Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to those found in digital cameras and their efficiency enables better pictures with a lower radiation dose. ... greater accuracy in pinpointing the size, shape and location of breast abnormalities fewer unnecessary biopsies or additional ...

  18. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riabi, H. A.; Mehnati, P.; Mesbahi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. (authors)

  19. Participation rate or informed choice? Rethinking the European key performance indicators for mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Despite the intensive controversies about the likelihood of benefits and harms of mammography screening almost all experts conclude that the choice to screen or not to screen needs to be made by the individual patient who is adequately informed. However, the "European guideline for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" specifies a participation rate of 70% as the key performance indicator for mammography screening. This paper argues that neither the existing evidence on benefits and harms, nor survey research with women, nor compliance rates in clinical trials, nor cost-effectiveness ratios justify participation rates as a reasonable performance indicator for preference-sensitive condition such as mammography screening. In contrast, an informed choice rate would be more reasonable. Further research needs to address the practical challenges in assessing informed choice rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Valorization procedure of x-ray equipment in the mammography equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M. A.; Ordonez, J.; Antolin, E.; Andres, J. C. de; Gonzalez, I.; Arranz, L.; Sastre, J. M.; Ferrer, N.

    2006-01-01

    The Ramon y Cajal Hospital mammography service has three X-rays units, two of them with high resolution computed radiography (CR) system and one with flat-panel (FP)-based full-field digital mammography system. Periodic control dose tests in patients have shown lower glandular dose levels (DGM) than references provided by European Protocol for de Quality Control of de Physical and Technical Aspects of Mammography Screening. In this work, we have tried to establish an easy method for DGM calculation which is representative of the three equipment results. For this aim, we have defined an index which is measured along the time like a reference point. This index is defined as the relation between the blind test punctuations of a standard phantom image given by at least three radiologists in the Unit, and the average DGM values obtained in 20 patients in each Unit (using random thickness and random mama composition). (Author)

  1. Bavarian mammography screening program; Bayerisches Mammographiescreening (BMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willgeroth, F. [Lenkungsausschuss BMS (Germany); Universitaetsfrauenklinik Innenstadt, Muenchen (Germany); Baumann, M.; Blaser, D.; Froschauer, S.; Kaeaeb, V.; Stich, V.; Thomaschewski, S.; Walter, D. [Kassenaerztliche Vereinigung Bayern (Germany); Crispin, A. [Klinikum Grosshadern der LMU Muenchen, Institut fuer Medizinische Informationsverarbeitung (Germany); Waal, J. de; Heywang-Koebrunner, S.; Rothe, R. [Lenkungsausschuss BMS (Germany); Hoelzel, D. [Lenkungsausschuss BMS (Germany); Klinikum Grosshadern der LMU Muenchen, Institut fuer Medizinische Informationsverarbeitung (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    In Bavaria since the 1st April 2003 we have been conducting a high quality mammography-screening carried out in individual practises (BMS). We have used the European and the S 3 guidelines. The best diagnosis is an early diagnosis of the breast carcinoma to save human life. Because of this and the high mortality rate due to this disease it is essential to have a mammogram screening program. There is no single one ideal way of constructing a screening program, it is always based on compromise within the particular health care-systems. Arising problems cannot be avoided, it is only possible when all parties work closely together that the BMS works properly. (orig.) [German] In Bayern laeuft seit dem 01.04.2003 ein qualitaetsgesichertes, flaechendeckendes Mammographiescreening mit dezentralem Charakter (BMS). Zugrunde liegen die Empfehlungen der European Guidelines sowie der S-3-Leitlinie. Die Vorverlegung der Diagnostik ist beim Mammakarzinom bis heute die effektivste Moeglichkeit, um das Leben von Frauen zu retten, die an diesem Krebs erkrankt sind. Daraus und aufgrund der hohen Mortalitaetsrate dieser Erkrankung leitet sich die Notwendigkeit eines Screeningprogramms ab. Dessen Aufbau kann unterschiedlich sein, denbesten Weg gibt es nicht; es wird sich immer eine Kompromissloesung ergeben, die sehr stark vom jeweiligen Gesundheitssystem beeinflusst wird. Auftretende Probleme sind vielschichtig. Nur durch gemeinsame Anstrengungen aller Beteiligten liess sich das Bayerische Mammographiescreening installieren. (orig.)

  2. Optimization procedures in mammography: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espana Lopez, M. L.; Marcos de Paz, L.; Martin Rincon, C.; Jerez Sainz, I.; Lopez Franco, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Optimization procedures in mammography using equipment with a unique target/filter combination can be carried out through such diverse factors as target optical density, technique factors for exposure, screen film combination or processing cycle, in order to obtain an image adequate for the diagnosis with an acceptable risk benefit balance. Diverse studies show an increase in the Standardised Detection Rate of invasive carcinomas with an increase in the optical density among others factors. In our hospital an optimisation process has been established, and as previous step, the target optical density has been increased up to 1,4 DO. The aim of this paper is to value the impact of optical density variation as much in the quality of image as in the entrance surface dose and the average dose to the glandular tissue, comparing them with the results obtained in a previous study. The study has been carried out in a sample of 106 patients, with an average age of 53,4 years, considering 212 clinical images corresponding to the two projections of a same breast with an average compressed thickness of 4,86 cm. An increase of 16,6% on the entrance surface dose and 18% on the average dose to the glandular tissue has been recorded. All the clinical images has been evaluated for the physician as adequate for diagnosis. (Author) 16 refs

  3. Wavelet processing techniques for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Andrew F.; Song, Shuwu

    1992-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for accomplishing mammographic feature analysis through multiresolution representations. We show that efficient (nonredundant) representations may be identified from digital mammography and used to enhance specific mammographic features within a continuum of scale space. The multiresolution decomposition of wavelet transforms provides a natural hierarchy in which to embed an interactive paradigm for accomplishing scale space feature analysis. Similar to traditional coarse to fine matching strategies, the radiologist may first choose to look for coarse features (e.g., dominant mass) within low frequency levels of a wavelet transform and later examine finer features (e.g., microcalcifications) at higher frequency levels. In addition, features may be extracted by applying geometric constraints within each level of the transform. Choosing wavelets (or analyzing functions) that are simultaneously localized in both space and frequency, results in a powerful methodology for image analysis. Multiresolution and orientation selectivity, known biological mechanisms in primate vision, are ingrained in wavelet representations and inspire the techniques presented in this paper. Our approach includes local analysis of complete multiscale representations. Mammograms are reconstructed from wavelet representations, enhanced by linear, exponential and constant weight functions through scale space. By improving the visualization of breast pathology we can improve the chances of early detection of breast cancers (improve quality) while requiring less time to evaluate mammograms for most patients (lower costs).

  4. Speculation on improving personal dosimetry in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoll, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing importance of radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology has created an interest in the dose individuals receive from X-ray mammography, although this is an area where the most important aspect of protection is based on the inter comparison of machines using phantoms and standard conditions. In 1987 the ICRP established the critical quantity as being the average absorbed dose to the glandular tissue of the breast, and identified a composition of 50% adipose; 50% glandular tissue as a reference. Several authors have published experimental and monte carlo simulation resuluts to enable the determination of this quantity from output, beam quality and compressed breast thickness. Many centres, including ourselves, have studied the distribution of radiation dose on this basis. The result is however dependant on the assumption made about tissue composition. It is apparently common knowledge among pathologists and frequently mentioned in general anatomy texts, that the amount of glandular tissue is independent of breast size; that is larger breasts will have a higher adipose:glandular tissue ratio. Such a systematic variation would lead to an overestimate of the dose being received by women with larger breasts. I will review the availabe pathology and demonstrate the effect of applying the assumed breast composition on our own data. (author)

  5. Influence of breast compression pressure on the performance of population-based mammography screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, Katharina; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Mann, Ritse M.; Den Heeten, Gerard J.; van Gils, Carla H.; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Background: In mammography, breast compression is applied to reduce the thickness of the breast. While it is widely accepted that firm breast compression is needed to ensure acceptable image quality, guidelines remain vague about how much compression should be applied during mammogram acquisition. A

  6. Can Breast Compression Be Reduced in Digital Mammography and Breast Tomosynthesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agasthya, G.A.; D'Orsi, E.; Kim, Y. J.; Handa, P.; Ho, C.P.; D'Orsi, C.J.; Sechopoulos, I.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of decreasing breast compression during digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis (DBT) on perceived pain and image quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this two-part study, two groups of women with prior mammograms were

  7. New international and national standards concerning quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrick, K.; Reihlen, H.

