WorldWideScience

Sample records for national industrial pollution

  1. Pediatric asthma and ambient pollutant levels in industrializing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient pollutants to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental pollution have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air pollution. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient pollutants with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the pollutants in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children.

  2. 76 FR 80597 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and... control of hazardous air pollutants from new and existing industrial, commercial, and institutional... parameter data for a control device if a device is used to control the emissions or continuous...

  3. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... standards to control hazardous air pollutants from new and existing industrial, commercial and institutional... not affect the estimated emission reductions, control costs or the benefits of the rule in substance... of subpart JJJJJJ (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for...

  4. 75 FR 32005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... hazardous air pollutants emissions standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control....7485 of subpart DDDDD (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Industrial... were not achieving emissions reductions through the use of an emission control system and there were...

  5. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  6. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  7. Economic Globalization and Industrial Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Li; Ying Ruiyao

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the relationship between economic globalization and industrial pollution, this paper developed the theoretical framework and used simultaneous equations. The result shows that economic globalization has influences on the industrial pollution mainly by the direct effect of scale, structure and technology as well as the indirect effect of income and policy. Considering all the factors, economic globalization, especially foreign direct investment (FDI), will reduce industrial pollution, in which technology spillover effect plays an important role.

  8. 78 FR 7137 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Regulations#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AR13 National Emission Standards... interval for setting the CO emission limit. Tune-up frequencies, timing of initial tune-ups and adjusted... fuels and residential units. Revisions to reduced testing frequency for emission limits that...

  9. Assessment of air pollution and its effects on the health status of the workers in beam rolling mills factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group from Ahvaz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollutants of iron- and steel-making operations have historically been an environmental and health hazard. These pollutants include gaseous substances such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The Iran National Steel Industrial Group beam rolling mills factory has two production lines viz. line 630 and line 650, with different beam production capabilities and is capable of producing different types of beams. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study on 400 workers in different exposure levels to environmental pollution was performed during 2005 to determine the mean value of respirable particulate matter (RPM concentrations and its effects on the health status of workers. To elicit information regarding the health status of the worker, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard questionnaire was used. Fisher′s exact test was performed to assess the relative risk (RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers. Results: There was significant difference in RPM pollution level between two product lines. The RR of exposure to air pollution on cardiovascular diseases, chest tightness, cough, difficulty in retention, i.e. loss of memory, tension, occupational fatigue, and occupational stress in exposed workers were 2.78, 2.44, 2.15, 1.92, 1.57, 3.90, and 2.09, respectively.

  10. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonés Nuria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activity group and specific pollutant, and to plot maps depicting emissions of carcinogenic substances. Methods All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values. Results The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt. Conclusion A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two

  11. Effect of industrial pollution on seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M.Z.; Qadir, S.A.

    1973-01-01

    The germination behavior of seeds in polluted waters and polluted soil extracts was found to be identical, only a few species behaved differently. Prosopis juliflora, Haloxylon recurvum, Acacia senegal showed best germination in the two conditions but Prosopis juliflora was the most resistant to pollution. In Suaeda fruticosa no germination took place in the control treatment whereas highest germination (70%) was seen in treatment with polluted soil extract of EPLA. Blepharis sindica showed a stimulating effect of polluted water on germination, whereas low germination was observed when their seeds were treated with the soil extract of the same site. 40% germination of Suaeda monoica was seen in polluted water of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., whereas 30% germination was found in a control treatment. Low percentage of germination was found when the seeds of Cassia holosericea were treated with polluted waters of different industries as compared to soil extract treatments of the same industries. Datura alba showed 50, 30 and 10% seed germination in polluted soil extract of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., in control and in polluted water of Darbar Soap Works, respectively. 5 references, 1 table.

  12. Factors Controlling Bioindicators for Industrial Pollution Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAMILA H. ALI; NAGLAA F. ABD El-SAIAM

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the use of algae as potential bioindlieators of pollution eontaining industrial metals. Phytoplanktonie algae varied with waste type and with enviromnental and growth conditions.In water samples containing ceramic waste Euglenophyta speeies and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) were determined as potential indicator species of pollution, while in sample containing metallic waste, Cyclotella sp. Was most dominant. Under laboratory growth conditions, phytoplankton collected from a major stream of the Nile River were eultivated by using Algal Growth Bottle Test (EPA, 1972). This revealed that Scenedesmus sp., Actinastrum hantzschii (Chlorophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica (Cyanophyta) and Nitzschia linearis (Bacillariophyta) were also potential indicators of pollution.

  13. Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  15. Phytoremediation of Industrial and Pharmaceutical Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Shikha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollution in water bodies and soil is a major and ever-increasing environmental issue nowadays, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide appropriate solutions. The contamination of soil is a major concern for the environment and needs to be remediated. These pollutants include complex organic compounds, heavy metals released from industries and plants and natural products such as oils from accidental release. Further the nature of pollution will be governed by the source and type of the contaminant, and other inorganic compounds are released into the environment from a number of sources like mining, smelting, electroplating, and farming. Plants can clean up many types of contaminants like metals, pesticides, oils, and explosives. Phytoremediation is emerging as a bio-based and low-cost alternative in the cleanup of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  16. Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at elucidating the importance of original Pb-speciation versus soil-characteristics to mobility and distribution of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Ten industrially polluted Danish surface soils were characterized and Pb speciation was evaluated through SEM-EDX studies......, examination of pH-dependent desorption, distribution in grain-size fractions and sequential extraction. Our results show that the first factors determining the speciation of Pb in soil are: (1) the stability of the original speciation and (2) the contamination level, while soil characteristics...... are of secondary importance. In nine of ten soils Pb was concentrated strongly in the soil fines (soils, particles with a highly concentrated Pb-content were observed during SEM-EDX. In eight of the soils, the particles contained various Pb-species with aluminum/iron, phosphate, sulfate...

  17. Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Masoud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different ( P < 0.05 in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene′s (3 mg/m 3 . The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

  18. River pollution caused by natural stone industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktriani, Ani; Darmajanti, Linda; Soesilo, Tri Edhi Budhi

    2017-03-01

    The natural stone industry is classified as small industry. Current wastewater treatment still causes pollution in the river. This thesis aims to analyze the performance of wastewater treatment in natural stones industry. The data was collected from water quality test (parameters: temperature, pH, DO, and TSS). The wastewater treatment performance was in a slightly higher position compared to the 2nd class quality standards of Government Regulation No. 82/2001. The parameter that exceeded quality standards was the concentration of TSS, which was up to 240.8 mg/l. The high concentration of TSS was affected by the absence of sludge management schedule, which resulted in non-optimal precipitation. Besides that, the design of sedimentation basin was still not adapted with wastewater debit. Referring to the results, this study suggests the government of Cirebon District to provide wastewater treatment development through the village staff. Furthermore, the government also needs to give strict punishment to business owner who does not treat waste correctly and does not have a business license. Moreover, the sale value of sludge as byproduct of wastewater treatment needs to be increased.

  19. 78 FR 48844 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  20. 75 FR 26166 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... 40 CFR part 300 which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  1. 78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances,...

  2. 76 FR 30081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances,...

  3. 78 FR 65210 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of California... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  4. 78 FR 49993 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations,...

  5. "Globalization and Pollution Industries in East Asia"

    OpenAIRE

    Iwami, Toru

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate what the East Asian data tell us about the "pollution haven hypothesis." In the region, pollution goods are not traded so much directly, and their production is not clearly correlated with inward FDI and openness of the country in question. Although production of pollution goods is indirectly related to manufacturing exports as materials and intermediate goods, domestic consumption exerts larger impact on the production than exports. These facts imply that pollut...

  6. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  7. "National LCD Industrial Park" Formed in Wuxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Approved by Ministry of Information Industry, "National LCD Industrial Park" is formed in Wuxi. After years' development, LCD industry in Wuxi has been developed into certain scale. LCD industry group headed by Wuxi Sharp Company has been formed. Currently, there are 16 upstream and downstream producers in this industry in Wuxi, with total investment up to USD$ 300 million. Production value of thisindustry reached RMB 16 billion. LCD industry is a new highlight in the development of Wuxi high-tech industrie...

  8. 78 FR 10005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 29 / Tuesday... RIN 2060-AQ93 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland...

  9. 77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 138 / Wednesday...-AQ93 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement...

  10. Modern low-pollutive industrial gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, A.

    1987-01-01

    As illustrated by aviation gas turbines, industrial gas-turbine engineering saw a rapid development towards light-weight compact units with enhanced efficiency. The Sulzer gas turbine type 10 is a most up-to-date machine which has not been derived simply from the aircraft engine but will also fully meet the requirements for stationary industrial operation.

  11. 75 FR 44932 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... substances, Intergovernmental relations, Natural resources, Oil pollution, Penalties, Reporting and..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, is an Appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous...

  12. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources...

  13. 76 FR 76118 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  14. 78 FR 73449 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains to...-- NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-03-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively

  16. 76 FR 57701 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... rule published on July 29, 2011, (76 FR 45484) is withdrawn as of September 16, 2011. ADDRESSES... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  17. 76 FR 57662 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... withdrawal of the direct final action (76 FR 45432) is effective as of September 16, 2011. ADDRESSES... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  18. 77 FR 46009 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Maine... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...

  19. 76 FR 77457 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

  20. Lead Polluted Hotspot: Environmental Implication of Unplanned Industrial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikta Sharmin Yousuf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Rayer Bazaar, different industries like tannery, plastic, textile, battery recycling industry etc. are increasing rapidly without considering the environmental issues and deterioration. Since chromium (Cr pollution of this area has been widely investigated due to the presence of tannery industries, this study was focused on examining other environmental factors. Field visits and analytical results of semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis as well as three dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (3DEEM of water, soil and vegetative tissues indicated that, the area is highly polluted in term of different environmental parameters and metal content. The extremely high lead (Pb content of the soil (1171.7 mg/kg in summer, 2157.1 mg/kg in winter and blackish materials of vegetative tissues (6585.6 mg/kg in summer, 1974.1 mg/kg in winter indicates excessive lead deposition of this area that makes it a lead polluted hotspot. One of the possible sources of the extremely high lead concentration is adjacent battery recycling industry and/or other industries surrounding this area. So it is urgent to take necessary steps to find out immediate options for possible mitigation.

  1. Role of national labs in energy and environmental R & D: An industrial perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, N.

    1995-12-31

    The perceived role of national laboratories in energy and environmental research and development is examined from an industrial perspective. A series of tables are used to summarize issues primarily related to the automotive industry. Impacts of policy on energy, environment, society, and international competition are outlined. Advances and further needs in automotive efficiency and pollution control, and research roles for national labs and industry are also summarized. 6 tabs.

  2. 76 FR 71500 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... Superfund) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... National Priorities List (NPL) on September 30, 2011, (76 FR 60777). The NPL, promulgated pursuant...

  3. [Influence of industrial and traffic pollution on reproduction of spermatophytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, M P; Glazunova, K P

    2010-01-01

    A review of studies conducted, primarily, in Europe in last 30 years that deal with influence of anthropogenic environmental pollution on functioning of reproductive and, by comparison, vegetative organs of spermatophytes is presented. In the papers considered the impacts of typical industrial and traffic pollutants (compounds of iron, zinc, copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, as well as sulfur dioxide, ozone, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on plants via soil, water, air, and precipitation have been studied. Special attention is paid to effects of heavy metals on embryological structures and processes in staminate and pistillate reproductive spheres of plants (archesporium, meiosis, sporogenesis, gametophytogenesis, morphology and functioning of gametophyte, endospermogenesis, embryogenesis). Detrimental effects of anthropogenic pollution on reproductive sphere of spermatophytes are manifested through disorder in processes of cells fission and differentiation, abnormality in structures development at early stages of morphogenesis, broadening of anomalies spectrum, decrease in pollen fertility, derangement of seed-bearing and germination.

  4. Colorectal cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Abente Gonzalo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Records kept as a result of the implementation of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR constitute a public inventory of industries, created by the European Commission, which is a valuable resource for monitoring industrial pollution. Our objective is to ascertain whether there might be excess colorectal cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the IPPC Directive and E-PRTR Regulation and report their emissions to air. Methods An ecological study was designed to examine colorectal cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns, over the period 1997–2006. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RR of towns situated at a distance of less than 2 km from industrial installations. The analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible/confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated on the basis of Poisson regression models, using two types of modelling: a the conditional autoregressive Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié, with explanatory variables; and b a mixed regression model. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Results Statistically significant RRs were detected in the vicinity of mining industry (RR 1.258; 95%CI 1.082 - 1.463, paper and wood production (RR 1.071; 95%CI 1.007 – 1.140, food and beverage sector (RR 1.069; 95%CI 1.029 - 1.111, metal production and processing installations (RR 1.065; 95% CI 1.011 – 1.123 and ceramics (RR 1.050 ; 95%CI 1.004 – 1.099. Conclusions Given the exploratory nature of this study, it would seem advisable to check in other countries or with other designs, if the proximity of industries that emit pollutants into the air could be an added risk factor for colorectal cancer mortality

  5. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  6. [Influence of smoking and industrial air pollutants on respiratory health of nickel industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilov, V V; Siurin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Studies covered respiratory health of 1530 workers of nickel industry, among which were 796 (52.0%) smokers. Findings are that tobacco smoke combined with nickel industry hazards cause potentized negative effects in respiratory organs, with earlier and more frequent chronic bronchitis. For isolated influence of these factors, chronic bronchitis risk is higher from exposure to tobacco smoke vs. occupational hazards (OR = 2.48; DI 1.49-4.13). Chronic obstructive lung disease development in nickel industry workers is caused by smoking. Industrial air pollutants appeared to have no potentizing effect on COLD formation, as well as on toxic pneumosclerosis formation.

  7. 78 FR 70231 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... wastes may have included solvents, acids, bases, paints, and heavy metals. The wastes were deposited in..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  8. Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, M. (EMRC, Brussels (Belgium)); Wagner, A.; Davies, T. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Spadaro, J. (SERC, Charlotte, NC (United States)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This European Environment Agency (EEA) report assesses the damage costs to health and the environment resulting from pollutants emitted from industrial facilities. It is based on the latest information, namely for 2009, publicly available through the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR, 2011) in line with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Aarhus Convention regarding access to environmental information. This report investigates the use of a simplified modelling approach to quantify, in monetary terms, the damage costs caused by emissions of air pollutants from industrial facilities reported to the E-PRTR pollutant register. The approach is based on existing policy tools and methods, such as those developed under the EU's CAFE programme for the main air pollutants. This study also employs other existing models and approaches used to inform policymakers about the damage costs of pollutants. Together, the methods are used to estimate the impacts and associated economic damage caused by a number of pollutants emitted from industrial facilities, including: (1) ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) and sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}); (2) heavy metals; (3) benzene, dioxins and furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (4) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The cost of damage caused by emissions from the E-PRTR industrial facilities in 2009 is estimated as being at least EUR 102-169 billion. A small number of industrial facilities cause the majority of the damage costs to health and the environment. Fifty per cent of the total damage cost occurs as a result of emissions from just 191 (or 2 %) of the approximately 10 000 facilities that reported at least some data for releases to air in 2009. Three quarters of the total damage costs are caused by the emissions of 622 facilities, which comprise 6 % of the total number. Of the

  9. 77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... EPA and the State of South Dakota, through the Department of Environment and Natural Resources,...

  10. 78 FR 56611 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., is an appendix of the National Oil and ] Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... risk to public health, welfare, or the environment. Deletion from the NPL does not preclude...

  11. 78 FR 45905 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through...

  12. 76 FR 18136 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, through the...

  13. 76 FR 81904 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Florida, through the Florida...

  14. 78 FR 60809 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of New York, through the New York...

  15. 77 FR 43567 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the NJ...

  16. 75 FR 42361 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Colorado, through the...

  17. 76 FR 51316 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, through the...

  18. 75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and ] Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial... documentation. The public comment period for the NOIDp was extended through August 16, 2010 (75 FR 42361)....

  19. 77 FR 21919 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Illinois, through the...

  20. 75 FR 48895 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Arkansas,...

  1. 77 FR 64790 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 ] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan, through...

  2. 76 FR 20605 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan... this Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air...

  3. 78 FR 47267 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Oklahoma, through the...

  4. 76 FR 58404 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains to the remaining portions of...

  5. 75 FR 53268 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Georgia, through the...

  6. 76 FR 42055 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... 300--NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Accordingly, the amendment to... May 24, 2011, EPA published a Notice of Intent for Partial Deletion (76 FR 30081) and a direct...

  7. 78 FR 44512 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of...

  8. 76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... was published in the Federal Register on January 5, 2011 (76 FR 510). The closing date for comments...

  9. 76 FR 50441 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the New...

  10. 76 FR 70105 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA... surface soils, subsurface soils, structures and groundwater within the boundaries of these parcels....

  11. 76 FR 70057 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., is an appendix to the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This... of these two parcels from the Site affects all surface soils, subsurface soils, structures...

  12. 75 FR 33747 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Agency (EPA) Region 6 is issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the soils of Operable Unit 1 and the..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency...

  13. Status of water pollution in relation to industrialization in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Ritu Singh; Pandey, Sonali; Bhadauria, Seema

    2017-04-06

    India is a large and densely populated country; its economy is largely agricultural. Making the best use of the country's manpower has always posed a challenge. Industrialization could become a dominant component of the economy and displace agriculture. Traditional livelihoods of occupational groups are threatened by the practice of disposing untreated industrial waste into rivers and bodies of water. These uncontrolled disposals impact local natural resources with negative long-term effects. Industrialization is the development of intellectual and financial trade that changes a predominantly rustic culture into a modern one. Many industrial units discharge wastewater locally without treatment. Many industries directly discharged their waste into lakes, rivers and ocean. Water contamination impacts the environment. Pesticides, chemical, waste oil and heavy metals are regularly transported into their waters. Humans and other living organisms can accumulate heavy metals from industrial discharges in their tissues. Industrial waste may be reactive, corrosive, flammable, or toxic. When untreated sewage is emptied into rivers, it causes diseases like typhoid, dysentery and cholera. Natural elements and plant supplements like nitrate and phosphates stimulate growth of algae on the water surface. The algae reduce the oxygen in the water and cause eutrophication. It is harmful to the water ecosystem. In Rajasthan proper, there are a number of sites bordering rivers and lakes where the pace of industrialization has proceeded far beyond the ability of regulators to establish and enforce meaningful limits on the amount of point source pollution permitted to the various industrial complexes, which include cement, chemical, fertilizer, textile, mining, quarrying, dyeing and printing facilities. The scale of the problem is obvious to the casual observer, but actual documentation of the total impact remains to be done.

  14. Water Pollution Control Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

  15. 76 FR 45484 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission on... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  16. 76 FR 45483 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  17. Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies, morbidity (25 studies, mortality (7 studies, and birth outcome (7 studies. Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  18. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  19. SOURCE, FORMATION, POLLUTION AND ITSCOUNTERMEASURE OF DIOXIN IN PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuiLi; YoumingLi; MingliFu; yanjinBi

    2004-01-01

    Dioxins are believed the most poisonous compounds in the world. Dioxin pollution is a strategic problem in papermaking industry which must be solved. Dioxin not only exists in pulp, paper products, but also in the volatile of woods, hips or other non-wood fiber material which are treated with PCP, even in the exhaust gas of chemical recovery system. So there are great needs to know what is dioxin, the channel and mechanism of the formation of it in papermaking industry. With these understanding, herein those are discussed as follows, the harness measure of dioxin: dioxin in wastewater, in exhaust gas, from raw material. And some countermeasure to decrease the content of dioxin. Furthermore, several novel treatment technologies ofdioxin in China and abroad were introduced. The fundamental measure to eliminate the pollution ofdioxin is presented with the aim to control the origin, decrease the use of bleachercontaining chlorine or without the use of chlorine. Elemental Chlorine Free and Total Chlorine Free bleaching are advocated.

  20. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  1. 76 FR 57702 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National..., Texas 75202-2733; Hours of operation: Monday thru Friday, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. and 1 p.m. to 4 p.m....

  2. 76 FR 57661 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Texas 75202-2733; Hours of operation: Monday thru Friday, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. and 1 to 4 p.m....

  3. 75 FR 54821 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List; Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Colorado, through the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, have determined that all appropriate response actions at these...

  4. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... of the direct final action (76 FR 41719) is effective as of September 13, 2011. ADDRESSES... in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...

  5. 77 FR 59338 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... withdrawal of the direct final action published August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50038) is effective as of September 27... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  6. 78 FR 57799 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National...: This withdrawal of the direct final action published July 24, 2013 (78 FR 44455), is effective as of....dante@epa.gov . List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  7. 76 FR 56362 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... Register. DATES: The proposed rule published on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41751) is withdrawn as of September 13... INFORMATION: List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  8. 75 FR 33724 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...) Region 6 is publishing a direct final Notice of Deletion of the soils of Operable Unit 1 and the... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct final partial deletion is...

  9. Occupational Noise Pollution and Hearing protection in selected industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of technology in industries is ever increasing. With the introduction of this technology come new safety and human performance concerns. Hearing loss caused by industrial noise has been recognized for many years, and protection of employee hearing has been made mandatory by governmental agencies. This paper presents an investigation of occupational noise exposure and Personal hearing protective devices (PHPD in selected industries in the south-eastern Iran. A questionnaire has been used to collect data for workers with high noise exposure and Personal hearing protective devices (PHPD. The subjects were 354 industrial workers expose to noise pressure levels greater than the action level defined in Iranian legislation (85dB (A 8h/d. The results of this study indicated that only younger workers with minor professional experience and with high educational background are used PHPD to protect and preserve their hearing. The finding of this study shows that approximately 75% of the workers with age 18-36 reported the use of personal protective Devices at all the time, and 73% of workers with age more than 46 years old reported that they had never used them PHPD, even though it was mandatory in their workplaces. Statistical data show that, the percentage of male workers (82 with age more than 37 years old having headaches at workplace are higher than female (3.4 with the same age groups. A noise training and education program must be developed for industrial employees in order to protect them from hazardous noise pollution. Employers must play an important role in promoting the regular use of Personal hearing protective devices. Noise level in work areas must be considered in the early design of Hearing Conservation Program.

  10. 75 FR 63140 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... the National Priorities List (NPL) on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54779). The portions proposed for..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and...

  11. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films.

  12. Adjoint method for the optimum planning of industrial pollutant sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; HU Fei; ZHU Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The optimum planning of industrial pollutant sources, which optimizes the economic object without violating environmental constraints, is an important and hard task to be conquered. In this paper, an adjoint method is developed to solve the problem. The penalty function is introduced to deal with the environmental inequality constraints, and Lagrange function is constructed to derive the adjoint equation and the gradient of the object function. In this means, the gradient of the object function can be calculated by solving the adjoint equation, and the information from the gradient is used to make the object function descend and approach to an optimal solution after some iterations. A two-dimensional, simplified model is used for numerical experiments. The theoretical derivations are verified by the results of the experiments. Furthermore, the adjoint method is shown to be of excellent convergence and efficiency, which is adaptive to the fast development of air quality numerical models and super computers.

  13. Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimar Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in the production of colored and organic cotton, may result in reduction of water use, and consequent reduction in the disposal of effluents in nature. As the colored and organic cotton is produced by small farmers, governmental agencies need to participate in the effort of improving its production and distribution, providing the needed infrastructure to meet the increasing market. This would slowly encourage the reduction of white cotton consumption in exchange for this naturally colored product. The water used, and consequent polluted discharge in the use of colored cotton in the textile industry might be reduced by 70%, assuming a reduction of environmental impact of 5% per year would represent expressive numbers in the next ten years. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Environmental justice implications of industrial hazardous waste generation in India: a national scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-12-01

    While rising air and water pollution have become issues of widespread public concern in India, the relationship between spatial distribution of environmental pollution and social disadvantage has received less attention. This lack of attention becomes particularly relevant in the context of industrial pollution, as India continues to pursue industrial development policies without sufficient regard to its adverse social impacts. This letter examines industrial pollution in India from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective by presenting a national scale study of social inequities in the distribution of industrial hazardous waste generation. Our analysis connects district-level data from the 2009 National Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Industries with variables representing urbanization, social disadvantage, and socioeconomic status from the 2011 Census of India. Our results indicate that more urbanized and densely populated districts with a higher proportion of socially and economically disadvantaged residents are significantly more likely to generate hazardous waste. The quantity of hazardous waste generated is significantly higher in more urbanized but sparsely populated districts with a higher proportion of economically disadvantaged households, after accounting for other relevant explanatory factors such as literacy and social disadvantage. These findings underscore the growing need to incorporate EJ considerations in future industrial development and waste management in India.

  15. 78 FR 11589 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ..., potential adverse effects to the environment as a result of implementation of remedial activities at the... opportunity to comment. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan;...

  16. Pollutants in environmental historical national accounts. A thermodynamic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, M. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    1996-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to introduce some ideas concerning environmentally integrated historical national accounts and to submit a method for handling pollutants in that framework. The paper starts with a background, discusses some difficulties concerning the handling of residuals in environmental accounting, and introduces a method which might be suitable for historical environmental accounting involving pollutants. As a final step the method is evaluated and the results are interpreted in relation to ordinary production data given by historical GDP series for Sweden. 29 refs, 3 figs

  17. Perspectives of national industrial enterprises modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I.Novakivskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article.This article is concerned with solving problems of industrial enterprises modernization in Ukraine considering current socioeconomic conditions. The results of the analysis.The industrial enterprises survey in Western Ukraine and the analysis of their current state and prerspective of modernization are presented in this paper. The survey was conducted by authors and found out that the enterprises majority in Western Ukraine confirmed the commitment to modernization and innovative transformation for advanced development possibilities. Enterprises need to use a wide range of production possibilities in conditions of very limited investment. This situation contributes to the development and production of flexible organizational structures with minimal budgets that would be able to maintain effective global horizontal industrial, economic and branching commercial relations. The authors identified the following characteristics of the successful (profitable future enterprise such as continual changes, quick response and advanced knowledge of the concept of quality which based on the analysis of the current range of development objectives at machine-building enterprises in Western Ukraine and comparing them to the business environment in developed countries. The authors represented strategic goals and identified the modernization priorities of national enterprises. According to the authors, the basic requirements to the production organisation in the modern conditions are quality assurance and standartization of technological manufacturing processes; availability of chain cost optimization benefit tools; the flexible organizational structure and system configuration of the production capacity. The article defines the principle "flexible organizational structures of the production enterprise - the ability of the enterprise with minimal cost and in short time without stopping the process of activities to release new products, the

  18. GENASIS national and international monitoring networks for persistent organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Karel; Dušek, Ladislav; Holoubek, Ivan; Hřebíček, Jiří; Kubásek, Miroslav; Urbánek, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remain in the centre of scientific attention due to their slow rates of degradation, their toxicity, and potential for both long-range transport and bioaccumulation in living organisms. This group of compounds covers large number of various chemicals from industrial products, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. The GENASIS (Global Environmental Assessment and Information System) information system utilizes data from national and international monitoring networks to obtain as-complete-as-possible set of information and a representative picture of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are data from two main datasets on POPs monitoring: 1.Integrated monitoring of POPs in Košetice Observatory (Czech Republic) which is a long term background site of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) for the Central Europe; the data reveals long term trends of POPs in all environmental matrices. The Observatory is the only one in Europe where POPs have been monitored not only in ambient air, but also in wet atmospheric deposition, surface waters, sediments, soil, mosses and needles (integrated monitoring). Consistent data since the year 1996 are available, earlier data (up to 1998) are burdened by high variability and high detection limits. 2.MONET network is ambient air monitoring activities in the Central and Eastern European region (CEEC), Central Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands driven by RECETOX as the Regional Centre of the Stockholm Convention for the region of Central and Eastern Europe under the common name of the MONET networks (MONitoring NETwork). For many of the participating countries these activities generated first data on the atmospheric levels of POPs. The MONET network uses new technologies of air passive sampling, which was developed, tested, and calibrated by RECETOX in cooperation with Environment Canada and Lancaster University, and was originally launched as a

  19. 78 FR 66325 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Geiger (C&M Oil) Superfund Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... issuing a Notice of Intent to Delete the Geiger (C&M Oil) Superfund Site (Site) located in...

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulFatai JIMOH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN, flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predictive model for air pollutant dispersion was developed and simulated using data collected from the industry for the year 2001, 2002 and 2003. Both the model and simulated result shows that pollutants such as NO, CO, and CO2 are dispersed in accordance with the law of the dispersion (which state that there is a trend in the reduction of pollutant concentration with increasing distance, The quantities of air pollutants emitted from the industries were compared with that of FEPA regulated emission limit for each pollutant and it was discover that UNTL Lagos at a certain point in time exceeded the regulated limits. Hence the model could be used in predicting air pollutant dispersion in air pollution control and the safe distance for human habitation from the industrial area.

  1. National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, B.; Celeste, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.

  2. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsen, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Xiangyang, Wei [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Yunpeng, Zhang [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Jian, Guan [China Special Equipment Inspection & Test Inst. (China); Rui, Hou [China Machinery Industry Conservation & Resource Utilization Center (China); Junfeng, Zhang [China National Offshore Oil Corp. (China); Yuqun, Zhuo [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Shumao, Xia [China Energy Conservation & Environmental Protection Group (China); Yafeng, Han [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China); Manzhi, Liu [China Univ. of Mining and Technology (China)

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  3. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  4. Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA. This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

  5. Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lope Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model. Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27. Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of

  6. Study of Total Quantity Control of Air Pollutants in Planning Industrial District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The total quantity control of pollutant emissions for an industrial district is determined by coefficient (A) method (Qian, 1990). It is suggested that average daily concentrations of air pollutants should be estimated in relation with metrological parameters, such as wind directions, wind speed and atmospheric stability in the period of monitoring by Gaussian model (SEPB, 1991), and that the sources of pollution should be redistributed on the basis of the result of monitoring with a view improving local atmosphere environment.

  7. Measurement of Light Pollution of Iranian National Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son Hosseini, S.; Nasiri, S.

