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Sample records for national football league

  1. A Comparison of the National Football League's Annual National Football League Combine 1999-2000 to 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Corey F; Jensen, Randall L

    2018-06-06

    Fitzgerald, CF and Jensen, RL. A Comparison of the National Football League's annual National Football League combine 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine if elite football players are becoming bigger, faster, and stronger over the past decade by analyzing individual performances at the National Football League's (NFL) Combine. This study was conducted with (N = 1,263) subjects from the 1999-2000 (99-00) NFL Combines (n = 635) and the 2015-2016 (15-16) NFL Combines (n = 628) separated by position. Data were collected for height, weight, 40-yd (36.58 m) dash, NFL 225 lb. (102.06 kg) repetitions test, vertical jump (VJ), broad jump (BJ), pro-agility shuttle, and 3-cone drill. Statistical significance between the years for all subjects participating in the NFL Combine was found for the 40-yd dash (99-00: mean ± SD = 4.85 ± 3.2; 15-16: 4.80 ± 3.5; p = 0.002) and VJ (99-00 = 32.30 ± 4.08; 15-16: 32.86 ± 4.17; p = 0.028) at the alpha p 0.05) for weight or height found across all subjects by combine years. Results indicate that elite football players have improved their performance, when comparing results from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. These finding may be beneficial to NFL franchises in their prospective player assessments.

  2. Vitamin D profile in National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina M; Bost, Jeffrey W; Amos, Austin; Winkelman, Robert; Yates, Anthony P; Duca, Mark A; Norwig, John A

    2015-05-01

    By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players. To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position. Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season. Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League

  3. Ascending Aortic Dimensions in Former National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, James L; Carruthers, David; Joshi, Parag H; Maroules, Christopher D; Ayers, Colby R; de Lemos, James A; Aagaard, Philip; Hachamovitch, Rory; Desai, Milind Y; Roselli, Eric E; Dunn, Reginald E; Alexander, Kezia; Lincoln, Andrew E; Tucker, Andrew M; Phelan, Dermot M

    2017-11-01

    Ascending aortic dimensions are slightly larger in young competitive athletes compared with sedentary controls, but rarely >40 mm. Whether this finding translates to aortic enlargement in older, former athletes is unknown. This cross-sectional study involved a sample of 206 former National Football League (NFL) athletes compared with 759 male subjects from the DHS-2 (Dallas Heart Study-2; mean age of 57.1 and 53.6 years, respectively, P 40 mm (29.6% versus 8.6%; P history of hypertension, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, and lipid profile, the former NFL athletes still had significantly larger ascending aortas ( P 40 mm after adjusting for the same parameters. Ascending aortic dimensions were significantly larger in a sample of former NFL athletes after adjusting for their size, age, race, and cardiac risk factors. Whether this translates to an increased risk is unknown and requires further evaluation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Concussions in the National Football League: A Current Concepts Review.

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    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Johnson, Daniel J; Zuckerman, Scott L; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-03-01

    Significant attention has been directed toward the immediate and long-term effects of sport-related concussions on athletes participating in contact sports, particularly football. The highest level of football, the National Football League (NFL), has received significant attention and criticism regarding player management and safety after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several review articles have reported data related to concussion in the NFL, but a succinct review and synthesis of data regarding NFL concussions is currently lacking. To (1) review systematically the published data regarding concussion in the NFL and assess limitations of the studies, (2) elucidate areas where further research is needed, and (3) identify methods to improve future investigations of concussion in the NFL. Systematic review of literature. English-language titles and abstracts published between 1900 and September 2014 were searched systematically across electronic databases, and a review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included if they contained NFL concussion data with or without additional associated long-term effects. Reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, and comments were not included. Of the 344 records screened for review, 88 articles were assessed for eligibility. There were 31 studies that met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the evidence synthesis. Included in the current review were 8 case-control studies (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine evidence level 3b), 6 descriptive epidemiological studies (level 4), 6 cross-sectional studies (level 4), 6 cohort studies (level 2b), and 5 case series (level 4). The study of concussions in the NFL has been limited by lack of recent empirical data, reliance on self-reported concussion history, and ascertainment bias of brains donated for autopsy studies. The scientific community

  5. Effect of Concussion on Performance of National Football League Players.

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    Reams, Nicole; Hayward, Rodney A; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Burke, James F

    2017-09-01

    Lingering neurologic injury after concussion may expose athletes to increased risk if return to play is premature. The authors explored whether on-field performance after concussion is a marker of lingering neurologic injury. Retrospective cohort study on 1882 skill-position players who played in the National Football League (NFL) during 2007-2010. Players with concussion based on the weekly injury report were compared with players with other head and neck injuries (controls) on measures of on-field performance using Football Outsiders' calculation of defense-adjusted yards above replacement (DYAR), a measure of a player's contribution controlling for game context. Changes in performance, relative to a player's baseline level of performance, were estimated before and after injury using fixed-effects models. The study included 140 concussed players and 57 controls. Players with concussion performed no better or worse than their baseline on return to play. However, a decline in DYAR relative to their prior performance was noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report. Concussed players performed slightly better than controls in situations where they returned to play the same week as appearing on the injury report. On return, concussed NFL players performed at their baseline level of performance, suggesting that players have recovered from concussion. Decline in performance noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report may suggest that concussion diagnosis was delayed or that concussion can be a multihit phenomenon. Athletic performance may be a novel tool for assessing concussion injury and recovery.

  6. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Brian C.; Belkin, Nicole S.; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P.; Potter, Hollis G.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. Purpose: To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and ...

  7. Association Between Playing American Football in the National Football League and Long-term Mortality.

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    Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Gandhavadi, Maheer; Jena, Anupam B

    2018-02-27

    Studies of the longevity of professional American football players have demonstrated lower mortality relative to the general population but they may have been susceptible to selection bias. To examine the association between career participation in professional American football and mortality risk in retirement. Retrospective cohort study involving 3812 retired US National Football League (NFL) players who debuted in the NFL between 1982 and 1992, including regular NFL players (n = 2933) and NFL "replacement players" (n = 879) who were temporarily hired to play during a 3-game league-wide player strike in 1987. Follow-up ended on December 31, 2016. NFL participation as a career player or as a replacement player. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality by December 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazards models were estimated to compare the observed number of years from age 22 years until death (or censoring), adjusted for birth year, body mass index, height, and position played. Information on player death and cause of death was ascertained from a search of the National Death Index and web-based sources. Of the 3812 men included in this study (mean [SD] age at first NFL activity, 23.4 [1.5] years), there were 2933 career NFL players (median NFL tenure, 5 seasons [interquartile range {IQR}, 2-8]; median follow-up, 30 years [IQR, 27-33]) and 879 replacement players (median NFL tenure, 1 season [IQR, 1-1]; median follow-up, 31 years [IQR, 30-33]). At the end of follow-up, 144 NFL players (4.9%) and 37 replacement players (4.2%) were deceased (adjusted absolute risk difference, 1.0% [95% CI, -0.7% to 2.7%]; P = .25). The adjusted mortality hazard ratio for NFL players relative to replacements was 1.38 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.99; P = .09). Among career NFL players, the most common causes of death were cardiometabolic disease (n = 51; 35.4%), transportation injuries (n = 20; 13.9%), unintentional injuries (n = 15; 10.4%), and neoplasms (n = 15

  8. Success of nonoperative management of adductor longus tendon ruptures in National Football League athletes.

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    Schlegel, Theodore F; Bushnell, Brandon D; Godfrey, Jenna; Boublik, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Acute complete ruptures of the proximal adductor longus tendon are rare but challenging injuries to treat. The limited literature supports operative treatment, but data from management of chronic groin pain in athletes indicate that anatomical attachment of the tendon to the pubis may not be required for high-level function. Nonoperative management of complete adductor rupture can provide equal results to surgical repair in terms of return to play in the National Football League. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Using the National Football League Injury Surveillance System, adductor tendon ruptures documented by magnetic resonance imaging were identified in 19 National Football League players from 1992 to 2004. The team physician for each respective player completed a survey with information about history, physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging findings, treatment, and outcomes. Statistics were analyzed with a Student unpaired t test. Fourteen players were treated nonoperatively, and 5 players were treated with surgical repair using suture anchors. In both groups, all players eventually returned to play in the National Football League. Mean time for return to play was 6.1 +/- 3.1 weeks (range, 3-12 weeks) for the nonoperative group and 12.0 +/- 2.5 weeks (range, 10-16 weeks) for the operative group (P = .001). One player in the operative group suffered the complication of a draining wound and heterotopic ossification. Players represented a variety of positions, and 12 of 19 (63%) had experienced prior symptoms or events. Nonoperative treatment of proximal adductor tendon rupture results in a statistically significantly faster return to play than does operative treatment in athletes competing in the National Football League and avoids the risks associated with surgery while providing an equal likelihood of return to play at the professional level.

  9. Greater circadian disadvantage during evening games for the National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL) and National Football League (NFL) teams travelling westward.

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    Roy, Jonathan; Forest, Geneviève

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the effects of a circadian disadvantage (i.e. playing in a different time zone) on the winning percentages in three major sport leagues in North America: the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League and the National Football League. We reviewed 5 years of regular season games in the National Basketball Association, National Hockey League and National Football League, and noted the winning percentage of the visiting team depending on the direction of travel (west, east, and same time zone) and game time (day and evening games). T-tests and analysis of variance were performed to evaluate the effects of the circadian disadvantage, its direction, the number of time zones travelled, and the game time on winning percentages in each major league. The results showed an association between the winning percentages and the number of time zones traveled for the away evening games, with a clear disadvantage for the teams travelling westward. There was a significant difference in the teams' winning percentages depending on the travelling direction in the National Basketball Association (F 2,5908  = 16.12, P < 0.0001) and the National Hockey League (F 2,5639  = 4.48, P = 0.011), and a trend was found in the National Football League (F 2,1279  = 2.86, P = 0.058). The effect of the circadian disadvantage transcends the type of sport and needs to be addressed for greater equity among the western and eastern teams in professional sports. These results also highlight the importance of circadian rhythms in sport performance and athletic competitions. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Relative age effects in Australian Football League National Draftees.

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    Coutts, Aaron J; Kempton, Thomas; Vaeyens, Roel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the birth distribution for adolescent (i.e. born in the first part of the classification period for both quartile (P born in the latter part of the selection period for both quartile (P = 0.047) and half-year (P = 0.028) compared to the Australian national population. The selection bias towards relatively older players in adolescent AFL draftees may be related to advanced physical and psychological maturity, and exposure to higher-level coaching compared to their younger counterparts. The reverse RAE in mature age draftees is a novel finding and supports the need for strategies to encourage continued participation pathways for talented Australian football players born later in the selection year.