    1987-01-01

    The history and contents of the latest standards DIN ISO 9000 through DIN ISO 9004 concerning quality systems are outlined. Information is given referring to the establishment of an in-house quality system, and to quality assurance requirements put down in a three-step quality assurance system for contractual purposes. The services available for certification of quality systems by the 'DQS' and legal aspects are mentioned. (HP)

  8. Family/Friend Recommendations and Mammography Intentions: The Roles of Perceived Mammography Norms and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Ornelas, India J.; Doty, Sarah L.; Bishop, Sonia; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Coronado, Gloria D.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying factors that increase mammography use among Latinas is an important public health priority. Latinas are more likely to report mammography intentions and use, if a family member or friend recommends that they get a mammogram. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the relationship between social interactions and mammography…

  9. A Study on the Improvement of Safety Testing Standards and Methods for Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seon Hyeong; Jung, Ah Young; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Do Wan; Jang, Gi Won; Cha, Sang Hoon; Jo, Sang Won; Park, Ji Koon

    2012-01-01

    To establish the improved national safety testing standards and methods for mammography. We investigated and compared the current status of mammographic equipment installation with the national and international safety and quality control programs and methods. We established and verified the draft for safety testing standards and methods. We propose that the investigations of the conductor system, hardware leakage radiation profile, illumination intensity test, comparison between X-ray and light photon exposure, X-ray dose exposure on the chest wall, compression equipment size, timing equipment, and the average effective radiation dose, should all be maintained as they are in the present state without any changes. However, the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp and mAs, and the half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised. Moreover, compression pressure and autonomic exposure control system (AEC) tests should be included as new criteria. Other parameter controls included in the phantom image analysis which overlap with total quality assurance should be excluded. We recommend that AEC and compression pressure tests should be included as new criteria and the methods for the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp, and mAs, and half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised.

  10. Education for All in South Africa: Developing a National System for Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William J.; Ngoma-Maema, Wendy Yolisa

    2003-01-01

    Draws on international research, policy, and practice relevant to quality assurance systems to analyze the development of a national framework for educational quality assurance in South Africa. Describes an emerging framework for quality assurance that encompasses evaluation of student achievement, quality audits and reviews, program and service…

  11. Governmental point of view on the Dutch National Cooperative Programme for Air Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    Dutch air quality does not yet meet the European standards throughout the Netherlands. The Dutch National Cooperative Programme for Air Quality (NSL) is expected to realize improvements. This publication explains the Dutch plans for meeting the European standards for air quality in the coming years. It addresses the following subjects: the Dutch National Cooperative Programme for Air Quality (NSL); legal framework; historical development; current situation and autonomous development for PM10 and NO2; spatial projects; measure packages and financial means. [mk] [nl

  12. Dose reduction through gridless technique in digital full-field mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, F.; Diekmann, S.; Berzeg, S.; Blick, U.; Fischer, T.; Hamm, B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the role of the scatter grid in digital full-field mammography with respect to image quality and dose and to compare the experimental results with initial clinical experience. Materials and Methods: A phantom consisting of 205 fields that enclose gold dots of different thickness and size (CD-Mam phantom, Medical Department, Nijmegen, Netherlands) was used for digital full-field mammography with the conventional grid module and a special gridless module. Four different breast thicknesses were simulated using Plexiglas as scatter material. First, the phantom was exposed at the parameter and dose settings automatically selected in each experimental setup (with and without grid). Subsequently, the phantom was exposed at the different simulated breast thicknesses using the gridless module in combination with the parameters automatically selected for the grid module. This was followed by a series of phantom mammograms obtained with the experimental setup reversed. The 16 mammograms were evaluated by 3 readers and the results compared considering breast thickness, radiation dose, and quality. The gridless module was used for preoperative labeling in 16 patients for comparison of mammograms obtained with and without a grid. Results: For the same entrance dose used in routine mammography, digital mammography without grid is superior to digital mammography with grid when performed on simulated thin breasts (Plexiglas less than 3 cm), with no difference found when performed on simulated large breasts. The advantages of gridless mammography are more pronounced at a markedly reduced entrance dose (identical parenchymal dose without and with grid using the dose automatically selected for the gridless module). This tendency is confirmed by the initial clinical comparison. (orig.) [de

  13. Perspectives of Mobile Versus Fixed Mammography in Santa Clara County, California: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ren; Chang-Halpenny, Christine; Kumarasamy, Narmadan A; Venegas, Angela; Braddock Iii, Clarence H

    2016-02-12

    Our aim was to examine underserved women's perceptions on mobile versus fixed mammography in Santa Clara, California through a focus group study.  Research has shown that medically underserved women have higher breast cancer mortality rates correlated with under-screening and a disproportional rate of late-stage diagnosis. The Community Health Partnership in Santa Clara County, California runs the Community Mammography Access Project (CMAP) that targets nearly 20,000 medically underserved women over the age of 40 in the county through the collaborative effort of an existing safety net of healthcare providers. However, little data exists on the advantages or disadvantages of mobile mammography units from the patient perspective.   We assessed underserved women's perspectives on mammography services in Santa Clara County through two focus groups from women screened at mobile or fixed site programs. Patients were recruited from both CMAP clinics and a county hospital, and focus group data were analyzed using content analysis.  We found that women from both the mobile and fixed sites shared similar motivating factors for getting a mammogram. Both groups recognized that screening was uncomfortable but necessary for good health and had positive feedback about their personal physicians. However, mobile participants, in particular, appreciated the atmosphere of mobile screening, reported shorter wait times, and remarked on the good communication from the clinic staff and empathetic treatment they received. However, mobile participants also expressed concern about the quality of films at mobile sites due to delayed initial reading of the films.   Mobile mammography offers a unique opportunity for women of underserved populations to access high satisfaction screenings, and it encourages a model similar to CMAP in other underserved areas. However, emphasis should be placed on providing a warm and welcoming environment for patients and ensuring the quality of

  14. A Standard Mammography Unit - Standard 3D Ultrasound Probe Fusion Prototype: First Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Jud, Sebastian M; Fasching, Peter A; Hartmann, Arndt; Radicke, Marcus; Rauh, Claudia; Uder, Michael; Wunderle, Marius; Gass, Paul; Langemann, Hanna; Beckmann, Matthias W; Emons, Julius

    2017-06-01

    The combination of different imaging modalities through the use of fusion devices promises significant diagnostic improvement for breast pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate image quality and clinical feasibility of a prototype fusion device (fusion prototype) constructed from a standard tomosynthesis mammography unit and a standard 3D ultrasound probe using a new method of breast compression. Imaging was performed on 5 mastectomy specimens from patients with confirmed DCIS or invasive carcinoma (BI-RADS ™ 6). For the preclinical fusion prototype an ABVS system ultrasound probe from an Acuson S2000 was integrated into a MAMMOMAT Inspiration (both Siemens Healthcare Ltd) and, with the aid of a newly developed compression plate, digital mammogram and automated 3D ultrasound images were obtained. The quality of digital mammogram images produced by the fusion prototype was comparable to those produced using conventional compression. The newly developed compression plate did not influence the applied x-ray dose. The method was not more labour intensive or time-consuming than conventional mammography. From the technical perspective, fusion of the two modalities was achievable. In this study, using only a few mastectomy specimens, the fusion of an automated 3D ultrasound machine with a standard mammography unit delivered images of comparable quality to conventional mammography. The device allows simultaneous ultrasound - the second important imaging modality in complementary breast diagnostics - without increasing examination time or requiring additional staff.