    2006-08-01

    The problem of Light pollution became important mainly since 1960, by growth of urban development and using more artificial lights and lamps at the nighttimes. Optical telescopes share the same range of wavelengths as are used to provide illumination of roadways, buildings and automobiles. The light glow that emanates from man made pollution will scatter off the atmosphere and affects the images taken by the observatory instruments. A method of estimating the night sky brightness produced by a city of known population and distance is useful in site testing of the new observatories, as well as in studying the likely future deterioration of existing sites. Now with planning the Iranian National Observatory that will house a 2-meter telescope and on the way of the site selection project, studying the light pollution is propounded in Iran. Thus, we need a site with the least light pollution, beside other parameters, i.e. seeing, meteorological, geophysical and local parameters. The seeing parameter is being measured in our 4 preliminary selected sites at Qom, Kashan, Kerman and Birjand since 2 years ago using an out of focus Differential Image Motion Monitor. These sites are selected among 33 candidate sites by studying the meteorological data obtained from the local synoptic stations and the Meteosat. We use the Walker's law to estimate the Sky glow of these sites having the population and the distances of the nearby regions. The results are corrected by the methods introduced by Treanor and Berry using the atmospheric extinction coefficients. The data obtained using an 11 inch telescope with a ST7 CCD camera for above sites are consistent with the estimated values of the light pollution mentioned above.

  8. Overview of the anaerobic toxicity caused by organic forest industry wastewater pollutants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Field, J.A.; Kortekaas, S.; Lettinga, G.

    1994-01-01

    Numerous types of organic environmental pollutants are encountered in forest industry effluents which potentially could inhibit consortia of anaerobic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to collect anaerobic bioassay data from the literature to better estimate the impact of these pollutants on a

  9. [Division of agricultural areas based on the level of pollution with industrial toxic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonnikova, S M; Maksimova, G F; Iakhina, M P; Magzhanova, S A

    1993-10-01

    Investigation of soil in the region with oil processing industry showed that soil of agricultural fields 10 km around is much polluted and can be used only for growing of technical crops and perennial grasses for seeds. Soil 15-20 km around is less polluted, but also demands limitation in agricultural use, especially on low riverside parts.

  10. Greening industry without enforcement? An assessment of the World Bank's pollution regulation model for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, B.

    2010-01-01

    The best comparative and overview source now available for knowledge about pollution regulation in developing countries is the 2000 World Bank policy research report called Greening Industry. The World Bank finds that there is a new model for pollution regulation in lower- and middle-level income co

  11. Impact of Trade Liberalization and Exchange Rate Policy on Industrial Water Pollution and Groundwater Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Environmentalists and economists alike have assumed that greater economic openness will lead to increased industrial pollution in developing countries. This paper argues that trade liberalization does not necessarily result in more pollution intensive industrial development using the case of two economic centers in the Philippines. The study links changes in trade and exchange rate policy to the environment by identifying the environmental damage likely to be aggravated by the policy change t...

  12. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations sati...

  13. 77 FR 66729 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... decision. See 55 FR 8666, 8804-5 (March 6, 1990) (National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 RIN 2050-AG73 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), to acknowledge advancements...

  14. Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

  15. Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

  16. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  17. Defense programs industrial partnerships at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, K.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Industrial Partnership Office

    1996-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Defense Programs face unprecedented challenges of stewardship for an aging nuclear stockpile, cessation of nuclear testing, reduced federal budgets, and a smaller manufacturing complex. Partnerships with industry are essential in developing technology, modernizing the manufacturing complex, and maintaining the safety and reliability of the nation`s nuclear capability. The past decade of federal support for industrial partnerships has promoted benefits to US industrial competitiveness. Recent shifts in government policy have re-emphasized the importance of industrial partnerships in accomplishing agency missions. Nevertheless, abundant opportunities exist for dual-benefit, mission-driven partnerships between the national laboratories and industry. Experience at Los Alamos National Laboratory with this transition is presented.

  18. Reconstruction and Nation Building Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Nations Action against Sexual Violence in Conflict” which creates awareness about sexual violence in armed conflicts and post-conflict situations...protect civilians from all forms of sexual violence .68 To the extent that post-conflict development policies can support the development and

  19. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols...

  20. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

  1. Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3)) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the country and total industrial sector level data. We found that the key industries that dictated the EKC relationship in the country and the total industrial sector existed in CO2, N2O, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between economic development and trends of air pollutant emissions differ among industries according to the pollution substances. These results suggest inducing new environmental policy design such as the sectoral crediting mechanism, which focuses on the industrial characteristics of emissions.

  2. [Relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou: how about the EKC?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Yin, Rong-Yao; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2009-04-01

    Based on the study of the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou City in 1991-2005, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of the City was estimated by several kinds of function, with the cause analyzed. The results showed that the EKC of Suzhou was not a typical one. The industrial pollution of the City increased dramatically by scale effect of economic growth and the clear environmental benefit of industrial structure adjustment was not received obviously, while generalized discharge reduction technologies showed great results. In general terms, the pollution increase was comparatively slower than the GDP growth. As a whole, the environmental policy of Suzhou was in effect. However, the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge had not been a benign development yet. In order to achieve win-win situation of economic growth and pollution reduction, Suzhou needed to optimize its industry structure, push the energy conservation and discharge reduction policy deeply, increase environmental investment, and enforce the strictest environmental and industrial policy. In doing these, Suzhou could turn the traditional omega-shaped EKC into delta-shaped EKC.

  3. The Empirical Relationship between Mining Industry Development and Environmental Pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gerui; Lei, Yalin; Ge, Jianping; Wu, Sanmang

    2017-03-02

    This study uses a vector autoregression (VAR) model to analyze changes in pollutants among different mining industries and related policy in China from 2001 to 2014. The results show that: (1) because the pertinence of standards for mining waste water and waste gas emissions are not strong and because the maximum permissible discharge pollutant concentrations in these standards are too high, ammonia nitrogen and industrial sulfur dioxide discharges increased in most mining industries; (2) chemical oxygen demand was taken as an indicator of sewage treatment in environmental protection plans; hence, the chemical oxygen demand discharge decreased in all mining industries; (3) tax reduction policies, which are only implemented in coal mining and washing and extraction of petroleum and natural gas, decreased the industrial solid waste discharge in these two mining industries.

  4. [Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers and its driving mechanism in Pan-Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Jian-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers is the response of environmental special formation during the industry transfer process, in order to prove the responding of industrial pollution gravity centers to industry transfer in economically developed areas, this paper calculates the gravity centers of industrial wastewater, gas and solid patterns and reveals the shifting path and its driving mechanism, using the data of industrial pollution in the Pan-Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts for sure in the last 10 years, and gravity center of solid waste shifts the maximum distance within the three wastes, which was 180.18 km, and shifting distances for waste gas and waste water were 109.51 km and 85.92 km respectively. Moreover, the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts westwards, and gravity centers of waste water, gas and solid shift for 0.40 degrees, 0.17 degrees and 0.03 degrees respectively. The shifting of industrial pollution gravity centers is driven by many factors. The rapid development of the heavy industry in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces results in the westward shifting of the pollutions. The optimization and adjustment of industrial structures in Yangtze River Delta region benefit to alleviating industrial pollution, and high-polluting industries shifted to Anhui and Jiangxi provinces promotes pollution gravity center shifting to west. While the development of massive clean enterprise, strong environmental management efforts and better environmental monitoring system slow the shifting trend of industrial pollution to the east in Yangtze River Delta. The study of industrial pollution gravity shift and its driving mechanism provides a new angle of view to analyze the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution, and also provides academic basis for synthetical management and control of

  5. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices.

  6. Two Mechanisms: The Role of Social Capital and Industrial Pollution Exposure in Explaining Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Kerry; Colen, Cynthia; Becerra, Marisol; Velez, Thelma

    2016-10-19

    This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents' estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States.

  7. Characteristics of environmental pollution related with public complaints in an industrial shipbuilding complex, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Hyeon-Don

    2011-06-01

    The shipbuilding industry of Korea, ranked number one in the world in annual amount of ship orders, has contributed to national economic growth; however, this has resulted in various environmental problems. Characteristics of environmental pollution, such as particulate matters, odor, and noise, which are closely related with public complaints, were evaluated in an industrial shipbuilding complex. The concentrations of PM-10 and TSP were significantly affected by the distance between the measurement site and shipbuilding workplace, as well as the height of the measurement site. Average PM-10 concentrations in the residential area ranged from 40.10 to 44.10 μg/m(3), which were not high in comparison with the ambient air quality standard and those of major cities in Korea. Paint particles could affect a wider area than typical particulate matters due to their generation and transport properties. The properties of odor in the study area were widely affected by the work intensity in shipyards and the temperature. Twenty-five out of total 54 samples collected in the residential area exceeded the dilution factor of 10, which is the tolerable limit adopted in Korea. Noise had an influence on a limited area due to the extinction effect with distance from the shipyards, while severe noise levels higher than 90 dB(A) were frequently found inside the shipyards.

  8. Industrial water pollution, water environment treatment, and health risks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Zhiming

    2016-11-01

    The negative health effects of water pollution remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. The Chinese government is making great efforts to strengthen water environment treatment; however, no studies have evaluated the effects of water treatment on human health by water pollution in China. This study evaluated the association between water pollution and health outcomes, and determined the extent to which environmental regulations on water pollution may lead to health benefits. Data were extracted from the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Random effects model and random effects Logit model were applied to study the relationship between health and water pollution, while a Mediator model was used to estimate the effects of environmental water treatment on health outcomes by the intensity of water pollution. Unsurprisingly, water pollution was negatively associated with health outcomes, and the common pollutants in industrial wastewater had differential impacts on health outcomes. The effects were stronger for low-income respondents. Water environment treatment led to improved health outcomes among Chinese people. Reduced water pollution mediated the associations between water environment treatment and health outcomes. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support treatment of water pollution in China.

  9. Energy conservation and pollution control in the paint finishing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, D.

    1974-07-01

    An incinerating system is described which operates at well above the 90% reduction requirements for hydrocarbon emissions and incorporates heat recuperation for high thermal efficiency. Polluted oven gases are exhausted to an incinerator where their temperature is raised to the critical reaction point at which the complex hydrocarbon materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. These very hot gases are passed through a heat exchanger unit and then to atmosphere. Incoming air is warmed and supplied to another oven for painting.

  10. System of cities dynamics in newly industrializing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D R

    1986-01-01

    Rapid industrialization in such countries as Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan suggests that the complex functional structures of cities in the periphery may appear early in development. This paper proposes a 4-stage framework for the dynamics of a system of cities in a developing country undergoing industrialization and encompassing both nonindustrial and industrial development. The synthesis is assessed with evidence from the newly industrializing Asian nations of Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan. The 4 stages of cities' industrial change include 1) increasing primacy with industrial satellites, 2) increasing primacy with industrial satellites and nodal towns on a transport network, 3) rapidly increasing primacy with rapidly growing industrial satellites and nodal towns on the transport network, and 4) decreasing primacy with slowly growing industrial satellites and rapidly growing peripheral industrial towns. The 4-stage synthesis suggests that economic development in the periphery may occur even while the primate city maintains its hegemony over control and coordination functions. Peripheral industrial growth does not challenge this hegemony. The growth of industrial cities is, instead, part of a process of regional specialization in which the low cost labor in the periphery becomes an attraction for industry. These stages are not inevitable. Government efforts are necessary to develop rural areas in terms of social improvements (education and health), capital infrastructure (transportation and utilities), and fair payments to farmers for their outputs. These seem to be the lessons learned from the industrialization process in Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan.

  11. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  12. Upping the Ante of National Industrial Brands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Strengthening China’s independent innovative abilities can only be done by supporting national brands that own independent intellectual property rights. That’s the view of Lin Jiujiang, Vice General Manager of the Marketing Department of China Export & C

  13. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  14. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

    1988-07-01

    Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

  15. Environmental Monitoring, Other - MO 2012 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Outfalls (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a point data set depicting outfall locations of wastewater facilities in Missouri with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) operating...

  16. Environmental Monitoring, Other - MO 2015 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Outfalls (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a point data set depicting outfall locations of wastewater facilities in Missouri with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) operating...

  17. Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lepkova, Katarina; Kubal, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic...... remediation method which is based on applying an electric DC field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially...... polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm2 and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown...

  18. Non-Point Pollution from Crop Production: Global,Regional and National Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.NORSE

    2005-01-01

    China is now the world's largest producer and user of industrial fertilizers and manures. Consequently China plays a substantial role in global N cycle dynamics and in man's disruption of the nitrogen cycle though there are still significant uncertainties about the size and importance of emission and leaching rates. A major cause of 1China's global role is the overuse of nitrogen fertilizers, which is most serious with intensive vegetable production where application rates can be up to 50% greater than crop needs, but is also a problem with wheat, rice and maize.China's overuse of nitrogen fertiliser over the past 10-20 years has resulted in non-point source (NPS) pollution from crop production becoming a major cause of water pollution, and the situation is projected to get worse. In contrast, water pollution from point sources such as intensive livestock production and urban or industrial development is being brought more under control. The consequences for air pollution are equally serious. Emissions of nitrous oxide from fertilizers and manures may be so large that China could be responsible for 25-30% of global emissions of this damaging greenhouse gas and of the global warming resulting from it.The main national and local issues relate particularly to low fertilizer use efficiency and the losses of ammonia and NOx that lead to acid precipitation, and leaching and run-off losses that result in high nitrate levels in groundwater and eutrophication of rivers and lakes. The reasons why farmers overuse nitrogen fertilizer are complex and not fully understood. They involve agro-climate differences between provinces and counties, farming systems and farm income structures. Although there is a wide range of institutional and technological improvements that can greatly reduce this overuse rapid progress in reducing NPS is unlikely.

  19. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo, calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  20. Assessment of air pollutants produced by industrial activity from an aluminium alloys foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cirtina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The industrial activity in non-ferrous alloys foundries leads to the elimination of the pollutants in the atmosphere that may have adverse effects on the environment and human health. This paper presents an evaluation of the pollutantemissions resulting from an aluminium foundry starting from data on concentrations and pollutant massflow rates estimated for each phase of the technological process and on measured ambient levels for the area of influence of the objective to study.

  1. Recent developments in biodegradation of industrial pollutants by white rot fungi and their enzyme system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Legge, Raymond L

    2008-11-01

    Increasing discharge and improper management of liquid and solid industrial wastes have created a great concern among industrialists and the scientific community over their economic treatment and safe disposal. White rot fungi (WRF) are versatile and robust organisms having enormous potential for oxidative bioremediation of a variety of toxic chemical pollutants due to high tolerance to toxic substances in the environment. WRF are capable of mineralizing a wide variety of toxic xenobiotics due to non-specific nature of their extracellular lignin mineralizing enzymes (LMEs). In recent years, a lot of work has been done on the development and optimization of bioremediation processes using WRF, with emphasis on the study of their enzyme systems involved in biodegradation of industrial pollutants. Many new strains have been identified and their LMEs isolated, purified and characterized. In this review, we have tried to cover the latest developments on enzyme systems of WRF, their low molecular mass mediators and their potential use for bioremediation of industrial pollutants.

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

  3. Computer Industry as a National Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paju, Petri

    This article studies a forgotten research project of recent Finnish history of information technology by the name of “Suomalainen tietokoneprojekti”, in English “The Finnish Computer Project” (FICO). The FICO project was a government-sponsored research project initially aimed at producing a Finnish (mini) computer for international markets, especially in socialist countries. Researchers carried out the project in 1975-1976. However, after the researchers had produced their preliminary study report in six months time, the project was not continued. I argue that historians have misrepresented the FICO project in recent research and when properly studied, the project can offer new perspectives to an early development phase of present-like science and technology policy in Finland. Notwithstanding FICO’s topicality, this article focuses on examining what the involved people meant by the “national task” of the project. I further argue that we can best understand FICO as a continuation of earlier ideas on building high technology, in this case electronics and computers, capabilities and expertise as a Finnish national project. Moreover, focusing on these distinct national projections in action might offer one key to understanding similar attempts at “national projects” in other countries as well.

  4. Study of Total Quantity Control of Air pollutants in Planning Industrial District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONGYAN-FENG; LIUFAN; 等

    2000-01-01

    The total quantity control of pollutant emissions for an industrial district is determined by coefficient(A) method(Qian,1990).It is suggested that average daily concentrations of air pollutants should be estimated in relation with metrological parameters,such as wind directions,wind speed and atmospheric stability in the period of moniforing by Gaussian model(SEPB,1991),and that the sources of Pollution should be redistributed on the basis of the resulf of monitoring with a view improving local atmosphere environment.

  5. National Textile Industrial Cluster Meeting Held in Beijing Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the day of November 22nd, National Textile Industrial Cluster Meeting was held in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing,Du Yuzhou,president of China National Textile and Apparel Council attended and addressed,meanwhile, representatives from more than 170 textile

  6. Effect of cement industry pollution on chlorophyll content of some crops at Kodinar, Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Study was carried out to assess the impact of cement industry pollution on some selected plant species around cement industry. Effect of cement dust on chlorophyll was studied in Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species. Sampling was done at different distance like 0.5 km, 1.0 km and 2.0 km from the cement industry. The Chlorophyll pigments were reduced in dust-exposed plant species compared with control site Pransli (15 km away from the cement industry). Changes in chlorophyll ...

  7. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textiles is one the nation's oldest industries, dating back to the beginning of the American Industrial revolution in the 1790s. Despite perceptions of the decline of U.S. textile manufacturing in the face of offshore competition, the industry remains one of the largest, most di...

  8. Industrial concessions, fires and air pollution in Equatorial Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Reddington, C. L.; Gaveau, D. L. A.

    2015-09-01

    Forest and peatland fires in Indonesia emit large quantities of smoke leading to poor air quality across Equatorial Asia. Marlier et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 085005) explore the contribution of fires occurring on oil palm, timber (wood pulp and paper) and natural forest logging concessions to smoke emissions and exposure of human populations to the resulting air pollution. They find that one third of the population exposure to smoke across Equatorial Asia is caused by fires in oil palm and timber concessions in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Logging concessions have substantially lower fire emissions, and contribute less to air quality degradation. This represents a compelling justification to prevent reclassification of logging concessions into oil palm or timber concessions after logging. This can be achieved by including logged forests in the Indonesian moratorium on new plantations in forested areas.

  9. EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON THE SPATIAL VARIATION OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mir Sujaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is the impact of anthropogenic activities at the study areas due to rapid industrialization. The study was done to know the spatial variation of the water quality of the Tunggak River and surrounding area because of industrial activities. In-situ parameters and ex-situ data of chemical, bio-chemical parameters and heavy metals were collected monthly to fulfill the objectives. The samples were collected from 10 selected stations and analyses were carried out using standard methods. Heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. SPSS statistical software was used for data analysis. The results of the study revealed that industrial effluents were the major source of pollutants and caused of spatial variation among the stations. Less amount of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and higher concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, ammoniacal-nitrogen and heavy metals made the water un-usable except irrigation. Analyzed surface water was classified based on Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI Malaysia and found that the maximum stations except lower and uppermost were in class IV (highly polluted. Pollution rate was higher in the middle stations due to large number of industries were located in the middle and they discharged all their effluents in the river stream. Due to tidal interference in the lower stream and minimum industry in the upper stream pollution was less in those stations.

  10. Energy Industry in China: Marketization and National Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DanShi

    2005-01-01

    Opening up the market, breaking the monopoly, and allowing the market to decide prices these are the major items on the agenda for the marketization of China's energy industry, and have a direct bearing on national energy security. Research into China's energy security has so far focused on such fields as strategic energy reserves, stability of energy imports, and diversification of import channels. Little has been done in the study of national energy security from the perspective of marketization of the energy industry. However, opening up the energy market and marketizing the energy industry are not only major commitments to China's accession to WTO, they serve the nation's energy security needs as well. This paper takes a look at the actual results of opening up the energy market, the structure of that market, and the nation's energy pricing mechanisms, and on the basis of the findings, raises suggestions on how to tackle the energy security issue.

  11. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  12. Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollution during implementation of pro-environmental policy in Silesia region (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Slawomir; Opała, Magdalena; Pawełczyk, Sławomira; Piotrowska, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    innovation is: a) multiproxy spatio-temporal analysis of the effects of climate changes and emission of air industrial pollution on trees during the development of industry and the implementation of pro-environmental policies in Silesia: - Analysis of the width of annual tree rings (since 1975) - Analysis of underestimation of the 14C concentration during the implementation of European standards (since 2000) - Analysis of the recorded signals of environmental changes in the composition of stable isotopes in annual tree rings - wood and its components b) modeling of the influence of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere on the width of annual growth of trees and C,O,N stable isotopes and radiocarbon - Spatio-temporal model of environmental change in the tree rings width and their isotopic composition close to each of the selected plants - comparison to the impact of climate change and industrial pollution for 3 different industries (steel mills, power plants, nitrogen plants) in the period from 1975 to present - Space model of environmental changes in the isotopic composition of trees near each of the selected plants (at varying distances from the chosen site) based on analysis of isotopic composition of annual shoots of pine trees in three consecutive years: from 2012 to 2014) - Estimation of emission components originating from industrial pollution for individual plants This project was funded by the National Science Centre allocated on the basis of the decision number DEC-2011/03/D/ST10/05251

  13. Econometric model of intraurban location of emitters and receptors of industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Braid, R.

    1977-02-01

    An econometric model of air pollution for an intraurban location (the Chicago area) is constructed and estimated. The model treats employment and population as simultaneously determined. Exogenous variables are selected to represent transportation infrastructure investments resulting primarily from federal and state decisions. The exogenous variables account for the relative services provided by highways, commuter railroads, rail rapid transit, waterways, and airports. The employment location equations appear to be considerably more successful than those in previous studies. These equations indicate that waterway availability constrains the locational options of most major industrial air polluters; that highway accessibility is a more influential factor in industrial than services location choices; that rail rapid transit accessibility is more important to services than industrial locations; and that major airports attract light industrial development. The success of the employment location equations reflects the importance of disaggregating intraurban modes of transport and of adding to urban location models the local effects of interurban modes of transport such as water and air.

  14. China to Strengthen the Effort for Industrial Energy-Saving,Consumption Reduction, Emission Reduction and Pollution Control in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Li Yizhong, Minister of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said on February 1, 2010 that China would take four measures to enhance industrial energy-saving, consumption reduction, emission reduction, and pollution control in 2010.

  15. 77 FR 66783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 RIN 2050-AG73] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan, to acknowledge advancements in technologies... Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to amend the National Oil and...

  16. 78 FR 4333 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 RIN 2050-AG73 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... are withdrawing the direct final rule for National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency... 7, 2012. DATES: Effective January 22, 2013, EPA withdraws the direct final rule published at 77...

  17. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions.

  18. Treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewater by wet air oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Luan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wet air oxidation (WAO is one of the most economical and environmentally-friendly advanced oxidation processes. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. In wet air oxidation aqueous waste is oxidized in the liquid phase at high temperatures (125–320 °C and pressures (0.5–20 MPa in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas (usually air. The advantages of the process include low operating costs and minimal air pollution discharges. The present review is concerned about the literature published in the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters, such as dyes. Phenolics were taken as model pollutants in most cases. Reports on effect of treatment for the WAO of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters are reviewed, such as emulsified wastewater, TNT red water, etc. Discussions are also made on the mechanism and kinetics of WAO and main technical parameters influencing WAO. Finally, development direction of WAO is summed up.

  19. Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state.

  20. Analysis of air pollution from industrial plants by lichen indication on example of small town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, K. N.; Pietkova, I. R.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2015-09-01

    According to the research the species of lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Parmeliopsis ambigua, Phiscia stellaris, Xanthoria parietina are founded on example of small town. Values of clear air index correlated with the average content of sulphur dioxide in the air. These measurement points correspond to residential areas and regions of the objects of food industry. Two zones zero projective coverage are selected. These most polluted zones corresponded to the location of the metallurgical industry and heat electropower station. The roof production and abrasive industry do not show a significant increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the contiguous territory. By method lichen indication on example of small city two zones lichen deserts (sulfur dioxide concentration greater than 0.3 mg/m3) and one area of critical pollution (sulfur dioxide concentration of 0.1 -0.3 mg/m3) were founded. The largest area of air pollution allegedly linked to the activities of plants. Thus metallurgical industry and heat electropower station can be called major air pollutants in small towns.

  1. Rising critical emission of air pollutants from renewable biomass based cogeneration from the sugar industry in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S. K.; Ohara, T.; Beig, G.; Kurokawa, J.; Nagashima, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the recent past, the emerging India economy is highly dependent on conventional as well as renewable energy to deal with energy security. Keeping the potential of biomass and its plentiful availability, the Indian government has been encouraging various industrial sectors to generate their own energy from it. The Indian sugar industry has adopted and made impressive growth in bagasse (a renewable biomass, i.e. left after sugercane is crushed) based cogeneration power to fulfil their energy need, as well as to export a big chunk of energy to grid power. Like fossil fuel, bagasse combustion also generates various critical pollutants. This article provides the first ever estimation, current status and overview of magnitude of air pollutant emissions from rapidly growing bagasse based cogeneration technology in Indian sugar mills. The estimated emission from the world’s second largest sugar industry in India for particulate matter, NOX, SO2, CO and CO2 is estimated to be 444 ± 225 Gg yr-1, 188 ± 95 Gg yr-1, 43 ± 22 Gg yr-1, 463 ± 240 Gg yr-1 and 47.4 ± 9 Tg yr-1, respectively in 2014. The studies also analyze and identify potential hot spot regions across the country and explore the possible further potential growth for this sector. This first ever estimation not only improves the existing national emission inventory, but is also useful in chemical transport modeling studies, as well as for policy makers.

  2. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffia, I. Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111 respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO, total dissolved solids (TDS, Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium and heavy metals such as Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium using conventional equipment and standard laboratory procedures. Most of these parameters indicated traceable pollution but were below the World Health Organization (WHO and Nigerian Standard for Drinking water quality (NSDWQ limits for consumption. The pH value in sample position 0km ( X1 was 5.5 indicating toxic pollution in the vicinity within the abandoned battery industry. Turbidity and temperature in sample position 0km (X1 were 6.7 NTU and 27.60 respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water within abandoned battery industry were above the WHO permissible level. The results showed that borehole water in sample position 0km (X1 was strongly polluted and require urgently certain levels of treatment before use.

  3. Heavy metal contamination in bore water due to industrial pollution and polluted and non polluted sea water intrusion in Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli of South Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyasekar, C; Neelakantan, M A; Poongothai, S

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the pollution vulnerability of bore water in the coastal region of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi in the state of Tamilnadu, India. There are no industries in the Tirunelveli Coastal area whereas there are many industries in SIPCOT (State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamilnadu) Thoothukudi, and coastal area of Thoothukudi. Bore water from the SIPCOT, coastal area of Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli were collected periodically from July 2006 to May 2008 for this study. These samples were tested and analyzed to find the concentrations of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, calcium, copper, cadmium, mercury and lead. The toxic cadmium concentration was found in the range of 0.00-0.22 mg Kg⁻¹ at SIPCOT 2 in November 2007, mercury 0.00-0.024 mg Kg⁻¹ and lead 0.00-0.02 mg Kg⁻¹ in SIPCOT 2 in January 2008. The level of contamination is higher than the WHO limits of drinking water standards; but copper and aluminium content are within the limit. On the other hand, the samples taken from bores in Tirunelveli coastal area are non-polluted, and the analysis shows that all the metals are within the limits of WHO standard.

  4. Multi-national industry capacity in the North Sea fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries managers often see the management of regional fisheries as a more pertinent approach than managing separate national fleet units that exploit numerous fish stocks. This article considers an industry approach, using data envelopement analysis (DEA), to shed light on the exploitation...

  5. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.).

  6. Working Conditions in the Industrial Nations: What Lies Ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos, Georges

    1984-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, traditional concepts of working conditions and of work have been challenged in industrialized nations. The improvement of working conditions has become a basic issue, affected by the economic situation, technological advances, social climate, labor relations, and individual behavior. (Author/SK)

  7. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  8. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy G. Salnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010. Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6. Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental

  9. 75 FR 54969 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants; Final Rule... Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA...

  10. 77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants,'' which was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2012....

  11. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... Pollutants emitted by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source Performance Standards for Portland Cement Plants issued under sections 112(d) and 111(b) of the Clean Air Act, respectively. The EPA is...

  12. Heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hun; Ihm, Son-Ki

    2011-02-15

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is one of the most economical and environmental-friendly advanced oxidation process. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. Various heterogeneous catalysts including noble metals and metal oxides have been extensively studied to enhance the efficiency of CWAO. The present review is concerned about the literatures published in this regard. Phenolics, carboxylic acids, and nitrogen-containing compounds were taken as model pollutants in most cases, and noble metals such as Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt as well as oxides of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Ce were applied as heterogeneous catalysts. Reports on their characterization and catalytic performances for the CWAO of aqueous pollutants are reviewed. Discussions are also made on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics proposed for heterogeneous CWAO and also on the typical catalyst deactivations in heterogeneous CWAO, i.e. carbonaceous deposits and metal leaching.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  14. Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

    2012-05-01

    Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2007-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  17. Exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in workers of the Esfahan Steel Industry, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Jafar; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Saqira, Mohammad; Zavar, Reihaneh; Sadeghifar, Mostafa; Roohafza, Hamidreza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated association of exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in the workers of the steel industry. Fifty male workers of the agglomeration and coke-making parts of the Esfahan Steel Company were randomly selected (n = 50). Workers in the administrative parts were studied as controls (n = 50). Those with known history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes, and active smokers were not included. Data of age, body mass index, employment duration, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile were gathered. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in workers of the agglomeration/coke-making parts than in controls (mean difference = 5 to 5.5 %, P right ventricular dilatation and grade I pulmonary hypertension were present in three (12 %) workers of the coke-making part, but none of the controls (P = 0.010). According to these results, occupational air pollution exposure in workers of the steel industry is associated with left heart systolic dysfunction. Possible right heart insults due to air pollution exposure warrant further investigations.