  11. The impact of a cervical spine diagnosis on the careers of National Football League athletes.

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    Schroeder, Gregory D; Lynch, T Sean; Gibbs, Daniel B; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark W; Patel, Alpesh A; Savage, Jason W; Nuber, Gordon W; Hsu, Wellington K

    2014-05-20

    Cohort study. To determine the effect of cervical spine pathology on athletes entering the National Football League. The association of symptomatic cervical spine pathology with American football athletes has been described; however, it is unknown how preexisting cervical spine pathology affects career performance of a National Football League player. The medical evaluations and imaging reports of American football athletes from 2003 to 2011 during the combine were evaluated. Athletes with a cervical spine diagnosis were matched to controls and career statistics were compiled. Of a total of 2965 evaluated athletes, 143 players met the inclusion criteria. Athletes who attended the National Football League combine without a cervical spine diagnosis were more likely to be drafted than those with a diagnosis (P = 0.001). Players with a cervical spine diagnosis had a decreased total games played (P = 0.01). There was no difference in the number of games started (P = 0.08) or performance score (P = 0.38). In 10 athletes with a sagittal canal diameter of less than 10 mm, there was no difference in years, games played, games started, or performance score (P > 0.24). No neurological injury occurred during their careers. In 7 players who were drafted with a history of cervical spine surgery (4 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, 2 foraminotomy, and 1 suboccipital craniectomy with a C1 laminectomy), there was no difference in career longevity or performance when compared with matched controls. This study suggests that athletes with preexisting cervical spine pathology were less likely to be drafted than controls. Players with preexisting cervical spine pathology demonstrated a shorter career than those without; however, statistically based performance and numbers of games started were not different. Players with cervical spinal stenosis and those with a history of previous surgery demonstrated no difference in performance-based outcomes and no reports of neurological

  12. The Long-Term Game: An Analysis of the Life Expectancy of National Football League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Koning

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Football League (NFL has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players using publically available data from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.

  13. Historical Patterns and Variation in Treatment of Injuries in NFL (National Football League) Players and NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Players.

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    McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Langner, Paula; Cook, Shane; Ellis, Byron; Godfrey, Jenna M

    We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians. Although patellar tendon autograft was the preferred graft choice for both groups of team physicians, the percentage of NCAA physicians who allowed return to football 6 months or less after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was significantly (P = .03) higher than that of NFL physicians. Prophylactic knee bracing, which may prevent medial collateral ligament injuries, was used at a significantly (P football players.

  14. Comment on Brent Beal's and Heather Olson Beal's "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League"

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    Bast, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In their article "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," Brent D. Beal and Heather K. Olson Beal (this issue) promise to update some of the arguments made by Jeffrey R. Henig (1994) and add an interesting twist by proposing the National Football League (NFL) as a possible…

  15. Superior Labrum Anterior-Posterior Tears in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Caitlin C; Lynch, T Sean; Gibbs, Daniel B; Ghodasra, Jason H; Sahota, Shawn; Franke, Kristina; Mack, Christina D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2017-01-01

    Shoulder disorders are common in football players, with up to 50% of National Football League (NFL) recruits reporting a history of shoulder injuries. Superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears are an entity with well-described detrimental effects on return to play in overhead-throwing athletes but with minimal data in contact athletes. To identify the incidence, predisposing factors, and effect of SLAP tears in NFL athletes and prospects as well as the treatment patterns of NFL team physicians. Descriptive epidemiology study. This study was a comprehensive analysis of SLAP tears in elite football players using a dual approach: (1) SLAP injuries recorded in the NFL Injury Surveillance System from 2000 to 2014 were evaluated by player position, type of play, days/games lost, and surgical intervention; (2) NFL Scouting Combine athletes from 2003 to 2011 with prior SLAP repair were evaluated for draft success, and drafted athletes were compared with matched controls for career length and performance scores. SLAP tears represented a small portion (3.1%) of shoulder injuries in NFL athletes from 2000 to 2014, occurring most commonly in offensive linemen (28%). Surgically treated SLAP tears (42%) resulted in more days missed than did nonoperatively managed tears (140.2 vs 21.5 days; P football players, it is clear that these injuries have the potential to cause significant detriment to an athlete's career.

  16. Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons.

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    Lehman, Everett J; Hein, Misty J; Gersic, Christine M

    2016-10-01

    There is current disagreement in the scientific literature about the relationship between playing football and suicide risk, particularly among professional players in the National Football League (NFL). While some research indicates players are at high risk of football-related concussions, which may lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy and suicide, other research finds such a connection to be speculative and unsupported by methodologically sound research. To compare the suicide mortality of a cohort of NFL players to what would be expected in the general population of the United States. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A cohort of 3439 NFL players with at least 5 credited playing seasons between 1959 and 1988 was assembled for statistical analysis. The vital status for this cohort was updated through 2013. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), the ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths, and 95% CIs were computed for the cohort; 95% CIs that excluded unity were considered statistically significant. For internal comparison purposes, standardized rate ratios were calculated to compare mortality results between players stratified into speed and nonspeed position types. Suicide among this cohort of professional football players was significantly less than would be expected in comparison with the United States population (SMR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24-0.82). There were no significant differences in suicide mortality between speed and nonspeed position players. There is no indication of elevated suicide risk in this cohort of professional football players with 5 or more credited seasons of play. Because of the unique nature of this cohort, these study results may not be applicable to professional football players who played fewer than 5 years or to college or high school players. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Imaging Correlates of Memory and Concussion History in Retired National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Jeremy F; Womack, Kyle B; Didehbani, Nyaz; Spence, Jeffrey S; Conover, Heather; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

    2015-07-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an association between concussion, cognition, and anatomical structural brain changes across the age spectrum in former National Football League athletes. To assess the relationship of hippocampal volume, memory performance, and the influence of concussion history in retired National Football League athletes with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This retrospective cohort study assessed differences between groups, mean hippocampal volumes, and memory performance by computing age quintiles based on group-specific linear regression models corrected for multiple comparisons for both athletes and control participants. The study was conducted starting in November 2010 and is ongoing at a research center in the northern region of Texas. This current analysis was conducted from October 9, 2013, to August 21, 2014. Participants included 28 retired National Football League athletes, 8 of whom had MCI and a history of concussion, 21 cognitively healthy control participants, and 6 control participants with MCI without concussion. Hippocampal volume, age, California Verbal Learning Test scores, and the number of grade 3 (G3) concussions. In addition, the number of games played was examined as an objective variable pertaining to football history. The mean (SD) age was 58.1 (13) years for the 28 former athletes and 59.0 (12) years for the 27 control participants. Retired athletes with concussion history but without cognitive impairment had normal but significantly lower California Verbal Learning Test scores compared with control participants (mean [SD], 52.5 [8] vs 60.24 [7]; P = .002); those with a concussion history and MCI performed worse (mean [SD], 37 [8.62]) compared with both control participants (P history of G3 concussion were more likely to have MCI (7 of 7) compared with retired athletes without a history of G3 concussion (1 of 5) older than 63 years (P = .01). In addition, the left hippocampal

  18. The Financial and Professional Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrist, Eric S; Bhat, Suneel B; Dodson, Christopher C

    2016-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search. A database of NFL player salaries was used to conduct a matched cohort analysis comparing ACL-injured players with the rest of the NFL. The main outcomes were the percentage of players remaining in the NFL and mean salary at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after injury. Cohorts were subdivided based on initial salary: group A, $2,000,000. Mean cumulative earnings were calculated by multiplying the percentage of players remaining in the league by their mean salaries and compounding this each season. NFL athletes suffered 219 ACL injuries from 2010 to 2013. The 7504 other player seasons in the NFL during this time were used as controls. Significantly fewer ACL-injured players than controls remained in the NFL at each time point (P negatively affected. This demonstrates the degree of negative impact these injuries have on the careers of NFL players. It also indicates that a player's standing within the league before injury strongly influences how much an ACL injury will affect his career.

  19. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2012-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David W.; Hutchison, Michael G.; Comper, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The risk of all-cause injury and concussion associated with football is significant. The National Football League (NFL) has implemented changes to increase player safety warranting investigation into the incidence and patterns of injury. Purpose: To document the incidence and patterns of all-cause injury and concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data were collected prospectively from official NFL injury reports over 2 regular seasons from 2012 to 2014, with identification of injury incidence rates and patterns. Concussion rate ratios were calculated using previously reported NFL rates. Results: A total of 4284 injuries were identified, including 301 concussions. The all-cause injury rate was 395.8 per 1000 athletes at risk (AAR) and concussion incidence was 27.8 per 1000 AAR. Only 2.3% of team games were injury free. Wide receivers, tight ends, and defensive backs had the highest incidence of injury and concussion. Concussion incidence was 1.61-fold higher in 2012 to 2014 compared with 2002 to 2007. The knee was injured most frequently, followed by the ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and head. Conclusion: The incidence of all-cause injury and concussion in the NFL is significant. Concussion injury rates are higher than previous reports, potentially reflecting an improvement in recognition and awareness. Injury prevention efforts should continue to reduce the prevalence of injury associated with football. PMID:26675321

  20. National Football League concussions from 2009 – 2015: A secondary data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly, E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the National Football League (NFL has made an effort to lower the prevalence of concussions, partially by enacting rule changes designed to limit contact to the head. This study aims to determine whether NFL rule changes from 2009 – 2015 have resulted in a decrease in the number of reported concussions through analyzing publicly available injury reports, which were compared with rule changes for each season. A second component of the study aims to determine whether teams are underreporting the number of concussions suffered by gathering concussion data for each team. This study found that there was a general increase in the number of concussions from 2009 – 2015 and it is not possible to determine whether rule changes are effective in decreasing head impact exposure. This study also found that certain teams reported a significantly low number of concussions throughout the years analyzed, and underreporting is likely occurring.

  1. Effect of shoulder stabilization on career length in national football league athletes.

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    Brophy, Robert H; Gill, Corey S; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2011-04-01

    Shoulder instability and surgical stabilization are common in college football athletes. The effect of shoulder stabilization during college on the length of an athlete's career in the National Football League (NFL) has not been well examined. Athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization before the NFL combine have a shorter career than do matched controls. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A database containing the injury history and career NFL statistics of athletes from 1987 to 2000 was used to match athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization and no other surgery or significant injury to controls without a history of any previous surgery or significant injury. Athletes were matched by position, year drafted, round drafted, and additional minor injury history. Forty-two athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization were identified and matched with controls. A history of shoulder stabilization significantly reduced the length of career in terms of years (5.2 ± 3.9 vs 6.9 ± 3.6 years; P = .01) and games played (56 ± 53 vs 77 ± 50, P = .03) as compared with controls. By position, linemen and linebackers (20 athletes) with a history of shoulder stabilization had a significantly shorter career in years (4.7 ± 3.8 vs 6.7 ± 3.4 years; P = .049) and games played (51 ± 58 vs 81 ± 48; P = .046) than did controls. Among the other positions (22 athletes), the difference was not statistically significant in this small cohort. A history of shoulder stabilization shortens the expected career of a professional football player, particularly for linemen and linebackers. Further research is warranted to better understand how these injuries and surgeries affect an athlete's career and what can be done to improve the long-term outcome after treatment.

  2. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

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    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p bench press strength after short-term training.

  3. Physical Attributes and NFL Combine Performance Tests Between Italian National League and American Football Players: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Caumo, Andrea; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; La Torre, Antonio; Battaglini, Claudio L; Carandente, Franca

    2016-10-01

    Vitale, JA, Caumo, A, Roveda, E, Montaruli, A, La Torre, A, Battaglini, CL, and Carandente, F. Physical attributes and NFL Combine performance tests between Italian National League and American football players: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2802-2808, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine anthropometric measurements and the results of a battery of performance tests administered during the National Football League (NFL) Combine between American football players who were declared eligible to participate in the NFL Combine and football players of a top Italian team (Rhinos Milan). Participants (N = 50) were categorized by position into 1 of 3 groups based on playing position: skill players (SP) included wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs; big skill players (BSP) consisted of fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends; lineman (LM) included centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. A 1-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used for comparisons between Italian players by playing position. Ninety-five percent CIs were used for comparisons between American and Italian football for the NFL Combine performance tests. Significant differences for all the variables between the 3 playing categories were observed among the Italian players; LM had higher anthropometric and body composition values than SP (p football players presented significantly higher anthropometric values and test performance scores when compared with Italian players. Administrators of professional football teams in Italy need to improve the player's physical attributes, so the gap that currently exists between American and Italian players can be reduced, which could significantly improve the quality of American football in Italy.