  15. [Quality of life of living kidney donor: a national report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briançon, S; Germain, L; Baudelot, C; Bannay, A; Virion, J-M; Thuong, M

    2011-07-01

    The renal transplantation is nowadays the reference treatment of ESRD. Living donor kidney transplantation is less often performed in France than in other countries. Nevertheless, numerous French and international surveys have evidenced that it provides the recipients a longer life expectancy and a better quality of life. Donors themselves, what do they become? How are they? For the first time in France, a survey has been implemented to investigate the quality of life of living kidney donor to one of their close relations. This study has been undertaken by the Agency of the biomedecine and the service Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation (EEC), of the University teaching hospital of Nancy. The main objective was to describe the quality of life of the living donors having given a kidney for more than a year and less than 5 years. The secondary objective was to contribute to the knowledge of the main factors associated to the living kidney donor quality of life, one year after the donation. Participants had to be living in France at the time of the donation which had taken place between June 30(th), 2005 and March 1(st), 2009. A folder gathering various self-administrated questionnaires was sent to the place of residence of the donor between March and April, 2010. These data were completed by medical data collected near the transplantation centres by the Agency of biomedecine within the framework of the register CRISTAL. They included the characteristics of the donation and of the donor at the very time of the donation, 3 months after the donation and at the last annual assessment. Three living donors in four, that is 501 persons, agreed to fully participate. They constituted a representative national sample of all the living donors of this period. The non participants were younger (4.5 years on average) and had a less adequate annual follow-up. The women were more represented (61 %) than men. The median age was 53 years. More of 2/3 were employed at the time of the

  16. 77 FR 61572 - Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Panel of Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... composed of twelve members prominent in the fields of quality, innovation, and performance management and... Hertz, Director, Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology... Quality Award Panel of Judges AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of...

  17. 76 FR 22675 - Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Panel of Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... prominent in the fields of quality, innovation, and performance management and appointed by the Secretary of..., Director, Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology... Quality Award Panel of Judges AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of...

  18. 76 FR 67429 - National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI) Meeting AGENCY: National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity, Office of... submissions comply with the requirements of Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, or be submitted in an...

  19. Using National Coastal Assessment Data to Model Estuarine Water Quality at Large Spatial Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water quality of the Nation’s estuaries is attracting scrutiny in light of population growth and enhanced nutrient delivery. The USEPA has evaluated water quality in the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) and National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) programs. Here we rep...

  20. Breast cancer early detection and quality assurance in Uruguay; Deteccion precoz de cancer de mama e garantia de calidad en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotelo, Elena D. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Medicina. Escuela Universitaria de Tecnologia Medica]. E-mail: elecote@adinet.com.uy

    2001-07-01

    In Uruguay, breast cancer incidence is 76.41 per 100.000, and death rate is 25.22 per 100.000. Since 1998, there is a National Programme of breast cancer early detection for females over forty years of age. We studied the state of the mammography facilities throughout the country. There are 657.000 female over forty and 51 mammography X-ray equipment. The Programme includes 2 mammography X-ray equipment in mobile units in the capital and 18 in hospitals all around the country. There are taken 120.000 mammographic exams per year, 15.000 of them belong to women who had participated in the Programme. We found that no mammography facility has established Quality Assurance Programmes. Despite the results of this study showed that is suitable the number and age of the mammography X-ray equipment, the lack of Quality Assurance Programmes will produce, in a short time, a negative cost-benefit balance. The consequences will be serious social, human an economical damages. (author)

  1. Data on the cost-benefit analysis of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarand, P.; Pentek, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation exposure and the cost per examination are compared in the case of three methods: non-screen film mammography, 10-dose mammography and xeromammography. 10-dose mammography results in the lowest radiation exposure whereas xeromammography has the lowest cost. (L.E.)

  2. National Quality Forum Colon Cancer Quality Metric Performance: How Are Hospitals Measuring Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Meredith C; Chang, George J; Petersen, Laura A; Sada, Yvonne H; Tran Cao, Hop S; Chai, Christy; Berger, David H; Massarweh, Nader N

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of care at high-performing hospitals on the National Quality Forum (NQF) colon cancer metrics. The NQF endorses evaluating ≥12 lymph nodes (LNs), adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for stage III patients, and AC within 4 months of diagnosis as colon cancer quality indicators. Data on hospital-level metric performance and the association with survival are unclear. Retrospective cohort study of 218,186 patients with resected stage I to III colon cancer in the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2012). High-performing hospitals (>75% achievement) were identified by the proportion of patients achieving each measure. The association between hospital performance and survival was evaluated using Cox shared frailty modeling. Only hospital LN performance improved (15.8% in 2004 vs 80.7% in 2012; trend test, P fashion [0 metrics, reference; 1, hazard ratio (HR) 0.96 (0.89-1.03); 2, HR 0.92 (0.87-0.98); 3, HR 0.85 (0.80-0.90); 2 vs 1, HR 0.96 (0.91-1.01); 3 vs 1, HR 0.89 (0.84-0.93); 3 vs 2, HR 0.95 (0.89-0.95)]. Performance on metrics in combination was associated with lower risk of death [LN + AC, HR 0.86 (0.78-0.95); AC + timely AC, HR 0.92 (0.87-0.98); LN + AC + timely AC, HR 0.85 (0.80-0.90)], whereas individual measures were not [LN, HR 0.95 (0.88-1.04); AC, HR 0.95 (0.87-1.05)]. Less than half of hospitals perform well on these NQF colon cancer metrics concurrently, and high performance on individual measures is not associated with improved survival. Quality improvement efforts should shift focus from individual measures to defining composite measures encompassing the overall multimodal care pathway and capturing successful transitions from one care modality to another.

  3. Comparative analysis of national and state publications on the quality control of radiation diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, Michel F.F.; Souza, Danilo L.M.; Oliveira, Caio V.; Cabete, Henrique V.; Cruz, Livia C.; Pires, Silvio R.; Freitas, Marcelo B.; Medeiros, Regina B.

    2016-01-01

    Taking into account that there are several standards for Quality Control in diagnostic radiology, the purpose of this research was to carry out an overview of Brazilian regulatory publications. The sample was composed by Ordinance 453/98, resolutions SS-625 (SP), SES/MG Number 5177, 002/DIVS/SES (SC) and ANVISA guide. Differences and similarities in the tests, nomenclatures, periodicity and performance parameters were evaluated. It was identified that SS-625 was one of the first publications in the area, proposing standards and indicating reference levels. ANVISA guide describes the procedures for performing the tests established in Ordinance 453. The 002/DIVS/SES included digital imaging systems and provides more restrictive performance standards in some tests when compared other publications. ES/MG Number 5177 describes some tests in mammography equipment, not defined in other publications. We conclude that there is no standardization in the nomenclature or in the performance and frequency of the tests, seeking greater scope and updating. (author)

  4. Baseline Screening Mammography: Performance of Full-Field Digital Mammography Versus Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth S; McCarthy, Anne Marie; Akhtar, Amana L; Synnestvedt, Marie B; Schnall, Mitchell; Conant, Emily F

    2015-11-01

    Baseline mammography studies have significantly higher recall rates than mammography studies with available comparison examinations. Digital breast tomosynthesis reduces recalls when compared with digital mammographic screening alone, but many sites operate in a hybrid environment. To maximize the effect of screening digital breast tomosynthesis with limited resources, choosing which patient populations will benefit most is critical. This study evaluates digital breast tomosynthesis in the baseline screening population. Outcomes were compared for 10,728 women who underwent digital mammography screening, including 1204 (11.2%) baseline studies, and 15,571 women who underwent digital breast tomosynthesis screening, including 1859 (11.9%) baseline studies. Recall rates, cancer detection rates, and positive predictive values were calculated. Logistic regression estimated the odds ratios of recall for digital mammography versus digital breast tomosynthesis for patients undergoing baseline screening and previously screened patients, adjusted for age, race, and breast density. In the baseline subgroup, recall rates for digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis screening were 20.5% and 16.0%, respectively (p = 0.002); digital breast tomosynthesis screening in the baseline subgroup resulted in a 22% reduction in recall compared with digital mammography, or 45 fewer patients recalled per 1000 patients screened. Digital breast tomosynthesis screening in the previously screened patients resulted in recall reduction of 14.3% (p tomosynthesis than from digital mammography alone.