  18. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  19. A paleolimnological perspective on industrial-era metal pollution in the central Andes, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Colin A. [Department of Geology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E3 (Canada)], E-mail: cacooke@ualberta.ca; Abbott, Mark B. [Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E3 (Canada); Section of Anthropology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA 15206 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    To date, few studies have investigated the environmental legacy associated with industrialization in the South American Andes. Here, we present an environmental archive of industrial pollution from {sup 210}Pb-dated lake cores recovered from Laguna Chipian, located near the Cerro de Pasco metallurgical region and Laguna Pirhuacocha, located near the Morococha mining region and the La Oroya smelting complex. At Laguna Chipian, trace metal concentrations increase beginning {approx} 1900 AD, coincident with the construction of the central Peruvian railway, and the rapid industrial development of the Cerro de Pasco region. Trace metal concentrations and fluxes peak during the 1950s before subsequently declining up-core (though remaining well above background levels). While Colonial mining and smelting operations are known to have occurred at Cerro de Pasco since at least 1630 AD, our sediment record preserves no associated metal deposition. Based on our {sup 14}C and {sup 210}Pb data, we suggest that this is due to a depositional hiatus, rather than a lack of regional Colonial pollution. At Laguna Pirhuacocha, industrial trace metal deposition first begins {approx} 1925 AD, rapidly increasing after {approx} 1950 AD and peaking during either the 1970s or 1990s. Trace metal concentrations from these lakes are comparable to some of the most polluted lakes in North America and Europe. There appears to be little diagenetic alteration of the trace metal record at either lake, the exception being arsenic (As) accumulation at Laguna Pirhuacocha. There, a correlation between As and the redox-sensitive element manganese (Mn) suggests that the sedimentary As burden is undergoing diagenetic migration towards the sediment-water interface. This mobility has contributed to surface sediment As concentrations in excess of 1100 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The results presented here chronicle a rapidly changing Andean environment, and highlight a need for future research in the rate and magnitude

  20. A paleolimnological perspective on industrial-era metal pollution in the central Andes, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B

    2008-04-15

    To date, few studies have investigated the environmental legacy associated with industrialization in the South American Andes. Here, we present an environmental archive of industrial pollution from (210)Pb-dated lake cores recovered from Laguna Chipian, located near the Cerro de Pasco metallurgical region and Laguna Pirhuacocha, located near the Morococha mining region and the La Oroya smelting complex. At Laguna Chipian, trace metal concentrations increase beginning ~1900 AD, coincident with the construction of the central Peruvian railway, and the rapid industrial development of the Cerro de Pasco region. Trace metal concentrations and fluxes peak during the 1950s before subsequently declining up-core (though remaining well above background levels). While Colonial mining and smelting operations are known to have occurred at Cerro de Pasco since at least 1630 AD, our sediment record preserves no associated metal deposition. Based on our (14)C and (210)Pb data, we suggest that this is due to a depositional hiatus, rather than a lack of regional Colonial pollution. At Laguna Pirhuacocha, industrial trace metal deposition first begins ~1925 AD, rapidly increasing after ~1950 AD and peaking during either the 1970s or 1990s. Trace metal concentrations from these lakes are comparable to some of the most polluted lakes in North America and Europe. There appears to be little diagenetic alteration of the trace metal record at either lake, the exception being arsenic (As) accumulation at Laguna Pirhuacocha. There, a correlation between As and the redox-sensitive element manganese (Mn) suggests that the sedimentary As burden is undergoing diagenetic migration towards the sediment-water interface. This mobility has contributed to surface sediment As concentrations in excess of 1100 microg g(-1). The results presented here chronicle a rapidly changing Andean environment, and highlight a need for future research in the rate and magnitude of atmospheric metal pollution.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF RESISTANCE OF THE BROWN TYPICAL SOIL OF THE UTRISH NATIONAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mospanenko A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an assessment of resistance of the brown typical soil of the Utrish national reserve to pollution with heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil on biological indicators

  2. Status of industrial fluoride pollution and its diverse adverse health effects in man and domestic animals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2016-04-01

    Hydrofluorosis in humans and domestic animals is a worldwide health problem and caused by a prolonged period of fluoride exposure through drinking of fluoride contaminated water. But in recent years, due to rapid industrialization in India, diverse serious health problems among industrial workers and residents and domestic animals living in the industrial areas due to fluoride pollution are on the rise. A number of coal-burning and industrial activities such as power-generating stations, welding operations and the manufacturing or production of steel, iron, aluminum, zinc, phosphorus, chemical fertilizers, bricks, glass, plastic, cement, and hydrofluoric acid are generally discharging fluoride in both gaseous and particulate/dust forms into surrounding environments which create a industrial fluoride pollution and are an important cause of occupational exposure to fluoride in several countries including India. An industrial emitted fluoride contaminates not only surrounding soil, air, and water but also vegetation, crops and many other biotic communities on which man and animals are generally dependants for food. Long- time of inhalation or ingestion of industrial fluoride also causes serious health problems in the forms of industrial and neighborhood fluorosis. In India, whatever research works conducted so far on the chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or poisoning (industrial and neighborhood fluorosis) in man and various species of domestic animals due to a prolonged period of industrial fluoride exposure or pollution (contamination) are critically reviewed in the present communication. Simultaneously, we are also focused the various bio-indicators and bio-markers for chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or pollution.

  3. [Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile

  5. Reducing Nitrogen Pollution while Decreasing Farmers' Costs and Increasing Fertilizer Industry Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, David R; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution is emerging as one of the most important environmental issues of the 21st Century, contributing to air and water pollution, climate change, and stratospheric ozone depletion. With agriculture being the dominant source, we tested whether it is possible to reduce agricultural N pollution in a way that benefits the environment, reduces farmers' costs, and increases fertilizer industry profitability, thereby creating a "sweet spot" for decision-makers that could significantly increase the viability of improved N management initiatives. Although studies of the economic impacts of improved N management have begun to take into account farmers and the environment, this is the first study to consider the fertilizer industry. Our "sweet spot" hypothesis is evaluated via a cost-benefit analysis of moderate and ambitious N use efficiency targets in U.S. and China corn sectors over the period 2015-2035. We use a blend of publicly available crop and energy price projections, original time-series modeling, and expert elicitation. The results present a mixed picture: although the potential for a "sweet spot" exists in both countries, it is more likely that one occurs in China due to the currently extensive overapplication of fertilizer, which creates a greater potential for farmers and the fertilizer industry to gain economically from improved N management. Nevertheless, the environmental benefits of improving N management consistently dwarf the economic impacts on farmers and the fertilizer industry in both countries, suggesting that viable policy options could include incentives to farmers and the fertilizer industry to increase their support for N management policies.

  6. Monitoring persistent organic pollutants in an industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, M.; Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, J.L. [Rovira i Virgili University, Reus (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that combustion of different materials is one of the most important sources of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Therefore, environments affected by this kind of processes should be strictly controlled. In relation to it, the 2001 Stockholm Convention for the regulation of POPs was undertaken in order to establish agreements and mechanisms to erase the release of 12 POPs on a global scale. While polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included in this list, other pollutants such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be added in a near future. Since more than 30 years ago, one of the largest chemical and petrochemical industrial complexes in Southern Europe is located in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). Several chemical industries (such as a PVC production facility and a chlor-alkali plant) and a big oil refinery are located in this residential area (up to 300,000 inhabitants), together with a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). Moreover, the presence of a highway and several roads with an important traffic density influences also the environment of the zone. The current study is a preliminary investigation to assess the levels of several POPs (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs) in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona's industrial and residential areas and to compare them with data obtained in unpolluted sites as well as in other industrial and residential zones.

  7. Industrial Pollution Regulation in the EU and in Macedonia, Serbia And Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Chavleski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial pollution control has substantial impact in the protection of the environment. In the European Union, there’s vast legislation in this field consisting mainly of the Directive on industrial emissions of 2010 aimed at consolidating the so far existing legislation in this field. The new Directive on industrial emissions aims to establish an integrated prevention and control of the pollution arising from industrial activities and it lays down rules designed to prevent or, where that is not practicable, to reduce emissions into air, water and land and to prevent the generation of waste, in order to achieve a high level of protection of the environment taken as a whole. Macedonia, Serbia and Croatia have made significant progress in this field in the recent years as part of their obligations under the Stabilization and Association Process. The purpose of this particular article is to evaluate the degree of alignment and implementation of the environmental legislation in this particular area with the legislation of EU as well its practical application, and to identify the existing deficiencies and necessary steps for action

  8. Arsenic pollution at the industrial site of Reppel-Bocholt (north Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuyns, V; Van Herreweghe, S; Swennen, R; Ottenburgs, R; Deckers, J

    2002-08-01

    An industrial site, polluted with As and heavy metals, was investigated by combining chemical (sequential extractions and pHstat leaching tests), physical and mineralogical characterization of soil samples and slag fragments, and by the analysis of soil porewater aimed at assessing the distribution, speciation and mobility of heavy metals and As. On the site itself, arsenic concentrations up to 3.6% in surficial soil samples and up to 22% in slag fragments were found, together with elevated concentrations (percentage level) of Cu, Co, Ni, Zn and Pb. High concentrations of arsenic (up to 38,000 microg/l) and heavy metals (up to 1700 microg/l Cu and 4700 microg/l Zn) were also found in the in situ sampled soil porewater, highlighting the considerable availability of As, Zn and Cu for uptake by plants and leaching to the ground water. Sequential extractions also indicated a high availability of arsenic and copper in most samples and slag fragments of the industrial site, although poorly reactive phases were encountered as well. pHstat leaching tests confirmed that the present leaching of contaminants is alarming. Moreover, soil acidification will enhance the leaching of contaminants, emphasizing that remediation of the industrial site is urgent. Small scale variability of total metal concentrations and metal speciation, both in the horizontal and vertical direction, and the occurrence of a camouflage layer underline the importance of elaborate sampling for pollution assessment on an industrial site.

  9. Noise Pollution Status in a Metal Melting Industry and the Map of Its Isosonic Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouharmajd

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Steel industry is one of the most important industries of each country and noise pollution is one of the very annoying factors in this industry that causes various diseases; above all, the damage to the auditory system of the work force is high. Therefore, the assessment of noise pollution and the identification of the sources and causes of its creation are inevitable for controlling and teaching the prevention programs and hearing protection. Objectives This study aimed to draw the noise map of isosonic curves and assess the noise pollution using Surfer modeling software. Materials and Methods In the present study, first, preliminary maps and stationing were drawn, and then, the measurement of the sound pressure level and the octave band analysis were performed by a noise measurement device called Casella-CEL 445; then, after recording the data in software of Surfer version 8, they were used for drawing the isosonic curves. Results The results of the peripheral measurements showed that the maximum sound pressure of level 109 dBA was related to the electric arc furnace. A map of the graphic isosonic curves showed most of the noise pollution in the following areas: furnace, casting, tundishes, and the cooling beds. Conclusions According to the factory noise map, except for the control rooms with 81 dBA noise, other cases of measuring stations were higher than the standard exposure of 85 dBA noise. As a result, the implementation of control strategies, such as inspection and performance of control systems and insulation of the control room to prevent unnecessary exposure noise, are necessary.

  10. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copsa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 - 1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery. Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reduction of industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health and agriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlated with noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentration level in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the

  11. Environmental pollution by persistent toxic substances and health risk in an industrial area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Yonglong Lu; Yajuan Shi; Tieyu Wang; Guang Wang; Wei Luo; Wentao Jiao; Chunli Chen; Feng Yan

    2011-01-01

    Soil is an important environmental medium that is closely associated with humans and their health.Despite this,very few studies have measured toxicants in soils,and associated them with health risks in humans.An assessment of health effects from exposure to contaminants in soils surrounding industrial areas of chemical production and storage is important.This article aims at determining pollution characteristics of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in an industrial area in China to unravel the relationship between soil pollution by PTS and human health.One hundred and five soil samples were collected and 742 questionnaires were handed out to residents living in and around an industrial area around Bohai Bay,Tianjin in Northern China.Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in soil.Mann-Whitney U and binary multivariate nonconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the relationship between health indicators of local residents and contaminant levels.Odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) for health incidences were also calculated.The average concentrations of DDT (73.9 rig/g),HCH (654 ng/g) and PAHs (1225 ng/g) were relatively high in the industrial area.Residents living in the chemical industry parks were exposed to a higher levels of PTS than those living outside the chemical industry parks.This exposure was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.87,95% CI 0.12-30.06),stomach cancer (OR 1.87,95% CI 0.26-13.41),dermatitis (OR 1.72,95% CI 1.05-2.80),gastroenteritis (OR 1.59,95% CI 0.94-2.68),and pneumonia (OR 1.05,95% CI 0.58-1.89).

  12. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodríguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL. The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2 receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  13. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  14. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    Korea Defense Industry Association (KDIA). (2007). Annual management review of Korean Defense Industry. Seoul: Author. Lee, D.O. (2000...COMPETITIVENESS OF THE KOREAN NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRY Published: 23 April 2008 by Dr. Dae Ok Lee 5th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium of the...International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  15. Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study

    OpenAIRE

    Pollán Marina; Aragonés Nuria; García-Pérez Javier; Monge-Corella Susana; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; López-Abente Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This study sought to ascertain whether there might be excess lung cancer mortality among the population residing in the vicinity of Spanish paper and board industries which report their emissions to the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER). Methods This was an ecological study that modelled the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in 8073 Spanish towns over the period 1994–2003. Population exposure to industrial pollution was estimated on the basis of ...

  16. Application of the removal of pollutants from textile industry wastewater in constructed wetlands using fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogdu, Gamze; Yalcuk, Arda; Postalcioglu, Seda

    2017-02-01

    There are more than a hundred textile industries in Turkey that discharge large quantities of dye-rich wastewater, resulting in water pollution. Such effluents must be treated to meet discharge limits imposed by the Water Framework Directive in Turkey. Industrial treatment facilities must be required to monitor operations, keep them cost-effective, prevent operational faults, discharge-limit infringements, and water pollution. This paper proposes the treatment of actual textile wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) systems operation and monitoring effluent wastewater quality using fuzzy logic with a graphical user interface. The treatment performance of VFCW is investigated in terms of chemical oxygen demand and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) content, color, and pH parameters during a 75-day period of operation. A computer program was developed with a fuzzy logic system (a decision- making tool) to graphically present (via a status analysis chart) the quality of treated textile effluent in relation to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. Fuzzy logic is used in the evaluation of data obtained from the VFCW systems and for notification of critical states exceeding the discharge limits. This creates a warning chart that reports any errors encountered in a reactor during the collection of any sample to the concerned party.

  17. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-10

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  18. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  19. Air pollutant characterization in Tula industrial corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G; Vega, E; González-Avalos, E; Mora, V; López-Veneroni, D

    2013-01-01

    Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS) and Tepeji (TEP) was 75.1 and 36.8 μ g/m(3), respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μ g/m(3). JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm(-1), while aerosol scattering (76 Mm(-1)) was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ(13)C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  20. Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS and Tepeji (TEP was 75.1 and 36.8 μg/m3, respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μg/m3. JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm−1, while aerosol scattering (76 Mm−1 was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ13C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  1. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  2. Pollution reduction goal of government, industrial structure and pollution reduction%政府减排目标、产业结构与污染减排∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛云云; 原毅军; 苗颖

    2015-01-01

    政府是污染减排的重要主体,了解其行为对污染减排的作用对提升污染减排效果及实现中国绿色发展具有重要意义。创造性地将政府减排目标纳入研究框架,构建面板门槛模型,从工业污染排放总量的角度分析政府减排目标、产业结构、经济规模等因素对地方污染减排的影响,并用工业污染物强度进行稳健性检验。结果显示,政府减排目标对污染减排的作用存在阶段性不同:经济发展初级阶段,政府减排目标对污染排放总量的作用方向为正;经济发展水平较高时,作用方向为负;两者之间存在适应性调整阶段,作用方向具有不确定性,但总体由正向作用向负向作用转变。产业结构对工业污染排放总量的作用方向因污染物种类而异,经济规模对工业污染排放总量作用方向为正。%government is an important body in pollution reduction, and understanding the function of its behavior on pollution reduction plays an important role in promoting pollution reduction effect and the realization of green development in China. The pollution reduction goal of government is creatively included into the research framework. The panel threshold model is established. The influence on local pollution reduction of the factors such as pollution reduction goal of government, economy scale, industry structure is analyzed from the perspective of total industrial pollution emissions, and the stability test is carried out by the industrial pollutant intensity. The result shows that there are differences on the pollution reduction goal of government to pollution reduction effect at different economic development stages. In the primary stage of economic development, the effect of pollution reduction goal of government to the pollution emissions is positive. But in the higher stage of economic development, the effect of pollution reduction goal of government to the pollution

  3. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat.

  4. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances C. Moore

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with mitigation options. The local nature of many of the impacts, combined with their short atmospheric lifetime and the existence of cost-effective abatement technologies that are already widely deployed in developed countries means reducing these emissions provides a highly climatically-effective mitigation option that is also appropriate to the development strategy of industrializing countries.

  5. [Organization and management of nationalized pharmaceutical industry in Slovakia from 1945 to 1948].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senček, Richard R

    2013-02-01

    The paper discusses a short but important period in the history of pharmaceutical industry with regard to Slovakia. The complicated post-war situation required peremptory interventions from the state, which attempted to secure the operation of strategic firms by means of National Administration Boards and nationalization. The firms which were nationalized by this measure were managed by the Ministry of Industry. They included also the pharmaceutical firms nationalized in Slovakia. The situation which produced contradictory responses in society and political scene culminated in the communist coup detat and nationalization of virtually all industries.Key words: nationalization pharmaceutical industry Ministry of Industry.

  6. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method.

  7. Industrial Noise Pollution and the Need for Applying Protocols for its Control and Decrease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nasiri

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization has had many complications for human beings and has been a threat to social mental and physical health. Vibration induced noises in the workplace is one of the main devastating factor in producing hearing loss in workers. Recently, several investigations on the issue of noise pollution and noise dosimetry and also Noise induced hearing loss have been developed. In the current article we will have a look and sometimes reconsideration on the results and of these studies and will discuss the findings in regard to noise control and management in details.

  8. Air Processes Resulting in a Surface Layer Pollution in Industrial Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Leshukov, T. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the air quality research in Western Siberia (Kemerovo region). The problem of air quality preservation in the conditions of mining industry intensive development is caused by the weather conditions which lead either to the concentration of pollutants in the surface layer, or to their migration to other geosphere, or to dissipation as a result of convective mixing or advection of air masses. Zoning of the territory in view of the research results provides insight into areas where the greatest risk to human health and life is formed.

  9. Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas.

  10. Evaluating co-benefits of energy efficiency and air pollution abatement in China’s cement industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns - Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    China’s cement industry is the world’s largest and is one of the largest energy consuming, and GHG and air pollutant emitting industries. Actions to improve energy efficiency by best available technology can often bring co-benefits for climate change and air quality through reducing emissions of GHG

  11. [Pollution with sulfur dioxide in an inhabited industrial area. Methodologic problems in monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, C; Pontoni, H; Pellicciotti, G

    1989-01-01

    The area around Rho and Pero in the north west of the province of Milan is densely populated and highly industrialised. It is also characterised by high levels of sulphur dioxide pollution. During the 1980s it was decided to check the sources of production of the pollutant and its distribution in the area. The main area for improvement was the refinery at Rho where it was aimed to disperse gases at a higher level by raising the chimneys and to use fuel gas in those burners which were connected to lower chimneys. For domestic systems it was decided to diffuse the use of methane as much as possible and limit oil-fired central heating, by statute from the Mayor. In order to rationalise the programme of action the pollution was to be determined for each single area by subdivision of the territory into a grid. By means of a census of all the production sources of sulphur dioxide appropriate data were collected to estimate each area's contribution to pollution. The theoretical hourly quantity of sulphur dioxide was calculated on the basis of the combustion equation. The data were then analysed, in total and divided into component parts, i.e. the type of fuel used, the season of the year and industrial or domestic usage. With Gifford and Hanna's ATDL mathematical model the data thus obtained, together with meteorological variables, were used to simulate the expected effect on the distribution of pollution after carrying out the programmed actions. The simulations foresee a reduction of up to 80% of sulphur dioxide concentrations in the areas of greatest use of liquid fuels. In the territory in question the monitoring of the pollutant was assured by the presence of five fixed positions of continuous survey. These turned out to be useful above all for analysis of the phenomenon over a period of time. In order to study spatial distribution better 374 findings were gathered in the winter of 1985-6 from various points of the territory by means of a mobile instantaneous

  12. [Retrospective monitoring of radioactive pollution in zones of the nuclear industry impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremitina, T O; Polishchuk, Iu M; Nesvetaĭlo, V D

    2007-01-01

    An approach to the acquisition of retrospective information on the radioactive pollution of the territories to organize the radioecological monitoring of environment was proposed. The approach is based on the application of the method of dendrochronoindication, allowing one to obtain the retrospective information on the delivery and accumulation of radioactive and other chemicals in the growth rings of the trees. Statistical processing and the analysis of the arrays of the multidimensional retrospective data was carried out using the principal components method. It was shown that the approach proposed allows one to reveal the emergency emissions that took place in the past at the enterprises of nuclear industry and make a well-grounded selection of the monitoring sites to establish the radioecological monitoring in the zones of nuclear industry impact.

  13. Relationship of atmospheric pollution characterized by gas (NO2) and particles (PM10) to microbial communities living in bryophytes at three differently polluted sites (rural, urban, and industrial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caroline; Gilbert, Daniel; Gaudry, André; Franchi, Marielle; Nguyen, Hung Viet; Fabure, Juliette; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a major problem for modern societies owing to its fatal effects on both human health and ecosystems. We studied the relationships of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric pollution and metal trace elements contained in atmospheric particles which were accumulated in bryophytes to microbial communities of bryophytes at three differently polluted sites in France (rural, urban, and industrial) over an 8-month period. The analysis of bryophytes showed an accumulation of Cr and Fe at the rural site; Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, and Pb at the urban site; and Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Sr, Cu, and Zn at the industrial site. During this study, the structure of the microbial communities which is characterized by biomasses of microbial groups evolved differently according to the site. Microalgae, bacteria, rotifers, and testate amoebae biomasses were significantly higher in the rural site. Cyanobacteria biomass was significantly higher at the industrial site. Fungal and ciliate biomasses were significantly higher at the urban and industrial sites for the winter period and higher at the rural site for the spring period. The redundancy analysis showed that the physico-chemical variables ([NO(2)], relative humidity, temperature, and site) and the trace elements which were accumulated in bryophytes ([Cu], [Sr], [Pb]) explained 69.3% of the variance in the microbial community data. Moreover, our results suggest that microbial communities are potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationship underlined by the observed patterns.

  14. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Jiao

    Full Text Available To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995. There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  15. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-07-01

    An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  16. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  17. SOURCE,FORMATION,POLLUTION AND ITS COUNTERMEASURE OF DIOXIN IN PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Li; Youming Li; Mingli Fu; yanjin Bi

    2004-01-01

    Dioxins are believed the most poisonous compounds in the world. Dioxin pollution is a strategic problem in papermaking industry which must be solved.Dioxin not only exists in pulp, paper products, but also in the volatile of woods, hips or other non-wood fiber material which are treated with PCP, even in the exhaust gas of chemical recovery system. So there are great needs to know what is dioxin, the channel and mechanism of the formation of it in paper making industry. With these understanding, herein those are discussed as follows, the harness measure of dioxin: dioxin in wastewater, in exhaust gas, from raw material. And some countermeasure to decrease the content of dioxin. Furthermore, several novel treatment technologies of dioxin in China and abroad were introduced. The fundamental measure to eliminate the pollution of dioxin is presented with the aim to control the origin, decrease the use of bleacher containing chlorine or without the use of chlorine.Elemental Chlorine Free and Total Chlorine Free bleaching are advocated.

  18. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  19. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Chang

    Full Text Available Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM. We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  20. A land use regression model incorporating data on industrial point source pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Yuming Wang; Peiwu Li; Yaqin Ji; Shaofei Kong; Zhiyong Li; Zhipeng Bai

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the understanding of the spatial aspects of air pollution in the city regional environment is an area where improved methods can be of great benefit to exposure assessment and polcy support.We created land use regression (LUR) models for SO2,NO2 and PM10for Tianjin,China.Traffic volumes,road networks,land use data,population density,meteorological conditions,physical conditions and satellite-derived greenness,brightness and wetness were used for predicting SO2,NO2 and PM10 concentrations.We incorporated data on industrial point sources to improve LUR model performance.In order to consider the impact of different sources,we calculated the PSIndex,LSIndex and area of different land use types (agricultural land,industrial land,commercial land,residential land,green space and water area) within different buffer radii (1 to 20 km).This method makes up for the lack of consideration of source impact based on the LUR model.Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with gaseous pollutant concentrations such as SO2 and NO2.R2 values of the multiple linear regression equations for SO2,NO2 and PM10 were 0.78,0.89 and 0.84,respectively,and the RMSE values were 0.32,0.18 and 0.21,respectively.Model predictions at validation monitoring sites went well with predictions generally within 15% of measured values.Compared to the relationship between dependent variables and simple variables (such as traffic variables or meteorological condition variables),the relationship between dependent variables and integrated variables was more consistent with a linear relationship.Such integration has a discernable influence on both the overall model prediction and health effects assessment on the spatial distribution of air pollution in the city region.

  1. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides.

  2. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Technical Services

    2007-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

  4. Assessment of the variability of atmospheric pollution in National Parks of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, M.; Lozano, A.; Hierro, J.; Tapia, O.; del Valle, J.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Anzano, J.; Querol, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Air quality in nine National Parks in mainland Spain was assessed analysing SO2, NOx, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 data from background stations. As emissions in and around parks are limited, the levels of primary pollutants are low. Concentrations of secondary pollutants are high especially in summer due to photochemical production. The geographical variability of pollutants responds to regional emission patterns and the dominant circulation regimes in different regions resulting in west-east gradients for O3 and PM. Seasonal variability of pollutants was also interpreted in virtue of transport scenarios, changes in photochemical activity and emissions variability. NOx and SO2, maximize in winter due to higher emissions while O3 and PM do it in summer due to photochemical production, lower precipitation and, in the case of PM, the occurrence of African dust outbreaks. The diurnal evolution was interpreted in virtue of variability in emissions and changes in the Planetary Boundar Layer height.

  5. Characterization of the chromium retention potential of non polluted aquifer solids in an industrial site

    OpenAIRE

    Reynal, Caroline; Kedziorek, Monika A.M.; Rollin, Claire; Bourg, Alain.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    National audience; A hydrogeochemical study of an industrial site where sulfuric acid and copper sulfate ("bouillie bordelaise") are manufactured showed that the phreatic aquifer is contaminated by copper, sulfate, chromium, arsenic and has an acid pH Field observations and laboratory experiments, both necessary if we are to understand the processes controlling tranfers at the solid-liquid interface, were used to investigate the behaviour of chromium. In the field, monitoring the mixing of po...

  6. Effects of air pollution related respiratory symptoms in school children in industrial areas Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradee Asa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of air pollution in school children living near industrial sites were investigated. The respiratory symptoms of 806 school children aged 9-12 years were examined by the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire during February- August 2013. The selected elementary schools in this survey was based on the distance from Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, area A within 1 km., area B 5 km. and area C 10 km. Logistic regression techniques were used to assess the association between prevalence of respiratory symptoms and independent variables. The average 24 hrs PM10 and VOCs concentrations from 2011-2014 in area A were significantly higher than in area C (p < 0.05. Relatively, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in area A were high with odds ratios (OR = 3.41, (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.70-6.85 and in area B with OR = 1.36, (95% CI = 0.54-3.45, in comparison to area C. The prevalent of non-specific respiratory diseases (NSRD and Persistent Cough and Phlegm (PCP in boy student were higher than girls students with OR=2.17, (95%CI=1.33-3.53, whereas those factors such as age, residential years, home size, parental smoking habits, use of air conditioners and domestic pets were not associated. Exposure to particulate matter and volatile organic compounds arising from Industrial sites was associated with worse respiratory impairments in children.

  7. Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China.

  8. 75 FR 31775 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... AGENCY Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point... discharges to waters of the United States of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a... or e-mail. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means...

  9. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0037 (available at...

  10. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrén, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution.

  11. Stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions and their correlation with rainfall and catchment characteristics in a rapidly industrialized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries.

  12. Effects of Local Circulations, Turbulent Internal Boundary Layers, and Elevated Industrial Plumes on Coastal Ozone Pollution in the Downwind Kaohsiung Urban-Industrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Lin Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Linyuan (LY is a coastal station located down wind of the industrial city of Kaohsiung in southern Taiwan. This station is often affected by severe ozone pollution during sea breeze events. Intensive tethered ozone soundings were per formed at this station during a 4-day ozone episode in November, 2005. Back air trajectories were also calculated to track the origins of air masses arriving at the station during the experiment. The investigation revealed complicated ozone pro files in the lower at mo sphere (be low 1300 m both day and night. At night, industrial plumes forming no-ozone air layers were frequently distributed at 400 - 800 m. Mixing layers rapidly decreased from 800 - 1100 m down to 200 - 350 m in the late morning hours when sea breezes and thermal internal boundary layers (TIBLs developed. Recirculation of polluted in land air masses over the sea, the development of TIBLs, and the late development of sea-breeze events all are likely responsible for severe ozone pollution at the LY station. Elevated industrial plumes or ozone aloft above TIBLs revealed only aminor contribution to ozone pollution via a downward mixing process. Elevated ozone levels (140 - 170 ppb were of ten trapped within transitional layers of sea-breeze circulations at 600 - 800 m and were accompanied by ambient northerly flows parallel to the coast line, suggesting that an ozone pollution core likely formed over the west coast of Taiwan on ozone-episodic days when sea-breeze circulations developed.