  4. A History of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction at the National Football League Combine Results in Inferior Early National Football League Career Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Matthew T; Bradley, James P; Chahla, Jorge; Sanchez, Anthony; Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; Arner, Justin W; Kennedy, Nicholas I; Sanchez, George; Kennedy, Mitchell I; Moatshe, Gilbert; Cinque, Mark E; LaPrade, Robert F

    2018-05-19

    To evaluate whether players with a history of an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) before the National Football League (NFL) Combine played or started fewer games and/or participated in fewer eligible snaps compared with NFL Combine participants without a history of knee injury or surgery. We performed a retrospective review of all players who participated in the NFL Combine between 2009 and 2015 and who had a history of an ACLR. NFL Combine participants were included if they had a previous ACLR or combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and nonoperatively managed medial collateral ligament injury. The number of games started, number of games played, draft number, overall draft pick, and snap percentage for each position were determined. The mean value of each outcome metric was compared between case and control players. We identified 110 players who had an ACL injury (n = 76) or a combined ACL and medial collateral ligament injury (n = 34). Players in the ACLR group had a significantly worse mean draft pick number (difference of 30.2, P = .002) and mean draft round (difference of 0.8, P = .019) versus controls. Compared with control players, players in the ACLR group started and played significantly fewer games in both season 1 (difference of 2.7 games started, P < .001; difference of 2.7 games played, P < .001) and season 2 (difference of 7.4 games started, P < .001; difference of 3.0 games played, P = .003) and had a significantly lower snap percentage in both season 1 (difference of 23.1%, P < .001) and season 2 (difference of 24.0%, P < .001). Athletes at the NFL Combine who previously underwent an ACLR had significantly lower early-career NFL player metrics, including fewer games started, fewer games played, and a lower snap percentage, than uninjured controls. Defensive linemen, defensive backs, and linebackers were the 3 most affected positions. Players with a prior ACLR and combined meniscal-chondral pathology had

  5. Olfactory Function and Associated Clinical Correlates in Former National Football League Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L.; Jarnagin, Johnny; Tripodis, Yorghos; Platt, Michael; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Professional American football players incur thousands of repetitive head impacts (RHIs) throughout their lifetime. The long-term consequences of RHI are not well characterized, but may include olfactory dysfunction. RHI has been associated with changes to brain regions involved in olfaction, and olfactory impairment is common after traumatic brain injury. Olfactory dysfunction is a frequent early sequelae of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), and RHI is associated with the neurodegenerative disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We examined olfaction, and its association with clinical measures, in former National Football League (NFL) players. Ninety-five former NFL players (ages 40–69) and 28 same-age controls completed a neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric evaluation as part of a National Institutes of Health–funded study. The Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) assessed olfaction. Principal component analysis generated a four-factor structure of the clinical measures: behavioral/mood, psychomotor speed/executive function, and verbal and visual memory. Former NFL players had worse B-SIT scores relative to controls (p = 0.0096). A B-SIT cutoff of 11 had the greatest accuracy (c-statistic = 0.61) and specificity (79%) for discriminating former NFL players from controls. In the former NFL players, lower B-SIT scores correlated with greater behavioral/mood impairment (p = 0.0254) and worse psychomotor speed/executive functioning (p = 0.0464) after controlling for age and education. Former NFL players exhibited lower olfactory test scores relative to controls, and poorer olfactory test performance was associated with worse neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric functioning. Future work that uses more-comprehensive tests of olfaction and structural and functioning neuroimaging may improve understanding on the association between RHI and olfaction. PMID:27430424

  6. Olfactory Function and Associated Clinical Correlates in Former National Football League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Jarnagin, Johnny; Tripodis, Yorghos; Platt, Michael; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Cantu, Robert C; Stern, Robert A

    2017-02-15

    Professional American football players incur thousands of repetitive head impacts (RHIs) throughout their lifetime. The long-term consequences of RHI are not well characterized, but may include olfactory dysfunction. RHI has been associated with changes to brain regions involved in olfaction, and olfactory impairment is common after traumatic brain injury. Olfactory dysfunction is a frequent early sequelae of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), and RHI is associated with the neurodegenerative disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We examined olfaction, and its association with clinical measures, in former National Football League (NFL) players. Ninety-five former NFL players (ages 40-69) and 28 same-age controls completed a neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric evaluation as part of a National Institutes of Health-funded study. The Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) assessed olfaction. Principal component analysis generated a four-factor structure of the clinical measures: behavioral/mood, psychomotor speed/executive function, and verbal and visual memory. Former NFL players had worse B-SIT scores relative to controls (p = 0.0096). A B-SIT cutoff of 11 had the greatest accuracy (c-statistic = 0.61) and specificity (79%) for discriminating former NFL players from controls. In the former NFL players, lower B-SIT scores correlated with greater behavioral/mood impairment (p = 0.0254) and worse psychomotor speed/executive functioning (p = 0.0464) after controlling for age and education. Former NFL players exhibited lower olfactory test scores relative to controls, and poorer olfactory test performance was associated with worse neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric functioning. Future work that uses more-comprehensive tests of olfaction and structural and functioning neuroimaging may improve understanding on the association between RHI and olfaction.

  7. Prevalence and Impact of Glenoid Augmentation in American Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Scouting Combine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M.; Gillespie, Robert J.; Salata, Michael J.; Voos, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bony augmentation of the anterior glenoid is used in athletes with recurrent shoulder instability and bone loss; however, the prevalence and impact of repair in elite American football athletes are unknown. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and impact of glenoid augmentation in athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine from 2012 to 2015. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 1311 athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for history of either Bristow or Latarjet surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Athlete demographics, surgical history, imaging, and physical examination results were recorded using the NFL Combine database. Prospective participation data with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and status after the athletes’ first season in the NFL were gathered using publicly available databases. Results: Surgical repair was performed on 10 shoulders in 10 athletes (0.76%), with the highest prevalence in defensive backs (30%; n = 3). Deficits in shoulder motion were exhibited in 70% (n = 7) of athletes, while 40% (n = 4) had evidence of mild glenohumeral arthritis and 80% demonstrated imaging findings consistent with a prior instability episode (8 labral tears, 2 Hill-Sachs lesions). Prospectively, 40% (n = 4) of athletes were drafted into the NFL. In the first season after the combine, athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation were not found to be at significant risk for diminished participation with regard to games played or started when compared with athletes with no history of glenoid augmentation or athletes undergoing isolated shoulder soft tissue repair. After the conclusion of the first NFL season, 60% (n = 6 athletes) were on an active NFL roster. Conclusion: Despite being drafted at a lower rate than their peers, there were no significant limitations in NFL participation for athletes with a history of glenoid

  8. Prevalence and Impact of Glenoid Augmentation in American Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Scouting Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Gillespie, Robert J; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E

    2017-08-01

    Bony augmentation of the anterior glenoid is used in athletes with recurrent shoulder instability and bone loss; however, the prevalence and impact of repair in elite American football athletes are unknown. To evaluate the prevalence and impact of glenoid augmentation in athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine from 2012 to 2015. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 1311 athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for history of either Bristow or Latarjet surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Athlete demographics, surgical history, imaging, and physical examination results were recorded using the NFL Combine database. Prospective participation data with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and status after the athletes' first season in the NFL were gathered using publicly available databases. Surgical repair was performed on 10 shoulders in 10 athletes (0.76%), with the highest prevalence in defensive backs (30%; n = 3). Deficits in shoulder motion were exhibited in 70% (n = 7) of athletes, while 40% (n = 4) had evidence of mild glenohumeral arthritis and 80% demonstrated imaging findings consistent with a prior instability episode (8 labral tears, 2 Hill-Sachs lesions). Prospectively, 40% (n = 4) of athletes were drafted into the NFL. In the first season after the combine, athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation were not found to be at significant risk for diminished participation with regard to games played or started when compared with athletes with no history of glenoid augmentation or athletes undergoing isolated shoulder soft tissue repair. After the conclusion of the first NFL season, 60% (n = 6 athletes) were on an active NFL roster. Despite being drafted at a lower rate than their peers, there were no significant limitations in NFL participation for athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation when compared with athletes without a history of shoulder

  9. Pre-existing lumbar spine diagnosis as a predictor of outcomes in National Football League athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Lynch, T Sean; Gibbs, Daniel B; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark; Patel, Alpesh A; Savage, Jason W; Hsu, Wellington K; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-04-01

    It is currently unknown how pre-existing lumbar spine conditions may affect the medical evaluation, draft status, and subsequent career performance of National Football League (NFL) players. To determine if a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis affects a player's draft status or his performance and longevity in the NFL. Cohort study; Level 3. The investigators evaluated the written medical evaluations and imaging reports of prospective NFL players from a single franchise during the NFL Scouting Combine from 2003 to 2011. Players with a reported lumbar spine diagnosis and with appropriate imaging were included in this study. Athletes were then matched to control draftees without a lumbar spine diagnosis by age, position, year, and round drafted. Career statistics and performance scores were calculated. Of a total of 2965 athletes evaluated, 414 were identified as having a pre-existing lumbar spine diagnosis. Players without a lumbar spine diagnosis were more likely to be drafted than were those with a diagnosis (80.2% vs. 61.1%, respectively, P study suggest that athletes with pre-existing lumbar spine conditions were less likely to be drafted and that the diagnosis is associated with a decrease in career longevity but not performance. Players with lumbar fusion have achieved successful careers in the NFL. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Alcohol and violence in 2017 National Football League Super Bowl commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Sarah A; Basch, Corey H; Garcia, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Background: The National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl is a widely-viewed sports event and the commercials are especially popular among viewers. Previous research has demonstrated risky health behaviors in advertisements aired during sporting events. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content of the advertisements aired during the 2017 NFL Super Bowl. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved examining the content of all commercials, with an emphasis on health-compromising behaviors. The themes and highlights of the advertisements were analyzed based on whether there was a reference to alcohol or violence. Results: A total of 103 unique commercials were analyzed. The most common themes were humor (n=43), happiness (n=25), innovation (n=25), and enjoyment or relaxation (n=25).Alcohol was referenced in 13 (12.6%, 95% CI 7.5%, 20.4%) of the commercials. Advertisements with alcohol references were more likely to contain the themes of partying (odds ratio [OR]:16.2, 95% CI 1.4-193.4, P=0.041) and enjoyment or relaxation (OR: 4.7, 95% CI 1.4-15.6,P=0.014). There were 24 commercials with references to violence and these were more likely tobe promoting a movie (OR: 5.4, 95% CI 3.5-8.2, Ptelevision program (OR: 8.9,95% CI 2.6-30.26, Pchildren to watch a concentrated number of intense images containing references to alcohol and violence during this popular sporting event.

  11. Game Schedules and Rate of Concussions in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Masaru; Cushman, Daniel M; Cross, Chad L; Curtiss, Heather M; Willick, Stuart E

    2017-11-01

    Concussion prevention in the National Football League (NFL) is an important priority for player safety. The NFL now has modified game schedules, and one concern is that unconventional game schedules, such as a shortened rest period due to playing on a Thursday rather than during the weekend, may lead to an increased risk of injuries. Unconventional game schedules in the NFL are associated with an increased rate of concussion. Descriptive epidemiological study. This study analyzed concussions and game schedules over the NFL regular seasons from 2012 to 2015 (4 years). Documented numbers of concussions, identified by use of the online database PBS Frontline Concussion Watch, were summarized by regular-season weeks. Association of days of rest and game location (home, away, or overseas) with the rate of concussion was examined by use of the χ 2 test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships of days of rest and home/away games to the risk of repeated concussions, with adjustment for player position. A total of 582 concussions were analyzed in this study. A significantly greater number of concussions occurred in the second half of the season ( P game location, or timing of the bye week by the team or the opponent ( P > .05). Game schedules were not significantly associated with the occurrence of repeat concussions ( P > .05). Unconventional game schedules in the NFL, including playing on Thursday and playing overseas, do not seem to put players at increased risk of concussions.