  5. Clinical experience of photon counting breast tomosynthesis: comparison with traditional mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svane, Gunilla; Azavedo, Edward; Lindman, Karin; Urech, Mattias; Nilsson, Jonas; Weber, Niclas; Lindqvist, Lars; Ullberg, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Background: In two-dimensional mammography, a well-known problem is over- and underlying tissue which can either obstruct a lesion or create a false-positive result. Tomosynthesis, with an ability to layer the tissue in the image, has the potential to resolve these issues. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic quality, sensitivity and specificity of a single tomosynthesis mammography image and a traditional two-view set of two-dimensional mammograms and to assess the comfort of the two techniques. Material and Methods: One hundred and forty-four women, mainly chosen because of suspicious features on standard mammograms (76 malignant), had a single tomosynthesis image taken of one breast using a novel photon counting system. On average, the dose of the tomosynthesis images was 0.63 times that of the two-view images and the compression force during the procedure was halved. The resulting images were viewed by two radiologists and assessed both individually and comparing the two techniques. Results: In 56% of the cases the radiologists rated the diagnostic quality of the lesion details higher in the tomosynthesis images than in the conventional images (and in 91% equal or higher), which means there is a statistically significant preference for the tomosynthesis technique. This included the calcifications which were rated as having better quality in 41% of the cases. While sensitivity was slightly higher for traditional mammography the specificity was higher for tomosynthesis. However, neither of these two differences was large enough to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The overall accuracy of the two techniques was virtually equal despite the radiologist's very limited experience with tomosynthesis images and vast experience with two-dimensional mammography. As the diagnostic quality of the lesion details in the tomosynthesis images was valued considerably higher this factor should improve with experience. The patients also favored the tomosynthesis examination

  6. A conversion method of air kerma from the primary, scatter, and leakage radiations to effective dose for calculating x-ray shielding barriers in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrati, Hedi

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new approach has been introduced for derivation of the effective dose from air kerma to calculate shielding requirements in mammography facilities. This new approach has been used to compute the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to the effective dose for the mammography reference beam series of the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories. The results show that, in all cases, the effective dose in mammography energy range is less than 25% of the incident air kerma for the primary and the scatter radiations and does not exceed 75% for the leakage radiation

  7. Comparison of tomosynthesis plus digital mammography and digital mammography alone for breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian M; Kalra, Vivek; Geisel, Jaime; Raghu, Madhavi; Durand, Melissa; Philpotts, Liane E

    2013-12-01

    To compare screening recall rates and cancer detection rates of tomosynthesis plus conventional digital mammography to those of conventional digital mammography alone. All patients presenting for screening mammography between October 1, 2011, and September 30, 2012, at four clinical sites were reviewed in this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, for which the institutional review board granted approval and waived the requirement for informed consent. Patients at sites with digital tomosynthesis were offered screening with digital mammography plus tomosynthesis. Patients at sites without tomosynthesis underwent conventional digital mammography. Recall rates were calculated and stratified according to breast density and patient age. Cancer detection rates were calculated and stratified according to the presence of a risk factor for breast cancer. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of screening method, breast density, patient age, and cancer risk on the odds of recall from screening. A total of 13 158 patients presented for screening mammography; 6100 received tomosynthesis. The overall recall rate was 8.4% for patients in the tomosynthesis group and 12.0% for those in the conventional mammography group (P tomosynthesis reduced recall rates for all breast density and patient age groups, with significant differences (P tomosynthesis versus 5.2 per 1000 in patients receiving conventional mammography alone (P = .70). Patients undergoing tomosynthesis plus digital mammography had significantly lower screening recall rates. The greatest reductions were for those younger than 50 years and those with dense breasts. A nonsignificant 9.5% increase in cancer detection was observed in the tomosynthesis group. © RSNA, 2013.

  8. Micro calcification evaluation using CR plates in computerized mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos F, M.; Prata M, A.

    2017-10-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. In 2012, about 14 million new cases were registered, of which 1.6 million are breast cancer, according to the World Health Organization. The National Cancer Institute of Brazil estimated 57 thousand new cases of breast cancer by 2016. Mammography is the imaging technique most used worldwide for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Computed radiography (CR) plates are used for digital radiography, and are widely used to obtain digital mammograms. This work aims to evaluate te response of CR plates to the variation of exposure in mammography equipment. Three CR plates for mammography of different models were used for the study. X-ray beams were selected to perform successive exposures of CR plates by varying the exposure time. These exposures were performed to obtain raw images that were subsequently analyzed using ImageJ software, from which the value of intensity recorded in the central region of each image was obtained, correlating it with the exposure time. From these data the necessary correlations were made to determine the exposure time for which the CR plate begins to saturate, observing that the saturation occurs first for the highest value of the applied voltage. Finally, successive exposures of the CR plate were made using the compressed breast simulator made of acrylic plates and containing microcalcifications of different sizes to determine the qualitative resolution of CR plates, observing that only microcalcifications above 177 μm are visible in the image. The knowledge of saturation characteristics and resolution of the CR plate allows the selection of more adequate parameters to work without approaching the saturation region. (Author)

  9. Micro calcification evaluation using CR plates in computerized mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos F, M.; Prata M, A., E-mail: mabelita.bfm@gmail.com [Federal University of Minas Gerais, School of Engineering, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Av. Antonio Carlos CEP 131270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. In 2012, about 14 million new cases were registered, of which 1.6 million are breast cancer, according to the World Health Organization. The National Cancer Institute of Brazil estimated 57 thousand new cases of breast cancer by 2016. Mammography is the imaging technique most used worldwide for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Computed radiography (CR) plates are used for digital radiography, and are widely used to obtain digital mammograms. This work aims to evaluate te response of CR plates to the variation of exposure in mammography equipment. Three CR plates for mammography of different models were used for the study. X-ray beams were selected to perform successive exposures of CR plates by varying the exposure time. These exposures were performed to obtain raw images that were subsequently analyzed using ImageJ software, from which the value of intensity recorded in the central region of each image was obtained, correlating it with the exposure time. From these data the necessary correlations were made to determine the exposure time for which the CR plate begins to saturate, observing that the saturation occurs first for the highest value of the applied voltage. Finally, successive exposures of the CR plate were made using the compressed breast simulator made of acrylic plates and containing microcalcifications of different sizes to determine the qualitative resolution of CR plates, observing that only microcalcifications above 177 μm are visible in the image. The knowledge of saturation characteristics and resolution of the CR plate allows the selection of more adequate parameters to work without approaching the saturation region. (Author)

  10. Development of Quality Assurance System in Culture and Nation Character Education in Primary Education in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilana, Rudi; Asra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of national education is to develop skills and build dignified national character and civilization in educating nation life (Act No. 20, 2003). The paper describes a system of quality assurance in culture and character education in primary education. This study employs the six sigma model which consists of the formula DMAIC (Define,…

  11. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Analytical Quality Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    standard tools for quality control, in English, see “Guide to Quality Control” by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa , Asian Productivity Organization, Aoyama Dai-ichi...factors affect work evaluation is shown schemati- cally by Characteristic-Factor Diagrams (also called Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagrams), see Figure 2-5

  12. Studies on the calibration of mammography automatic exposure mode with computed radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongzhou; Shao Guoliang; Shi Lei; Liu Qing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To realize the optimization of image quality and radiation dose by correcting mammography automatic exposure, according to automatic exposure controlled mode of mammography film-screen system. Methods: The film-screen system (28 kV) was applied to perform automatic exposure of plexiglass (40 mm) and get the standard dose of exposure, the exposure mode of CR base on LgM=2.0 was rectified, which was divided into 10 steps. Mammary glands pattern (Fluke NA18-220) were examined with CR (26, 28, and 30 kV) by the automatic exposure mode corrected. The exposure values (mAs) were recorded. CR image was diagnosed and evaluated in double blind way by 4 radiologists according to American Collage of Radiology (ACR) standard. Results: Based on the standard of CR automatic exposure with the dose higher than the traditional exposure of film-screen system, the calibration of mammography automatic exposure was accomplished. The test results of the calibrated mode was better than the scoring system of ACR. Conclusions: Comparative study showed improvement in acquiring high-quality image and reduction of radiation dose. The corrected mammography automatic exposure mode might be a better method for clinical use. (authors)