  13. Towards a Bioeconomy in Europe: National, Regional and Industrial Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo de Besi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Establishing an advanced European bioeconomy is an important step in achieving the transition towards sustainable development and away from fossil fuels. The bioeconomy can be defined as an economy based on the sustainable production and conversion of renewable biomass into a range of bio-based products, chemicals, and energy. Several strategies have been produced in Europe from different perspectives that outline visions, intentions, and recommendations for the transition to a bioeconomy. An analysis of twelve of these strategies was conducted using a meta-analytical framework. This paper outlines the results of this study covering national, regional, and industrial perspectives on the bio-based economy in Europe. The analysis shows that a common direction for the bioeconomy, based on research and technological innovation in the various applications of biotechnology, is developing in Europe. It highlights the important role that the regional level will play in facilitating collaborations between industries and research institutions needed to foster innovation and optimize the use of biomass. The analysis also identifies that the development of European bio-based product markets are needed for bioeconomy expansion. However, the transition needs to have a lifecycle perspective in order to ensure that an economy founded on biomass is sustainable and equitable.

  14. Biomonitoring of air pollution by organic compounds in the city of Graz and the industrial area of Leoben-Donawitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Stuttgart (Germany). Bau und Betrieb Umwelt Service; Pirker, D.; Pongratz, T.; Schopper, A. [Amt der Steiermaerkischen Landesregierung, Graz (Austria). Fachabteilung 1a; Waikinat, I. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Muenchen (Germany). Bau und Betrieb

    2002-07-01

    The air pollution of some persistent organic compounds (PAH, PCB, PCDD/F) was measured in two regions of Styria/Austria, Graz and Leoben, by biomonitoring methods. These measurements were carried out in addition to the air quality monitoring network, the monitoring of airborne dust, contaminated with dioxines and furanes and the contamination of soil. Urban emissions (traffic, domestic heating) of air pollutants dominate the pollution level in Graz. Emissions of iron and steel industry are responsible for problems in air quality in Leoben-Donawitz. (orig.)

  15. [Depression and anxiety in mothers of children who grow up in an area with industrial pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, S; Ploumpidis, D; Zervas, J; Papadimitriou, G N; Tzinieri-Kokkosi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of chemical pollution with hexavalent chromium on the mental health of mothers with school/pre-school age children, residents of the area of the Asopos basin in Eastern Central Greece. The people of this area have been experiencing great threat regarding their health each and every day, as a result of the well-documented pollution by hexavalent chromium in drinking and ground-water, which is related to the widespread industrial activity, the usage of hexavalent chromium in various processes and the discharges of Cr-bearing wastes. The environmental impact of hexavalent chromium is a controversial issue critical to the protection of groundwater resources, as it affects the soil and the products from local cultivations used in daily food. This condition has been documented scientifically and was published in the mass media as a serious threat to human and animal life in the specific area. Although in Greece serious environmental-technological disasters have occurred during the last decades, there is a lack of studies on the possible consequences, including the psychological impact on the local population. The sample of this study included eighty-eight mothers of young children, residents of the area of Asopos, who were compared with eighty-eight mothers living in a non-polluted area - the area of Kiato in Northern Peloponnese, as a control group. They were assessed by the CES-D scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI I-II), which have been standardized for the Greek population. Results indicated that depression and anxiety were significantly correlated with the place of residence [CES-D: t(169,496)=3.45, p=0.001; STAI I-II: A-state: t(174)=10,131, p=0.000; A-trait: t(174)=8,728, p=0.000]. Mothers from the Asopos basin reported more symptoms of depression (Mean=24,14, SD=11,345) than the control group (Mean=18,68, SD=9,625). Similarly, they have scored higher in both subscales of STAI I-II, measuring state

  16. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change.

  17. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils.

  18. Bioindicator plants as monitoring tools for urban and industrial pollutant sources - case studies from Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soja, G.; Schafler, P.; Gerzabek, M. [Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf (Austria). Dept. of Environmental Research

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents two examples for the application of bioindicator techniques in environmental monitoring projects. The results presented here refer to the quantitation of the effects of environmental parameters on the behaviour of bioindicator plants. a.) Environmental monitoring of an industrial pollutant emitter in a rural environment. For monitoring the environmental impact of a coal-fired power plant, an extensive multi-annual monitoring programme had been established four years prior to the start of operation of the power plant. The programme included analyses of soils and field crops and the physiological responses of crop plants in non-filtered and carbon-filtered open-top chambers (OTC). b.) Monitoring of ozone effects on bioindicator plants in a large city and its rural environs. In a two-year multi-location study, the region of Vienna was analysed along a profile from the west to the southeast of the city for visual ozone injury of bioindicator plants. Meteorological conditions and air pollutant concentrations were recorded in detail at 9 out of 25 indicator stations. The resulting dataset was processed with multivariate techniques. (orig.)

  19. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  20. 7 CFR 1260.113 - Established national nonprofit industry-governed organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... national nonprofit industry-governed organizations. Established national nonprofit industry-governed organizations means organizations which: (a) Are nonprofit organizations pursuant to sections 501(c) (3), (5) or... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Established national nonprofit...

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE

  2. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-23

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  3. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2007-07-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

  4. Discussion on the Coping Strategies to the Pollution of Solar Photovoltaic Industry%太阳能光伏产业污染的应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚希博; 付宏祥; 王欣

    2015-01-01

    指出了随着各国经济的发展和工业规模的不断扩大,能源需求日益增加,太阳能的开发和利用为解决常规能源的不足开辟了路径。我国太阳能光伏产业已经进入规模化、产业化阶段,其在国民经济发展和能源供应中发挥着非常重要的作用,但是由于技术水平、经济效益、废物处理工艺等因素的影响,光伏产业链所带来的污染是非常严重的。结合这一现状,对太阳能光伏产业污染的应对策略进行了探讨。%With the development of national economies and the growing of industrial - scale ,the demand for energy is boosting .The development and use of solar energy opens up a new path to solve the shortage of energy .In China , the solar photovoltaic industry has come to the stage of large scale and industrialization ,which plays a crucial role in the national economic development and energy supply .But PV industry chain has caused very serious pollution because of the influences by its technical level ,economic benefits and waste treatment process .Combining with the status ,the article discusses the coping strategies to the pollution of solar photovoltaic industry .

  5. China Should Learn from Other Nations in Safeguarding Industrial Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪宝成; 刘元春

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the current conditions of China’s industrial safety issues from four different perspectives,which include the overall openness of the micro-economy,industrial competitiveness, merger and acquisition by foreign capital and industrial upgrade.It points out six important issues in the process of improving China’s industrial safety.

  6. A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mathilde Pascal; Laurence Pascal; Marie-Laure Bidondo; Amandine Cochet; Hélène Sarter; Morgane Stempfelet; Vérène Wagner

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majori...

  7. Software for computation of power losses in unbalanced and harmonic polluted industrial electric networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chindris, Mircea; Cziker, Andrei; Miron, Anca [Technical Univ. of Cluj, Napoca (Romania). Power Systems Dept.

    2007-07-01

    The electromagnetic phenomena in the industrial electric power networks have reached a level of complexity so high that their accurate knowledge has imposed the developing of complex software products, including expert systems, which can satisfy these expectations. Particularly, the unbalanced and non-sinusoidal working conditions have a negative impact on both individual components of the electrical system and the whole system. The knowledge of distribution losses, which depend on the technical and operation characteristics of the electric network and on the distortion and unbalance degree of the current and/or voltage waveforms, is necessary in order to establish the network parameters and working state. Power losses calculus allows setting the electrical energy distribution cost, estimating the efficiency of the losses reduction solutions, etc. Looking for computation of power losses in the industrial electric networks, taking into account the necessity of making complex mathematic calculations and considering the number of parameters that influence these power losses during an unbalanced and non-sinusoidal state, the authors have developed an original software tool which satisfies this goal, and quickly provides accurate results. The paper presents this software, by describing its methodology and the mathematic equations that have been used to determine the electric power losses for radial electric networks working in unbalanced and harmonic polluted conditions.

  8. An examination of race and poverty for populations living near industrial sources of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, S A; Sexton, K; Wong, D W

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of people living near industrial sources of air pollution in three areas of the United States: (1) the Kanawha Valley in West Virginia: (2) the Baton Rouge-New Orleans corridor in Louisiana: and (3) the greater Baltimore metropolitan area in Maryland. Using data from the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and the 1990 Census, we analyze relationships between variables assumed to be independent, such as location of single or multiple industrial emission sources, and the dependent variables of race (black/white) and poverty status (above/below poverty level). Results from all three study areas are consistent and indicate that African Americans and those living in households defined to be below the established poverty level are more likely, on average, to live closer to the nearest TRI facility and to live within 2 miles of multiple TRI facilities. Conversely, whites and those living in households above the poverty level are more likely, on average, to live farther from the nearest TRI facility and to live within 2 miles of fewer facilities, compared to African Americans and poor people.

  9. A combined electrochemical-irradiation treatment of highly colored and polluted industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Diaz, C. E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx; Urena-Nunez, F. E-mail: fun@nuclear.inin.mx; Campos, E.; Palomar-Pardave, M. E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx; Romero-Romo, M

    2003-07-01

    This study reports on the attainment of optimal conditions for two electrolytic methods to treat wastewater: namely, electrocoagulation and particle destabilization of a highly polluted industrial wastewater, and electrochemically induced oxidation induced by in situ generation of Fenton's reactive. Additionally, a combined method that consisted of electrochemical treatment plus {gamma}-irradiation was carried out. A typical composition of the industrial effluent treated was COD 3400 mg/l, color 3750 Pt/Co units, and fecal coliforms 21000 MPN/ml. The best removal efficiency was obtained with electrochemical oxidation induced in situ, that resulted in the reduction of 78% for the COD, 86% color and 99.9% fecal coliforms removal. A treatment sequence was designed and carried out, such that after both electrochemical processes, a {gamma}-irradiation technique was used to complete the procedure. The samples were irradiated with various doses in an ALC {gamma}-cell unit provided with a Co-60 source. The removal efficiency obtained was 95% for the COD values, 90% color and 99.9% for fecal coliforms.

  10. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor.

  11. New industrial titania photocatalysts for the solar detoxification of water containing various pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Jean-Marie; Guillard, Chantal; Disdier, Jean [URA au CNRS, Photocatalyse, Catalyse et Environment, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, B.P. 163, 69131 Ecully -Cedex (France); Lehaut, Corinne [Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, 85 Avenue Victor Hugo, 92563 Cedex Rueil-Malmaison (France); Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, 04200 Tabernas (Spain)

    2002-01-25

    A new series of titania industrial photocatalysts have been elaborated by Millennium Inorganic Chemicals and were denoted Millennium-PC/10, PC/25 and PC/50 with respective specific surface areas equal to 11, 23 and 43m{sup 2}g{sup -1}. Their photocatalytic activities have been determined and compared in the solar pilot CPC-photoreactor at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) (Spain) in the photocatalytic degradation of four different representative pollutants (4-chlorophenol, nitrobenzene, 2-chlorobenzoic acid and hydrobutanedioic (malic) acid), whose degradation pathways had previously been elucidated in laboratory experiments with artificial light, using titania Degussa P-25 as a reference photocatalyst. The study concerned the influence of (1) the nature of organic pollutants, (2) the surface area and (3) the concentration of suspended TiO{sub 2}. The affinity of the pollutants for TiO{sub 2} and the presence of heteroatoms in the reactant molecules intervened on the activities of Millennium-PCs when compared to Degussa P-25. The higher the affinity of the organic pollutants for titania, the higher the efficiency of Millennium-PC/10 photocatalyst calibrated on the initial rate of pollutant disappearance. The degradation pathways were found similar for both photocatalysts and the primary steps of the degradation for the different types of molecules were discussed. 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP), a model pollutant for waste waters, was then chosen for the study of the influence of the surface areas and of the concentration of Millennium-PC photocatalysts. The initial apparent rate constants of 4-CP degradation in presence of all Millennium-PC catalysts were all higher than that obtained with Degussa P-25. When choosing the total organic carbon (TOC) disappearance rate as an overall kinetic parameter, Millennium-PC/10 and PC/25 appeared as less active than Degussa P-25, with longer solar exposures (by about 10%) necessary to obtain a total mineralisation. However

  12. Catwalking the Nation Challenges and Possibilities in the Case of the Danish Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the mobilization of the nation for fashion, based on how the relationship between fashion and nation unfolds in the case of fashion design practice and the fashion industry in Denmark. The otherwise globalized fashion industry is equally involved in what I term “catwalking the nation,” both as a way to construct a cosmopolitan nationalist discourse for the post-industrial nation and as a strategy for local fashion industries to promote collective identity in order to st...

  13. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  14. 76 FR 18066 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... consists predominately of industrial/ commercial properties and associated parking areas in an industrial... underground storage tanks (USTs) were also removed before the cap and cover were installed. After the PCB... concentrations of PCBs, serves as a central parking lot for the development. To date, the development is...

  15. 77 FR 959 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries; National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... automatically captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made... entities Industry 325 Manufacturing industries, particularly petrochemical, chemical, polymers, plastics... million by volume (ppmv) total strippable hydrocarbons (as methane) in the stripping gas collected via...

  16. 76 FR 50164 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of New York, through the Department...

  17. 76 FR 49397 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Utah, through the Utah Department...

  18. 76 FR 76336 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777, 56 FR 54757, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 351; E.O. 12580, 52 FR 2923; 3... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission...

  19. Assessing traffic and industrial contributions to ambient nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds in a low pollution urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiamo, Tor H; Johnson, Markey; Tang, Kathy; Luginaah, Isaac N

    2015-10-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modeling is an effective method for estimating fine-scale distributions of ambient air pollutants. The objectives of this study are to advance the methodology for use in urban environments with relatively low levels of industrial activity and provide exposure assessments for research on health effects of air pollution. Intraurban distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene and m- and p-xylene were characterized based on spatial monitoring and LUR modeling in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Passive samplers were deployed at 50 locations throughout Ottawa for two consecutive weeks in October 2008 and May 2009. Land use variables representing point, area and line sources were tested as predictors of pooled pollutant distributions. LUR models explained 96% of the spatial variability in NO2 and 75-79% of the variability in the VOC species. Proximity to highways, green space, industrial and residential land uses were significant in the final models. More notably, proximity to industrial point sources and road network intersections were significant predictors for all pollutants. The strong contribution of industrial point sources to VOC distributions in Ottawa suggests that facility emission data should be considered whenever possible. The study also suggests that proximity to road network intersections may be an effective proxy in areas where reliable traffic data are not available.

  20. The Development of Financial and Industrial Groups in the National Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Chelombitko Tatiana V.

    2012-01-01

    In the article the historical development of the first big integrated industrial and financial capitals was analyzed. The definition, the organizational structure of financial and industrial groups and the features of banking and industrial capitals integration in Ukraine were defined. The present state and foundation trends of financial and industrial groups were analyzed. The key problems of development, also the level of financial and industrial groups influence on the national economy and...

  1. Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, M.I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Malato, S. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Perez-Estrada, L.A. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Gernjak, W. [PSA -Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Oller, I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Peral, Jose [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.peral@uab.es

    2006-11-16

    Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry ({alpha}-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

  2. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

    1990-07-01

    Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

  3. Screening procedure for airborne pollutants emitted from a high-tech industrial complex in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John H C; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Chiang, Chow-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Despite the modernization of computational techniques, atmospheric dispersion modeling remains a complicated task as it involves the use of large amounts of interrelated data with wide variability. The continuously growing list of regulated air pollutants also increases the difficulty of this task. To address these challenges, this study aimed to develop a screening procedure for a long-term exposure scenario by generating a site-specific lookup table of hourly averaged dispersion factors (χ/Q), which could be evaluated by downwind distance, direction, and effective plume height only. To allow for such simplification, the average plume rise was weighted with the frequency distribution of meteorological data so that the prediction of χ/Q could be decoupled from the meteorological data. To illustrate this procedure, 20 receptors around a high-tech complex in Taiwan were selected. Five consecutive years of hourly meteorological data were acquired to generate a lookup table of χ/Q, as well as two regression formulas of plume rise as functions of downwind distance, buoyancy flux, and stack height. To calculate the concentrations for the selected receptors, a six-step Excel algorithm was programmed with four years of emission records and 10 most critical toxics were screened out. A validation check using Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model with the same meteorological and emission data showed an acceptable overestimate of 6.7% in the average concentration of 10 nearby receptors. The procedure proposed in this study allows practical and focused emission management for a large industrial complex and can therefore be integrated into an air quality decision-making system.

  4. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles under industrial pollution impact of Krasnoyarsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Skripal’shchikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013–2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V–VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986. The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.

  5. Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollán Marina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to ascertain whether there might be excess lung cancer mortality among the population residing in the vicinity of Spanish paper and board industries which report their emissions to the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER. Methods This was an ecological study that modelled the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR for lung cancer in 8073 Spanish towns over the period 1994–2003. Population exposure to industrial pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. An exploratory, near-versus-far analysis was conducted, using mixed Poisson regression models and an analysis of the effect of municipal proximity within a 50-kilometre radius of each of the 18 installations. Results Results varied for the different facilities. In two instances there was an increasing mortality gradient with proximity to the installation, though this was exclusively observed among men. Conclusion The study of cancer mortality in areas surrounding pollutant foci is a useful tool for environmental surveillance, and serves to highlight areas of interest susceptible to being investigated by ad hoc studies. Despite present limitations, recognition is therefore due to the advance represented by publication of the EPER and the study of pollutant foci.

  6. Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Shehu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area under study, the pollution lies in about 200 km2, of which 60000 ha are farmland. The water receiver environment of the oil industry emissions is Gjanica River. The effects extend to Seman River delta and then to the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, the water pollution causes impacts on living creatures in marine aquatic environments. These impacts can be accumulated in the marine and terrestrial food chain endangering human health. Leaks from well mouths, oil leaks and water layer leaks from the well hole, discharges and emissions from Ballsh Processing Plant, fluid collection groups and pipelines leaks are some of the most important environmental aspects in the study area. The dominant species of the spontaneous flora are Glyceria plicata dhe Sparganium erectum accompanied by a large number of species. Natural vegetation in this area is degraded and a reduction of the photosynthesis activity is observed. Pollution control and rehabilitation of the area are necessary.

  7. Content and the forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments in the zone of industrial pollution sources ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytyuk Y.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regularities in the distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the zone of influence of the steel industry in Mariupol are installed. The study results of the forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni are represented. Ecological and geochemical assessment of sediment contamination by heavy metals is performed. The main sources of pollution of bottom sediments are air borne emissions from industrial plants, hydrogenous pollution in industrial sewage entering the water, sewage sludge, ash dumps, slag, ore, sludge, oil spills and salt solutions. Pollution hydrogenous sediments may be significant, contaminated sediments are a source of long-term contamination of water, even after cessation of discharges into rivers untreated wastewater. The environmental condition of bottom sediments in gross content of heavy metals is little information because they do not reflect the transformation and further migration to adjacent environment. The study forms of giving objective information for ecological and geochemical evaluation. The study forms of heavy metals in the sediments carried by successive extracts. Concentrations of heavy metals in the extracts determined by atomic absorption spectrometer analysis CAS-115. It was established that a number of elements typical of exceeding their content in bottom sediments of the background values, due likely to their technogenic origin. Man-made pollution of bottom sediments. Mariupol has disrupted the natural form of the ratio of heavy metals. In the studied sediments form ion exchange increased content of heavy metals, which contributes to their migration in the aquatic environment.

  8. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy... submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later than Wednesday, March 17, 2010. ISOO... regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security...

  9. Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecon Pascual, R.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

  10. Ecotoxicological potential of antibiotic pollution-industrial wastewater: bioavailability, biomarkers, and occurrence in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouiten, Amina; Beltifa, Asma; Van Loco, Joris; Mansour, Hedi Ben; Reyns, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution by pharmaceutical residues has become a major problem in many countries worldwide. However, little is known about the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in water sources in Tunisia. Residues in the natural environment have been of increasing concern due to their impact on bacteria resistance development and toxicity to natural communities and ultimately to public health. In this work, we collected the wastewater sample from a pharmaceutical industry, which specializes in the antibiotics manufacture, during the years 2014-2015. Generally, this effluent is discharged into the marine environment and causes environmental problems. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was commonly used as a model organism for its peculiar morphofunctional properties which also make it an excellent marine environmental biomonitoring species. The histological sections of mussel, which are exposed at different dilutions of pharmaceutical wastewater (PW), indicate a large pathological power revealed on the gills. On the other hand, genotoxicity of the studied effluent was evaluated using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation in gill cells. Results show that PW exhibited a statistically significant (p galloprovincialis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) showed the presence of some antibiotic residues. These concentrations decrease to half in mussels treated with PW biodegraded by B. atrophaeus.

  11. Environmental and risk screening for prioritizing pollution prevention opportunities in the U.S. printed wiring board manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl W; Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-05-15

    Modern manufacturing of printed wiring boards (PWBs) involves extensive use of various hazardous chemicals in different manufacturing steps such as board preparation, circuit design transfer, etching and plating processes. Two complementary environmental screening methods developed by the U.S. EPA, namely: (i) the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) and (ii) Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI), are used to quantify geographic and chemical environmental impacts in the U.S. PWB manufacturing industry based on Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data. Although the release weight percentages of industrial chemicals such as methanol, glycol ethers and dimethylformamide comprise the larger fraction of reported air and water emissions, results indicate that lead, copper and their compounds' releases correspond to the highest environmental impact from toxicity potentials and risk-screening scores. Combining these results with further knowledge of PWB manufacturing, select alternative chemical processes and materials for pollution prevention are discussed. Examples of effective pollution prevention options in the PWB industry include spent etchant recovery technologies, and process and material substitutions. In addition, geographic assessment of environmental burden highlights states where promotion of pollution prevention strategies and emissions regulations can have the greatest effect to curb the PWB industry's toxic release impacts.

  12. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ding [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Wenying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  13. 75 FR 44920 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... available only in hard copy. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at: Superfund Records Center, 290 Broadway, 18th Floor, New York..., degreasing, refurbishing, metal machining, and testing of components. Industrial wastes generated...

  14. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  15. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers.

  16. Sandia bicycle commuters group -- pollution prevention at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Sandia Bicycle Commuters Group (SBCG) formed three years ago for the purpose of addressing issues that impact the bicycle commuting option. The meeting that launched the SBCG was scheduled in conjunction with National Bike-to-Work day in May 1995. Results from a survey handed out at the meeting solidly confirmed the issues and that an advocacy group was needed. The purpose statement for the Group headlines its web site and brochure: ``Existing to assist and educate the SNL workforce bicyclist on issues regarding Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) access, safety and bicycle-supporting facilities, in order to promote bicycling as an effective and enjoyable means of commuting.`` The SNL Pollution Prevention (P2) Team`s challenge to the SNL workforce is to ``prevent pollution, conserve natural resources, and save money``. In the first winter of its existence, the SBCG sponsored a winter commute contest in conjunction with the City`s Clean Air Campaign (CAC). The intent of the CAC is to promote alternative (to the single-occupant vehicle) commuting during the Winter Pollution Advisory Period (October 1--February 28), when the City runs the greatest risk of exceeding federal pollution limits.

  17. FY1995 contaminant study proposal : CO-nonpoint source pollution on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal to determine the extent of nonpoint source pollution to water bodies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Arsenal). The Service will...

  18. An association between air pollution and daily outpatient visits for respiratory disease in a heavy industry area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available In this work we used daily outpatient data from the Landseed Hospital in a heavily industrial area in northern Taiwan to study the associations between daily outpatient visits and air pollution in the context of a heavily polluted atmospheric environment in Chung-Li area during the period 2007-2011. We test the normality of each data set, control for the confounding factors, and calculate correlation coefficient between the outpatient visits and air pollution and meteorology, and use multiple linear regression analysis to seek significance of these associations. Our results show that temperature and relative humidity tend to be negatively associated with respiratory diseases. NO and [Formula: see text] are two main air pollutants that are positively associated with respiratory diseases, followed by [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], CO, and [Formula: see text]. Young outpatients (age 0-15 years are most sensitive to changing air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by the eldest (age [Formula: see text]66 years and age 16-65 years of outpatients. Outpatients for COPD diseases are most sensitive to air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by allergic rhinitis, asthma, and pneumonia diseases. In the context of sex difference to air pollution and meteorological factors, male outpatients are more sensitive than female outpatients in the 16-65 age groups, while female outpatients are more sensitive than male outpatients in the young 0-15 age groups and in the eldest age groups. In total, female outpatients are more sensitive to air pollution and meteorological factors than male outpatients.

  19. The Danish Industrial Enzyme Industry - National based Companies with strong internationalised R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    Danish industrial enzyme industry consists of three main companies (Chr. Hansen A/S, Novozymes A/S and Danisco A/S) which in total has around 75 percent of the world market for industrial enzymes. Industrial enzymes are catalysts used in biological and chemical processes in food, detergents, paper...... and energy and many other fields. Historically the industry started up in 1874 based on empiric knowledge on use of rennet in production of cheese from Switzerland and Germany and later enriched by scientific knowledge produced in the company and institutions all over the world. Important for the company...

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  1. Protecting national parks from air pollution effects: Making sausage from science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill; Blett, Tamara; Malm, William C.; Alexander, Ruth; Doremus, Holly

    2016-01-01

    The story of air pollution research, policy development, and management in national parks is a fascinating blend of cultural change, vision, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and science-policy-management-stakeholder collaborations. Unable to ignore the loss of iconic vistas from regional haze and loss of fish from acid rain in the 1980s, the National Park Service (NPS) embraced an obligation to protect resources from threats originating outside park boundaries. Upholding the Organic Act requirement for parks to remain "unimpaired" for the enjoyment of future generations, and using the Clean Air Act statement that NPS has an “affirmative responsibility” to protect park resources, NPS has supported, and effectively used, research as a means to protect lands, waters, and vistas from a mostly unseen threat. Using visibility and atmospheric nitrogen deposition as examples, we will illustrate some success stories where NPS led the way to benefit not only parks, but the Nation.

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  3. Advanced treatment of refractory organic pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater by bioactive enhanced ponds and wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Ma, Qiusha; Wang, Baozhen; Wang, Jifu; Zhang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A large-scale combined ponds-wetland system was applied for advanced treatment of refractory pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater. The system was designed to enhance bioactivity and biological diversity, which consisted of anaerobic ponds (APs), facultative ponds (FPs), aerobic pond and wetland. The refractory pollutants in the petrochemical wastewater to be treated were identified as alkanes, chloroalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins, which were significantly degraded and transformed along with the influent flowing through the enhanced bioactive ponds-wetland system. 8 years of recent operational data revealed that the average removal rate of stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 42.7 % and that influent COD varied from 92.3 to 195.6 mg/L. Final effluent COD could reach 65.8 mg/L (average). COD removal rates were high in the APs and FPs and accounted for 75 % of the total amount removed. This result indicated that the APs and FPs degraded refractory pollutants through the facilitation of bacteria growth. The changes in the community structures of major microbes were assessed by 16SrDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The same analysis was used to identify the main bacterial function for the removal of refractory pollutants in the APs and FPs. The APs and FPs displayed similar microbial diversities, and some of the identified bacteria degraded and removed refractory pollutants. The overall results proved the applicability, stability, and high efficiency of the ponds-wetland system with enhanced bioactivity in the advanced removal of refractory pollutants from petrochemical industrial wastewater.

  4. 78 FR 63099 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... the Hooker (Hyde Park) Superfund Site (Site) located in Niagara Falls, New York, from the National...) Superfund Site, located in Niagara Falls, New York. A Notice of Intent to Delete for this Site was published... entry under ``NY'' for Hooker (Hyde Park), Niagara Falls. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  5. 76 FR 45428 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... of the shallow ground water. The State of Texas defines ground water resources based on water quality... of the primary effects screening level. Furthermore, results from the soils and ground water data do... in Port Arthur, Texas (Jefferson County), from the National Priorities List (NPL). The...

  6. Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors: The U.S. Cement Industry – A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for more than 90% of worldwide CO2-eq green-house gas (GHG) emissions from industrial sectors other than power generation. Amongst these sectors, the cement industry is one ...

  7. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects.

  8. Rethinking "energy nationalism": a study of the relationship between nation states and companies in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOELE DE FREITAS PEIGO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe term "energy nationalism" is frequently used by academic literature and media, but usually without adequate conceptual accuracy. Despite this, a set of papers deepens the discussion on the relationship between nation states and the energy industry, especially the oil sector. These papers allow identifying fundamental elements to understand the energy nationalism, either complementary or divergent between each other. Thus, this study aims at presenting an interpretation of the concept that fills the gaps left by the above mentioned literature based on a global analysis of the oil industry structure and its historical evolution since the mid-19thcentury.

  9. Catwalking the Nation Challenges and Possibilities in the Case of the Danish Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the mobilization of the nation for fashion, based on how the relationship between fashion and nation unfolds in the case of fashion design practice and the fashion industry in Denmark. The otherwise globalized fashion industry is equally involved in what I term “catwalking the nation,” both as a way to construct a cosmopolitan nationalist discourse for the post-industrial nation and as a strategy for local fashion industries to promote collective identity in order to strengthen potential market share, which is the focus of this article. What may at first appear in the Danish case as an absurd and non-productive relationship is actually significant, I would argue, despite its complexity. It has the potential to stimulate critical fashion design practice and give fashion designers a voice, allowing them to take an active part in contemporary public debates on important issues such as nationalism and cosmopolitanism in the age of globalization.

  10. INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE UNITED NATIONS: A PARTNERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Sall, English; Clayton, Ann-marie; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    Since the United Nations began in 1945, it has reached out to experts in many fields, and in many parts of the world, to cooperate in its global work. Our field of organizational psychology has an important role to play at the United Nations, but this has begun only recently, in the past few years. This report offers a concise picture of I-O psychology at the United Nations today, and ways that I-O psychologists in the USA and other nations may learn more details on this

  11. Air pollution and associated human mortality: The role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5μm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860) times and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-hour daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8±0.16 μg/m3 and 30±0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5 (O3) to change by +7.5±0.19 μg/m3 (+25±0.30 ppbv), +0.4±0.17 μg/m3 (+0.5±0.28 ppbv), and -0.02±0.01 μg/m3 (+4.3±0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0-2.5) million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129-592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3 respectively). However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air

  12. Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increases in surface ozone (O3 and fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm} aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5 are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860 times and the global present-day (2000 premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4 concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-h daily maximum O3 in a year have increased by 8 ± 0.16 μg m−3 and 30 ± 0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS, climate (CLIM and CH4 concentrations (TCH4. EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5(O3 to change by +7.5 ± 0.19 μg m−3 (+25 ± 0.30 ppbv, +0.4 ± 0.17 μg m−3 (+0.5 ± 0.28 ppbv, and −0.02 ± 0.01 μg m−3 (+4.3 ± 0.33 ppbv, respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0–2.5 million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129–592 thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven

  13. The Effect of Fine and Coarse Particulate Air Pollution on Mortality: A National Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background Although many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on mortality, data limitations have resulted in fewer studies of both particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5; fine particles) and of coarse particles (particles with an aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 and < 10 μm; PM coarse). We conducted a national, multicity time-series study of the acute effect of PM2.5 and PM coarse on the increased risk of death for all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD),...