  12. A BALANCED TEAM WINS CHAMPIONSHIPS: 66 YEARS OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION AND THE NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Mark P; Miller, Travis J

    2015-12-01

    Explicitly monitoring one's own actions has been noted as detrimental to the performance of fine motor skills under duress. Offensive skills rather than defensive skills are typically studied in this context. Defensive techniques typically require skills such as footwork and continuous movement, as opposed to more precise, hand-eye coordinated action. Explicit monitoring theory may be less relevant for defensive skills than offensive skills when playing under pressure. Archival data (66 years) for teams and for individual players was compiled from the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Football League (NFL). For basketball (n=778) and football (n=515) teams, regular season offensive and defensive statistics similarly predicted success in the postseason, which was assumed to create more pressure. For individual basketball players (n=5,132), nine indices of offensive (FG, free throw and three-point shooting, offensive win shares, points, and assists) and defensive (defensive win shares, steals, and blocks) production were compared; among these, three-point shooting percentage was least correlated from season to postseason, suggesting it is especially variable under pressure. A balanced basketball or football team that focuses on both offense and defense may be most successful.

  13. Relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive test performance in National Football League draft picks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    There are limited empirical data available regarding the relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive functioning in active National Football League (NFL) players in general and NFL draft picks in particular. Potential NFL draft picks undergo 2 neurocognitive tests at the National Invitational Camp (Scouting Combine) every year: the Wonderlic and, since 2011, the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). After conclusion of the combine and before the draft, NFL teams invite potential draft picks to their headquarters for individual visits where further assessment may occur. To examine the relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive performance (ImPACT and Wonderlic) in a sample of elite NFL draft picks. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Over 7 years, 226 potential draft picks were invited to visit a specific NFL team's headquarters after the combine. The athletes were divided into 3 groups based on self-reported concussion history: no prior concussions, 1 prior concussion, and 2 or more prior concussions. Neurocognitive measures of interest included Wonderlic scores (provided by the NFL team) and ImPACT composite scores (administered either at the combine or during a visit to the team headquarters). The relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive scores was assessed, as were the relationships among the 2 neurocognitive tests. Concussion history had no relationship to neurocognitive performance on either the Wonderlic or ImPACT. Concussion history did not affect performance on either neurocognitive test, suggesting that for this cohort, a history of concussion may not have adverse effects on neurocognitive functioning as measured by these 2 tests. This study reveals no correlation between concussion history and neurocognitive test scores (ImPACT, Wonderlic) in soon-to-be active NFL athletes.

  14. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Potter, Hollis G; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and any correlation between imaging findings and prolonged return to play. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all acute calf muscle injuries on a single NFL team from 2003 to 2015 was performed. Player demographics and return-to-play data were obtained from the medical records. All available magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist for specific imaging findings that correlated with return to play. A total of 27 calf injuries in 24 NFL players were reviewed, yielding an incidence of 2.3 acute calf injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these 27 injuries, 20 (74%) were isolated injuries to the gastrocnemius muscle, 4 (15%) were isolated injuries to the soleus muscle, and the remaining 3 injuries (11%) involved both. Defensive players were more likely to sustain injuries ( P = .043). The mean time to return to play for all 27 players was 17.4 ± 14.6 days (range, 3-62 days). MRIs were available in 14 of the 27 injuries. The average size of the fascial defect ( P = .032) and the presence of a fluid collection ( P = .031) both correlated with return to play of longer than 2 weeks. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps muscle injuries, calf muscle injuries occur with relative frequency in the NFL, and more so in defensive players. The majority of these injuries occur in the gastrocnemius and result in significant disability, with at least 2 weeks of missed playing time on average. MRI may have an important role in the evaluation

  15. Climate policies in the U.S. at the stakeholder level: A case study of the National Football League

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Danyel

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes how stakeholders are able to influence climate policy-making in the U.S.; emphasis is placed upon the most popular sports league in the United States, the National Football League (NFL). An empirical analysis of the 32 NFL franchises identifies pioneering clubs that have introduced ambitious green programs that include the utilization of renewable energies, the adoption of energy efficiency measures and carbon offsetting policies, as well as the facilitation of public transport and electric cars. Apart from environmental concerns, this paper identifies several drivers for pioneering actions: economic motives, pressure exerted by the local environment, public relations, and political incentives such as the promotion from the federal government's stimulus package. Finally, this article investigates the role that state actors, such as the Environmental Protection Agency, and non-state actors, such as the Natural Resources Defense Council, play in the innovation and diffusion processes of environmental programs in the NFL. - Highlights: • The article analyzes the role of stakeholders in influencing climate policy-making in the U.S. • A case study of the National Football League (NFL) and their 32 franchises is carried out. • The research identifies pioneering teams and describes their actions. • The motives of pioneering action are identified. • State and non state actors that were involved in innovation and diffusion of green programs in the NFL are pinpointed

  16. Alcohol and violence in 2017 National Football League Super Bowl commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. MacLean

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Football League (NFL Super Bowl is a widely-viewed sports event and the commercials are especially popular among viewers. Previous research has demonstrated risky health behaviors in advertisements aired during sporting events. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content of the advertisements aired during the 2017 NFL Super Bowl. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved examining the content of all commercials, with an emphasis on health-compromising behaviors. The themes and highlights of the advertisements were analyzed based on whether there was a reference to alcohol or violence. Results: A total of 103 unique commercials were analyzed. The most common themes were humor (n=43, happiness (n=25, innovation (n=25, and enjoyment or relaxation (n=25.Alcohol was referenced in 13 (12.6%, 95% CI 7.5%, 20.4% of the commercials. Advertisements with alcohol references were more likely to contain the themes of partying (odds ratio [OR]:16.2, 95% CI 1.4-193.4, P=0.041 and enjoyment or relaxation (OR: 4.7, 95% CI 1.4-15.6,P=0.014. There were 24 commercials with references to violence and these were more likely tobe promoting a movie (OR: 5.4, 95% CI 3.5-8.2, P<0.001 or television program (OR: 8.9,95% CI 2.6-30.26, P<0.001. Conclusion: Parents should consider whether it is appropriate for their children to watch a concentrated number of intense images containing references to alcohol and violence during this popular sporting event.

  17. Descriptive Characteristics of Concussions in National Football League Games, 2010-2011 to 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael D; Asken, Breton M; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2017-03-01

    Despite a high reported incidence rate of concussion, little is known about the on-field characteristics of injurious head impacts in National Football League (NFL) games. To characterize on-field features (location, player position, and time during game) and biomechanical features (anticipation status, closing distance, impact location and type) associated with concussions in NFL games over a 4-season period (2010-2011 to 2013-2014). Descriptive epidemiology study. We analyzed video of a subset of reported, in-game concussions for the 2010-2011 to 2013-2014 seasons. These videos represented a sample of injuries that were diagnosed and reported on the same day and that could be clearly associated with an in-game collision as captured on video. We determined anticipation status, closing distance, impact location on the injured player's helmet, and impact type (helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-body, or helmet-to-ground). Associations between these variables were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and tests of association. A total of 871 diagnosed concussions were reported as occurring during NFL preseason, regular season, and postseason games for the 2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 seasons. A total of 1324 games were played during this period, giving a concussion incidence rate of 0.658 per game (95% CI, 0.61-0.70). From the video-reviewed subset (n = 429; 49.3%), the majority of injurious impacts occurred with good anticipation (57.3%) and concussions in the NFL occurred through a diverse variety of mechanisms, surprisingly tended to be well-anticipated, and, also surprisingly, occurred with concussion were broadly distributed over the helmet. More concussions occurred during the second half of game play, but we do not have evidence to explain this finding.

  18. Participation in Pre-High School Football and Neurological, Neuroradiological, and Neuropsychological Findings in Later Life: A Study of 45 Retired National Football League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew W; Zuckerman, Scott L; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Lovell, Mark R; Sills, Allen K

    2016-05-01

    A recent study found that an earlier age of first exposure (AFE) to tackle football was associated with long-term neurocognitive impairment in retired National Football League (NFL) players. To assess the association between years of exposure to pre-high school football (PreYOE) and neuroradiological, neurological, and neuropsychological outcome measures in a different sample of retired NFL players. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-five former NFL players were included in this study. All participants prospectively completed extensive history taking, a neurological examination, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. To measure the associations between PreYOE and these outcome measures, multiple regression models were utilized while controlling for several covariates. After applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, none of the neurological, neuroradiological, or neuropsychological outcome measures yielded a significant relationship with PreYOE. A second Bonferroni-corrected analysis of a subset of these athletes with self-reported learning disability yielded no significant relationships on paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests but did result in a significant association between learning disability and computerized indices of visual motor speed and reaction time. The current study failed to replicate the results of a prior study, which concluded that an earlier AFE to tackle football might result in long-term neurocognitive deficits. In 45 retired NFL athletes, there were no associations between PreYOE and neuroradiological, neurological, and neuropsychological outcome measures. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a National Football League Player: Case report and emerging medicolegal practice questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omalu, Bennet I; Hamilton, Ronald L; Kamboh, M Ilyas; DeKosky, Steven T; Bailes, Julian

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a retired National Football League (NFL) Player with autopsy findings, apolipoprotein E genotype, and brain tissue evidence of chronic brain damage. This 44-year-old retired NFL player manifested a premortem history of cognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment, which included in part, chronic depression, suicide attempts, insomnia, paranoia, and impaired memory before he finally committed suicide. A full autopsy was performed with Polymerase Chain Reaction-based analyses of his blood to determine the apolipoprotein genotype. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on topographical gross sections of the brain. Autopsy confirmed a fatal gunshot wound of the head. The apolipoprotein E genotype was E3/E3 and the brain tissue revealed diffuse cerebral taupathy (Neurofibrillary Tangles and Neuritic Threads). This will be the third case of CTE in a national football player, which has been reported in the medical literature. Omalu et al., reported the first two cases in 2005 and 2006. This case series manifested similar premortem history of neuropsychiatric impairment with autopsy evidence of cerebral taupathy without any neuritic amyloidopathy. For a definitive diagnosis of CTE to be made, and for medicolegal purposes, a full autopsy must be performed with histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of the brain to identify the presence of Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFTs) and Neuritic Threads (NTs). Further longitudinal prospective studies are required to confirm the common denominators and epidemiology of CTE in professional American football players, which have been identified by this case series.