  13. Development of a standard operating procedure for mammography equipment used in calibration of ionized chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Yklys Santos; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Mammography is one widely used technique in the detection of breast cancer. In order to optimize the results achieving better images with lower dose rates, a quality assurance programme must be applied to the equipment. Some control tests use ionization chambers to measure air kerma and other quantities. These tests can only be reliable if the ionization chambers used on them are correctly calibrated. In the present work, it was developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) for quality control tests in a commercial mammography equipment installed in the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at IPEN - Brazilian Institute for energy and nuclear research). Seven tests were performed in the equipment: Tube voltage and exposition time accuracy and reproducibility, linearity and reproducibility of Air kerma and Half Value Layer (HVL). Then, it was made a measurement of the air kerma in the mammography equipment, using a reference ionization chamber with traceability to a primary laboratory in Germany (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt - PTB), that was later compared with the air kerma measured in an industrial irradiator. This industrial X-ray generator was recently used in the implementation of X-radiation Standards beams, mammography level, following the Standard IEC 61267. The HVL values varied from 0.36 (25kV) to 0.41 mmA1 (35kV), and the measured air kerma rates were between 9.78 and 17.97 mGy/min. (author)

  14. The role of a local mammography workshop, considered from the results of reading examinations and associated questionnaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunami, Nobuki; Tatsuta, Masayuki; Nishi, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The mammography workshop group for the southern Osaka prefectural area (Hannan Mammography Workshop Group) started in April, 2001, and reading examinations have been carried out periodically since the 9th workshop held in April, 2004, in order to promote mammography breast cancer screening and improve quality control. Questionnaire studies were performed in association with the 3rd (December, 2006) and 4th (March, 2008) reading examinations in order to analyze the role of the local workshop. The questionnaires included items inquiring about the examinee's sex, age, institution location, type of occupation, attendance at mammography training courses provided by the Central Committee for Quality Control, the number of attendances at the local workshop, performance of breast cancer screening, experience of recall examinations, and the number of readings performed. In addition, the questions that yielded varied interpretations at reading examinations were carefully checked in order to better manage subsequent workshops. Examinees who had attended the workshops more than 6 times tended to have a high category sensitivity (62.2% at the 3rd reading examination, and 58.9% at the 4th). Test cases that showed a low conformity rate of category judgment were as follows: judgment of typically benign calcifications, distinction between amorphous or indistinct calcifications and pleomorphic or heterogeneous calcifications, judgment of focal asymmetric density (FAD) and architectural distortion. We intend to use these results to improve the quality control of breast cancer screening through our local mammography workshop activity. (author)

  15. Analysis of mammography on breast fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiaomin; Han Benyi; Zhao Yae

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging characteristics of breast fibroadenoma on mammograms. Methods: Mammography of 70 patients with breast fibroadenoma confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. All patients took breast X-ray of mediolateral oblique projection and craniocaudal projection before operation. Results: In 70 cases with fibroadenoma, mammography revealed 74 foci (36 left breast, 38 right breast) of 62 cases, and failed to reveal lesions in 8 cases. The shape of the lesions was round or round-like lesion in 60(31%). The border was well-defined in 46 masses, partly well-outlined in 14 and ill-defined in 4. 'Membranoid sign' can be seen in 40 cases. Conclusion: Typical X-ray findings of breast fibroadenoma is very important, mammography is a good method of choice in diagnosis of fibroadenoma. (authors)

  16. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travieso Aja, M M; Rodríguez Rodríguez, M; Alayón Hernández, S; Vega Benítez, V; Luzardo, O P

    2014-01-01

    The degree of vascularization in breast lesions is related to their malignancy. For this reason, functional diagnostic imaging techniques have become important in recent years. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography is a new, apparently promising technique in breast cancer that provides information about the degree of vascularization of the lesion in addition to the morphological information provided by conventional mammography. This article describes the state of the art for dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography. Based on 15 months' clinical experience, we illustrate this review with clinical cases that allow us to discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Anxiety in mammography: mammographers' and clients' perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galletta, S.; Joel, N.; Maguire, R.; Weaver, K.; Poulos, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify causes of anxiety experienced by mammographers and clients during mammography and strategies to decrease the anxiety generated by the mammographic procedure. Two questionnaires were distributed: one to mammographers in public and private centres within NSW, the other to women (clients) who have experienced mammography. Mammographers' and clients' rankings of causes of clients' anxiety demonstrated many similarities indicating the mammographers' acknowledgement of factors contributing to client anxiety. Thematic analysis provided important qualitative data concerning anxiety experienced by both mammographers and clients and the influence of mammographer and client behaviour on that anxiety. The results of this study have provided important new knowledge for mammographic practice and mammography education. By understanding the causes of anxiety experienced by clients, mammographers can provide an informed, empathetic approach to the mammographic process. By acknowledging factors which increase their own anxiety mammographers can reduce the impact of this on themselves and on their clients. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  18. A multiparametric automatic method to monitor long-term reproducibility in digital mammography: results from a regional screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, G; Ballaminut, A; Contento, G

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to illustrate a multiparametric automatic method for monitoring long-term reproducibility of digital mammography systems, and its application on a large scale. Twenty-five digital mammography systems employed within a regional screening programme were controlled weekly using the same type of phantom, whose images were analysed by an automatic software tool. To assess system reproducibility levels, 15 image quality indices (IQIs) were extracted and compared with the corresponding indices previously determined by a baseline procedure. The coefficients of variation (COVs) of the IQIs were used to assess the overall variability. A total of 2553 phantom images were collected from the 25 digital mammography systems from March 2013 to December 2014. Most of the systems showed excellent image quality reproducibility over the surveillance interval, with mean variability below 5%. Variability of each IQI was 5%, with the exception of one index associated with the smallest phantom objects (0.25 mm), which was below 10%. The method applied for reproducibility tests-multi-detail phantoms, cloud automatic software tool to measure multiple image quality indices and statistical process control-was proven to be effective and applicable on a large scale and to any type of digital mammography system. • Reproducibility of mammography image quality should be monitored by appropriate quality controls. • Use of automatic software tools allows image quality evaluation by multiple indices. • System reproducibility can be assessed comparing current index value with baseline data. • Overall system reproducibility of modern digital mammography systems is excellent. • The method proposed and applied is cost-effective and easily scalable.

  19. Comparative performance of modern digital mammography systems in a large breast screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, Martin J., E-mail: martin.yaffe@sri.utoronto.ca; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Hunter, David M.; Mawdsley, Gordon E. [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Departments of Medical Biophysics and Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Chiarelli, Anna M. [Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada); Muradali, Derek [Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To compare physical measures pertaining to image quality among digital mammography systems utilized in a large breast screening program. To examine qualitatively differences in these measures and differences in clinical cancer detection rates between CR and DR among sites within that program. Methods: As part of the routine quality assurance program for screening, field measurements are made of several variables considered to correlate with the diagnostic quality of medical images including: modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, d′ (an index of lesion detectability) and air kerma to allow estimation of mean glandular dose. In addition, images of the mammography accreditation phantom are evaluated. Results: It was found that overall there were marked differences between the performance measures of DR and CR mammography systems. In particular, the modulation transfer functions obtained with the DR systems were found to be higher, even for larger detector element sizes. Similarly, the noise equivalent quanta, d′, and the phantom scores were higher, while the failure rates associated with low signal-to-noise ratio and high dose were lower with DR. These results were consistent with previous findings in the authors’ program that the breast cancer detection rates at sites employing CR technology were, on average, 30.6% lower than those that used DR mammography. Conclusions: While the clinical study was not large enough to allow a statistically powered system-by-system assessment of cancer detection accuracy, the physical measures expressing spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio are consistent with the published finding that sites employing CR systems had lower cancer detection rates than those using DR systems for screening mammography.