  14. Environmental assessment of mining industry solid pollution in the mercurial district of Azzaba, northeast Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seklaoui, M'hamed; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Benali, Hanafi; Alligui, Fadila; Prochaska, Walter

    2016-11-01

    To date, there have been few detailed studies regarding the impact of mining and metallogenic activities on solid fractions in the Azzaba mercurial district (northeast Algeria) despite its importance and global similarity with large Hg mines. To assess the degree, distribution, and sources of pollution, a physical inventory of apparent pollution was developed, and several samples of mining waste, process waste, sediment, and soil were collected on regional and local scales to determine the concentration of Hg and other metals according to their existing mineralogical association. Several physico-chemical parameters that are known to influence the pollution distribution are realized. The extremely high concentrations of all metals exceed all norms and predominantly characterize the metallurgic and mining areas; the metal concentrations significantly decrease at significant low distances from these sources. The geo-accumulation index, which is the most realistic assessment method, demonstrates that soils and sediments near waste dumps and abandoned Hg mines are extremely polluted by all analyzed metals. The pollution by these metals decreases significantly with distance, which indicates a limited dispersion. The results of a clustering analysis and an integrated pollution index suggest that waste dumps, which are composed of calcine and condensation wastes, are the main source of pollution. Correlations and principal component analysis reveal the important role of hosting carbonate rocks in limiting pollution and differentiating calcine wastes from condensation waste, which has an extremely high Hg concentration (˃1 %).

  15. Cutting air Pollution by Improving Energy Efficiency of China's Cement Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the energy conservation supply curves (ECSC) combined with the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) was used to estimate the co-benefits of energy savings on CO2 and air pollutants emission for implementation co-control options of energy efficiency measu

  16. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  17. Oyster-based national mapping of trace metals pollution in the Chinese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guang-Yuan; Ke, Cai-Huan; Zhu, Aijia; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-03-02

    To investigate the distribution and variability of trace metal pollution in the Chinese coastal waters, over 1000 adult oyster individuals were collected from 31 sites along the entire coastline, spanning from temperate to tropical regions (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea), between August and September 2015. Concentrations of macroelements [sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P)] and trace elements [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), silver (Ag), and titanium (Ti)] in these oysters were concurrently measured and analyzed. The results showed high Ti, Zn and Cu bioaccumulation in oysters from Guangdong (South China Sea) and Zhejiang (East China Sea). Oysters at Nanji Island (Wenzhou) and Daya Bay (Huizhou) accumulated significantly high concentrations of Ni and Cr. The elements in these oysters were several times higher than the national food safety limits of China. On the other hand, the present study found that normalization of metals by salinity (Na) and nutrient (P) could reflect more details of metal pollution in the oysters. Biomonitoring of metal pollution could benefit from incorporating the macroelement calibration instead of focusing only on the total metal concentrations. Overall, simultaneous measurement of macroelements and trace metals coupled with non-linear analysis provide a new perspective for revealing the underlying mechanism of trace metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation in marine organisms.

  18. Impact of the Smart City Industry on the Korean National Economy: Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunam Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the smart city industry and its effects on the national economy of Korea are investigated using input-output analysis. The definition and industrial classification of a smart city are established using the Delphi technique for experts in various fields, from information and communication technologies (ICT to governmental policies for urban matters. The results of the analysis, including the production, value added and employment induction effects, show that the smart city industry has intermediate characteristics between ICT and urban construction industries, indicating that acquisition of the competitive edge of both the ICT and construction industries is the key to the success of the smart city industry. The crucial industries related to the smart city industry are identified based on an analysis of the forward and backward linkage effects, the results of which suggest the importance of the relevant service industries. The economic effects on the national economy induced by the governmental program for smart city demonstration are estimated using input-output analysis results. Overall, the results of this study indicate that facilitation of the smart city industry plays a key role not only in the sustainable city, but also in the growth of the national economy.

  19. Pollution Condition of Catering Industry in FuLaerji District and Pollution Control Measures%富拉尔基区餐饮行业环境污染现状及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2013-01-01

    餐饮行业的快速发展,在丰富人民物质生活的同时,不可避免地造成了对环境的污染。通过对餐饮行业环境污染现状的调查分析,针对突出问题,探索性地提出防治对策。%Catering industry develops quickly, provides convenient to people, but also pollutes the environ-ment. The paper analyses pollution condition of catering industry in FuLaerji district and puts forward pollution control measures.

  20. Effectiveness of national air pollution control policies on the air quality in metropolitan areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Xing, Jia; Zhao, Bin; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effectiveness of national air pollution controls is important for control policy design to improve the future air quality in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of major national control policies implemented recently in China through a modeling analysis. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) control policy during the 11th Five Year Plan period (2006-2010) had succeeded in reducing the national SO2 emission in 2010 by 14% from its 2005 level, which correspondingly reduced ambient SO2 and sulfate (SO4(2-)) concentrations by 13%-15% and 8%-10% respectively over east China. The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) control policy during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2011-2015) targets the reduction of the national NO(x) emission in 2015 by 10% on the basis of 2010. The simulation results suggest that such a reduction in NO(x) emission will reduce the ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate (NO3(-)), 1-hr maxima ozone (O3) concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 8%, 3%-14%, 2% and 2%-4%, respectively over east China. The application of new emission standards for power plants will further reduce the NO2, NO3(-), 1-hr maxima O(3 concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 2%-4%, 1%-6%, 0-2% and 1%-2%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-provincial impacts of emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta, which indicated the need to implement joint regional air pollution control.

  1. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Cherly; Cameron, Christopher P.; Ralph, Mark E.; Pacheco, James E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Evans, Lindsey R.

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  2. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanbari, C.; Cameron, C.P.; Ralph, M.E.; Pacheco, J.E.; Rawlinson, K.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R. [Ewing Technical Design, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  3. Modeling the convective transport of pollutants from eastern Colorado, USA into Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, A.; Schumacher, R. S.; Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) is a Class I Airshed designated under the Clean Air Act. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in the Park has been a known problem since weekly measurements of wet deposition of inorganic N began in the 1980s by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). The addition of N from urban and agriculture emissions along the Colorado Front Range to montane ecosystems degrades air quality/visibility, water quality, and soil pH levels. Based on NADP data during summers 1994-2014, wet N deposition at Beaver Meadows in RMNP exhibited a bimodal gamma distribution. In this study, we identified meteorological transport mechanisms for 3 high wet-N deposition events (all events were within the secondary peak of the gamma distribution) using the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The NARR was used to identify synoptic-scale influences on the transport; the WRF model was used to analyze the convective transport of pollutants from a concentrated animal feeding operation near Greeley, Colorado, USA. The WRF simulation included a passive tracer from the feeding operation and a convection-permitting horizontal spacing of 4/3 km. The three cases suggest (a) synoptic-scale moisture and flow patterns are important for priming summer transport events and (b) convection plays a vital role in the transport of Front Range pollutants into RMNP.

  4. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

  5. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2013 from 10:00 a... open to the public. However, due to space limitations and access procedures, the name and...

  6. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July 17, 2013 from 10:00 a.m... open to the public. However, due to space limitations and access procedures, the name and...

  7. Reluctant Partners in Modernization: The National Autonomous University of Mexico and Its Links with Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanos-Lomnitz, Heriberta

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes interviews with 44 Mexicans representative of industry, government, and the National Autonomous University of Mexico concerning modernization, industrialization, and technology transfer in the context of higher education. Although all supported an active role for higher education in technology transfer in public statements, they were…

  8. Evaluation of the Pollution Status of River Galma Basin in the Vicinity of Dakace Industrial Layout, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udiba Udiba Ugumanim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dakace Industrial Layout Zaria habours a number of wet industries, effluents from these industries are discharged through drains and canal that empties into River Galma. The river basin is a booming agricultural area and the river is used for irrigation. A study was conducted at River Galma Basin around Dakace Industrial Layout Zaria to evaluate its heavy metal pollution status. Lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni and manganese (Mn concentrations were analyzed using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer (model AA-6800, Japan after wet digestion. The range of concentrations (mg/kg of these metals was Pb (52.77-120.40, Cr (0.56-8.05, Ni (0.17-4.01 and Mn (6.98-22.. The heavy metals concentrations determined were found to be within US EPA, World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO limits for acceptable soil metal concentrations. However, the mean soil lead level was found to be above Dutch Target value (85 mg/kg which is the bench mark for soil quality. Statistical analysis shows that industrial discharges from Dakace industrial layout have significant influence on the heavy metal profile of the study area. The implications of these findings for public health are fully discussed.

  9. Ecophysiological Response of Plants to Combined Pollution from Heavy-duty Vehicles and Industrial Emissions in Higher Humidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xia Cui; Gao-Ming Jiang; Shu-Li Niu; Chuang-Dao Jiang; Mei-Zhen Liu; Shun-Li Yu; Lei-Ming Gao

    2006-01-01

    Pollution can be aggravated in industrial areas if traffic exhausts are mixed with industrial emissions under high humidity conditions. Plants growing in such environments may suffer from severe stress. The impact of vehicle emissions on urban vegetation in an industrial area in Qingdao, China, was investigated by studying seven plant species at visible, physiological and chemical levels. The traits of plant species in certain environmental conditions were compared between a clear area, Badaguan (BDG), and polluted area,Roadside (RS). We found that foliar sulfur uptake for all species was not significantly high at RS compared with BDG, although the sulfur content of atmosphere and surface soils at RS were much higher than those at BDG. For Ailanthus altissima Swingle, the content of foliar pigment and net photosynthesis rate (PN)decreased by 20%. Meanwhile, leaves became incrassate and no visible leaf damage was noted, suggesting this species could adapt well to pollution. A 50% decrease in PN occurred in Hibiscus syriacus L., but there was no statistical change in content of chlorophyll a and b and water uptake. Also, thickened leaves may prevent the pollutant from permeation. Foliar water content was still at a low level, although a water compensation mechanism was established for Fraxinus chinensis Rosb. reflected by low water potential and high water use efficiency. More adversely, a 65% decrease in PN happened inevitably with the significant decomposition of photosynthetic pigments, which exhibited visible damage. We also noted in one evergreen species (Magnolia grandiflora L.) that water absorption driven by low water potential should be helpful to supply water loss induced by strong stomatal transpiration and maintain normal growth. Furthermore, photosynthetic pigment content did not decline statistically, but supported a stable net assimilation. Two herbaceous species, Poa annua L. and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl., were very tolerant to adverse stress

  10. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  11. The role of the space industry in building capacity in emerging space nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, David

    2009-11-01

    The space industry in established space-faring nations is playing an increasingly important role in the development of capacity in emerging space nations. The role of industry ranges from provision of turn-key systems, to provision of training and joint development of satellites in partnership with emerging space countries. Ranked number 1 worldwide in terms of satellites ordered in 2006, Thales Alenia Space is at the heart of the most high performance satellite technologies in both civil and defense sectors. The company has been involved in parterships with a number of emerging space nations. This paper discusses several key factors for successful interaction of industry with national space programmes in emerging space nations.

  12. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  13. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Klymenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  14. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    OpenAIRE

    O. Y. Klymenko; V. Y. Gasso

    2009-01-01

    Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  15. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

    2008-01-15

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

  16. Microsatellite DNA mutations in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) associated with exposure to PAH-containing industrial air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L E; de Solla, S R; Small, J M; Sverko, E; Quinn, J S

    2014-10-01

    Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada is one of the most polluted sites on the Great Lakes, and is subject to substantial airborne pollution due to emissions from both heavy industry and intense vehicle traffic. Mutagenic Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present at very high concentrations in the air and sediment of Hamilton Harbour. We used five variable DNA microsatellites to screen for mutations in 97 families of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from three wild colonies, two in Hamilton Harbour and one in cleaner northeastern Lake Erie. Mutations were identified in all five microsatellites at low frequencies, with the majority of mutations found in chicks from the Hamilton Harbour site closest to industrial sources of PAH contamination. Microsatellite mutation rates were 6-fold higher at the Hamilton Harbour site closest to the industrial sources of PAH contamination than the other Hamilton Harbour site, and both were higher than the reference colony. A Phase I metabolite of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene identified by LC-MS/MS in bile and liver from Hamilton Harbour cormorant chicks suggests that these cormorants are exposed to and metabolizing PAHs, highlighting their potential to have caused the observed mutations.

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  18. Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Jan, F Akbar; Khan, Murad Ali; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M; Roohullah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

  19. 77 FR 9303 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ..., for example, biomass co-fired EGUs because their use is not yet commonplace, we believe this... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial- Commercial-Institutional,...

  20. National Oil Companies and the Future of the Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the 1970s, a small number of national oil companies (NOCs) have dominated the world supply of oil and other hydrocarbons. Despite the huge influence that NOCs have on political economy, systematic scholarship remains surprisingly thin. I examine the factors that explain the wide variation in the strategy and performance of NOCs and survey the literature that has suggested the many ways in which NOCs play pivotal political and economic roles in resource-rich countries. As we look to...

  1. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  2. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  3. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  4. Vigorously Develop Satellite Application Industry to Serve National Socio-economic Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Ji

    2010-01-01

    @@ China International Aviation and Aerospace Forum 2010 was held on November 15 in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province.Vice President of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)Rui Xiaowu delivered a speech at the forum with the theme of "vigorously developing satellite application industry to serve national socio-economic construction".He stated in his speech that as an important method for information transmission, navigation and position and obtaining geographic information satellite applications have been integrated into all industries in the national economy in China and have become one of the indispensable information infrastructures for national security, the economy and society.

  5. Health risk of inhalation exposure to sub-10 µm particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in an urban-industrial area in South Africa: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the health risks associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). Design The study is an ecological study that used the year 2014 hourly ambient pollution data. Setting The study was conducted in an industrial area located in Pretoria West, South Africa. The area accommodates a coal-fired power station, metallurgical industries such as a coke plant and a manganese smelter. Data and method Estimate of possible health risks from exposure to airborne PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 was performed using the US Environmental Protection Agency human health risk assessment framework. A scenario-assessment approach where normal (average exposure) and worst-case (continuous exposure) scenarios were developed for intermediate (24-hour) and chronic (annual) exposure periods for different exposure groups (infants, children, adults). The normal acute (1-hour) exposure to these pollutants was also determined. Outcome measures Presence or absence of adverse health effects from exposure to airborne pollutants. Results Average annual ambient concentration of PM10, NO2 and SO2 recorded was 48.3±43.4, 11.50±11.6 and 18.68±25.4 µg/m3, respectively, whereas the South African National Ambient Air Quality recommended 40, 40 and 50 µg/m3 for PM10, NO2 and SO2, respectively. Exposure to an hour's concentration of NO2, SO2, CO and O3, an 8-hour concentration of CO and O3, and a 24-hour concentration of PM10, NO2 and SO2 will not likely produce adverse effects to sensitive exposed groups. However, infants and children, rather than adults, are more likely to be affected. Moreover, for chronic annual exposure, PM10, NO2 and SO2 posed a health risk to sensitive individuals, with the severity of risk varying across exposed groups. Conclusions Long-term chronic exposure to airborne PM10, NO2 and SO2 pollutants may result in health risks among the study population. PMID:28289048

  6. A Study on the Mechanism of Emission Trading between Industrial Point Pollution and Agriculture Non-Point Pollution%工业点源-农业面源排污权交易的机制创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇; 王会; 陈海丹; 詹贤达

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture non-point pollution has been one of the most important sources of the water pollution in China.Compared with industrial point pollution, the emission reduction cost of agriculture non-point pollution is lower, which make the emission trade feasible. First, the characteristics of agriculture non-point pollution were recognized as that agriculture non-point pollution had many sources, uncertainty in occurring, difficulty to supervise. Then, two emission trade mechanisms had been built, one of which was that farmers changed production behavior uniformly and the other was that industrial point pollution built public pollution eliminating infrastructures. Finally, some key problem in the emission trading between industrial point pollution and agriculture non-point pollution were discussed.%当前,农业面源污染已经成为我国水环境污染的主要来源.相比较于大型工业点源,农业面源污染减排成本较低的状况为二者进行排污权交易提供了有利条件.在分析面源污染具有涉及个体多、发生不确定性强、减排结果监测困难等特征的基础上,提出了工业点源与农业面源排污权交易的两种机制:基于污染产生的"农户统一行动交易机制"和基于污染治理的"农业公共治理设施建设交易机制".最后,针对工业点源-农业面源排污权交易中存在的一些问题进行了初步探讨.

  7. Fuzzy Logic Modelling of the Effects of Pollution on Domestic Roof-Harvested Rainwater Quality in Residential and Industrial Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Olayiwola Akin; Sangodoyin, Abimbola Yisau; Agunbiade, Foluso Oyedotun

    2016-07-01

    This study presents the effects of environmental pollution on the quality of domestic roof-harvested rainwater (DRHRW) using fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA). Seven metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg) and six water-quality parameters (Acidity, PO4 (3-), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-) , Cl(-), and pH) were investigated in DRHRW sampled from 12 sampling points each from Ibadan (residential) and Lagos (industrial) environments, Nigeria. The results of these parameters were formulated into membership function fuzzy matrices based on four contamination classifications of high, marginal, low, and poor qualities using regulatory limits as criteria. The products membership function matrices and weight matrices generated indices that classified the degree of anthropogenic activity impact on the sites. Results of FCA classified the DRHRW from residential environment as between high and marginal quality, whereas DRHRW from industrial environment is classified between marginal and low quality. Lead and Cd were major contaminants of concern found in these harvested water.

  8. Wintertime haze deterioration in Beijing by industrial pollution deduced from trace metal fingerprints and enhanced health risk by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chi; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chou, Charles C-K; Zhang, Renjian; Wu, Yunfei; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Luo, Li; Huang, Chao-Hao; Lin, Shuen-Hsin; Huang, Yi-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) was collected in Beijing between 24 February and 12 March 2014 to investigate chemical characteristics and potential industrial sources of aerosols along with health risk of haze events. Results showed secondary inorganic aerosol was the major contributor to PM2.5 during haze days. Utilizing specific elements, including Fe, La, Tl and As, as fingerprinting tracers, four emission sources, namely iron and steel manufacturing, petroleum refining, cement plant, and coal combustion were explicitly identified; their elevated contributions to PM during haze days were also estimated. The average cancer risk from exposure to inhalable PM toxic metals was 1.53 × 10(-4) on haze days, which is one order of magnitude higher than in other developed cities. These findings suggested heavy industries emit large amounts of not only primary PM but also precursor gas pollutants, leading to secondary aerosol formation and harm to human health during haze days.

  9. Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardo, Lucio, E-mail: lucioleo@ipen.br [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Saiki, Mitiko [Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

  10. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2011-12-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Fiscal Year 2011. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist organizations in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, the analyses performed, and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Management System (EMS) and Pollution Prevention (P2) staff will continue to work with the organizations to implement the recommendations.

  11. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Florian; Graham, Neil D; Chiaradia, Massimo; Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2011-12-15

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (>100 μg Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents.

  12. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution

  13. Anaerobic microbial fuel cell treating combined industrial wastewater: Correlation of electricity generation with pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Umara; Jin, Wang; Pervez, Arshid; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Tariq, Madiha; Shaheen, Shahida; Iqbal, Akhtar; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a new technology that not only generates energy but treats wastewater as well. A dual chamber MFC was operated under laboratory conditions. Wastewater samples from vegetable oil industries, metal works, glass and marble industries, chemical industries and combined industrial effluents were collected and each was treated for 98h in MFC. The treatment efficiency for COD in MFC was in range of 85-90% at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 96h and had significant impact on wastewater treatment as well. The maximum voltage of 890mV was generated when vegetable oil industries discharge was treated with columbic efficiency of 5184.7C. The minimum voltage was produced by Glass House wastewater which was 520mV. There was positive significant co-relation between COD concentration and generated voltage. Further research should be focused on the organic contents of wastewater and various ionic species affecting voltage generation in MFC.

  14. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sena, Rennio F; Tambosi, José L; Floriani, Silvia L; Virmond, Elaine; Schröder, Horst Fr; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2009-09-01

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content--polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF)--were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  15. Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

  16. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  17. Inventory and Policy Reduction Potential of Greenhouse Gas and Pollutant Emissions of Road Transportation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, emissions from the road transportation industry in China have been increasing rapidly. To evaluate the reduction potential of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions of the industry in China, its emission inventory was calculated and scenario analysis was created for the period between 2012 and 2030 in this paper. Based on the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP model, the development of China’s road transportation industry in two scenarios (the business-as-usual (BAU scenario and the comprehensive-mitigation (CM scenario was simulated. In the Comprehensive Mitigation scenario, there are nine various measures which include Fuel Economy Standards, Auto Emission Standards, Energy-saving Technology, Tax Policy, Eco-driving, Logistics Informatization, Vehicle Liquidation, Electric Vehicles, and Alternative Fuels. The cumulative energy and emission reductions of these specific measures were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that China’s road transportation produced 881 million metric tons of CO2 and emitted 1420 thousand tons of CO, 2150 thousand tons of NOx, 148 thousand tons of PM10, and 745 thousand tons of HC in 2012. The reduction potential is quite large, and road freight transportation is the key mitigation subsector, accounting for 85%–92% of the total emission. For energy conservation and carbon emission mitigation, logistics informatization is the most effective method, potentially reducing 1.80 billion tons of coal equivalent and 3.83 billion tons of CO2 from 2012 to 2030. In terms of air pollutant emission mitigation, the auto emission standards measure performs best with respect to NOx, PM10, and HC emission mitigation, and logistic informatization measure is the best in CO emission reduction. In order to maximize the mitigation potential of China’s road transportation industry, the government needs to implement various measures in a timely and strict fashion.

  18. Enhancing National Participation in the Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.

    2011-07-01

    In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)

  19. Relation Between pH and Desorption of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb from Industrially Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2009-01-01

    Desorption of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn from industrially polluted soils as a result of acidification is in focus. The eight soils of the investigation vary greatly in composition and heavy metal concentration/combination. Three soils had elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn; regardless of pollution...... level, pollution origin, and soil type, the order for desorption as pH decreased was Zn > Cu > Pb. Turning to a single heavy metal in different soils, there was a huge difference in the pH at which the major desorption started. The variation was most significant for Pb where, e.g., less than 10......% was desorbed at pH 2.5 from one soil, whereas in another soil 60% Pb was desorbed at this pH. Sequential extraction was made and the soils in which a high percentage of Pb was found in the residual phase (adsorbed strongest) was also the soils where less Pb was desorbed at low pH in the desorption experiments...

  20. Cooperative Science: A National Study of University and Industry Researchers. Assessment of the Industry/University Cooperative Research Projects Program (IUCR). Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elmima C.; Tornatzky, Louis G.

    This report presents data from a national study of 118 Industry/University Cooperative Research (IUCR) projects supported by the National Science Foundation. Questionnaire responses were gathered from 226 industry and university scientists working on these projects. The purpose of the study was to describe how IUCR projects develop, how they are…

  1. A review of the epidemiological methods used to investigate the health impacts of air pollution around major industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Mathilde; Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Hélène; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Vérène

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  2. Sources of potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants in an urban area subjected to an industrial impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, Anabela; Pereira, Maria Eduarda; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Duarte, Armando Costa

    2012-01-01

    Urban and industrial development has caused a major impact on environmental soil quality. This work assesses the extent and severity of contamination in a small urban area subjected to an industrial impact and identifies the major anthropogenic inputs. Twenty-six soil samples were collected from agricultural and urban sites, and concentrations of potentially toxic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), PAHs and PCBs, were determined. In spite of the low median concentrations observed, some sites represent a potential hazard for human health and ecosystems. Concentrations of contaminants were higher than those found in a nearby city, indicating that the study area is affected by the surrounding industry. The use of multivariate statistical analyses allowed for the identification of the main factors controlling the variability of potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants in the soils. The presence of Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni was associated with geogenic inputs, and Cu, Pb, Zn, As, PAHs and PCBs were associated with anthropogenic inputs. Industry and traffic were the most important anthropogenic sources. Soil characteristics were identified as important factors controlling the spatial variability of elements, both from recognised natural and anthropogenic origin. Differences between land uses were observed, which may be attributed to both management practices and proximity to sources.

  3. Immobilized ligninolytic enzymes: An innovative and environmental responsive technology to tackle dye-based industrial pollutants - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-15

    In the twenty-first century, chemical and associated industries quest a transition prototype from traditional chemical-based concepts to a greener, sustainable and environmentally-friendlier catalytic alternative, both at the laboratory and industrial scale. In this context, bio-based catalysis offers numerous benefits along with potential biotechnological and environmental applications. The bio-based catalytic processes are energy efficient than conventional methodologies under moderate processing, generating no and negligible secondary waste pollution. Thanks to key scientific advances, now, solid-phase biocatalysts can be economically tailored on a large scale. Nevertheless, it is mandatory to recover and reprocess the enzyme for their commercial feasibility, and immobilization engineering can efficiently accomplish this challenge. The first part of the present review work briefly outlines the immobilization of lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) including lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase of white-rot fungi (WRF). Whereas, in the second part, a particular emphasis has been given on the recent achievements of carrier-immobilized LMEs for the degradation, decolorization, or detoxification of industrial dyes and dye-based industrial wastewater effluents.

  4. Development of an industrial complex for ensuring national competitiveness and economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kalach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living standards depends on the state of the country’s industrial complex. In a message to Russian President Vladimir Putin's Federal Assembly was asked to implement in 2015 a national technological initiative, the development of industries of the new technological order. As a result of the predominance of the industry of the sixth technological order should occur major changes in the structure of production factors and significance. It follows the inevitability of structural changes in the system of economic institutions and mechanisms of economic security and competitiveness of the state achieve the main goal of the state program “The development of industry and increase its competitiveness” is carried out through the following the directions of sub-programs: investment goods (chemical complex development composite materials, industrial biotechnology, power engineering, machine tool industry, agricultural machinery, machinery specialized production, transport engineering; goods (light industry, children;s products industry, the automotive industry; military-industrial complex; infrastructure (development of engineering activities, industrial parks; semi-finished goods and materials (timber industry, metallurgy, industrial development of rare-earth metals. At the current pace of technological and economic development, the 6 th technological structure will come into proliferation phase in 2010–2020, and in the phase of maturity – 40-ies of XXI century. At the same time in 2020–2025 there will be a new scientific-technical and technological revolution, which will become the basis for developing, synthesizing advances in the above basic technologies. In this paper, we proposed as a tool to ensure the economic security of the state to use the acceleration system of technical development of the industrial complex.

  5. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

  6. Potential of marine-derived fungi and their enzymes in bioremediation of industrial pollutants

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verma, A.K.

    Increasing discharge and improper management of toxic and colored industrial effluents have created a great concern over their treatment which is economical and safe. Therefore it is imperative to develop cost effective and efficient methods...

  7. Analysis of Changing Tendency of Industry Pollution Source for Drinking Water Sources in Chengdu%成都市饮用水源地工业污染源变化趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周筝

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water source protection is the hot issue focused by the nation and society, and is directly related to the people 's health and livelihood. Pixian is the place where water is fetched for more than 85%drinking water supply in Chengdu,. In this paper, the changing tendency of industry pollution source for Pixian drinking water sources, towns of Sandaoyan and Tangchang, in the past five years was analyzed from the aspects of the industrial structure, water pollution source, atmosphere pollution source and solid waste pollution source. The method of Spearman rank correlation coefficient was adopted to evaluate the changing tendency quantitatively, and the recommendations of the environmental protection of water sources were targeted , which can provide some scientific reference for environmental construction in Chengdu.%  郫县是成都市饮用水源地,承担了成都市区85%以上的供水任务。从工业结构、水污染源、大气污染源和固体废物污染源几个方面分析了郫县饮用水源地三道堰镇和唐昌镇近5年来工业污染源变化,采用Spearman秩相关系数法对变化趋势进行定量评价,提出水源地环境保护建议。

  8. Offshore Equipment Industry Won the First Prize of National Science and Technology Progress Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The "key design and manufacturing technology of deep sea cylinder type drilling unit with high stability" researched and developed by COSCOShipyard Group Co., Ltd. won the first prize of 2011 annual national science and technology progress award in the national science and technology awards conference held on February 14, 2012. This is the first national technology award for domestic offshore engineering equipment manufacturing enterprises, which indicates that China's deep sea drilling equipment design has achieved significant breakthrough. It will promote the development of advanced offshore engineering manufacturing industry, and will have profound influence on China's deep sea energy development strategy and national energy security strategy.

  9. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Henry W. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: henrylin@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: ggonzalezabad@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F (CF{sub 4}) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level.

  10. Valuing health effects from the industrial air pollution in rural Tianjin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-feng; XU Lin-yu

    2004-01-01

    High concentrations of air pollutants such as total suspended particulates(TSP) and sulfur dioxide(SO2 ) have serious impacts on nearby populations. In this paper, a survey of rural Tianjin residents' willingness-to-pay for health improvement was reported on, and the MBDC( multiple bounded discrete choice) model was adopted to study the respondents' willingness-to-pay to prevent respiratory illnesses.The results showed that the willingness-to-pay for health improvement was affected by respondents' health condition, work situation and environmental awareness, but not by personal habits, such as smoking. If person's willingness-to-pay to avoid respiratory diseases can be considered equal to the cost to personal health caused by air pollution, the total cost will reach 538 x 106 RMB Yuan( RMB, equal to 65million USD) per year.