  20. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Lisfranc Injuries Identified at the National Football League Scouting Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Kevin J; Vopat, Bryan G; Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; Sanchez, George; Whalen, James M; McDonald, Lucas S; DiGiovanni, Christopher W; Theodore, George H; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-07-01

    Lisfranc injuries are challenging to treat and may have a detrimental effect on athletic performance. (1) Determine the epidemiological characteristics of Lisfranc injuries at the annual National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine, (2) define player positions at risk for these injuries, and (3) evaluate the impact that these injuries and radiographic findings have on NFL draft position and performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All players who sustained a Lisfranc injury prior to Combine evaluation between 2009 and 2015 were evaluated. The epidemiological characteristics, player positions affected, treatment methods, and number of missed collegiate games were recorded. Radiographic outcomes were analyzed via Combine radiograph findings, while NFL performance outcomes were assessed for all Lisfranc injuries (2009-2013) compared with matched controls in the first 2 years of play. A total of 41 of 2162 (1.8%) Combine participants were identified with Lisfranc injuries, of whom 26 of 41 (63.4%) were managed operatively. Players who underwent surgery were more likely to go undrafted compared with players managed nonoperatively (38.5% vs 13.3%, operative vs nonoperative management, respectively; P = .04) and featured a worse NFL draft pick position (155.6 vs 109; P = .03). Lisfranc-injured players when compared with controls were noted to have worse outcomes in terms of NFL draft position (142 vs 111.3, Lisfranc-injured players vs controls, respectively; P = .04), NFL career length 2 years or longer (62.5% vs 69.6%; P = .23), and number of games played (16.9 vs 23.3; P = .001) and started (6.8 vs 10.5; P = .08) within the first 2 years of their NFL career. Radiographs demonstrated that 17 of 41 (41.5%) athletes had residual Lisfranc joint displacement greater than 2 mm compared with the contralateral foot. Lisfranc-injured athletes with greater than 2 mm residual displacement, when compared with matched controls, had worse draft position (156.9 vs 111.2 for

  1. Radiographic findings of femoroacetabular impingement in National Football League Combine athletes undergoing radiographs for previous hip or groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Brophy, Robert H; Matava, Matthew J; Wright, Rick W; Clohisy, John C

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of radiographic findings of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in elite football players with a history of hip pain or groin injury who underwent radiographs. We performed a retrospective review of athletes undergoing hip radiography at the National Football League Combine from 2007 to 2009. Radiographs were obtained in athletes with a history of hip pain or injury. Anteroposterior pelvis and frog-lateral radiographs were obtained in 123 hips (107 players) that met our inclusion criteria. Radiographic indicators of cam-type FAI (alpha angle, head-neck offset ratio) and pincer-type FAI (acetabular retroversion, center-edge angle, acetabular inclination) were recorded. Findings were correlated with clinical factors (previous groin/hip pain, position, race, and body mass index). The most common previous injuries included groin strain (n = 57) and sports hernia/abdominal strain (n = 21). Markers of cam- and/or pincer-type FAI were present in 94.3% of hips (116 of 123). Radiographic evidence of combined cam- and pincer-type FAI was the most common (61.8%, 76 hips), whereas isolated cam-type FAI (9.8%, 12 hips) and pincer-type FAI (22.8%, 28 hips) were less common. The most common deformities included acetabular retroversion (71.5%) and an abnormal alpha angle (61.8%). A body mass index greater than 35 was associated with the presence of global overcoverage (46.2% v 17.3%, P = .025). Radiographic indicators of FAI are very common among athletes evaluated at the National Football League Scouting Combine subjected to radiographic examination for the clinical suspicion of hip disease. Elite football athletes with significant or recurrent pain about the hip should be evaluated clinically and radiographically for FAI, because pain from FAI may be falsely attributed to or may be present in addition to other disorders. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America

  2. The National Football League Combine: performance differences between drafted and nondrafted players entering the 2004 and 2005 drafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierer, S Patrick; Battaglini, Claudio L; Mihalik, Jason P; Shields, Edgar W; Tomasini, Nathan T

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine performance differences between drafted and nondrafted athletes (N = 321) during the 2004 and 2005 National Football League (NFL) Combines. We categorized players into one of 3 groups: Skill, Big skill, and Linemen. Skill players (SP) consisted of wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs. Big skill players (BSP) included fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends. Linemen (LM) consisted of centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. We analyzed player height and mass, as well as performance on the following combine drills: 40-yard dash, 225-lb bench press test, vertical jump, broad jump, pro-agility shuttle, and the 3-cone drill. Student t-tests compared performance on each of these measures between drafted and nondrafted players. Statistical significance was found between drafted and nondrafted SP for the 40-yard dash (P ready themselves for the NFL Combine.

  3. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Osteoarthritis Prevalence in Retired National Football League Players With a History of Concussion and Lower Extremity Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynall, Robert C; Pietrosimone, Brian; Kerr, Zachary Y; Mauntel, Timothy C; Mihalik, Jason P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2017-06-02

      Dynamic balance deficits have been described postconcussion, even after athletes return to play. Lower extremity (LE) musculoskeletal injury rates increase for up to 1 year after concussion, but the long-term musculoskeletal implications of concussion are unclear.   To (1) examine the association of concussion and LE injury histories with osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence in retired National Football League players and (2) examine the association of concussion and LE injury histories with OA prevalence in those ≤55 years of age.   Case-control study.   Survey.   We administered the Health Survey of Retired National Football League Players, which collects information about demographics, OA, LE injury, and concussion history.   Twelve discrete categories were created based on concussion and LE injury history, ranging from 0 concussions and 0 LE injuries (referent group) to 3+ concussions and 2+ LE injuries. Binomial regression analysis modeled lifetime OA prevalence. Covariates were body mass index, age at the time of the survey, and total years playing professional football.   Complete data were available for 2696 participants. Lifetime OA prevalence was smallest in the referent group (21.1%) and largest in the 3+ concussion and 2+ LE group (50.6%; 2.5 times the referent; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1, 3.1). Participants in all concussion groups (1, 2, 3+) who reported a history of 0 LE injuries had a greater OA prevalence than the referent group. When participants were stratified by age, the ≤55 years of age, 3+ concussions, and 2+ LE injuries group prevalence ratio (3.6; 95% CI = 2.7, 5.2) was larger than that of the >55 years of age, 3+ concussions, and 2+ LE injuries group (1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.4) compared with the respective referent groups.   Concussion with or without a history of LE injury may be an important moderator of OA. Future researchers should seek to better understand the mechanisms that influence the association among

  5. Performance-Based Outcomes after Operative Management of Athletic Pubalgia / Core Muscle Injury in National Football League Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Kosanovic, Radomir; Gibbs, Daniel Bradley; Park, Caroline; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Athletic pubalgia is a condition in which there is an injury to the core musculature that precipitates groin and lower abdominal pain, particularly in cutting and pivoting sports. These are common injury patterns in the National Football League (NFL); however, the effect of surgery on performance for these players has not been described. Methods: Athletes in the NFL that underwent a surgical procedure for athletic pubalgia / core muscle injury (CMI) were identified through team injury reports and archives on public record since 2004. Outcome data was collected for athletes who met inclusion criteria which included total games played after season of injury / surgery, number of Pro Bowls voted to, yearly total years and touchdowns for offensive players and yearly total tackles sacks and interceptions for defensive players. Previously validated performance scores were calculated using this data for each player one season before and after their procedure for a CMI. Athletes were then matched to control professional football players without a diagnosis of athletic pubalgia by age, position, year and round drafted. Statistical analysis was used to compare pre-injury and post-injury performance measures for players treated with operative management to their case controls. Results: The study group was composed of 32 NFL athletes who underwent operative management for athletic pubalgia that met inclusion criteria during this study period, including 18 offensive players and 16 defensive players. The average age of athletes undergoing this surgery was 27 years old. Analysis of pre- and post-injury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after surgical intervention; however, there was a statistically significant difference in the number of Pro Bowls that affected athletes participated in before surgery (8) compared to the season after surgery (3). Analysis of durability, as measured by total number of games played

  6. Sleep-apnea risk and subclinical atherosclerosis in early-middle-aged retired National Football League players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyster FS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Faith S Luyster,1 Reginald E Dunn,2 Diane S Lauderdale,3 Mercedes R Carnethon,4 Andrew M Tucker,5 Robert A Vogel,6 Andrew E Lincoln,2 Kristen L Knutson,7 Elliot J Pellman,8–10 Patrick J Strollo Jr11 1School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 2Sports Medicine Research Center, MedStar Health Research Institute, Baltimore, MD, 3Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, 5MedStar Sports Medicine, MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, MD, 6Cardiology Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO, 7Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 8ProHealth Care Associates, Lake Success, 9Department of Medicine, 10Department of Orthopedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, 11Department of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Purpose: Limited data from former National Football League (NFL players suggest that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA may be highly prevalent after retirement. It remains unclear whether the high prevalence of OSA in retired players is comparable to nonathletes. This retrospective analysis compared sleep apnea (SA risk in retired NFL players to a community cohort (CARDIA Sleep study, and examined associations between SA risk and cardiovascular risk factors, including subclinical atherosclerosis.Materials and methods: Retired NFL players (n=122 were matched to CARDIA Sleep participants by age ±2 years (range 37–55 years, body mass index ±2 kg/m2, race, and male sex. Participants underwent electron-beam computed tomography to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC and completed the Berlin Questionnaire to determine SA risk. The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score >0.Results: Retired NFL players had a greater prevalence of high SA risk than the matched CARDIA Sleep participants (27% vs 11

  7. Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired National Football League players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Womack, Kyle B; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess cognitive impairment and depression in aging former professional football (National Football League [NFL]) players and to identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. DESIGN We compared former NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression, cognitively normal retired players who were not depressed, and matched healthy control subjects. SETTING Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. PATIENTS Cross-sectional sample of former NFL players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region and age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. Thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age, 61.8 years) underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. A subset of 26 players also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared with imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging mea-sures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow. RESULTS Of the 34 former NFL players, 20 were cognitively normal. Four were diagnosed as having a fixed cognitive deficit; 8, mild cognitive impairment; 2, dementia; and 8, depression. Of the subgroup in whom neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired participants showed the greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in cognitively impaired and depressed retired players compared with their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the cognitively impaired group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming, and word finding). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging former NFL players compared with healthy

  8. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes From 2010 to 2013: A Descriptive Epidemiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Christopher C; Secrist, Eric S; Bhat, Suneel B; Woods, Daniel P; Deluca, Peter F

    2016-03-01

    There is a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among National Football League (NFL) athletes; however, the incidence of reinjury in this population is unknown. This retrospective epidemiological study analyzed all publicly disclosed ACL tears occurring in NFL players between 2010 and 2013 to characterize injury trends and determine the incidence of reinjury. Descriptive epidemiological study. A comprehensive online search identified any NFL player who had suffered an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013. Position, playing surface, activity, and date were recorded. Each player was researched for any history of previous ACL injury. The NFL games database from USA Today was used to determine the incidence of ACL injuries on artificial turf and grass fields. Databases from Pro Football Focus and Pro Football Reference were used to determine the injury rate for each position. NFL players suffered 219 ACL injuries between 2010 and 2013. Forty players (18.3%) had a history of previous ACL injury, with 27 (12.3%) retears and 16 (7.3%) tears contralateral to a previous ACL injury. Five players (2.28%) suffered their third ACL tear. Receivers (wide receivers and tight ends) and backs (linebackers, fullbacks, and halfbacks) had significantly greater injury risk than the rest of the NFL players, while perimeter linemen (defensive ends and offensive tackles) had significantly lower injury risk than the rest of the players. Interior linemen (offensive guards, centers, and defensive tackles) had significantly greater injury risk compared with perimeter linemen. ACL injury rates per team games played were 0.050 for grass and 0.053 for turf fields (P > .05). In this retrospective epidemiological study of ACL tears in NFL players, retears and ACL tears contralateral to a previously torn ACL constituted a substantial portion (18.3%) of total ACL injuries. The significant majority of ACL injuries in players with a history of previous ACL injury were retears. Skilled

  9. Science of rugby league football: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning

  10. The National Football League-225 Bench Press Test and the Size-Weight Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Paul E; Buckingham, Gavin; Butler, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test reports that size and arrangement manipulations of weight plates (i.e., inducing a size-weight illusion [SWI]) effect athletic weightlifting performance. The participants were 72 experienced, weight-trained collegiate American football players. Across three weeks, each athlete performed three different repetitions-to-fatigue bench press tests (NFL-225, SWI-225, and SWI-215). A multiple regression revealed a positive association between participants' strength relative to the test load and repetitions for NFL-225 and SWI-215, but no association with SWI-225. To explore these results, players were ranked into quartiles based on their one-repetition maximum relative to 102.27 kg (225 lb), and a 3 × 4 repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. The primary finding was a significant Test Condition × Quartile interaction ( p = .004). Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons revealed that Quartile 4 (those with lowest strength relative to test load) completed more repetitions for SWI-225 compared with NFL-225 ( p = .049). These results suggest that alternate weight plate arrangements may be beneficial for those whose bench press load is near the lifter's one-repetition maximum. However, variations of the SWI do not appear to affect the performance of repetitions-to-fatigue bench press tests for the majority of collegiate American football players.