  20. Audit of mammography performed in our hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantharia, Surita

    2013-09-01

    A medical audit is a compilation of patient outcomes over a certain period of time. Audit of Mammography provides an objective criterion of the appropriateness and accuracy in image interpretation, and is the best measure of a mammographer's performance. The audit assesses 3 important outcomes: i) detection of the percentage of cancers in a population, ii) finding these cancers while they are still curable (small and node negative), iii) finding these cancers through an acceptably low number of recalls and biopsies. With this background, I am presenting an audit of Mammography done at our centre from the period May 2010 to April 2013. (author)

  1. A computerized expert system for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, V.P.; Dines, K.A.; Bassett, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based expert system to aid in the interpretation of mammograms, breast sonograms, and clinical findings. The radiologist enters clinical and image data into the artificial intelligence system and receives a prediction of the etiology of lesions seen on breast imaging studies. This prototype interactive system has undergone preliminary clinical testing and evaluation. Ultimately, a more refined and complex system will be of value in mammography education, for general radiologists without ready access to mammography experts, for paramedical personnel, and for all mammographers in need of a breast imaging database and reporting systems

  2. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardizi, Leslee P.; Smith, Richard (ERM, Walnut Creek, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  3. Quality assurance, quality control and quality audit in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:The lecture aims to present contemporary view of quality assurance in X-Ray diagnosis and its practical realization in Bulgaria. In the lecture the concepts of quality assurance, quality control and clinical audit will be defined and their scope will be considered. An answer of the following questions will be given: why is it necessary to determine the dose of patient in X-ray studies, what is the reference dose level and how it is used for dosimetric quantity which characterized the patient's exposure in X-ray, mammography and CT scans and how they are measured, who conducted the measurement and how to keep the records, what are the variations of doses in identical tests and what defines them? The findings from a national survey of doses in diagnostic radiology, conducted in 2008-2009 and the developed new national reference levels will be presented. The main findings of the first tests of radiological equipment and the future role of quality control as well as the concept of conducting clinical audit and its role in quality assurance are also presented. Quality assurance of the diagnostic process with minimal exposure of patients is a strategic goal whose realization requires understanding, organization and practical action, both nationally and in every hospital. To achieve this the important role of education and training of physicians, radiological technicians and medical physicists is enhanced

  4. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan : ASC software quality engineering practices Version 3.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Jennifer L.; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Pilch, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. Quality is defined in the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency (DOE/NNSA) Quality Criteria, Revision 10 (QC-1) as 'conformance to customer requirements and expectations'. This quality plan defines the SNL ASC Program software quality engineering (SQE) practices and provides a mapping of these practices to the SNL Corporate Process Requirement (CPR) 001.3.6; 'Corporate Software Engineering Excellence'. This plan also identifies ASC management's and the software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals. This SNL ASC Software Quality Plan establishes the signatories commitments to improving software products by applying cost-effective SQE practices. This plan enumerates the SQE practices that comprise the development of SNL ASC's software products and explains the project teams opportunities for tailoring and implementing the practices.

  5. Compilation of historical dose to the breast received during mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth; Simon, Steven L.; Linet, Martha S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The effect of low to moderate diagnostic radiation exposures is a topic of interest currently in radiation protection and medicine. Most epidemiological studies, however, lack accurate information on doses received by individuals from medical diagnostic examinations. The need for a better assessment of doses from different types of radiographic examination, especially in the past is crucial for retrospective studies involving medical irradiation. The objective of the present study was to collect and review historic literature discussing radiation dose to the breast likely received from mammography as a function of year. Relevant publications related to mammography for time periods in the 20th century were collected and reviewed for data pertaining to doses to the breast. In many publications, dose to the breasts was not provided. However, it could be estimated in many cases from the dosimetric quantities reported, such as entrance surface dose, either by using provided technical parameters (kV, mAs, filtration) or by assuming typical values. The average value of dose to the breast was derived for each publication. Quality coefficients were derived to assign a greater weight to the most detailed and informative publications. From the dose data and the quality coefficients, a weighted average, minimum and maximum, by time period, were then estimated. Mammography has a long history, from its first use by Salomon in 1913 on 3000 mastectomy specimens to compare x-ray images with tumor lesions. Since then, mammography techniques have evolved in order to obtain better image quality with the objective of improving the diagnosis of breast cancer and other breast diseases. Major technology improvements were seen in the 1970's and 1980's resulting in modifications of medical protocols and consequential reductions of dose to the breast. Dose to the breast from a single view in mammography is presently about 10 times lower than it was in the 1960's when it was about

  6. Dose and risk evaluation in digital mammography using computer modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda; Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Humberto de Oliveira; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Magalhaes, Sarah Braga

    2010-01-01

    Digital mammography has been introduced in several countries in the last years. The new technology requires new optimising methods considering for instance the increased possibility of changing the absorbed dose, mainly in modern mammographic systems that allow the operator to choose the beam quality by varying the tube voltage, and filter and target materials. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is used in order to investigate how the average glandular dose vary with tube voltage (23-32 kV) and anode-filter combination (Mo-Mo,Mo-Rh and Rh-Rh) in digital mammographic examinations. Furthermore, the risk of breast cancer incidence attributable to mammography exams was estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The results show that the risk of breast cancer incidence in women younger than 30 years of age tends to decrease significantly using Rh-Rh anode-filter combination and higher tube voltage. For women older than 50 years of age the variation of tube voltage, and anode-filter combination did not influence the risk values considerably. (author)

  7. Dose and risk evaluation in digital mammography using computer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda; Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de, E-mail: scorrea@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste (CCMAT/UEZO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Humberto de Oliveira, E-mail: hbetorj@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro IF/UFRJ, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Magalhaes, Sarah Braga, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: smagalhaes@nuclear.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2010-07-01

    Digital mammography has been introduced in several countries in the last years. The new technology requires new optimising methods considering for instance the increased possibility of changing the absorbed dose, mainly in modern mammographic systems that allow the operator to choose the beam quality by varying the tube voltage, and filter and target materials. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is used in order to investigate how the average glandular dose vary with tube voltage (23-32 kV) and anode-filter combination (Mo-Mo,Mo-Rh and Rh-Rh) in digital mammographic examinations. Furthermore, the risk of breast cancer incidence attributable to mammography exams was estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The results show that the risk of breast cancer incidence in women younger than 30 years of age tends to decrease significantly using Rh-Rh anode-filter combination and higher tube voltage. For women older than 50 years of age the variation of tube voltage, and anode-filter combination did not influence the risk values considerably. (author)

  8. Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan

    2009-01-01

    A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (Author)

  9. Normalized Noise Power Spectrum of Full Field Digital Mammography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Norriza Mohd; Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad Saridan

    2010-01-01

    A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality.

  10. [Advances in research on automatic exposure control of mammography system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoyi; Ye, Chengfu; Wu, Haiming; Wang, Tainfu; Zhang, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Mammography imaging is one of the most demanding imaging modalities from the point of view of the bal- ance between image quality (the visibility of small size and/or low contrast structures) and dose (screening of many asymptomatic people). Therefore, since the introduction of the first dedicated mammographic units, many efforts have been directed to seek the best possible image quality while minimizing patient dose. The performance of auto- matic exposure control (AEC) is the manifestation of this demand. The theory of AEC includes exposure detection and optimization and also involves some accomplished methodology. This review presents the development and present situa- tion of spectrum optimization, detector evolution, and the way how to accomplish and evaluate AEC methods.

  11. Are women getting relevant information about mammography screening for an informed consent: a critical appraisal of information brochures used for screening invitation in Germany, Italy, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummersbach, Elisabeth; Piccoliori, Giuliano; Zerbe, Cristina Oriol; Altiner, Attila; Othman, Cecile; Rose, Christine; Abholz, Heinz-Harald

    2010-08-01

    The aim was to find out if information brochures on mammography screening in Germany, Italy, Spain and France contain more information to facilitate informed consent than in similar studies carried out over the last few years in Sweden, Canada, USA and the UK, countries with different medical cultures. We generated a list of essential information items on mammography screening for the purpose of informed consent. We mostly used the same items of information as had been used in previous studies and analysed the information brochures of major national initiatives in Germany and France, and three brochures each from regionalized programmes in Italy and Spain. We cross-checked which of our items were covered in the brochures and if correct numbers were given. We found that the information brochures contained only about half of the information items we defined. Six of the eight brochures mentioned the reduction in breast-cancer fatalities. Four of the eight provided information on false positives, and four of the brochures highlighted the side-effects of radiation. The information on side-effects and risks provided by the brochures was generally of poor quality, and none of them referred to over diagnosis. When numbers were given, they were only indicated in terms of relative numbers. The information brochures currently being used in Germany, Italy, Spain and France are no better than the brochures analysed some years ago. Our results suggest that the providers of mammography screening programmes continue to conceal information from women that is essential when making an informed decision.