  11. The Culture is fighting in the streets. Nationalism and cultural industries in the interwar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rubinzal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposed to analyze the relationship of rights to cultural industries in the interwar Argentina. The analysis focuses on cultural products produced and distributed by groups and intellectuals ascribed to Argentine nationalism. The consumption of these cultural assets is studied in the framework of the political dispute by imposing a model nation in a world divided between fascist and democratic models. The main hypothesis of this article is that the Argentine nationalism conceived the "cultural question" as a central aspect of his "crusade" policy and developed different strategies and practices to disseminate their ideas in the most diverse sectors of society, including workers. The corpus includes cultural products from the publishing industry, for years is undergoing a profound transformation, and the most recent radio and film industries. In the latter case, the columns of newspapers and other writings on cinema are examined.

  12. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-01-01

    We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, penvironmental health implications of that concentration disparity are compelling. For example, we estimate that reducing nonwhites' NO2 concentrations to levels experienced by whites would reduce Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) mortality by ∼7,000 deaths per year, which is equivalent to 16 million people increasing their physical activity level from inactive (0 hours/week of physical activity) to sufficiently active (>2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  13. National Patterns in Environmental Injustice and Inequality: Outdoor NO2 Air Pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P.; Millet, Dylan B.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin. PMID:24736569

  14. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara P Clark

    Full Text Available We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity. Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08. Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  15. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  16. Industrial Noise Pollution and its Impacts on Workers in the Textile Based Cottage Industries: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitbar Ali Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A and maximum as 109.8dB (A, which was compared with OSHA and WHO (World Health Organization standards. Result of this study shows that due to high intensity of noise generated by looms and dusts at work places, workers were facing the mental and physical problems.

  17. FORMATION OF THE SYSTEM STRENGTHENING THE MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL POTENTIAL IN THE CONCEPT OF NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Bekkiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the system to strengthen the defense industrial capacity. Explored approaches to this problem, given that domestic authors investigated the prospects of high-tech enterprise innovation systems and their sustainability, as well as a variety of instructional approaches, foreign authors assign great importance to the strategic management and systems analysis Management by Objectives defense complex. The problems of strengthening the military-industrial complex and their solutions are presented, such as the need to improve strategic planning (scenario variability of plans, co-ordinated action to overcome threats, challenges and risks, scientific and methodological rationale for the decision-making at all levels (national, regional and organizational. The author gives a system to strengthen the military-industrial potential in the concept of national security, which includes: national values, the program of socio-economic development of the Russian Federation, foreign policy concept, the concept of strengthening the military-industrial complex in Russia's national security, the program of socio-economic development of the Voronezh region, as well as methods of analysis and strengthening the military-industrial complex. Particular attention is paid to the method of co-financing of defense enterprises and methods of quantifying the performance objectives semistructured systems.

  18. Implementation of Environmental Judgments in Context: A Comparative Analysis of Dahanu Thermal Power Plant Pollution Case in Maharashtra and Vellore Leather Industrial Pollution Case in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjoy Sahu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a relatively neglected aspect of understanding the post-environmental judgment scenario: the impact of environmental judgment at the grassroots level and why there has been variation in the implementation of environmental judgments. It examines two Supreme Court environmental judgments on industrial pollution in two different states of India-the Dahanu Power Plant Case in Thane District of Maharashtra and the leather industrial pollution case in Vellore District of Tamil Nadu-and raises one central question-what factors determine the effective implementation of Supreme Court’s environmental judgments. The premise of this paper is that, despite the existence of a well-established regulatory framework to enforce environmental laws and policies in India, there has been a variation in the implementation of environmental judgments. From the judicial activism perspective, emphasis is placed on how the nature and level of judicial intervention in the post-judgment scenario, ensures the effective implementation of its own directions. It is argued that judicial intervention in the implementation of its decisions has become crucial to enforce its directions, and that this intervention is undertaken not to take away the power and functions of implementing agency, but rather to translate its directions into action at the grassroots level. In turn, the successful enforcement of environmental judgments depends on the nature of judicial activism, or the way in which the judges bring changes in the implementation process. As a consequence, it is not the level of judicial activism in itself which is decisive, but the process of activism that contributes towards the effective implementation of its decisions. In establishing this argument, however, the paper also argues that the process of judicial activism in the implementation of its direction is triggered by the active and consistent involvement of civil-society groups at the grassroots

  19. [The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozal, Raúl Rodríquez

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organización Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unión Farmacéutica Nacional'.

  20. New observations on PAH pollution in old heavy industry cities in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Ma, Junhua; Yu, Yang; Yang, Zhifeng; Li, Yingxia

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the distinctive PAHs adsorbed on street dust near various industries in the three typical industrialized cities of Daqing (DQ), Harbin (HEB) and Jilin (JL) in northeastern China. The mean ∑PAHs concentrations in street dust of DQ, HEB and JL were 1.84, 4.87, 12.38 μg/g, respectively. Typical petroleum resource city DQ had higher proportions of low and medium ringed PAHs with higher proportions of phenanthrene (Phe), naphthalene (Nap), fluoranthene (Flua) and chrysene (Chr) at industrial sites. Typical chemical processing city JL had higher proportions of medium and high ringed PAHs with higher proportions of Flua, benz[a]anthracene (BaA), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at industrial sites. Phe, Flua, Pyr and Chr were four major PAHs from most studied industries. The distinctive PAH emissions from the ferroalloy plant were BaA and BaP. BaA and BaP concentrations decreased by 90% at sites more than 2 km away from the ferroalloy plant.

  1. A contemporary national nitrogen inventory as a benchmark for future progress in mitigating nitrogen pollution in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Galloway, J. N.; Theis, T.; Alexander, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    We present a contemporary inventory of reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to land, air, and water in the United States. Inputs of Nr to the nation and the world have been increasing, largely due to human activities associated with food production and energy consumption via the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Despite the obvious essential benefits of a plentiful supply of food and energy, the adverse consequences associated with the accumulation of Nr in the environment are large. Most of the Nr created by anthropogenic activities is released to the environment, often with unintended negative consequences. The greater the inputs of Nr to the landscape, the greater the potential for negative effects, caused by greenhouse gas production, ground level ozone, acid deposition, and Nr overload that can contribute to climate change, degradation of soils and vegetation, acidification of surface waters, coastal eutrophication, hypoxia and habitat loss. Here, we present a consistent accounting method for quantifying Nr sources and transport that was used in our inventory, and discuss associated data needs for tallying Nr inputs at regional scales. The inventory is a necessary tool for exploring the role of Nr contributed to the environment from various sources (e.g., from fertilizers, manure, biological fixation, human waste, atmospheric deposition) and from various industrial sectors (e.g., from agriculture, transportation, electricity generation). Agriculture and use of fertilizers to produce food, feed, and fiber (including bioenergy and biological nitrogen fixation) and combustion of fossil fuels are the largest sources of Nr released into the environment in the USA. Our inventory is currently being used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a benchmark of the current Nr situation against which future progress can be assessed -- amidst changing Nr inputs and implementation of policy and management strategies to mitigate Nr pollution.

  2. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  3. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... open to the public. However, due to space limitations and access procedures, the name and telephone number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  4. Cooperative Science: A National Study of University and Industry Researchers. Case Studies. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elmima C.; And Others

    This report presents nine case studies of Industry/University Cooperative Research (IUCR) projects supported during 1978-1980 by the National Science Foundation. The intent of this document is to provide readers with a qualitative picture of cooperative science as practiced under the IUCR program. The information presented in this report is…

  5. [Clinical and epidemiologic evaluation of carcinogenic pollution in the wood-processing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkova, E V; Dymova, E G; Gurvich, E B; Antonova, O N; Gutnikova, O V; Saprykova, V V; Prosina, I I

    1993-01-01

    Hygienic, clinical, epidemiologic studies in primary woodworking and chipboard production workers showed that exposure to occupational hazards (wooden dust, formaldehyde and other chemicals of wooden origin) results in frequent allergy and irritation of upper respiratory tract and skin. High oncologic risk among woodworking production employees assigns the industry to a group with oncologic jeopardy. MAC for wooden dust should be corrected taking into account the chemicals (phenol, formaldehyde, furans et al.) content.

  6. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention assessment protocol in the polymer processing industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardone, John; Sansone, Leonard; Kenney, William; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    1998-03-31

    This report was developed from experiences with three New Jersey firms and is intended to be a guide for conducting analyses on resource (energy and raw materials) utilization and pollution (solid waste, air and water emissions) prevention in plastics processing plants. The protocol is written on the assumption that the analysis is to be done by an outside agency such as a consulting firm, but it also can be used for internal audits by plant teams. Key concepts in this analysis were adapted from life cycle analysis. Because of the small sample of companies studied, the results have to be considered high preliminary, but some of the conclusions will probably be confirmed by further work.

  7. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  8. Reduction of soil pollution by usingwaste of the limestone in the cement industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M. Cecilia Soto; Robles Castillo, Marcelo; Blanco Fernandez, David; Diaz Gonzalez, Marcos; Naranjo Lamilla, Pedro; Moore Undurraga, Fernando; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    In the cement manufacturing process (wet) a residue is generated in the flotation process. This builds up causing contamination of soil, groundwater and agricultural land unusable type. In this study to reduce soil and water pollution 10% of the dose of cement was replaced by waste of origin limestone. Concretes were produced with 3 doses of cement and mechanical strengths of each type of concrete to 7, 28 and 90 days were determined. the results indicate that the characteristics of calcareous residue can replace up to 10% of the dose of cement without significant decreases in strength occurs. It is noted that use of the residue reduces the initial resistance, so that the dose of cement should not be less than 200 kg of cement per m3. The results allow recommends the use of limestone waste since it has been observed decrease in soil and water contamination without prejudice construction material Keywords: Soil contamination; Limestone residue; Adding concrete

  9. Updated United Nations Framework Classification for reserves and resources of extractive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blaise, J.R.; Blystad, P.; Kelter, D.; Gabrielyants, G.; Heiberg, S.; Martinez, A.; Ross, J.G.; Slavov, S.; Subelj, A.; Young, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The United Nations have studied how the oil and gas resource classification developed jointly by the SPE, the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) could be harmonized with the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Solid Fuel and Mineral Resources (1). The United Nations has continued to build on this and other works, with support from many relevant international organizations, with the objective of updating the UNFC to apply to the extractive industries. The result is the United Nations Framework Classification for Energy and Mineral Resources (2) that this paper will present. Reserves and resources are categorized with respect to three sets of criteria: ??? Economic and commercial viability ??? Field project status and feasibility ??? The level of geologic knowledge The field project status criteria are readily recognized as the ones highlighted in the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification system of 2000. The geologic criteria absorb the rich traditions that form the primary basis for the Russian classification system, and the ones used to delimit, in part, proved reserves. Economic and commercial criteria facilitate the use of the classification in general, and reflect the commercial considerations used to delimit proved reserves in particular. The classification system will help to develop a common understanding of reserves and resources for all the extractive industries and will assist: ??? International and national resources management to secure supplies; ??? Industries' management of business processes to achieve efficiency in exploration and production; and ??? An appropriate basis for documenting the value of reserves and resources in financial statements.

  10. The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: The National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Nozal, Raúl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the Organización Sindical in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products —which we will specially deal with in this work— were managed by the Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos, which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. This created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the Unión Farmacéutica Nacional.

    El asociacionismo farmacéutico industrial, al igual que ocurriera con otras actividades empresariales, experimentó un notable auge durante la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera y la II República. La Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, desde Barcelona, representó a la industria química nacional hasta su asimilación definitiva por la Organización Sindical franquista, en 1939. Dentro de esta asociación, los asuntos relacionados con los productos farmacéuticos, a los que prestaremos especial atención en este trabajo, fueron gestionados por la Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico- Farmacéuticos, que defendió los intereses de los productores de medicamentos industriales ante las autoridades gubernamentales, utilizando para ello recursos y mecanismos también manejados por otros grupos empresariales de presión. La inclusión de la farmacia industrial

  11. Road traffic pollution monitoring and modelling tools and the UK national air quality strategy.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, G.R.; Bell, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the tools required to fulfil the air quality management role now expected of local authorities within the UK. The use of a range of pollution monitoring tools in assessing air quality is discussed and illustrated with evidence from a number of previous studies of urban background and roadside pollution monitoring in Leicester. A number of approaches to pollution modelling currently available for deployment are examined. Subsequently, the modelling and moni...

  12. A comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants from iron and steel industry in China: Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Tian, Hezhong; Hua, Shenbing; Zhu, Chuanyong; Gao, Jiajia; Xue, Yifeng; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Junrui

    2016-07-15

    China has become the largest producer of iron and steel throughout the world since 1996. However, as an energy-and-pollution intensive manufacturing sector, a detailed comprehensive emission inventory of air pollutants for iron and steel industry of China is still not available. To obtain and better understand the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of typical hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emissions from iron and steel production in China, a comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants, including size segregated particulate matter (TSP/PM10/PM2.5), gaseous pollutants (SO2, NOx, CO), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni etc.), as well as the more dangerous PCDD/Fs, is established with the unit-based annual activity, specific dynamic emission factors for the historical period of 1978-2011, and the future potential trends till to 2050 are forecasted by using scenario analysis. Our results show that emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter have experienced a gradual increase tendency since 2000, while emissions of priority-controlled heavy metals (Hg, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, and Ni) have exhibited a short-term fluctuation during the period of 1990 to 2005. With regard to the spatial distribution of HAPs emissions in base year 2011, Bohai economic circle is identified as the top emission intensity region where iron and steel smelting plants are densely built; within iron and steel industry, blast furnaces contribute the majority of PM emissions, sinter plants account for most of gaseous pollutants and the majority of PCDD/Fs, whereas steel making processes are responsible for the majority of heavy metal emissions. Moreover, comparisons of future emission trends under three scenarios indicate that advanced technologies and integrated whole process management strategies are in great need to further diminish various hazardous air pollutants from iron and steel industry in the future.

  13. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  14. Effects of Riyadh cement industry pollutions on some physiological and morphological factors of Datura innoxia Mill. plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Hediat M H; Al-Rumaih, M M; Al-Dosary, M A

    2011-07-01

    Cement factory emissions into air cause serious air pollution and affect the plant and animal life in the environment. Herein, we report the effects of cement industry emissions (O3, SO2 and NO2) in air, as pollutants, at Riyadh City on Datura innoxia Mill. plant. Morphological characters including plant height, leaves area and number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root systems of D. innoxia showed a significant reduction from their normal control plants as a response to exposure to pollutant emissions. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents recorded reductions in values compared to control plant, and the lowest values of chlorophyll A, B, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and total pigments were 0.431, 0.169, 0.60, 0.343 and 0.943 mg/g respectively at a distance of 1-5 m from the cement factory in fruiting stage. These changes in values may be attributed to a probable deceleration of the biosynthetic process rather than degradation of pigments. Further D. innoxia showed a significant (P plant. The root system recorded the lowest values of reducing sugars (0.350 mg/g f. wt.), non-reducing sugars (0.116 mg/g f. wt.), total sugars (0.466 mg/g f. wt.), protein content (0.931 mg/g f. wt.) and total lipids content (0.669 mg/g f. wt.) in fruiting stage at a distance of 1-5 m from the cement factory. The peroxidase activity of shoot and root systems of the studied plant was also significantly higher than those of control plant. Thus a highest value of (29.616 units/g f. wt.) peroxidase activity was recorded in vegetative stage of shoot system at a distance 1-5 m from the cement factory. Results of the study indicated that cement industry emission strongly influence the physiology and morphology of date palm D. innoxia which contribute date fruits, a staple food in the Arab world.

  15. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

    2011-07-15

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

  16. Soil pollution on railway sites in The Netherlands: a national survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokman, G.N.M.; Natris, H.W.M. de; Huigen, P.M.J. [Stichting Bodemsanering, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    In Dutch environmental policy, an important objective is to obtain a national overview of the enviromental quality of the soil before the end of 2004. The Dutch Railways Foundation for Soil Remediation (SBNS) has completed its share of the 'national survey' in december 2002 and now has a clear picture of its workload. The main purpose of this lecture is to present an overview to a broad audience, as well as first analysis of the national survey concerning the Dutch Railway sites. A second purpose is a brief description and evaluation of the chosen approach. In 1995 the Dutch Railways (NS) were privatised. All grounds, which formerly were property of the NS, were divided between two new landowners, NS Railinfra and NS Real Estate. The total costs for soil remediation were estimated on about 1.6 billion EUR. Therefore, the topic of soil pollution was separated and put into the hands of the newly founded, independent SBNS. With its annual budget of 23 million EUR, its workfield and its number of sites, the SBNS is one of the major Dutch organisations dealing with soil remediation. Preliminary investigations on 608 sites pointed out that 35% of the 15,903 investigated suspected spots is heavily contaminated. When clustered to 'cases of serious soil contamination', 3,096 cases can be identified for remediation. This means, that on the average Dutch railway site 5 'cases of serious soil contamination' are present. However, these figures look more serious then they actually are, because for 88% of all cases no actual environmental risks are present. For the cases with environmental risks (12%), remediation has to be carried out with priority in the following years; cases without risks can be postponed and combined with other civil works. On basis of these results the SBNS now has calculated the total costs of remediation on about half the amount, that was estimated in 1995. A main cause for this lower estimate is the soil quality, which has

  17. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China:A case study on an industrial city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jieyun Ma; Honghong Yi; Xiaolong Tang; Yan Zhang; Ying Xiang; Li Pu

    2013-01-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction,also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders.The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China,Xuanwei in Yunnan Province,was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system.First,our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10.Second,after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015,ambient concentration of SO2,NOx and PM 10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated,and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented.Last but not least,a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation.However,there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future.In spatial allocation,reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx.These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy

  18. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China: a case study on an industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jieyun; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Ying; Pu, Li

    2013-08-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction, also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders. The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China, Xuanwei in Yunnan Province, was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system. First, our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10. Second, after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015, ambient concentration of SO2, NOx and PM10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated, and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented. Last but not least, a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation. However, there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future. In spatial allocation, reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx. These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy.

  19. Biogeochemical features technogenic pollution of soils under the influence chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraeva I.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical properties of soil (pH, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity. The regularities of the distribution of total and mobile forms of heavy metals in soil sediments in the territory of Shostka Sumy region under the influence of the chemical industry and in the background areas. Biogeochemical indicators obtained content of microscopic fungi and their species, the most characteristic of the study of soils, which can be used as an additional criterion for ecological and geochemical studies.

  20. Analysis of the relationship between economic growth and industrial pollution in Zaozhuang, China-based on the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Wei-Liang; Lu, Shao-Yong; Wang, Yu-Fan; Ren, Zongming

    2016-08-01

    In Zaozhuang, economic development affects the discharge amount of industrial wastewater, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). To reveal the trend of water environmental quality related to the economy in Zaozhuang, this paper simulated the relationships between industrial wastewater discharge, COD, NH3-N load, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for Zaozhuang (2002-2012) using environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) models. The results showed that the added value of industrial GDP, the per capita GDP, and wastewater emission had average annual growth rates of 16.62, 16.19, and 17.89 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012, while COD and NH3-N emission in 2012, compared with 2002, showed average annual decreases of 10.70 and 31.12 %, respectively. The export of EKC models revealed that industrial wastewater discharge had a typical inverted-U-shaped relationship with per capita GDP. However, both COD and NH3-N showed the binding curve of the left side of the "U" curve and left side U-shaped curve. The economy in Zaozhuang had been at the "fast-growing" stage, with low environmental pollution according to the industrial pollution level. In recent years, Zaozhuang has abated these heavy-pollution industries emphatically, so pollutants have been greatly reduced. Thus, Zaozhuang industrial wastewater treatment has been quite effective, with water quality improved significantly. The EKC models provided scientific evidence for estimating industrial wastewater discharge, COD, and NH3-N load as well as their changeable trends for Zaozhuang from an economic perspective.

  1. Soil microbial respiration and PICT responses to an industrial and historic lead pollution: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Annette; Capowiez, Line; Mombo, Stéphane; Schreck, Eva; Dumat, Camille; Deola, Frédéric; Capowiez, Yvan

    2016-03-01

    We performed a field investigation to study the long-term impacts of Pb soil contamination on soil microbial communities and their catabolic structure in the context of an industrial site consisting of a plot of land surrounding a secondary lead smelter. Microbial biomass, catabolic profiles, and ecotoxicological responses (PICT) were monitored on soils sampled at selected locations along 110-m transects established on the site. We confirmed the high toxicity of Pb on respirations and microbial and fungal biomasses by measuring positive correlations with distance from the wall factory and negative correlation with total Pb concentrations. Pb contamination also induced changes in microbial and fungal catabolic structure (from carbohydrates to amino acids through carboxylic malic acid). Moreover, PICT measurement allowed to establish causal linkages between lead and its effect on biological communities taking into account the contamination history of the ecosystem at community level. The positive correlation between qCO2 (based on respiration and substrate use) and PICT suggested that the Pb stress-induced acquisition of tolerance came at a greater energy cost for microbial communities in order to cope with the toxicity of the metal. In this industrial context of long-term polymetallic contamination dominated by Pb in a field experiment, we confirmed impacts of this metal on soil functioning through microbial communities, as previously observed for earthworm communities.

  2. Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015.

  3. Assessment of emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in Indonesia and impacts of national policy for elimination of kerosene use in cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permadi, Didin Agustian; Sofyan, Asep; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2017-04-01

    This study presents an emission inventory (EI) for major anthropogenic sources of Indonesia in 2007 and 2010. The EI was developed using a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches with comprehensive activity data collected at the provincial/district level to produce spatially and temporally distributed emission of toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The sources were categorized into: 1) fuel combustion in power plant, 2) industry, 3) transportation, 4) residential and commercial combustion, 5) biomass open burning, and 6) non-combustion agricultural activity and waste disposal. The best estimates of the 2010 national emissions, in Gg, of toxic pollutants were: 1014 SO2; 3323 NOx; 24,849 CO; 4077 NMVOC; 1276 NH3; 2154 PM10; 1728 PM2.5; 246 BC; 718 OC; and GHGs: 540,275 CO2; 3979 CH4 and 180 N2O. During the period from 2007 to 2010, the national emissions increased by 0.7-8.8% (0.23-2.8% per year), varied with species, with the most significant changes obtained for the biomass open burning emissions. For 2010 results, the low and high emission estimates for different species were ranging from -58% to +122% of the corresponding best estimates. The largest range (high uncertainty) was for BC due to the wide range of the limitedly available emission factors. Spatially, higher emission intensity was seen in large urban areas of Java and Sumatra Islands. Temporally, dry months of August-October had higher emissions. During the first 3 years (2007-2010) of implementation, the national policy of elimination of kerosene use in cooking had successfully replaced 4.9 Tg kerosene with 2.6 Tg LPG in 30 designated provinces. The net emission reductions of different species ranged from 48 Mg (SO2) to 7.6 Tg for CO2. The global warming potential weighted emissions from the residential cooking alone, collectively for GHGs and short-lived climate pollutants in 20-yr CO2 eq., would reduce by 2%. More significant reductions in the residential combustion emissions are

  4. CARTELS OR FAIR COMPETITION? THE ECONOMICS OF THE NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available During the heart of the Great Depression, the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA suspended U.S. antitrust laws and helped coordinate government sponsored cartels in most manufacturing industries in the American economy. The potential effect, detrimental or beneficial, of cartels is a topic of debate in the recent theoretical literature of cartels, though few historical examples of large-scale, economy-wide cartels exist. This study uses the NIRA cartel experience to test the competing hypotheses of the effects of cartels on economic variables.

  5. National Composite Center-A new roof for composite industries in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu; Yuhazri, M. Y.; Sulaiman, Mohd Yusoff

    2016-03-01

    Today's Malaysia has more than 70 companies that are actively involved in composite activities. The activities are ranging from various business sectors, using different technology and material. Composites has been used in a wide range of applications in Malaysia and contributes to growth in a diverse range of industry value chains from utilities through to boat building, manufacturing and industrial applications, aerospace, consumer products and construction products. Thus, a key part of this strategy is the establishment of the National Composites Centre (NCC), which will bring together dynamic companies and enterprising academics to develop new technologies for the design and rapid manufacture of high-quality composite products.

  6. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its model. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  7. 77 FR 6627 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... aluminum to provide resistance to corrosion. The chromium anodizing process is used to coat aircraft parts... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks... Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks; and...

  8. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's fleet services department.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Anastasia Dawn

    2003-06-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Fleet Services Department between December 2001 and August 2002. This is the third PPOA conducted at Fleet in the last decade. The primary purpose of this PPOA was to review progress of past initiatives and to provide recommendations for future waste reduction measures of hazardous and solid waste streams and increasing the purchase of environmentally friendly products. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Pollution Prevention Group will work with SNL/NM's Fleet Services to implement these options.

  9. Industrial pollution in the region of Paripe-Salvador: effects on the distribution of electric power and possible damages to human health; Poluicao industrial na regiao de Paripe-Salvador: efeitos sob a distribuicao de energia eletrica e possiveis danos a saude humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Cleuber Sobreira da Silva; Bomfim, Mario Antonio Duarte; Pereira, Osvaldo Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Regulacao da Industria de Energia], e-mail: cchaves@coelba.com.br, e-mail: osoliano@unifacs.br

    2008-07-01

    In the area of Paripe, in the suburb of Salvador, Bahia, the distribution of electric power of the Company of Electricity of the State of Bahia (COELBA) is facing serious problems with the industrial pollution. That pollution affects the whole distribution net, causing fortuitous lack of energy, in many cases even daily in their feeders. The problem happens due to the accumulation of material associated along the net and more precisely in the distribution insulators, generating a type of dirt, no removable for normal procedures, in the surface of that insulator and it will cause escape currents, causing the lack of energy of the whole distribution electric net. The subject presented in that paper refers to the project of Research and Development (P and D), about Atmospheric Pollution in Insulators of Distribution. The results of the research showed that the atmospheric pollution could cause problems to the population that lives close the polluted area. The purpose of that article is to present relevant data related to the distribution net of COELBA, where there are many lacks of energy and the possibility of do not respect the criterion of quality of the National Agency of Electric power (ANEEL), besides the damages caused the population. (author)

  10. An odyssey of environmental pollution: the rise, fall and remobilization of industrial lead in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. P.; Kristensen, L.; Liqin, W.; Harvey, P. J.; Dong, C.; Rouillon, M.

    2015-12-01

    The use of lead in automobile gasoline resulted in more than 240,000 tonnes of lead being emitted to the Australian environment over its 70-year period of use starting in 1932. The consequences of the emissions and subsequent depositions have resulted in marked contamination of urban and peri-urban aerosols, soils, plants and humans. This paper charts these effects and examines the extent of recovery from one of the most pervasive and persistent environmental pollutants. Lead isotopic composition of Adelaide and Sydney aerosol filters show that air lead composition shifts from values that approximate Broken Hill type ores, the predominant lead source used in gasoline (1.04 206Pb/207Pb and 2.31 208Pb/207Pb), towards ratios that more closely match local uncontaminated soil and bedrock values (Adelaide ~1.19 206Pb/207Pb and ~2.50 208Pb/207Pb; Sydney ~1.15 206Pb/207Pb and 2.48 208Pb/207Pb). Proxy atmospheric measurements from historic wine, lichen and fungi samples extending over 120 years show how both concentration and composition values shifted in the middle to late 20th century to reflect petrol emissions and then recovered rapidly at the end of the century as leaded gasoline consumption declined. For example, lead in wine from South Australia fell from >100 μg/L in the 1960s and 1970s to arsenic, cadmium and nickel) are subject to frequent remobilization. Predicted increases in wildfires and the generation of lead, arsenic and cadmium toxic particulates warrants greater consideration of the risk for vulnerable populations and firefighters who are most exposed.

  11. Environmental impact studies of Chrome rollers used by cotton roller ginning industries and design and development of pollution free chromeless RCF rollers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Iyer, G Vijayan

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on environmental chromium contamination and pollution caused by the use of Chrome Composite Leather-Clad (CCLC) rollers commonly used in cotton roller ginning industries and attempts to eliminate this problem by providing eco-friendly chrome-less rollers.

  12. Waste water pollution and control in fine chemical industry%浅析精细化工行业废水污染及控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟民

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the issues of waste water pollution and control in fine chemical industry to provide some solutions for reference.%本文分析了精细化工废水的污染和控制问题,并提出了具体的解决策略.

  13. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-11-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution.

  14. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  15. 75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... Policies and Programs Division, Program Design Group (D205-02), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, telephone... providing equipment for commenters to show overhead slides or make computerized slide presentations....

  16. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and develop the services to its customers. The centers should rarely, if ever, perform research, but... proposal must set forth clearly defined, effective mechanisms for delivery of services to target population..., external evaluation for assessing outcomes of the activity, and “customer satisfaction” measures...

  17. 76 FR 80531 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... accounting for not less than 90 percent of the aggregate emissions of each of seven specified HAP are subject... for example: Clarify certain regulatory requirements, such as whether compliance is based on a value...) The equipment is attached to a foundation. (2) The boiler or a replacement remains at a location...

  18. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... controlled with a wet scrubber, you must monitor pressure drop and liquid flow rate of the scrubber and... the boiler is controlled with a fabric filter, the fabric filter may be continuously operated...

  19. 76 FR 15607 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... existing boilers and process heaters that have a designed heat input capacity of 10 million British thermal... Heaters; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 54 / Monday, March 21, 2011 / Rules and... Process Heaters AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: On...

  20. 76 FR 81327 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... inventory for the pulp and paper (subpart S) source category: cadmium compounds, lead compounds, mercury... 1995 URE Unit Risk Estimate VCS Voluntary Consensus Standards VOC Volatile Organic Compound WWW... Bulletin No. 973).\\6\\ Additionally, the largest HAP emission compound in the category, methanol,...

  1. 75 FR 31895 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... establishments such as stores/malls, laundries, apartments, restaurants, and hotels/motels. The institutional... thermal energy in the form of steam or hot water. C. What is the relationship between this proposed rule... have a designed heat input capacity of 10 million British thermal units per hour (MMBtu/h) or...