  11. Return to Play and Decreased Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Football League Defensive Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Connor R; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2017-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur commonly in football. Recent work has reported ACL reconstruction (ACLR) as one of several orthopaedic procedures with unfavorable outcomes for professional athletes. The performance impact to defensive players after surgery has not been quantified. To quantify the effect of ACLR on the performance of defensive players by comparing them to a cohort of matched controls as well as to measure the effect of ACLR on athletes' career length in the National Football League (NFL). Case-control and cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Thirty-eight NFL defensive players with a history of ACLR from 2006 to 2012 were identified. For each injured player, a matched control player was identified. Demographic and performance statistics were collected from the online NFL player database. Players who returned after ACLR (n = 23) were compared with players who did not return (n = 15) using t tests and chi-squared analyses. Similarly, players who returned after ACLR (n = 23) were compared with their matched controls with t tests and chi-squared analyses. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was utilized to test for significant differences between performance before and after the season of the injury for the players in the ACLR group who returned (n = 23) and for their matched controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to test for differences in the rate of retirement between the groups. For all analyses, P values <.05 were considered significant. Approximately 74% (28/38) of athletes who underwent ACLR returned to play at least 1 NFL game, and 61% (23/38) successfully returned to play at least half a season (ie, 8 games). Athletes in the ACLR group who returned retired from the NFL significantly sooner and more often after surgery than their matched controls. In the seasons leading up to their injury, athletes who successfully returned to play started a greater percentage of their games (81%) and made more solo tackles per

  12. Lumbar Spine Injury/Pathology as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Schroeder, Greg; Gibbs, Daniel; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark; Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh; Hsu, Wellington; Nuber, Gordon W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine if a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis such as spondylosis, a herniated lumbar disc, or spondylolysis affects a football player’s draft status or his performance and longevity in the NFL. Methods: The written medical evaluations and imaging reports of prospective professional American football athletes from 2003-2011 from one NFL franchise during the NFL combine (annual college football player evaluation prior to the NFL draft) were compiled and evaluated. All players were evaluated for a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis which were compiled from previous injury/medical records including radiographic imaging reports. Those players with a lumbar spine diagnosis and with appropriate radiograph, MRI and CT imaging were included in this study. These athletes were then matched by age, position, year, and round drafted to control draftees without a lumbar spine diagnosis. Career statistics were compiled including length of play and number of games started. Additionally, a previously established “Performance Score” was calculated for all players excluding offensive linemen. The continuous variables of each cohort were compared using a two-sided (tailed) Student’s t-test for normally distributed data. A chi-squared analysis was performed to analyze the categorical data. Statistical significance was accepted with a p < 0.05. Results: Out of a total of 2,965 athletes evaluated from the NFL combine, 414 players were identified with a pre-existing lumbar spine diagnosis. Athletes who attended the NFL combine without a lumbar spine diagnosis were significantly more likely to be drafted than those with one (74% vs. 61% respectively, p < 0.01). There was no difference between the investigational and control group with regard to round drafted, age, year drafted, or position. Overall, athletes with a lumbar spine injury compared to the control group had no difference in the number of years played (4.0 vs. 4.3 years, respectively

  13. Effect of National Football League games on small animal emergency room caseload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Rondeau, Mark P; Shaw, Scott P; Rush, John E

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate whether games of popular professional football teams have an effect on small animal emergency room caseload and percentage of dogs and cats that subsequently are hospitalized, are euthanatized, or die following admission to veterinary emergency rooms located within a dedicated fan base. Prospective study. 818 dogs and cats admitted to the emergency room. During the 2007 New England Patriots (NEP) football season, small animal emergency room caseload was recorded for Sunday (4-hour blocks, 8:00 AM until 12:00 midnight) and Monday night (7:00 PM to 11:00 PM). Number of dogs and cats that subsequently were hospitalized, died, or were euthanatized was recorded. Mean game importance rating (GIR) was determined for NEP games (scale, 1 [mild] to 3 [great]). Percentage of dogs and cats admitted from 12:00 noon to 4:00 PM on Sundays during NEP games (mean GIR, 1.7) versus non-NEP games was not different. Mean +/- SD percentage of dogs and cats admitted from 4:00 PM to 8:00 PM on Sundays during NEP games (mean GIR, 2.4) versus non-NEP games was significantly different (18 +/- 5% and 25 +/- 7% of daily caseload, respectively). Percentage of dogs and cats admitted from 8:00 PM to 12:00 midnight on Sundays during NEP games (mean GIR, 2.1) versus non-NEP games was not different. Game type (NEP vs non-NEP) during emergency room admission did not influence whether dogs and cats subsequently were hospitalized, died, or were euthanatized. Professional sporting events may influence veterinary emergency room caseloads.

  14. The first prospective injury audit of League of Ireland footballers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Nigel; Jones, Ashley; Francis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of League of Ireland (semiprofessional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months, 28 games). Methods A total of 140 semiprofessional League of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data were collected in accordance with the international consensus on football injury epidemiology. Results The injury rate was 9.2/1000 hour exposure to football (95% CI 6.2 to 12.9, pLeague of Ireland football is similar to that of European professional football, although the incidence of injury is higher. The incidence of injury is in line with that of Dutch amateur football. PMID:29071112

  15. Prevalence of Surgical Repair for Athletic Pubalgia and Impact on Performance in Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Gebhart, Jeremy J; Nho, Shane J; Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of athletic pubalgia (AP) surgery in elite American football athletes participating in the National Football League (NFL) Combine. Results from 1,311 athletes participating in the Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated. Athletes with a history of AP repair were identified using the NFL Combine Database. Athlete history and available imaging was reviewed. NFL performance based on draft status, games played, games started, and current status in the NFL was gathered using publicly available databases. Statistical analysis was performed to detect for significant associations between athlete history and NFL performance in the presence of AP repair and pelvic pathology on postsurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). AP repair was identified in 4.2% (n = 55) of athletes. MRI was performed in 35% (n = 19 of 55) with AP repair, of which 53% (n = 10 of 19) had positive pathology. Athletes with repair were not at risk of playing (P = .87) or starting (P = .45) fewer regular season games, going undrafted (P = .27), or not being on an active NFL roster (P = .51). Compared with athletes with negative imaging findings, positive pathology on MRI did not have a significant impact on games played (P = .74), games started (P = .48), draft status (P = .26), or being on an active roster (P = .74). Offensive linemen (P = .005) and athletes with a history of repair within 1 year of the Combine (P = .03) had a significantly higher risk of possessing positive pathology on MRI. Athletes with a history of successful AP surgery invited to the NFL Combine and those with persistent pathology on MRI are not at increased risk for diminished performance in the NFL. Offensive linemen and athletes less than 1 year out from surgery have a higher risk for positive MRI findings at the pubic symphysis. Level IV, prognostic study-case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  17. Full-thickness knee articular cartilage defects in national football league combine athletes undergoing magnetic resonance imaging: prevalence, location, and association with previous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J; Brophy, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    To better define the prevalence and location of full-thickness articular cartilage lesions in elite football players undergoing knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the National Football League (NFL) Invitational Combine and assess the association of these lesions with previous knee surgery. We performed a retrospective review of all participants in the NFL Combine undergoing a knee MRI scan from 2005 to 2009. Each MRI scan was reviewed for evidence of articular cartilage disease. History of previous knee surgery including anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, meniscal procedures, and articular cartilage surgery was recorded for each athlete. Knees with a history of previous articular cartilage restoration surgery were excluded from the analysis. A total of 704 knee MRI scans were included in the analysis. Full-thickness articular cartilage lesions were associated with a history of any previous knee surgery (P football players at the NFL Combine undergoing MRI. The lateral compartment appears to be at greater risk for full-thickness cartilage loss. Previous knee surgery, particularly meniscectomy, is associated with these lesions. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. IMPROVEMENTS FOR THE OPERATION OF CHINESE FOOTBALL LEAGUE BY ANALYSING THE SUCCESS ASSETS OF ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hanxiong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is going to analyze the success assets of English Premier League (which is now the most successful football league in the world) and the defects of Chinese Super League by analyzing the financial statements of the Premier League, and try to make some possible improvements for Chinese Super League according to the results of the analysis.

  19. Effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscectomy on length of career in National Football League athletes: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Gill, Corey S; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2009-11-01

    Meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in college football athletes. The effect of meniscectomy and/or ACL surgery on the length of an athlete's career in the National Football League (NFL) has not been well examined. Athletes with a history of meniscectomy or ACL surgery before the NFL combine have a shorter career than matched controls. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A database containing the injury history and career NFL statistics of athletes from 1987-2000 was used to match athletes with a history of meniscectomy and/or ACL surgery, and no other surgery or major injury, to controls without previous surgeries. Athletes were matched by position, year drafted, round drafted, and additional injury history. Fifty-four athletes with a history of meniscectomy, 29 with a history of ACL reconstruction, and 11 with a history of both were identified and matched with controls. Isolated meniscectomy reduced the length of career in years (5.6 vs 7.0; P = .03) and games played (62 vs 85; P = .02). Isolated ACL surgery did not significantly reduce the length of career in years or games played. Comparing the athletes with meniscectomy or ACL reconstruction to athletes with combined ACL reconstruction and meniscectomy, a history of both surgeries, resulted in a shorter career in games started (7.9 vs 35.1; P history of either surgery alone. A history of meniscectomy, but not ACL reconstruction, shortens the expected career of a professional football player. A combination of ACL reconstruction and meniscectomy may be more detrimental to an athlete's durability than either surgery alone. Further research is warranted to better understand how these injuries and surgeries affect an athlete's career and what can be done to improve the long-term outcome after treatment.

  20. A comparative study to identify a suitable model of ownership for Iran football pro league clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Amirnejad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the government ownership of the professional football clubs is absolutely illogical view point. Most of sports clubs are conducted by private sector using different models of ownership all over the world. In Iran, government credits benefit was main reason that the professional sport was firstly developed by government firms and organizations. Therefore, the sports team ownership is without the professionalization standards. The present comparative study was to examine the different football club ownership structures of the top leagues and the current condition of Iran football pro league ownership and then present a suitable ownership structure of Iran football clubs to leave behind the government club ownership. Among the initial 120 scientific texts, the thirty two cases including papers, books and reports were found relevant to this study. We studied the ownership prominence and several football club models of ownership focused on stock listing model of ownership, private investor model of ownership, supporter trust model of ownership and Japan partnership model of ownership; theoretical concepts, empirical studies, main findings, strengths and weaknesses were covered in analysis procedure. According to various models of ownership in leagues and the models’ productivity in football clubs, each model of ownership considering national environmental, economic, social conditions has strengths and weaknesses. So, we cannot present a definite model of ownership for Iran football pro league clubs due to different micro-environments of Iran clubs. We need a big planning to provide a supporter-investor mixed model of ownership to Iranian clubs. Considering strengths and weaknesses in the models of ownership as well as the micro and macro environment of Iran football clubs, German model and Japan partnership model are offered as suitable ones to probable new model of ownership in Iran pro league clubs. Consequently, more studies are required

  1. An analysis of home advantage in Iranian football super league

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Hemayat TALAB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate home advantage in Iranian Football Super League. Methods: The information regarding wins, losses, goals for, goals against, yellow cards, red cards and gained points in matches at home and away of Super League teams of Iran was obtained using the internet website www.Soccerway.com and was analyzed. Results: The results showed that the mean of wins, goals for and points gained from matches in the home have been more than matches away, but in matches away, the mean of losses, yellow cards, red cards and goals against have been higher. Also, the percentage of home advantage in Iranian Football Super League was close to international norms.  Conclusion: According to the results, sport psychologist, coaches and people who are involved in football are recommended to pay more attention to this advantage and make short and long term plans to do psychological readiness and competitive performance.