  12. Does gender discrimination impact regular mammography screening? Findings from the race differences in screening mammography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Amy B; Kasl, Stanislav V; Jones, Beth A

    2008-03-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine if gender discrimination, conceptualized as a negative life stressor, is a deterrent to adherence to mammography screening guidelines. African American and white women (1451) aged 40-79 years who obtained an index screening mammogram at one of five urban hospitals in Connecticut between October 1996 and January 1998 were enrolled in this study. This logistic regression analysis includes the 1229 women who completed telephone interviews at baseline and follow-up (average 29.4 months later) and for whom the study outcome, nonadherence to age-specific mammography screening guidelines, was determined. Gender discrimination was measured as lifetime experience in seven possible situations. Gender discrimination, reported by nearly 38% of the study population, was significantly associated with nonadherence to mammography guidelines in women with annual family incomes of > or =$50,000 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.33, 2.98) and did not differ across racial/ethnic group. Our findings suggest that gender discrimination can adversely influence regular mammography screening in some women. With nearly half of women nonadherent to screening mammography guidelines in this study and with decreasing mammography rates nationwide, it is important to address the complexity of nonadherence across subgroups of women. Life stressors, such as experiences of gender discrimination, may have considerable consequences, potentially influencing health prevention prioritization in women.

  13. One more hurdle to increasing mammography screening: pubescent, adolescent, and prior mammography screening experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eileen; Usher, LaToya

    2009-01-01

    Approximately $8.1 billion dollars is spent each year in the United States alone on the treatment of breast cancer. Survival rates are dependent on access to, and utilization of, early detection services. The primary reason for disparity in breast cancer mortality is the delay in time to diagnosis, resulting in poor prognosis. Despite ongoing research to understand barriers to mammography screening, recent studies report a decrease in mammography screening among all racial groups. A qualitative approach was used to elicit information from 36 White non- Hispanic, African-American, Hispanic, and Native American women without a history of breast cancer. Women were invited to share written or audiotape-recorded narratives about experiences pertaining to their breasts and their mammography screening experiences. Major categories identified were: teasing, family norms and values, media/societal influence, body image, and mammography screening experiences. The resulting effects of these experiences left these women with feelings of shame and "conflict" regarding their breasts. The major theme identified was breast conflict. Findings suggest that breast conflict may persist throughout the lifespan and can have a negative influence on a woman's decision to participate in mammography screening. The authors hypothesize that experiences that occur during adolescence pertaining to young girls' breasts can influence a women's body image, which in turn can later in life affect health-seeking behaviors related to mammography screening. These findings have implications for public health practice in planning for breast cancer screening, education, and interventions for women from diverse racial/ethnics groups.

  14. Mapping of the radiation field of a mammography equipment using molybdenum and rhodium filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreira, Jacqueline S.; Campos, Daniela; Vivolo, Vitor

    2014-01-01

    The use of X rays for diagnostic radiology is very common and important to Medicine, including mammographic diagnosis focusing decreasing of the doses applied to the patients and preserving high quality of the diagnostic image. A quality control program of the irradiation systems it is very necessary. The Instruments Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of IPEN perform calibration in dosemeters used in radiation dosimetry (in diagnostic radiology) for many years. The objective of that paper is determining the point of greatest intensity of the beam issued by the mammography equipment. Exposures were made with filters Rhodium and Molybdenum. That mapping is important before applied a routine quality control program of the mammography equipment and the calibration of instruments in the diagnosis. (author)

  15. Musicians and Nation Building- Need for Quality Control: Old and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of any nation is largely dependent upon a number of factors, which may be viewed from such perspectives as, fiscal status, economic development, political system, cultural awareness, social integration, security management, educational attainment, health facilities and other global endowment and or ...

  16. Methods for computing water-quality loads at sites in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Crawford, Charles G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information on concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents at 111 sites across the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network (NWQN). This report details historical and updated methods for computing water-quality loads at NWQN sites. The primary updates to historical load estimation methods include (1) an adaptation to methods for computing loads to the Gulf of Mexico; (2) the inclusion of loads computed using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method; and (3) the inclusion of loads computed using continuous water-quality data. Loads computed using WRTDS and continuous water-quality data are provided along with those computed using historical methods. Various aspects of method updates are evaluated in this report to help users of water-quality loading data determine which estimation methods best suit their particular application.

  17. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  18. Mammography use among women aged 18-39 years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; White, Mary C; Sabatino, Susan A; Febo-Vázquez, Isaedmarie

    2018-04-01

    Recommendations for breast cancer screening using mammography target asymptomatic women aged ≥ 40 years who are not at increased risk for breast cancer. Evidence is not available to demonstrate benefits of screening with mammography at younger ages, and little is known about mammography use among younger women. This study described mammography use among women aged 18-39 years. We analyzed data from the 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth, an in-person survey of a nationally representative sample of the U.S. household population. We estimated the prevalence of ever receiving a mammogram and examined reasons for the first mammograms among women aged 18-39 years without personal cancer history (n = 8324). We classified the first mammogram as a screening examination if it was performed either as part of a routine exam or because of family history of cancer. Among women aged 18-39 years, 14.3% (95% CI 13.2-15.4) reported ever having a mammogram. Prevalence of mammography use was highest among women aged 35-39 years (31.0%, 95% CI 27.8-34.5), and was higher among non-Hispanic black women than in other race/ethnicity groups. Women with a family history of breast cancer reported a higher prevalence of mammography use than women without this family history. For both women with and without a family history of breast cancer, about half of all first mammograms were performed for screening reasons. Among U.S. women aged 18-39 years with no personal cancer history, one in seven reported having received a mammogram. Women with no family history of breast cancer were as likely as those with a family history to initiate breast cancer screening with mammography before age 40. Our findings provide evidence that supports further research to examine factors that prompt young women to receive screening mammograms.

  19. Dual-energy mammography: simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakova, K; Kolitsi, Z; Pallikarakis, N

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a mammography simulator and demonstrates its applicability in feasibility studies in dual-energy (DE) subtraction mammography. This mammography simulator is an evolution of a previously presented x-ray imaging simulation system, which has been extended with new functionalities that are specific for DE simulations. The new features include incident exposure and dose calculations, the implementation of a DE subtraction algorithm as well as amendments to the detector and source modelling. The system was then verified by simulating experiments and comparing their results against published data. The simulator was used to carry out a feasibility study of the applicability of DE techniques in mammography, and more precisely to examine whether this modality could result in better visualization and detection of microcalcifications. Investigations were carried out using a 3D breast software phantom of average thickness, monoenergetic and polyenergetic beam spectra and various detector configurations. Dual-shot techniques were simulated. Results showed the advantage of using monoenergetic in comparison with polyenergetic beams. Optimization studies with monochromatic sources were carried out to obtain the optimal low and high incident energies, based on the assessment of the figure of merit of the simulated microcalcifications in the subtracted images. The results of the simulation study with the optimal energies demonstrated that the use of the DE technique can improve visualization and increase detectability, allowing identification of microcalcifications of sizes as small as 200 μm. The quantitative results are also verified by means of a visual inspection of the synthetic images

  20. Mammography activity in Norway 1983 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Braaten, Tonje; Njor, Sisse H

    2011-01-01

    In Norway, an organized screening mammography program, the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) started in four counties in 1996 and became nationwide in 2004. We collected data on pre-program screening activity, and in view of this activity we evaluated the potential impact...... of the program on breast cancer mortality in Norway....

  1. Computed Radiography Exposure Indices in Mammography | Koen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computed Radiography Exposure Indices in Mammography. L Koen, C Herbst, W Rae. Abstract. Background. Studies indicate that computed radiography (CR) can lead to increased radiation dose to patients. It is therefore important to relate the exposure indicators provided by CR manufacturers to the radiation dose ...

  2. Beyond the mammography debate: a moderate perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniklidis, C

    2015-06-01

    After some decades of contention, one can almost despair and conclude that (paraphrasing) "the mammography debate you will have with you always." Against that sentiment, in this review I argue, after reflecting on some of the major themes of this long-standing debate, that we must begin to move beyond the narrow borders of claim and counterclaim to seek consensus on what the balance of methodologically sound and critically appraised evidence demonstrates, and also to find overlooked underlying convergences; after acknowledging the reality of some residual and non-trivial harms from mammography, to promote effective strategies for harm mitigation; and to encourage deployment of new screening modalities that will render many of the issues and concerns in the debate obsolete. To these ends, I provide a sketch of what this looking forward and beyond the current debate might look like, leveraging advantages from abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging technologies (such as the ultrafast and twist protocols) and from digital breast tomosynthesis-also known as three-dimensional mammography. I also locate the debate within the broader context of mammography in the real world as it plays out not for the disputants, but for the stakeholders themselves: the screening-eligible patients and the physicians in the front lines who are charged with enabling both the acts of screening and the facts of screening at their maximally objective and patient-accessible levels to facilitate informed decisions.