  2. 77 FR 55698 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ..., Portland Cement Association v. Ruckelshaus, 486 F.2d 375 (D.C. Cir. 1973). Though intervening case law such..., systems or techniques that reduce the volume of or eliminate HAP emissions through process...

  3. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  4. Air pollution due to traffic, air quality monitoring along three sections of National Highway N-5, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mahboob; Athar, Makshoof

    2008-01-01

    Transportation system has contributed significantly to the development of human civilization; on the other hand it has an enormous impact on the ambient air quality in several ways. In this paper the air and noise pollution at selected sites along three sections of National Highway was monitored. Pakistan National Highway Authority has started a Highway Improvement program for rehabilitations and maintenance of National highways to improve the traffic flows, and would ultimately improve the air quality along highways. The ambient air quality and noise level was monitored at nine different locations along these sections of highways to quantify the air pollution. The duration of monitoring at individual location was 72 h. The most of the sampling points were near the urban or village population, schools or hospitals, in order to quantify the air pollution at most affected locations along these roads. A database consisting of information regarding the source of emission, local metrology and air quality may be created to assess the profile of air quality in the area.

  5. Enviormental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  6. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  7. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei; Bell, Michelle L

    2014-10-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009-December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m(3) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies.

  8. Assessment of Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution at the National Level using the EVA Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy David; Heile Christensen, Jesper; Skou Andersen, Mikael; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Buus Hansen, Ayoe; Mantzius Hansen, Kaj; Brandt Hedegaard, Gitte; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten

    2010-05-01

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources/sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level. The EVA system integrates a regional-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model (DEHM), address-level population data, exposure-response functions and monetary values applicable for Danish/European conditions. Traditionally, systems that assess economic costs of health impacts from air pollution assume linear approximations in the source-receptor relationships. However, atmospheric chemistry is non-linear and therefore the uncertainty involved in the linear assumption can be large. The EVA system has been developed to take into account the non-linear processes by using a comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemical transport model when calculating how specific changes to emissions affect air pollution levels and the subsequent impacts on human health and cost. Furthermore, we present a new "tagging" method, developed to examine how specific emission sources influence air pollution levels without assuming linearity of the non-linear behaviour of atmospheric chemistry. This method is more precise than the traditional approach based on taking the difference between two concentration fields. Using the EVA system, we have estimated the total external costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the ten major SNAP codes. Finally, we assess the impacts and external costs of emissions from international ship traffic around Denmark, since there is a high volume of ship traffic in the region.

  9. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values 4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of solid Cr(III) in the soil was estimated at 6600 and 500 kg at Zlate Hory and Loucna, respectively. At the same time, the pool size of dissolved Cr(VI) was estimated at 50 and 1.2 kg at Zlate Hory and Loucna, respectively. It follows that, at both sites, less than 1 % of the entire Cr that had leaked into the aquifer an a liquid form remained in the

  10. Industrial metal pollution in water and probabilistic assessment of human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Narottam; Rahman, M Safiur; Ahmed, Mohammad Boshir; Zhou, John L; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2016-10-28

    Concentration of eight heavy metals in surface and groundwater around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ) industrial area were investigated, and the health risk posed to local children and adult residents via ingestion and dermal contact was evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Metal concentrations (except Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) in Bangshi River water were above the drinking water quality guidelines, while in groundwater were less than the recommended limits. Concentration of metals in surface water decreased as a function of distance. Estimations of non-carcinogenic health risk for surface water revealed that mean hazard index (HI) values of As, Cr, Cu, and Pb for combined pathways (i.e., ingestion and dermal contact) were >1.0 for both age groups. The estimated risk mainly came from the ingestion pathway. However, the HI values for all the examined metals in groundwater were probabilistically estimated 95th percentile values of TCR exceeded the benchmark, mean TCR values were less than 1 × 10(-4). Simulated results showed that 20.13% and 5.43% values of TCR for surface water were >1 × 10(-4) for adult and children, respectively. Deterministic and probabilistic estimations of cancer risk through exposure to groundwater were well below the safety limit. Overall, the population exposed to Bangshi River water remained at carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health threat and the risk was higher for adults. Sensitivity analysis identified exposure duration (ED) and ingestion rate (IR) of water as the most relevant variables affecting the probabilistic risk estimation model outcome.

  11. Bioaccumulation of Cadmium by Pseudomonas Sp. Isolated From Metal Polluted Industrial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinoy Varghese

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, bacterial strains were isolated from soil, sediment and water samples of metal contaminated industrial area and investigated the heavy metal resistance and bioaccumulation potential of the isolates. Cadmium analysis of the samples revealed that Cd concentration varying from 2.31µg L-1 to 8.96 µg L-1 in water, 0.55µg g-1 to 25.44µg g-1 in soil and 0.45µg g-1 to 22.90µg g-1 in sediment. Cadmium resistance studies of the bacterial isolates showed that out of 164 isolates collected most of them showed  low resistance (<500µg/ml and many isolates showed high resistance of  >1500µg/ml. Ten bacterial genera were represented in soil and 11 from water, while only 5 bacterial genera were recorded from sediment samples.  Bacillus, pseudomonas and Enterobacter were found in soil, sediment and water samples. Results of cadmium removal study revealed that with increase in time, the biomass of the selected Pseudomonas sp. increased. Correspondingly, with increase in biomass, the cadmium bioaccumulation was also increased. Relatively an Increased removal of cadmium was observed in the first day of the experiment. About 40% of the cadmium in the experimental flask was reduced while only 5% reduction occurs in the control flasks till the end of the experiment (74hours. Comparatively cadmium showed higher reduction at pH 7. From the results, it could be concluded that the selected bacterial isolates possessed potential in respect of bioaccumulation activity and thus, appeared to be an appropriate nominee in bioremediation processes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1268

  12. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Grossman; Ronald Warren

    2008-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS from radionuclides emitted to air from the NTS. This limit does not include the radiation doses that members of the public may receive through the intake of radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities, such as those that come from naturally occurring elements in the environment (e.g., naturally occurring radionuclides in soil or radon gas from the earth or natural building materials), or from other man-made sources (e.g., medical treatments). The NTS demonstrates compliance using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  17. Sandia National Laboratories, California pollution prevention annual program report for calendar year 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren, Laurie J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-07-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the ''SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual''. The 2005 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report February 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2008-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  19. Legal Countermeasures of the Risk of Farmland Soil Pollution Industrial Transfer in Midwest China%产业转移承接地农地土壤污染法律根源及因应对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昕; 杨芳

    2014-01-01

    Enterprises' and governments' failure to take their environmental responsibilities during industrial trans-fer leads to aggravating farmland soil pollution in Midwest China. One reason for this is the imperfection of the relat-ed legal system. Legal countermeasure can be found by seeking for the legal reason of the aggravating farmland soil pollution in industrial transfer undertaking areas. On the one hand,the nation should reinforce environmental and legal responsibilities of enterprises and governments,improve legal system of the prevention of farmland soil pollu-tion and adopt the diversified punishments and relief measures to perfect the legal accountability system. On the other hand,farmers' participation in the prevention of pollution should be encouraged,and their environmental par-ticipation rights must be protected. The rigidity of policy of undertaking industrial transfer should be strengthened in order to undertake industrial transfer scientifically and prevent pollution transfer effectively.%产业转移承接地企业和政府环境责任缺失导致农地土壤污染加剧,其根源之一是相关法律制度供给不足。通过寻求产业转移承接地农地土壤污染加剧的法律根源,找出制定法律的因应对策:国家应当强化企业和政府环境法律责任,健全农地土壤污染防治法律体系;设定多元制裁与救济手段,完善法律责任追究程序;扩大农民参与范围,健全农民环境参与权;增强承接产业转移政策的刚性,科学承接产业转移,切实防范污染转移。

  20. Investigating the Electro-Fenton (EF Process Performance in Treating Highly Formaldehyde-Polluted Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bagheri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Formaldehyde is a toxic substance and harmful to human beings and the environmental health. Therefore, the effluents containing formaldehyde have to be efficiently treated before discharging into the environment. This study was aimed at investigating the efficiency of Electro-Fenton (EF Process in pre-treating industrial wastewater containing high concentrations of formaldehyde.Materials and Methods: The effect of the important operational variables including pH, current density, H2O2 dosage, and reaction time were evaluated on the degradation of 7500 mg/L formaldehyde using batch tests. The EFP batch reactor was consisted of a cylindrical glass column with 5.20 cm in internal diameter and 34.50 cm in height. Working volume of the reactor was 500 mL.Results: The maximum formaldehyde removal was obtained at alkaline pH of 10, H2O2 concentration of 10 mM/min, current intensity 8.5 mA/cm2, and the reaction time of 6 minute. Furthermore, aerating the EFP cell could enhance the formaldehyde removal. Complete removal of formaldehyde was obtained under the abovementioned operational conditions. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the EFP is capable of reducing high concentration of formaldehyde (7500 mg/l to the level suitable for biological post-treatment. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso

  1. [Pollution status of phenolic compounds in the soil and sediment from a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiexia; Wei, Enze; Xian, Qiming

    2014-08-01

    A determination method of 12 phenolic compounds in soil and sediment samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis coupled with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for clean-up was developed. The method detection limits (MDLs) varied from 0. 410 μg/kg to 13. 1 μg/kg (dry weight), and the average recoveries ranged from 70. 7% to 122% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1. 2% to 16%. Based on this method, the levels of 12 phenolic compounds were investigated in 17 soil surrounding a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River and seven sediment samples collected in the river. It was found that 11 of the 12 phenolic compounds were detected in all of the 24 samples, and only hydroquinone was below the MDL. The contents of the total 12 phenolic compounds were 10. 16-30. 66 mg/kg in the soil and 18. 00-29. 83 mg/kg in the sediment, with the average contents of 18. 26 and 22. 51 mg/kg respectively. It showed that 4-nitro- phenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6- trichlorophenol were five major phenolic contaminants in the soil and sediment in this study. The pollution levels of the 12 phenolic compounds were low in the soil of the chemical industrial park as well as in the sediment of the Yangtze River, which implied a comparatively low risk for the environment.

  2. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in surface layers of Roztocze National Park forest soils (SE Poland) by indices of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Ryszard; Kowalska, Joanna; Gąsiorek, Michał; Zadrożny, Paweł; Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Kępka, Wojciech; Tymczuk, Maryla; Orłowska, Kalina

    2017-02-01

    In most cases, in soils exposed to heavy metals accumulation, the highest content of heavy metals was noted in the surface layers of the soil profile. Accumulation of heavy metals may occur both as a result of natural processes as well as anthropogenic activities. The quality of the soil exposed to heavy metal contamination can be evaluated by indices of pollution. On the basis of determined heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Cr) in the soils of Roztocze National Park the following indices of pollution were calculated: Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Nemerow Pollution Index (PINemerow) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI). Additionally, we introduced and calculated the Biogeochemical Index (BGI), which supports determination of the ability of the organic horizon to accumulate heavy metals. A tens of times higher content of Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn was found in the surface layers compared to their content in the parent material. This distribution of heavy metals in the studied soils was related to the influence of anthropogenic pollution (both local and distant sources of emission), as well as soil properties such as pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen content.

  3. Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability.

  4. POPs data for salmonids and macroinvertebrates from Glacier Bay, Alaska - Measuring persistent organic pollutants in resident salmonids and benthic macroinvertebrates in streams near Glacier National Park, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2007 pilot study was initiated by the University of Alaska Southeast in which baseline levels of contaminants, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and...

  5. Transuranium radionuclide pollution in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumento, F. [Marine Environmental Sciences, La Tuscia University, Largo dell' Universita, 01100 Viterbo (Italy)]. E-mail: faumento@tiscali.it; Le Donne, K. [Marine Environmental Sciences, La Tuscia University, Largo dell' Universita, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Eroe, K. [Marine Environmental Sciences, La Tuscia University, Largo dell' Universita, 01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Following the grounding and subsequent explosion, in October 2003, of a nuclear submarine in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park, fears arose of possible radioactive leakages. However, isotopic analyses on algae showed that the gamma-ray emitting artificial radionuclides that one might expect to leak from a damaged nuclear reactor (such as U-235, I-131, Cs-137) were absent, and that U-238/U-234 activities were in equilibrium with values typical of sea water; this excluded any direct anthropogenic contamination as a result of the accident. We used alpha autoradiographic techniques to detect possible traces of transuranium radionuclides; 160 samples of algae, granites, sea urchins, gastropods, limpets, cuttlefish and jellyfish were collected from the area, as well as from other Mediterranean coastlines and the Baltic Sea. All samples were autoradiographed, and selected samples further analysed by alpha spectrometry. There were no alpha track concentrations above background levels in our control Mediterranean specimens. In the samples from the La Maddalena and Baltic areas two different track distributions were observed:-those homogeneously distributed over the surfaces examined; -groups (10 to over 500) of radially distributed alpha tracks (forming 'star' bursts, or 'hot spots') emanating from point sources. By comparing radionuclide activities measured by alpha spectroscopy with alpha track densities, we extrapolated Pu activities for all samples. About 74% of algae had Pu activities of less than 1Bq/kg and 0.25Bq/kg, 16% had accumulated Pu to levels between 1 and 2Bq/kg, and a very few specimens had concentrations between 2 and 6Bq/kg. Plots showed that alpha tracks and stars concentrate around the northern and eastern margins of the Rada (Basin) di Santo Stefano, sites facing the nuclear submarine base on the eastern shore of the island of Santo Stefano. What is the source of these nuclides: last century's atmospheric

  6. Assessment of impact of air pollution on human health and environment in the South Durban Industrial Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.; Hertel, O.; Bøgh, E.

    This study predicts the spatial variation of air quality and estimate the human health risk of air pollution in SDIB. The study is based on the operational air pollution (OML) model which is predicting the dispersion and quantifying the contribution of selected air pollutant as PM10, SO2 and NOX...

  7. Surface failure analysis of a field-exposed copper-clad plate in a marine environment with industrial pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Pan; Dong, Chaofang; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-03-01

    The corrosion behavior and electrochemical migration mechanism of a copper-clad plate (PCB-Cu) in a marine atmospheric environment with industrial pollution were studied in field exposure experiments. The results showed that corrosion was initiated from activity locations with low potential. With extended exposure time, the amount of corrosion products increased and gradually formed a double layer structure. The inner layer corrosion products were mainly Cu2O; the outer layer mainly included CuCO3·Cu(OH)2, Cu(OH)2·CuO·HCl, CuSO4·3Cu(OH)2 and CuSO3·3Cu(OH)2. When a 12 V bias voltage was applied, an anomalous electrochemical migration (ECM) phenomenon was observed: a Cu dendrite was produced near the anode and migrated toward the cathode. Finally, ECM led to the bridge connection of the two metallization stripes and caused a short circuit in the PCB-Cu.

  8. Feasibility study concerning remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands on the Absheron Peninsula, Republic of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivin, Majorie; Helsen, Stefan; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    ECOREM is carrying out a feasibility study focused on the remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands, located on the Absheron Peninsula (Republic of Azerbaijan), on behalf of the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR). The objective of this study is to support SOCAR with specific technologies and capacity building for environmental remediation works on various sectors of the Peninsula. As an independent consultancy company, ECOREM provides sustainable and quality advice, seeking the balance to the interests of the client and the environment in the broadest sense of the word. Within this study, it is important to underline that extraction activities in the country have been going on for more than a century. Given that the age of the environmental problems is equal to the history of the oil production, it is nearly impossible to point out the responsibilities of the various companies or to define the exact activities that occurred on a particular location. From the data gathered so far, more than 3600 ha of oil contaminated area are known in Baku and the Absheron Peninsula. Within this feasibility study, ECOREM will advice SOCAR on suitable and best available remediation technologies to apply on prior contaminated areas. According to the Environmental Policy of the Company, SOCAR would like to act in priority on the numerous contaminated lands of the Absheron Peninsula. Through the exploitation of the extensive GIS database provided by SOCAR, the oil contaminated sites will be examined in details in order to determine the most sensitive areas, on which remediation works or monitoring should be implemented in priority. To locate these sites, ECOREM will provide SOCAR with technical support in order to conduct risk analysis, remediation and monitoring of soil and/or groundwater oil pollutions. According to these results, practical solutions will be proposed concerning the possible reuse and management of contaminated soils and hazardous

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciucci, John [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  10. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: I. Industry and transport sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadavarte, Pankaj; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Emissions estimation, for research and regulatory applications including reporting to international conventions, needs treatment of detailed technology divisions and high-emitting technologies. Here we estimate Indian emissions, for 1996-2015, of aerosol constituents (PM2.5, BC and OC) and precursor gas SO2, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, NMVOC and CH4) and greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O), using a common fuel consumption database and consistent assumptions. Six source categories and 45 technologies/activities in the industry and transport sectors were used for estimating emissions for 2010. Mean emission factors, developed at the source-category level, were used with corresponding fuel consumption data, available for 1996-2011, projected to 2015. New activities were included to account for fugitive emissions of NMVOC from chemical and petrochemical industries. Dynamic emission factors, reflecting changes in technology-mix and emission regulations, were developed for thermal power plants and on-road transport vehicles. Modeled emission factors were used for gaseous pollutants for on-road vehicles. Emissions of 2.4 (0.6-7.5) Tg y-1 PM2.5, 0.23 (0.1-0.7) Tg y-1 BC, 0.15 (0.04-0.5) Tg y-1 OC, 7.3 (6-10) Tg y-1 SO2, 19 (7.5-33) Tg y-1 CO, 1.5 (0.1-9) Tg y-1 CH4, 4.3 (2-9) Tg y-1 NMVOC, 5.6 (1.7-15.9) Tg y-1 NOx, 1750 (1397-2231) Tg y-1 CO2 and 0.13 (0.05-0.3) Tg y-1 N2O were estimated for 2015. Significant emissions of aerosols and their precursors were from coal use in thermal power and industry (PM2.5 and SO2), and on-road diesel vehicles (BC), especially superemitters. Emissions of ozone precursors were largely from thermal power plants (NOx), on-road gasoline vehicles (CO and NMVOC) and fugitive emissions from mining (CH4). Highly uncertain default emission factors were the principal contributors to uncertainties in emission estimates, indicating the need for region specific measurements.

  11. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  12. DEFI Photonique: a French national training project for optics and photonics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boéri, E.; Cormier, E.

    2014-07-01

    The French government supports a structuring project for French Photonics. This project name DEFI Photonique is carried by the CNOP (National Committee for Optics and Photonics) for a period of 5 years (2013-2017). One of the most important tasks is dedicated to training for industry, particularly SMEs. The project aims at elaborating a training offer based on the experience of PYLA, the Bordeaux training facility for Optics and Photonics, and create a national network throughout all the French Photonics clusters. The project plans to initiate, develop and coordinate training courses based on the players skills in the sector, in particular regional clusters, depending on their field of excellence. This deployment of training courses should enable a mesh structure both thematically and geographically. Collaborative work between training players in each pole, including joint actions, will facilitate access to training courses for companies, especially SMEs. A market survey is already being conducted in 2013 in photonics industry and application sectors. Implementation of actions involves all French photonics clusters as well as professional organizations. We will rely on the feedback we have with PYLA to show how training courses can be a strategic tool for development of technologies and industries. At this stage of the DEFI Photonique project we will be able to present the results of different analyses that have been conducted in key sectors and plans that will be implemented for the realization of the first actions.

  13. 76 FR 80314 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ..., prepared Manufacturing. (except dog and cat), manufacturing. 1 North American Industry Classification... power and responsibilities among the various levels of government, as specified in Executive Order...

  14. 76 FR 80261 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ..., prepared Manufacturing. (except dog and cat), manufacturing. \\1\\ North American Industry Classification... government and the states, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels...

  15. Industrial pollution of the Moselle River: the birth, development and management of an environmental problem, 1850-2000; La pollution industrielle de la Moselle francais: naissance, developpement et gestion d'un probleme environnemental, 1850-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcier, J.R

    2005-12-15

    In the 1850's, the water quality of surface waters in the Moselle river drainage basin began to suffer from the development of heavy industrial activities (coal and iron ore mining, steel and soda making). Industrial development also fuelled a demographic impetus that proved detrimental to the quality of surface waters. This study uses archival sources to analyse the ineffectiveness of the policies that were launched to regulate pollution. In a region traumatized by the Prussian annexation of a quarter of its surface (1870), industrial production enjoyed a symbolic protection that allowed water pollution to go unabated. The fuzzy status of pollution in law contributed to the immunity of industrialists. From the 1950's on, fear that the region might experience severe water shortages due to the growth of water consumption by industries and cities alike enabled more stringent policies to be devised. They still had to take into account the interests of the heavy industry and their effectiveness is questionable. Hydrological planning was based upon a functionalist vision of water resources that did not take environmental issues into account. The situation changed in the 1970's and 1980's, when European integration and the Sandoz catastrophe in the Rhine (November 1986) tipped the scale in favour of more vigorous environmental policies. This study develops the concepts of a 'regional system' and of the 'mode of construction' of an environmental problem. These prove to be valuable theoretical elements to ground environmental geography studies. (author)

  16. Research on Total Emission Reduction of Pollutants of Livestock and Poultry Industry in Huicheng District of Huizhou City%惠州市惠城区畜禽养殖业污染物总量减排措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于芳芳; 郑孜文; 肖国俊

    2013-01-01

    畜禽养殖业污染能否有效控制,对“十二五”期间主要污染物减排目标的完成影响重大。畜禽养殖业减排仍处于起步阶段,技术条件和管理政策有待进一步完善,加之畜禽养殖业污染较为分散,实施减排难度更大。分析了惠州市惠城区畜禽养殖业污染现状、减排存在的问题,提出了畜禽养殖业减排措施。%The efficient control of pollutants of livestock and poultry industry has a great effect on the realization of the major pollutants emission reduction during the National Twelfth Five-Year Plan'period. The pollution emission reduction of livestock and poultry industry is still in its early stage,and the control technologies and management policies are need to be further perfected. In addition,the pollutions of livestock and poultry industry are relatively scattered,so that it is more difficult to realize the emission reduction. The current status of the pollutions of livestock and poultry industry and the existing problems of emission reduction in Huicheng District were analyzed in this paper. Furthermore,the several emission reduction approaches toward the pollutions of livestock and poultry industry and some suggestions about corresponding policies were proposed,too.

  17. Electricity price as a factor of the national electric power industry sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Sanja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PE Elektroprivreda Srbije (Electric Power Industry of Serbia - PE EPS is of a strategic importance for national economy. Long-term policy of depressed electricity price has caused a number of distortions, mainly through direct impact on the operations of EPS and a number of other effects such as irrational consumption, high energy intensity, low charges, high level of technical and commercial losses, etc. Serbia still has the lowest electricity price in Europe, but regulated price model provides a certain profit level for EPS. The aim of this paper is to show the potential that the electric power industry as a branch can have if the Government provides the conditions for its sustainable operation.

  18. 76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... (NESHAP) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance (NSPS) for Portland Cement Plants. The final rules were published on September 9, 2010. This direct final action...

  19. 76 FR 2860 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... of Performance (NSPS) for Portland Cement Plants. The final rules were published on September 9, 2010... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0051, 1200 Pennsylvania...

  20. Storm Water General Permit 1 for Industrial Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #1 for storm water discharges associated with industrial facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  1. 76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written...-2004-0305, by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov : Follow the on-line... the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses....

  2. 76 FR 78872 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Fiberglass Manufacturing AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule; notice of... Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing.'' The EPA was asked to hold a public... hearing for the proposed Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing rule will be held on January 4, 2012 in Kansas...

  3. 76 FR 76259 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Quality Planning and Standards ODW Office of Drinking Water OECA Office of Enforcement and Compliance.../rtrpg.html . The TTN provides information and technology exchange in various areas of air pollution... in Rockdale, Texas; Kaiser Aluminum in Mead, Washington; Ormet Corporation in Hannibal,...

  4. 75 FR 9647 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... non-emergency two-stroke lean burn (2SLB) >500 HP located at a major source of HAP emissions, New or... Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 41 / Wednesday, March 3, 2010... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  5. 76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is being extended for 14... extend the public comment period for the May 20, 2011, Proposed Polyvinyl Chloride and...

  6. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the surface soils of a region that had undergone three decades of intense industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Liu, Xueping; Bai, Jinmei; Shih, Kaimin; Zeng, Eddy Y; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-09-01

    Heavy metals in the surface soils from lands of six different use types in one of the world's most densely populated regions, which is also a major global manufacturing base, were analyzed to assess the impact of urbanization and industrialization on soil pollution. A total of 227 surface soil samples were collected and analyzed for major heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by using microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multivariate analysis combined with enrichment factors showed that surface soils from the region (>7.2 × 10(4) km(2)) had mean Cd, Cu, Zn, and As concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, with Cd, Cu, and Zn clearly contributed by anthropogenic sources. Soil pollution by Pb was more widespread than the other heavy metals, which was contributed mostly by anthropogenic sources. The results also indicate that Mn, Co, Fe, Cr, and Ni in the surface soils were primarily derived from lithogenic sources, while Hg and As contents in the surface soils were controlled by both natural and anthropogenic sources. The pollution level and potential ecological risk of the surface soils both decreased in the order of: urban areas > waste disposal/treatment sites ∼ industrial areas > agricultural lands ∼ forest lands > water source protection areas. These results indicate the significant need for the development of pollution prevention and reduction strategies to reduce heavy metal pollution for regions undergoing fast industrialization and urbanization.

  7. Additional load of air pollution and deposition rates caused industrial airborne emissions; Zusatzbelastung einer industriellen Emissionsquelle zur Gesamtbelastung eines geographischen Raums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, A.; Neumann, P.; Schmidt, K.G. [Inst. fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany); Baumgaertner, D. [Schwaebische Entsorgungsgesellschaft mbH, Augsburg (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    Pollutants in ambient air in an examination area can be determined by using atmospheric dispersion models, bioindication methods or measurements. The additional atmospheric pollution and deposition is calculated from real emission data of a modern industrial plant and appraised in reference to background values. The calculated results were less than 1% of the background values of clean air areas for most of the components and 1 to 5% of the background values for NO{sub X}, Hg, Ni and PCDD/F. Regarding constant deposition rates, hypothetical periods of 10.000 to 70 Mio. years are calculated until reference values according to the federal ordinance soil protection (BBodSchV) are reached. Only in specific cases an impacy caused by a specific industrial plant with modern flue gas treatment is detectable. (orig.)

  8. Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Siong, Wee Boon; Sanuri, Ezwiza [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations (< 8.0). TAR 11 showed very high ecological risk index (R{sub I}) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with R{sub I} value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea.

  9. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  10. 78 FR 32241 - U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for Space, Department of the Air Force, DOD..., Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for Space, seeks industry views and perspectives...

  11. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Cavallini

    Full Text Available Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR. Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy, an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group, who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb, were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb.

  12. Effects of initial climatic conditions on growth and accumulation of fluoride and nitrogen in leaves of two tropical tree species exposed to industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Claudia Maria; Salatino, Antonio [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Secao de Ecologia, Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    Saplings of Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava, cultivated under standardized soil conditions, were placed in two sites at Cubatao (state of Sao Paulo, southeast Brazil) to study the effects of air pollution on growth, biomass allocation and foliar nitrogen and fluoride concentrations. Thirty-six potted plants were maintained over two periods of one year (Jul/00 to Jun/01; Dec/00 to Nov/01) at each of two experimental sites with distinct levels of air pollution: Piloes River Valley (PV) with vegetation virtually unaffected by air pollution; and Mogi River Valley (MV) severely affected by pollutants released mainly by chemical, fertilizer, iron and steel industries. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed alterations of growth and biomass allocation, as well as increased leaf concentrations of nitrogen and fluoride. Comparing both experimental periods, the one starting in winter (the driest season in Southeastern Brazil) seemed to affect the saplings more severely, the differences of the measured parameters between MV and PV being higher than in the second period. Multivariate analysis revealed two groups of data: one representing the MV and the other the PV saplings. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed differences in chemical composition, growth and biomass allocation, compared with the PV saplings. The results suggested that seasonal conditions of the first months of sapling exposure (summer or winter) modulate the intensity of responses to pollution stress. (author)

  13. The Influence of Industrial Air Pollution Forest Lichens at Tomaszów Mazowiecki Region (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mixed gases pollution (SO2, H2S and CS2 on epiphytic and epixylic lichens growing on Pinus sylvestris in the nature conditions is the matter of consideration. In the case of some lichens, e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum and Thelocarpon laureri the toxitolerant to the air pollution is proved by the authoress.

  14. The plant breeding industry after pure line theory: Lessons from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding. Most historians have already concluded that pure line theory did not change breeding practices directly. Instead, breeding became more orderly as a consequence of pure line theory, which structured breeding programmes and eliminated external heritable influences. This incremental change then explains how and why the large multi-national seed companies that we know today were created; pure lines invited standardisation and economies of scale that the latter were designed to exploit. Rather than focus on breeding practice, this paper examines the plant varietal market itself. It focusses upon work conducted by the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) during the interwar years, and in doing so demonstrates that, on the contrary, the pure line was actually only partially accepted by the industry. Moreover, claims that contradicted the logic of the pure line were not merely tolerated by the agricultural geneticists affiliated with NIAB, but were acknowledged and legitimised by them. The history of how and why the plant breeding industry was transformed remains to be written.