  2. Injuries to the Collateral Ligaments of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Thumb, Including Simultaneous Combined Thumb Ulnar and Radial Collateral Ligament Injuries, in National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F; Hotchkiss, Robert N

    2017-01-01

    Thumb collateral ligament injuries occur frequently in the National Football League (NFL). In the general population or in recreational athletes, pure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) abduction or adduction mechanisms yield isolated ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and radial collateral ligament (RCL) tears, respectively, while NFL athletes may sustain combined mechanism injury patterns. To evaluate the incidence of simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tears among all thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries in NFL athletes on a single team. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all thumb injuries on a single NFL team from 1991 to 2014 was performed. All players with a thumb MCP collateral ligament injury were included. Collateral ligament injuries were confirmed by review of both physical examination findings and magnetic resonance imaging. Player demographics, surgical details, and return-to-play data were obtained from the team electronic medical record and surgeons' records. A total of 36 thumbs in 32 NFL players were included in the study, yielding an incidence of 1.6 thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these, 9 thumbs (25%) had a simultaneous combined UCL and RCL tear injury pattern confirmed on both physical examination and MRI. The remaining 27 thumbs (75%) were isolated UCL injuries. All combined UCL/RCL injuries required surgery due to dysfunction from instability; 63.0% of isolated UCL injuries required surgical repair ( P = .032) due to continued pain and dysfunction from instability. Repair, when required, was delayed until the end of the season. All players with combined UCL/RCL injuries and isolated UCL injuries returned to play professional football the following season. Simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tear is a previously undescribed injury pattern that occurred in 25% of thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries on a single NFL team over a 23-year period. All players with combined thumb UCL

  3. Analysis of corporate sponsorship among super league football ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to address this issue by exploring the reasons for providing sponsorship to super league football teams in Botswana. Ten representatives from the companies identified as potential sponsors from the Broadhurst Industrial Area and Gaborone Commercial Park were interviewed. An analysis of the data ...

  4. New issues in attendance demand: the case of the English football league

    OpenAIRE

    D Forrest; R Simmons

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses an attendance demand model with panel data on over 4,000 games to examine economic problems of fixture congestion in English Football League schedules. We find that televised midweek Champions League matches involving English Premier League clubs have substantial adverse impacts on lower division Football League gate attendance. This suggests that affected clubs may have a case for compensation from the Premier League for loss of gate revenue from this source. Scheduling of ho...

  5. Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes After Scaphoid Fracture: Injury and Treatment Patterns in National Football League Combine Athletes Between 2009 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatshe, Gilbert; Godin, Jonathan A; Chahla, Jorge; Cinque, Mark E; Kennedy, Nicholas I; Sanchez, George; Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; LaPrade, Robert F; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-12-01

    To report on the clinical and radiologic outcomes and complications after surgical treatment in National Football League (NFL) Combine athletes with a history of a scaphoid fracture. The medical records of 2,285 athletes participating in the NFL Combine from 2009 to 2015 were evaluated for a history of scaphoid, hand, or wrist injury. Clinical outcomes, including grip strength, pinch test, range of motion, and presence of pain and stiffness, were recorded. Imaging studies were evaluated for the percentage of healing, fixation treatment type, hardware complications, radiographic deformity, and presence of osteoarthritis. Of the 2,285 athletes evaluated, 56 presented with a history of a scaphoid fracture. Most fractures were in the middle and proximal aspects of the scaphoid. Of the scaphoid fractures, 76% (43 players) were treated with screw fixation. Of the athletes, 36 (72%) had normal range of motion of the affected wrist, 52 (93%) reported no pain, and 44 (83%) reported no stiffness in the affected wrist. The grip strength and pinch strength were 91% and 96%, respectively, of the uninjured side. The fracture was healed in 75% of the cases; however, 34% had degenerative changes. Hardware complications were found in 15% of the athletes. Good clinical outcomes can be achieved after scaphoid fractures in prospective NFL athletes. However, the rates of nonunion (25%), degenerative changes (34%), and hardware complications (15%) in this study suggest the need for close postoperative radiographic follow-up in this population of patients because their athletic demands may lead to higher rates of the aforementioned complications. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Association of Vitamin D Status in Lower Extremity Muscle Strains and Core Muscle Injuries at the National Football League Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Brian J; Bernard, Johnathan A; Werner, Brian C; Finlay, Andrea K; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Dare, David M; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the association between serum vitamin D level and the prevalence of lower extremity muscle strains and core muscle injuries in elite level athletes at the National Football League (NFL) combine. During the 2015 NFL combine, all athletes with available serum vitamin D levels were included for study. Baseline data were collected, including age, race, body mass index, position, injury history specific to lower extremity muscle strain or core muscle injury, and Functional Movement Screen scores. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was collected and defined as normal (≥32 ng/mL), insufficient (20-31 ng/mL), and deficient (history. Subsequent multivariate regression analysis was used to examine this relation with adjustment for collected baseline data variables. The study population included 214 athletes, including 78% African American athletes and 51% skilled position players. Inadequate vitamin D was present in 59%, including 10% with deficient levels. Lower extremity muscle strain or core muscle injury was present in 50% of athletes, which was associated with lower vitamin D levels (P = .03). Athletes with a positive injury history also showed significantly lower vitamin D levels as compared with uninjured athletes (P = .03). African American/black race (P history (P history (P = .07). Inadequate vitamin D levels are a widespread finding in athletes at the NFL combine. Players with a history of lower extremity muscle strain and core muscle injury had a higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin D. Level IV, retrospective study-case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Revenue Sharing in European Football Leagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olai Hansen, Bodil; Tvede, Mich

    2016-01-01

    In the present chapter, a general model of competition between clubs in sports leagues with flexible supply of inputs is studied. There are externalities between clubs because it takes more than one club to produce games and tournaments. It is assumed that the externalities take the form of compl...

  8. THE ECONOMICS OF “BIG FIVE” EUROPEAN FOOTBALL LEAGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor DIMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available European football is a business with more and more attractive numbers for investors, shareholders or partners all over the planet. It has significantly changed especially over the last 20 years, following an intense procedure of acquisitions and marketing, a process that has brought important sums of money in this industry. This paper presents the overview of the “big five” European football leagues (England, Germany, Spain, Italy, France. The study is primarily focused on economics, but is also considering various social or cultural aspects (media, social media followers. The case-study on the five major leagues corroborates the theoretical underpinning. The paper investigates also the roots of financial regulation divergence in Europe and underlines the main issues regarding the UEFA financial fair-play rules.

  9. The Epidemiology of Injuries Identified at the National Football League Scouting Combine and their Impact on Professional Sport Performance: 2203 athletes, 2009-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mark D.; Rossy, William H.; Sanchez, George; McHale, Kevin Jude; Logan, Catherine; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Normal At the annual National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine, the medical staff of each NFL franchise performs a comprehensive medical evaluation of all athletes potentially entering the NFL. Currently, little is known regarding the overall epidemiology of injuries identified at the Combine and their impact on NFL performance. The purpose of this study is to determine the epidemiology of injuries identified at the Combine and their impact on future NFL performance. Methods: All previous musculoskeletal injuries identified at the NFL combine (2009-2015) were retrospectively reviewed. Medical records and imaging reports were examined. Game statistics for the first two seasons of NFL play were obtained for all players from 2009 to 2013. Analysis of injury prevalence and overall impact on draft status and position-specific performance metrics of each injury was performed and compared versus a position-matched control group with no history of injury and surgery. Results: A total of 2,203 athletes over seven years were evaluated, including 1,490 (67.6%) drafted athletes and 1,040 (47.2%) who ultimately played at least two years in the NFL. The most common sites of injury were the ankle (1160, 52.7%), shoulder (1143, 51.9%), knee (1128, 51.2%), spine (785, 35.6%), and hand (739, 33.5%). Odds ratios (OR) demonstrated quarterbacks were most at risk of shoulder injury (OR 2.78, p=0.001) while running backs most commonly sustained ankle (OR 1.49, p=0.038) and shoulder injuries (OR 1.55, p=0.022). Ultimately, defensive players demonstrated a more negative impact than offensive players following injury with multiple performance metrics impacted for each defensive position analyzed whereas skilled offensive players (i.e. quarterbacks, running backs) demonstrated only one metric affected at each position. Conclusion: The most common sites of injury identified at the Combine were: (1) ankle, (2) shoulder, (3) knee, (4) spine, and (5) hand. Overall, performance

  10. Epidemiology of Injuries Identified at the NFL Scouting Combine and Their Impact on Performance in the National Football League: Evaluation of 2203 Athletes From 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; Rossy, William H; Sanchez, George; Whalen, James M; Lavery, Kyle P; McHale, Kevin J; Vopat, Bryan G; Van Allen, Joseph J; Akamefula, Ramesses A; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-07-01

    At the annual National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine, the medical staff of each NFL franchise performs a comprehensive medical evaluation of all athletes potentially entering the NFL. Currently, little is known regarding the overall epidemiology of injuries identified at the combine and their impact on NFL performance. To determine the epidemiology of injuries identified at the combine and their impact on initial NFL performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All previous musculoskeletal injuries identified at the NFL Combine from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Medical records and imaging reports were examined. Game statistics for the first 2 seasons of NFL play were obtained for all players from 2009 to 2013. Analysis of injury prevalence and overall impact on the draft status and position-specific performance metrics of each injury was performed and compared with a position-matched control group with no history of injury or surgery. A total of 2203 athletes over 7 years were evaluated, including 1490 (67.6%) drafted athletes and 1040 (47.2%) who ultimately played at least 2 years in the NFL. The most common sites of injury were the ankle (1160, 52.7%), shoulder (1143, 51.9%), knee (1128, 51.2%), spine (785, 35.6%), and hand (739, 33.5%). Odds ratios (ORs) demonstrated that quarterbacks were most at risk of shoulder injury (OR, 2.78; P = .001), while running backs most commonly sustained ankle (OR, 1.39; P = .040) and shoulder injuries (OR, 1.55; P = .020) when compared with all other players. Ultimately, defensive players demonstrated a greater negative impact due to injury than offensive players, with multiple performance metrics significantly affected for each defensive position analyzed, whereas skilled offensive players (eg, quarterbacks, running backs) demonstrated only 1 metric significantly affected at each position. The most common sites of injury identified at the combine were (1) ankle, (2) shoulder, (3) knee, (4) spine, and

  11. Football league win prediction based on online and league table data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, Prateek; Gupt, Ankit Kumar; Singh, Samarth; Khare, Neelu; Bhattachrya, Sweta

    2017-11-01

    As we are proceeding towards an internet driven world, the impact of internet is increasing in our day to lives. This not only gives impact on the virtual world but also leave a mark in the real world. The social media sites contains huge amount of information, the only thing is to collect the relevant data and analyse the data to form a real world prediction and it can do far more than that. In this paper we study the relationship between the twitter data and the normal data analysis to predict the winning team in the NFL (National Football League).The prediction is based on the data collected on the on-going league which includes performance of each player and their previous statistics. Alongside with the data available online we are combining the twitter data which we extracted by the tweets pertaining to specific teams and games in the NFL season and use them alongside statistical game data to build predictive models for future or the outcome of the game i.e. which team will lose or win depending upon the statistical data available. Specifically the tweets within the 24 hours of match will be considered and the main focus of twitter data will be upon the last hours of tweets i.e. pre-match twitter data and post-match twitter data. We are experimenting on the data and using twitter data we are trying to increase the performance of the existing predictive models that uses only the game stats to predict the future.