  3. Diagnostic efficacy and safety of gadoteric acid MR mammography in 1537 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seithe, Tim; Braun, Joachim [Department of Radiology, Charité – University Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Wolf, Michael [Michael Wolf Information Systems, Viktoriastr. 26, 66346 Püttlingen (Germany); Vahldiek, Janis; Wolny, Dajana; Auer, Jonas; Pociej, Joanna [Department of Radiology, Charité – University Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Heine, Oliver [Guerbet GmbH, Otto-Vogler-Str. 11, 65843 Sulzbach (Germany); Hamm, Bernd [Department of Radiology, Charité – University Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Bucourt, Maximilian de, E-mail: mdb@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – University Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Objectives: To perform a large-scale multicenter post-marketing surveillance study for analyzing diagnostic effectiveness and safety of intravenous (IV) gadoteric acid (Dotarem{sup ®}) in magnetic resonance (MR) mammography under daily practice conditions. Materials and methods: Patients underwent high-resolution MR mammography with gadoteric acid in 15 German centers. Radiologists used a standardized questionnaire to report data including patient demographics and medical history, characteristics of MR examination and results in terms of diagnosis and safety for the patient. Results: A total of 1537 patients were examined. In 99.2% of all patients, a diagnosis was established. In 91.6% of all patients, image quality was excellent or good. Histopathological examinations were performed for 232 of 1537 patients (15.1%) with invasive ductal carcinoma being the most frequent diagnosis (109 patients, 47.0%). Based on histopathology as the standard of reference, IV gadoteric acid-enhanced MR mammography confirmed diagnoses of invasive ductal carcinoma in 93.5% of the patients. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 5 of 1537 patients (0.3%) and were classified as serious in one case (tachycardia, dysphagia, urticaria, rash). All patients with adverse drug reactions fully recovered after the examination. Conclusion: This noninterventional surveillance study shows IV gadoteric acid to be a safe and effective contrast agent for use in MR mammography.

  4. MO-E-217A-01: Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography - Physical Aspects and QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, M; Hill, M

    2012-06-01

    To describe the current state of dual energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography, to discuss those aspects of its operation that require evaluation or monitoring and to propose elements of a program for quality assurance of such systems. The principles of dual-energy contrast imaging will be discussed and tools and techniques for assessment of performance will be described. Many of the elements affecting image quality and dose performance in digital mammography (eg noise, system linearity, consistency of x-ray output and detector performance, artifacts) remain important. In addition, the ability to register images can influence the resultant image quality. The maintenance of breast compression thickness during the imaging procedure and calibration of the system to allow quantification of iodine in the breast represent new challenges to quality assurance. CESM provides a means of acquiring new information regarding tumor angiogenesis and may reveal some cancers that will not be detectable on digital mammography. It may also better demonstrate the extent of disease. The medical physicist must understand the dependence of image quality on physical factors. Implementation of a relevant QA program will be required if the promise of this new modality is to be delivered. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. 78 FR 50401 - National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... of Regents, State Education Department, Office of the Professions (Nursing Education) (NYBRN) State..., Office of the Professions (Public Postsecondary Vocational Education, Practical Nursing) 2. Oklahoma... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI...

  6. The Water-Quality Partnership for National Parks—U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service, 1998–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Mark A.; Penoyer, Pete E; Ludtke, Amy S.; Ellsworth, Alan C.

    2016-07-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) work together through the USGS–NPS Water-Quality Partnership to support a broad range of policy and management needs related to high-priority water-quality issues in national parks. The program was initiated in 1998 as part of the Clean Water Action Plan, a Presidential initiative to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Clean Water Act. Partnership projects are developed jointly by the USGS and the NPS. Studies are conducted by the USGS and findings are used by the NPS to guide policy and management actions aimed at protecting and improving water quality.The National Park Service manages many of our Nation’s most highly valued aquatic systems across the country, including portions of the Great Lakes, ocean and coastal zones, historic canals, reservoirs, large rivers, high-elevation lakes and streams, geysers, springs, and wetlands. So far, the Water-Quality Partnership has undertaken 217 projects in 119 national parks. In each project, USGS studies and assessments (http://water.usgs.gov/nps_partnership/pubs.php) have supported science-based management by the NPS to protect and improve water quality in parks. Some of the current projects are highlighted in the NPS Call to Action Centennial initiative, Crystal Clear, which celebrates national park water-resource efforts to ensure clean water for the next century of park management (http://www.nature.nps.gov/water/crystalclear/).New projects are proposed each year by USGS scientists working in collaboration with NPS staff in specific parks. Project selection is highly competitive, with an average of only eight new projects funded each year out of approximately 75 proposals that are submitted. Since the beginning of the Partnership in 1998, 189 publications detailing project findings have been completed. The 217 studies have been conducted in 119 NPS-administered lands, extending from Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska to Everglades

  7. Speech Quality Monitoring in Czech National Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Voznak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with techniques of measuring and assessment of the voice transmitted in IP networks and describes design of quality measurement, which can be used for Cisco Gateways. Cisco gateways send Calculated Planning Impairment Factor in every CDR (Call Detail Record. Our design is based on collection of CDR's, their storing into SQL database and their visualization through web page. This design was implemented and successfully tested in CESNET network.

  8. Analysis of medical exposures in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Sergio R.; Mantuano, Natalia O.; Albrecht, Afonso S.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the use of digital mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer is increasingly common due to the production of high definition image that allows to detect subtle changes in breast images profiles. However it is necessary to be an improvement of the technique used since some devices offer minimization parameters of entrance dose to the skin. Thus, this study seeks to examine how the qualification of technical professionals in radiology interferes with the use of the techniques applied in mammography. For this, survey was carried out in a hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, which evaluated the scans of 1190 patients undergoing routine mammography (It is considered routinely the 4 basic exhibitions: with 2 flow skull and 2 medium oblique side, excluding repeats and supplements) in 2013. The medical exposures analyzed obtained from a single full digital equipment, model Senographe DS were compared with three different procedures performed by professionals in mammography techniques. The images were classified according to exposure techniques available in the equipment: Standard (STD), contrast (CNT) and dose (dose), and to be selected as breast density of the patient. Comparing the variation of the radiographic technique in relation to the professional who made the exhibition, what is observed is that the professional B presented the best conduct in relation to radiological protection, because she considered breast density in the choice of technical equipment parameter. The professional A, which is newly formed, and C, which has more service time, almost did not perform variations in the pattern of exposure, even for different breast densities. Thus, we can conclude that there is a need to update the professionals so that the tools available of dose limitation and mamas variability to digital mammography are efficiently employed in the service routine and thus meet the requirements of current legislation

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis in routine mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittek, H.; Perlet, C.; Helmberger, R.; Linsmeier, E.; Kessler, M.; Reiser, M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Computer-aided diagnosis in mammography is a topic many study groups have been concerned with since the first presentation of a system for computer-aided interpretation in 1967. Currently, there is only one system avilable for clinical use in mammography, the CAD-System Image Checker (R2 Technology). The purpose of our prospective study was to evaluate whether the integration of the CAD-system into the routine of a radiological breast diagnosis unit is feasible. Results: After the installation of the CAD-system, 300 patients with 1110 mammograms were included for evaluation in the present study. In 54 of these cases histological examination was indicated due to suspect criteria on conventional mammography. In 39 of 54 cases (72,2%) malignancy could be proven histologically. The CAD-system marked 82,1% of the histologically verified carcinomas correctly 94,3% of all 1797 marks made by the CAD-system indicated normal or benign structures. Routinely performed CAD analysis prolonged patients waiting time by about 15 min because the marks of the CAD system had to be interpreted in addition to the routine diagnostic investigations. Conclusion: Our experience with the use of the CAD-system in daily routine showed that CAD analysis can easily be integr