  15. A comparative study of lichen biochemistry and air pollution status of urban, semi urban and industrial area of Hooghly and Burdwan district, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are group of nonvascular plants. Lichen absorbs water and nutrient passively from their environment. Because of this lichens are particularly sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature, water availability, and air pollutants and/or by substances accumulates in lichen from the environment through variety of mechanisms including particulate trapping, ion exchange, extracellular electrolyte adsorption, hydrolysis and intra cellular uptake. Air pollution control is more complex than most other environmental changes. A study has been done to evaluate the air pollution status by means of lichen through the biochemical variability of three macro environment (semiurban area Arambagh, urban area Burdwan and industrial area Durgapur. The study results revealed that there exist inverse relationship between pollutant load and pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoid content. Average concentration of chlorophyll ‘a’, ‘b’, and total chlorophyll was found in following order, Site-II>Site-III>Site-I. From the result of Chlorophyll Stability Index (CSI it has been found that the chlorophyll degradation is highest in Site-II followed by Site-III and lowest in Site-I. There is a strong inverse relationship of chlorophyll content in lichen with SO2 and NOx but the level of SPM found highest in Site-I followed by Site-III and lowest in Site-II. Moreover, biochemical constituents (protein, sugar, phenol and proline of all the representative samples were also vary from site to site. The study results reveal that the amount of soluble sugar was highest recorded at Site-III followed by Site–I and lowest in Site-II. Again correlation study indicates that there is positive relationship between soluble sugar and phenol content at 5% level of significance. Therefore, it also indicates that the lichen metabolite and other physiological action monitored by SO2, NOx and SPM level in the air. Studies showed that the semiurban area was under more

  16. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution,climate and economic factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zicheng; LIU Junhua; ZHOU Chenglin; NIE Baofu; CHEN Tegu

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21' N, 111°11' E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982-2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn,and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.The correlation coefficients among the metals and climatic and economic factors indicate that the metals Ni, Zn, and Cd behave similarly. Copper and Mn are positively correlated, and cobalt is negatively correlated with Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd. Lead is not correlated with any other metals but is correlated with sea surface water temperature, air temperature, GDP and industrial-agricultural production in Dianbai County.Lead in corals is related to the enhanced pollution level of ocean waters as a result of increased industrial activities.

  17. Relative impact of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial emissions of air pollutants in a medium-sized Andean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. M.; Gómez, C. D.; Rojas, N. Y.; Acevedo, H.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Cities in emerging countries are facing a fast growth and urbanization; however, the study of air pollutant emissions and its dynamics is scarce, making their populations vulnerable to potential effects of air pollution. This situation is critical in medium-sized urban areas built along the tropical Andean mountains. This work assesses the contribution of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial activities in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia. Annual fluxes of criteria pollutants, NMVOC, and greenhouse gases were estimated. Emissions were dominated by vehicular activity, with more than 90% of total estimated releases for the majority of air pollutants. On-road vehicular emissions for CO (43.4 Gg/yr) and NMVOC (9.6 Gg/yr) were mainly associated with the use of motorcycles (50% and 81% of total CO and NMVOC emissions respectively). Public transit buses were the main source of PM10 (47%) and NOx (48%). The per-capita emission index was significantly higher in Manizales than in other medium-sized cities, especially for NMVOC, CO, NOx and CO2. The unique mountainous terrain of Andean cities suggest that a methodology based on VSP model could give more realistic emission estimates, with additional model components that include slope and acceleration. Food and beverage facilities were the main contributors of point-source industrial emissions for PM10 (63%), SOx (55%) and NOx (45%), whereas scrap metal recycling had high emissions of CO (73%) and NMVOC (47%). Results provide the baseline for ongoing research in atmospheric modeling and urban air quality, in order to improve the understanding of air pollutant fluxes, transport and transformation in the atmosphere. In addition, this emission inventory could be used as a tool to identify areas of public health exposure and provide information for future decision makers.

  18. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  19. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  20. Electrical Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Citizen use of our nation's industrial products has led to increased pollution problems and demand for diminishing energy reserves. In an attempt to encourage intelligent cooperation among science, industry, government and all citizens, this unit was developed to introduce secondary science students to the many facets of the electrical production…

  1. 76 FR 14807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Production. JJJ Group IV Polymers and X X X X Resins. LLL Portland Cement X X X Manufacturing Industry. MMM... Facilities Subpart DDDDDD--NESHAP for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production Area Sources Subpart... Smelting Area Sources Subpart GGGGGG--NESHAP for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources--Zinc, Cadmium,...

  2. 78 FR 38591 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Regulation Revision: Removal of the Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ...: Removal of the Pesticide Discharge Permitting Exemption in Response to Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals... response to the 2009 Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling that vacated the EPA's 2006 NPDES Pesticides... NPDES Pesticides Rule were filed in eleven federal circuit courts of appeals by industry...

  3. 78 FR 59672 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... oral statements and data pertaining to the draft permit at the public hearing. E. What process will EPA... Federal Communications Commission; or (2) the industrial owner/operator has limitations regarding... solicits comments on alternative approaches to address this problem. ] IV. Executive Orders 12866 and...

  4. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Melanie King, Energy Strategies Group, Sector Policies and Programs Division (D243-01...: Protection of Children From Environmental Health and Safety Risks H. Executive Order 13211: Actions... regulated Category NAICS \\1\\ entities Any industry using a stationary 2211 Electric power...

  5. 76 FR 57913 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... engineering estimate of the HAP content of the bath, which are also reliable indicators of HAP content. The... filters are more compact than fabric filters and more useful in industrial machinery settings where space.../fume suppressant in proportion to the other bath chemistry ingredients that are added to replenish...

  6. 76 FR 35744 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... methods include laboratory analysis or engineering estimate of the HAP content of the bath, which are also... compact than fabric filters and more useful in industrial machinery settings where space is limited... suppressant in proportion to the other bath chemistry ingredients that are added to replenish the bath, as...

  7. Spatial distribution of organic pollutants in industrial construction and demolition waste and their mutual interaction on an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Yanqiu; Ma, Jianli; Gao, Xiaofeng; Xie, Tian; Xu, Dongsheng; Yu, Yi; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive field investigation of organic pollutants was examined in industrial construction and demolition waste (ICDW) inside an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant. Concentrations of eight types of pesticides, a metabolite and two intermediates were studied. The ICDW was under severe and long-term contamination by organophosphorus, intermediates and pyrethroid pesticide with mean concentrations of 23,429, 3538 and 179.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. FT-IR analysis suggested that physical absorption and chemical bonding were their mutual interaction forms. Patterns of total pesticide spatial distribution showed good correlations with manufacturing processes spreading all over the plant both in enclosed workshops and in residues randomly dumped outside, while bricks and coatings were the most vulnerable to pollutants. Ultimately the fate of the OPPs was diversified as the immersion of ICDW in water largely transferred the pollutants into aquatic systems while exposure outside did not largely lead to pesticide degradation. The adoption of centralized collections for the disposal of wastes could only eliminate part of the contaminated ICDW, probably due to lack of knowledge and criteria. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis indicated that regulated disposal and management of polluted ICDW was effective, thus presenting the requirement for its appropriate disposal.

  8. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C.; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (<4 days) may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These

  9. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Jelastopulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently ( < 5 days/year compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (% were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8, and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%, respectively. Short sick-leave spells ( < 4 days may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004 combined with a small yet significant decline as a

  10. Liberalisation of the European Electricity Industry: Internal Market or National Champions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, F.

    2007-07-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector. Considering the complexity of this industry, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration of incumbents in the sector as a result of the liberalisation process. The new trend toward the creation of ''national champions'' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raised serious concerns about abuses of market power and risks of future collusion. Taking account of investment in interconnection as well as other international and regional experiences, the internal market issue is investigated as the solution to the''risks'' from liberalisation. (auth)

  11. Chlorinated, brominated, and fluorinated organic pollutants in Nile crocodile eggs from the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Booyens, Paul; Govender, Danny; Pienaar, Danie; Polder, Anuschka

    2014-06-01

    Repeated annual episodes of Nile crocodile deaths in two isolated areas of the Kruger National Park prompted the investigation of possible organohalogen pollutant involvement. Crocodile eggs were collected close to one of the mortality sites (Gorge) as well as from a crocodile farm (CF) as reference. ∑DDT was significantly higher in Gorge (450ng/g wm) than in CF eggs (85ng/g wet mass). Percentage DDT of ∑DDT was significantly higher in CF (14 per cent) than in Gorge eggs (5 per cent). Mean ∑DDT was almost 70 times higher than mean ∑PCB in Gorge eggs. HCB, β-HCH, mirex, brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) occurred at lower concentrations. We believe that the BFR and PFCs data represent the first published results for any crocodile egg. Thickening of the outer eggshell layer of Gorge eggs was significantly associated with higher concentrations of ∑DDT. Concentrations of ∑DDT and other pollutants were in the same range as eggs from elsewhere, where there were no mortalities. Concentrations of ∑DDT in eggs from healthy Australian crocodiles were of the same orders of magnitude as the current study, making it highly unlikely that the concentrations of pollutants measured in the present study would have caused or substantially contributed towards the mortalities observed. Concerns about reproduction and behaviour remain. As large predators, crocodilians are at the apex of the freshwater aquatic food web. More research is needed to guide measures to manage African freshwater systems so that it will also sustainably accommodate these large, long-lived animals.

  12. Development policy for the Brazilian health industry and qualification of national public laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Silva, Hudson Pacifico da; Ibañez, Nelson; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana

    2016-11-03

    Technological innovations play a decisive role in societies' development by contributing to economic growth and the population's welfare. The state has a key role in this process by inducing innovative behavior, strategies, and decisions. This study addresses Brazil's current policy for development of the health industry and its effects on qualification of national public laboratories by contextualizing different cycles of interaction between health policy and the industrial base, discussing the government's development strategy and the transfer and absorption of health technology (through Industrial Development Partnerships), and presenting two current partnerships involving public laboratories in the production of medicines and vaccines. Resumo: As inovações tecnológicas jogam papel decisivo no processo de desenvolvimento das sociedades, visto que contribuem para gerar crescimento econômico e bem-estar da população. O Estado possui grande importância e centralidade nesse processo, pois pode induzir fortemente o comportamento, as estratégias e as decisões relativas à inovação. O presente artigo tem por objetivo investigar a atual política de desenvolvimento produtivo em saúde no Brasil e seus reflexos sobre a capacitação dos laboratórios públicos nacionais. Para essa finalidade, contextualiza os diferentes ciclos de interação entre a política de saúde e a sua base produtiva, discute a estratégia do governo brasileiro para o desenvolvimento, a transferência e a absorção de tecnologia na área da saúde (as parcerias para o desenvolvimento produtivo) e apresenta duas parcerias vigentes envolvendo laboratórios públicos para a produção de medicamentos e vacinas.

  13. PROMINP (Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas): synergy in the national industry; PROMINP (Programa de Mobilizacao da Industria Nacional de Petroleo e Gas Natural): sinergia na industria nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jose Renato Ferreira de; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Lopesm Ronaldo Rangel; Lisboa, Vitor Manuel dos Santos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Federal Government identified, from the forecast of massive investments in the sector of oil and natural gas in the next years, that it was establishing a favorable environment to foment the participation of the national industry of goods and services, in competitive and sustainable bases, in the implantation of projects of oil and gas in Brazil. Thus, in 2003, it was born the Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas - PROMINP. From an ample diagnosis of the necessary critical resources, throughout the time, for the implementation of the planned projects, the PROMINP identifies the gaps related to the professional qualification, industrial infrastructure and supply of materials and equipment, and, to surpass these challenges, it has lead, in these five years of existence, an expressive set of action for each one of the cited sources, of form to assure the competitiveness of the Industry of Supply of Goods and services and the support of this process. Such actions are elaborated and developed of joint form it enters all the participants of the chain. Since the creation of the PROMINP, the participation of the national industry (Local Content) in the investments of the sector increased of 57% in 2003 for 75% in 2007, what it means a US$ addition 8,3 billion orders of goods and services in the national market and generated more than 390 thousand new jobs. (author)

  14. 镇雄县水晶加工产业水污染防治对策%Water Pollution Control of Crystal Production Industry in Zhenxiong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗武

    2015-01-01

    人造水晶玻璃的加工产业带来经济增长的同时,也造成了水环境的严重污染。通过对镇雄县水晶加工污染的实地调查,提出了采取统一规划、集中管理的对策,有效地解决了水晶加工产业水环境严重污染问题。%The economic increase in the man -made crystal production industry has caused water pollution at the same time.The field investigation of the crystal production factories in Zhenxiong was conducted.The countermeas-ures of proper planning to form a centralized management were put forward in order to address the water pollution problems.

  15. Effects of Discharge Fees of Pollutants on Heterogeneity Industry Employment%排污收费对异质性行业就业的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广明; 韩林波

    2016-01-01

    一项有效的环境政策使环境与经济两部门的关系变得更加平衡。相比于排污费征收的环境效应问题,排污费征收的就业效应问题受到的关注较少。在测算2002-2011年工业行业废水和废气排污费的基础上,利用面板数据模型并基于异质性行业假定检验了我国排污费征收与工业行业就业的非线性关系,以审视排污费的历史作用,并为即将到来的费改税提供政策借鉴。研究表明:从总体来说,工业行业排污费征收与行业就业关系呈“U”型关系,拐点为9.33。从行业异质性来说,以轻工制造业和清洁生产业为主体的清洁行业具有较低的污染排放强度,承受的排污费用相对较低,排污费征收与就业的关系亦呈“ U”型关系;以重化工业和污染密集产业为主体的污染行业具有较高的污染排放强度,承受的排污费用相对较高,但排污费的征收对污染行业就业的影响并不显著。从排污费异质性来说,废水排污费的征收与行业就业关系呈“U”型关系,但废气排污费的征收对行业就业并无显著影响。%An effective environmental policy should make the relations between the environmental and e-conomic sectors become more balanced. Compared to the environmental effects of discharge fees,employment effects of discharge levy had received little attention. Based on the measurement of industry sector discharge fees of waste water and waste gas from 2002 to 2011,this article used the panel data model with the heteroge-neous industry assumption to test the nonlinear relationship between pollutant discharge fees and industry em-ployment in China in order to review the historic role of discharge fees and to provide with policy implications for the upcoming transfer from discharge fees to pollution tax. The study showed that the overall relationship between the discharge fees of pollutants and industry employment is

  16. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Evaporation Ponds at the proposed Pi on Ridge Uranium Mill. Tailings Cell A and the Phase I Evaporation Ponds... for Radon Emissions from Underground Uranium Mines (Subpart B) and 40 CFR part 61, subpart W, National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions from Operating Mill Tailings (Subpart W). EPA Region 8 issued...

  17. 75 FR 38068 - Public Meeting With Interested Stakeholders for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 403, 501 and 503 Public Meeting With Interested Stakeholders for National... than Wednesday, July 7, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This meeting will be open to all stakeholders... targeted to protect the environment. For this meeting, EPA plans to seek comment from...

  18. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqui Webster; Kathy Trieu; Elizabeth Dunford; Corinna Hawkes

    2014-01-01

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce sa...

  19. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartono R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM regulation in order to achieve “Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik” (CPOB of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  20. Does supranational coordination erode its national basis? The case of European labour market policy and German industrial relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Niechoj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades improved supply chain management, innovation in information technology, new financial instruments, etc. have changed the economic environment for production in the EU significantly. This led to and was accompanied by increased coordination of economic policy and the use of a new mode of governance, the Open Method of Co-ordination. Simultaneously, at the national level tendencies of fragmentation in industrial relations appeared. Is this mere congruence, or is it possible to establish causal relationships? For the case of Germany the impact of coordinated European policies on industrial relations at national level is assessed. Potential consequences for supranational economic governability are discussed.

  1. Sugar industry influence on the scientific agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research's 1971 National Caries Program: a historical analysis of internal documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin E Kearns

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP. The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry's interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP.We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR's call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors.The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects itself from potentially damaging

  2. Favored use of anti-predator netting (APN) applied for the farming of clams leads to little benefits to industry while increasing nearshore impacts and plastics pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2015-02-15

    An overview of the efficacy of anti-predator netting (APN) used by the shellfish industry is presented. There is little support that the currently favored APN effectively protects farmed clams from predators. Evidence does suggest that APN leads to impacts and pollution. APN is an attractant for predators, e.g., crabs, by providing a refuge within Ulva sp. which attaches onto the surface of APN. APN entrains silt and organic matter and increases sediment temperatures degrading habitat underneath the APN. APN present hazards to fish and wildlife and is a source of plastics to the marine environment. The continued use of ineffective APN does not serve either the environment or industry well, and many of these issues could be addressed through the alternate use of "ancient" technology used by aboriginal people to maintain clam gardens; building of rock walls optimizing the amount of clam habitat thereby increasing numbers without the use of APN.

  3. Industrial wastes: pollution and effect in the environment; Residuos industriales: contaminacion y efectos sobre el medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imeldo Gomez, J.; Mingorance, M. C.; Mamposo, M.; Gonzalez, M.; Arvelo, F.

    2002-07-01

    The permanent growth of industrial parks in our planet, makes necessary to seek solutions that permit to minimize the residues that these industries generate. Those solutions can consist, in part, on changing the process of production, but, should be based on the knowledge and awareness of those responsible for the industries, in a respectful legislation with environment, and in the existence of the necessary means so that legislation can be complied with. The aim would be to increase the use of Clean Production and to come to achieve a non existent unloading or crowaste on the part of the industrial process. Besides, a set of basic principles applicable to all waste, included the industrial ones, would be a good form to improve our environment. (Author) 12 ref.

  4. Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Grieken, van M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are severely affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments, while these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental as well as an economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance the marginal cos

  5. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  6. Air pollution abatement around the Baltic Sea. From a national to an international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanpaeae, K.; Aittoniemi, P.; Kaessi, T. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental burden and environmental protection activities, together with the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction and the economic possibilities of financing the environmental investments, vary greatly between the countries around the Baltic Sea. The objective of this presentation is to outline solutions based on a new approach to emission reflection, larger than the national scale. Especially the applications of the recently introduced Joint Implementation (JI) principle will be discussed. The presentation mainly deals with the acidic sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions related to power production. (author)

  7. Comparison of Remote Sensing and Fixed-Site Monitoring Approaches for Examining Air Pollution and Health in a National Study Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnet, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6e10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 mg m3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20e64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/ allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05).

  8. The pharmaceutical industry and the German National Socialist Regime: I.G. Farben and pharmacological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, F; García-García, P; Alamo, C

    2009-02-01

    Before the National Socialist party came to power, the German pharmaceutical industry constituted an international reference as far as the development of new medicines was concerned, having been responsible for synthetic analgesics (phenacetin, phenazones, acetylsalicylic acid), arsphenamine, barbiturates and sulfonamides. The year 1925 saw the founding of I.G. Farben (Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG), a conglomerate of companies that would monopolize the country's chemical production and come to own all its major pharmaceutical industries. During the World War II, I.G. Farben participated in numerous operations associated with the criminal activities of the Nazi executive, including the use of slave labour in plants built close to concentration camps, such as that at Auschwitz. With regard to medical and pharmacological research projects, I.G. Farben became involved in experimental programmes using patients from the Nazi regime's euthanasia programmes and healthy subjects recruited without their consent from concentration camps, on whom various pharmacological substances were tested, including sulfamide and arsenical derivatives and other preparations whose composition is not precisely known (B-1012, B-1034, 3382 or Rutenol, 3582 or Acridine), generally in relation to the treatment of infectious diseases, such as typhus, erysipelas, scarlet fever or paratyphoid diarrhoea. Furthermore, I.G. Farben played a decisive role in the German army's chemical warfare programme, contributing to the development of the first two neurotoxic substances, later known as 'nerve agents', tabun and sarin. Some of these activities came to light as a result of the one the famous Nuremberg Trials in 1947, which saw 24 executives and scientists from I.G. Farben brought to justice for, among other offences, the use of slave labour in the concentration camps and forced experimentation with drugs on prisoners.

  9. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  10. Land use and cover change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change : issues for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresco, L.O.; Berg, van den M.M.; Zeijl-Rozema, van A.E.

    1996-01-01

    The integration study 'Land Use and Cover Change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)' aims at identifying research fields in which the NRP can contribute most effectively to the international scientific know-how

  11. Study on mechanics of bodies under the action of sound pollution in industrial halls. Part I: Setting away from local sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăpuşan, I. L.; Arghir, M.

    2016-08-01

    When they are generated in confined spaces (halls, meeting rooms, theatre, concert, lecture, etc.) the sounds of suffering typical wave phenomena: absorption, reflection, refraction, production of stationary wave phenomenon, beatings, diffraction. In this work, it is taking into account all these phenomena of sounds propagation in given space. Within the framework of the given research is a study in industrial park "Teraplast" from Bistriţa-Năsăud county. This is industrial products for pvc constructions. From the submissions made to the workshops of processing industrial park "Teraplast" has been found, that noise is produced mainly in the power pumps hall. The registrations were made during a normal working days. The recorders made, for one minute, with recorder type NL32 made by Japanese society RION, in the pump's hall 12 positions, and they were introduced in a high-capacity computer. Signal processing has been made by the use of Fourier series. Graphs resulting from recorders were processed in Matlab. By analyzing the results of measurements of pollution levels in the pump room from "Teraplast" proves the fact that at any frequency of operation of pump maximum acoustic pressure exceeds the admisible pressure inside the halls and is needed to reduce it in industrial application.

  12. The effect of environmental performance and preference disclosure on financial performance: Empirical evidence from unbalanced panel data of heavy-pollution industries in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Environmental performance and propensity disclosure is important for stakeholders to estimate firms’ incentives in environmental management practices. The purpose of this article is to explore the impacts of environmental performance and propensity disclosure on financial performance using unbalanced panel data of eight heavy-pollution industries in China. Design/methodology/approach: Environmental performance and propensity exhibits mutual causality relationship with Tobin’s Q value using unit root and co-integration test of panel data. Using panel data analysis, we take the impacts of environmental performance and propensity disclosure on financial performance from 2008 to 2012. Findings: Environmental performance has a significantly negative impact on Tobin’s Q value at the significance levels of 1%, while environmental propensity has a significantly positive effect on Tobin’s Q value at the significance levels of 5%. Firm size, financial leverage and return of assets have significantly positive impacts on financial performance at the significance levels of 1%. Meanwhile the effect of corporate environmental performance and propensity on financial performance has a significantly periodic difference from 2008 to 2012. Research limitations/implications: Those results are helpful for environmental regulators to evaluate the implementing effect of voluntary environmental policy and for firms’ managers to increase market expectation and improve financial performance. Originality/value: Environmental performance is estimated by 30 environmental indicators in eight heavy-pollution industries in China. Environmental performance and propensity disclosure has a U-typed relationship with financial performance.

  13. Application of air pollution dispersion modeling for source-contribution assessment and model performance evaluation at integrated industrial estate-Pantnagar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, T., E-mail: tirthankaronline@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145 (India); Barman, S.C., E-mail: scbarman@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Monitoring, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow-226 001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Srivastava, R.K., E-mail: rajeevsrivastava08@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Source-contribution assessment of ambient NO{sub 2} concentration was performed at Pantnagar, India through simulation of two urban mathematical dispersive models namely Gaussian Finite Line Source Model (GFLSM) and Industrial Source Complex Model (ISCST-3) and model performances were evaluated. Principal approaches were development of comprehensive emission inventory, monitoring of traffic density and regional air quality and conclusively simulation of urban dispersive models. Initially, 18 industries were found responsible for emission of 39.11 kg/h of NO{sub 2} through 43 elevated stacks. Further, vehicular emission potential in terms of NO{sub 2} was computed as 7.1 kg/h. Air quality monitoring delineates an annual average NO{sub 2} concentration of 32.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Finally, GFLSM and ISCST-3 were simulated in conjunction with developed emission inventories and existing meteorological conditions. Models simulation indicated that contribution of NO{sub 2} from industrial and vehicular source was in a range of 45-70% and 9-39%, respectively. Further, statistical analysis revealed satisfactory model performance with an aggregate accuracy of 61.9%. - Research highlights: > Application of dispersion modeling for source-contribution assessment of ambient NO{sub 2}. > Inventorization revealed emission from industry and vehicles was 39.11 and 7.1 kg/h. > GFLSM revealed that vehicular pollution contributes a range of 9.0-38.6%. > Source-contribution of 45-70% was found for industrial emission through ISCST-3. > Aggregate performance of both models shows good agreement with an accuracy of 61.9%. - Development of industrial and vehicular inventory in terms of ambient NO{sub 2} for model simulation at Pantnagar, India and model validation revealed satisfactory outcome.

  14. Time allocation shifts and pollutant exposure due to traffic congestion: an analysis using the national human activity pattern survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart A

    2009-10-15

    Traffic congestion increases air pollutant exposures of commuters and urban populations due to the increased time spent in traffic and the increased vehicular emissions that occur in congestion, especially "stop-and-go" traffic. Increased time in traffic also decreases time in other microenvironments, a trade-off that has not been considered in previous time activity pattern (TAP) analyses conducted for exposure assessment purposes. This research investigates changes in time allocations and exposures that result from traffic congestion. Time shifts were derived using data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), which was aggregated to nine microenvironments (six indoor locations, two outdoor locations and one transport location). After imputing missing values, handling outliers, and conducting other quality checks, these data were stratified by respondent age, employment status and period (weekday/weekend). Trade-offs or time-shift coefficients between time spent in vehicles and the eight other microenvironments were then estimated using robust regression. For children and retirees, congestion primarily reduced the time spent at home; for older children and working adults, congestion shifted the time spent at home as well as time in schools, public buildings, and other indoor environments. Changes in benzene and PM(2.5) exposure were estimated for the current average travel delay in the U.S. (9 min day(-1)) and other scenarios using the estimated time shifts coefficients, concentrations in key microenvironments derived from the literature, and a probabilistic analysis. Changes in exposures depended on the duration of the congestion and the pollutant. For example, a 30 min day(-1) travel delay was determined to account for 21+/-12% of current exposure to benzene and 14+/-8% of PM(2.5) exposure. The time allocation shifts and the dynamic approach to TAPs improve estimates of exposure impacts from congestion and other recurring events.

  15. Teaching History, Teaching Nationalism: A Qualitative Study of History Teachers in a Polish Post-Industrial Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskulowski, Krzysztof; Surmiak, Adrianna

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse Polish history teachers' perceptions of the role of historical education in the context of nationalism, class and locality. Drawing on the results of qualitative research conducted in the post-industrial and post-German city of Walbrzych in Poland, we argue that teachers are not fully aware of the role of nationalist…

  16. An Economic Profile of the U. S. Book Industry. National Program for Libraries and Information Services Related Paper No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Curtis G.

    The economics of book publishing are described in this study completed for the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. Segments of the book industry are compared by annual sales and titles published, as is profitability by categories of publishing. Operating statements of major categories are examined and capital requirements and…

  17. National Development and Reform Commission reported that the profit of non-ferrous metal industry decreases by 7%

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On July 14th,National Development and Re- form Commission issued the economic report of the earlier 5 months of non-ferrous metal industry,indicating a decrease in the profit of key non-ferrous metal enterprises.Among the

  18. Dynamics of Sewage Charge Policies, Environmental Protection Industry and Polluting Enterprises—A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The game model of sewage charges, based on incremental mode, was developed. Four modes of high/low sewage charge standards were utilized to analyze the relationship between control strategy on sewage discharge and the development of environmental protection industry. Results showed that the selection of control strategy was heavily dependent on the level of sewage charges. An empirical study was carried out to investigate the environmental protection industry in 31 regions in China in 2010. It was revealed that the sewage charge standards, formulated by the local governments and the development of environmental protection industry, varied significantly in different regions. The optimal level of environmental quality and social welfare, as a whole, was not achieved in China. It is proposed that different regions should adopt different sewage charges standards based on their economic development level and the current environmental quality. Similarly, the scientific and technological innovation of environmental protection industry should be further strengthened.

  19. A biological method to monitor early effects of the air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Loppi, Stefano

    2008-09-01

    The suitability of a set of ecophysiological parameters, to be used as early warning indicator to detect signs of a worsening environment around geothermal power plants, was tested by comparison with the diversity of epiphytic lichens, a well-established indicator of geothermal air pollution. Samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri were transplanted around a geothermal power plant at Larderello (Tuscany, Italy) and at a control site, and integrity of cell membranes, concentration of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, chlorophyll integrity and variations in pH of thalli were measured. The results showed that cell membrane damage, expressed by changes in electrical conductivity, could be used to detect early (exposure periods as short as 1 month) deleterious effects of geothermal air pollution.

  20. Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lladó, S., E-mail: llado@biomed.cas.cz [Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídenská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Covino, S., E-mail: covino@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídenská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Solanas, A.M., E-mail: asolanas@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Petruccioli, M., E-mail: petrucci@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems [DIBAF], University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); D’annibale, A., E-mail: dannib@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems [DIBAF], University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Viñas, M., E-mail: marc.vinas@irta.cat [GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Institute of Research and Technology Food and Agriculture [IRTA], Torre Marimon, E-08140 Caldes de Montbui (Spain)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Soil microbial community assessment through classical (MPN) and molecular tools (DGGE and pyrosequencing) is provided. • A failure of exogenous white rot fungi to colonize the polluted soil is shown by DGGE and pyrosequencing. • Surfactant Brij 30 hampers 4-ring PAHs degradation due to toxicity over Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes populations. • A high prevalence of Fusarium and Scedosporium populations is revealed during soil bioremediation. • Cupriavidus, Mycobacterium and Chithinophagaceae are potential HMW–PAH degraders in the soil. - Abstract: Bacterial and fungal biodiversity throughout different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments applied to an industrial creosote-polluted soil were analyzed by means of polyphasic approach in order to gain insight into the microbial community structure and dynamics. Pyrosequencing data obtained from initial creosote polluted soil (after a biopiling step) revealed that Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups, whereas Fusarium and Scedosporium were the main fungal genera in the contaminated soil. At the end of 60-days laboratory scale bioremediation assays, pyrosequencing and DGGE data showed that (i) major bacterial community shifts were caused by the type of mobilizing agent added to the soil and, to a lesser extent, by the addition of lignocellulosic substrate; and (ii) the presence of the non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) hampered the proliferation of Actinobacteria (Mycobacteriaceae) and Bacteroidetes (Chitinophagaceae) and, in the absence of lignocellulosic substrate, also impeded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. The results show the importance of implementing bioremediation experiments combined with microbiome assessment to gain insight on the effect of crucial parameters (e.g. use of additives) over the potential functions of complex microbial communities harbored in polluted soils, essential for bioremediation success.