  12. Requirements for Privatization of Iran Pro League Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemati-Nejad Mehrali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urpose : The purpose of this research was to determine the requirements for privatization of Iran Pro League (IPL football clubs. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and distributed among a sample of IPL coaches, executives (senior executives from the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports and the Privatization Organization, and faculty members (public and private universities. Descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for data analysis. Besides, AHP was used in Expert Choice software to weight and rank the items. Results: The results showed that the most important factors were fighting corruption and rent-seeking during and after biddings (political, improving public perception of privatization of football clubs (sociocultural, increasing revenues from ticket sales (economic, transparency in laws regarding football club privatization (legal, and the changing structure and role of the government from exclusive ownership to oversight (structural. Conclusion: Given the results of this research, the most important requirements for privatization of IPL football clubs include offering television broadcast rights, advertisement rights, and ticket sale rights to the clubs, and these and other factors discussed earlier are likely to accelerate privatization of football clubs.

  13. Australian Football League concussion guidelines: what do community players think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players’ views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. Methods 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Results Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players’ rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players’ desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Conclusions Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport. PMID:28890801

  14. Football fans and food: a case study of a football club in the English premier league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine

    2010-05-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.

  15. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  16. The organization of European football and the competitive balance within and between nations

    OpenAIRE

    KÉSENNE, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we try to show that, apart from the negative impact of the Champions League, the growing gap between the Big 5 football countries in Europe and the smaller countries is caused by the deregulation of the European player labour market without deregulating the European football product market. Both the growing competitive balance between and within the national leagues can be restored by opening the European football market. A simple 2 country / 4 club model with quadratic revenue...

  17. THE QUOTA RULE (AGE RESTRICTION IN THE THIRD LEAGUE IN TERMS OF ACTORS (DRAMATIS PERSONAE IN FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Kerem Zelyurt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 it was seen that the “quota rule” (age restriction which was put into practice in 2009 for the 3. League football teams in order to enable young players to have a better chance in squads and bring these players to the national teams have been changed because of not getting the desired results. In the study, the effects of 2009 quota rule which was established as a legal obligation to the football teams were examined in the extent of players, coaches, and the club managers (dramatis personae. The study was designed as “Semi-structured in-depth interview” (Qualitative Method method. According to “Theoretical Sampling Method” the sample of the study was formed through 6 players, 4 club managers and 5 coaches all of which are active in the third football league. The interviews recorded in February 2017 and May 2017, which vary from 6 minutes to 29 minutes in length according to the samples, were converted into text and categorized under 4 themes in findings section. The themes are: 1. being dropped out of squad 2. Problems relating the squads and the quality of the football 3.The problem of player training in the third league for the national team and transfer mobility to upper leagues 4. The fall in wages, the problem of becoming unemployed and being obliged to play in the amateur football league. As it can be concluded from the themes which frame the narrations by the samples including different experiences considering their status and roles in terms of quota rule practice; some outcomes during the period in which the rule had been practiced (particularly due to the version before the change were witnessed such as the deterioration in the quality of football, technical problems relating squads, the problem of vertical and horizontal professional mobility of the players and the fall in wages. In the last instance; it can be concluded that it is necessary to analyze legal sanctions relating a multivariate and intricate field such

  18. Brand Management Model in Sport Industry of Iran: Professional Football League Case

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe Javani

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012) with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911) responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM) test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loya...

  19. In Pursuit of Becoming a Senior Coach: The Learning Culture for Australian Football League Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…

  20. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial

  1. Predicting Football Matches Results using Bayesian Networks for English Premier League (EPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nazim; Mustapha, Aida; Yatim, Faiz Ahmad; Aziz, Ruhaya Ab

    2017-08-01

    The issues of modeling asscoiation football prediction model has become increasingly popular in the last few years and many different approaches of prediction models have been proposed with the point of evaluating the attributes that lead a football team to lose, draw or win the match. There are three types of approaches has been considered for predicting football matches results which include statistical approaches, machine learning approaches and Bayesian approaches. Lately, many studies regarding football prediction models has been produced using Bayesian approaches. This paper proposes a Bayesian Networks (BNs) to predict the results of football matches in term of home win (H), away win (A) and draw (D). The English Premier League (EPL) for three seasons of 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 has been selected and reviewed. K-fold cross validation has been used for testing the accuracy of prediction model. The required information about the football data is sourced from a legitimate site at http://www.football-data.co.uk. BNs achieved predictive accuracy of 75.09% in average across three seasons. It is hoped that the results could be used as the benchmark output for future research in predicting football matches results.

  2. Why did the League of Nations fail?

    OpenAIRE

    Jari Eloranta

    2011-01-01

    Why did the League of Nations ultimately fail to achieve widespread disarmament, its most fundamental goal? This article shows that the failure of the League of Nations had two important dimensions: (1) the failure to provide adequate security guarantees for its members (like an alliance); (2) the failure of this organization to achieve the disarmament goals it set out in the 1920s and 1930s. Thus, it was doomed from the outset to fail, due to built-in institutional contradictions. It can als...

  3. Distance matters in away games: Evidence from the German football league

    OpenAIRE

    Oberhofer, Harald; Philippovich, Tassilo; Winner, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the role of distance in professional team sports, taking the example of football (soccer). We argue that a team’s performance in terms of scored and conceded goals decreases with the distance to the foreign playing venue. To test this hypothesis empirically, we investigate 6,389 away games from the German Football Premier League (’Erste Deutsche Bundesliga’) between the playing seasons 1986-87 and 2006-07. We find that distance increases a guest team’s propensity to conced...

  4. Morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaska, Petra Mandić; Katić, Ratko; Jelaska, Igor

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the structure of morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players and their impact on the estimated quality of the players. According to the goal of the research, a sample consisted of 70 Croatian first league female football players. Participants were measured in 18 tests for assessing morphological characteristics, a set of 12 basic motor abilities tests and a set of 7 tests for assessing football-specific motor abilities. Exploratory factor analysis strategy was applied separately to all measured tests: morphological, basic motor abilities and football specific motor abilities. Factor analysis of morphological tests has shown existence of 3 significant latent dimensions that explain 64% of the total variability. Factors are defined as transverse dimensionality of the skeleton and voluminosity (35%), subcutaneous fat tissue (16%) and longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton (13%). In the area of basic motor abilities, four factors were extracted. The first factor is responsible for the integration of agility and explosive power of legs, i.e. a factor of movement regulation (agility/lower body explosiveness) (23%), the second one defines muscle tone regulation (15%), the third one defines the frequency of leg movements (12%), while the fourth one is recognized as responsible for the manifestation of basic strength, particularly of basic core strength (19%). Two factors were isolated in the space of football-specific motor abilities: football-specific efficiency (53%) and situational football coordination (27%). Furthermore, by use of factor analysis on extracted latent dimensions (morphological, basic and football specific motor abilities) two higher order factors (explaining 87% of common variability) were extracted. They were named morphological-motor factor (54%) and football-specific motor abilities factor (33%). It is assumed that two extracted higher-order factors fully

  5. Brand Management Model in Sport Industry of Iran: Professional Football League Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Javani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012 with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911 responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. According to Results, brand image play a pivotal role between Iranian fans brand loyalty. Create an attractive and desirable brand image in the fans mind increases brand loyalty. And due to, revenue and profits increase through ticket sales and products of club and also attract more sponsors

  6. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    OpenAIRE

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial replacement. The successfulness of managerial turnover depends on specific highly unpredictable circumstances, as we illustrate through case-studies.

  7. Market size and attendance in English Premier League football

    OpenAIRE

    Buraimo, B; Simmons, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper models the impacts of market size and team competition for fan base on matchday attendance in the English Premier League over the period 1997-2004 using a large panel data set. We construct a comprehensive set of control variables and use tobit estimation to overcome the problems caused by sell-out crowds. We also account for unobserved influences on attendance by means of random effects attached to home teams. Our treatment of market size, with its use of Geographical Information ...

  8. RANKING THE SPECTATORS’ DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING ELECTRONIC TICKETS OF FOOTBALL PREMIER LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Narimani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to rank the spectators’ difficulties in buying electronic tickets of football premier league matches at Azadi stadium. The population consisted of all spectators of Esteghlal-Persepolis match in the fifteenth league at Azadi stadium (N= 100000. According to Morgan table and using simple random sampling method, 500 participants were selected as sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting the data; its face validity was confirmed by 15 experts and performing a pilot study on 30 subjects, its Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.86. Using SPSS 22, the descriptive and inferential (including Friedman test statistics was applied for analyzing the data. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between rankings of difficulties in buying electronic tickets of Football premier league matches at Azadi Stadium. The difficulties were ranked as: problem in ticket systems, early selling out of electronic tickets, lack of confidence to electronic ticket sale, lack of skill to work with the internet, low speed of internet, and lack of access to the internet

  9. The impacts of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some European footbal leagues

    OpenAIRE

    HALICIOGLU, Ferda

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. – 1. Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports. – 2. Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports. – 3. Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence . – 4. Some concluding remarks.

  10. The impact of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some european football leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2006-01-01

    Introduction - 1 Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports - 2 Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports - 3 Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence - 4. Concluding remarks

  11. Epidemiology of time loss groin injuries in a men's professional football league

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B.; Weir, Adam; Eirale, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    injury per club was 85 days per season (IQR 35-215 days). Adductor-related groin pain was the most common entity (68%) followed by iliopsoas (12%) and pubic-related (9%) groin pain. Conclusion Groin pain caused time loss for one in five players each season. Adductor-related groin pain comprised 2......Background/Aim Groin injury epidemiology has not previously been examined in an entire professional football league. We recorded and characterised time loss groin injuries sustained in the Qatar Stars League. Methods Male players were observed prospectively from July 2013 to June 2015. Time loss...... injuries, individual training and match play exposure were recorded by club doctors using standardised surveillance methods. Groin injury incidence per 1000 playing hours was calculated, and descriptive statistics used to determine the prevalence and characteristics of groin injuries. The Doha agreement...

  12. The Dynamics of Quadropoly: League Position in English Football between 1888 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Roger; Berridge, Damon

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores competitive balance in top tier English league football from its inception in 1888. It examines the extent to which finishing in the top four positions in successive seasons is the preserve of a small number of clubs. Using a range of statistical measures, the analysis shows that the current high levels of competitive imbalance are not new phenomena. The overall pattern approximates a ‘U curve’: current patterns parallel those in the 1890s. In the early years of English lea...

  13. Technical progress and efficiency changes in football teams participating in the UEFA Champions League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Isabel García Cebrián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper commits to calculate and analyze productivy levels and its components for teams that participated in the UEFA Champions League between 2003 and 2012. It will pursue three objectives: 1 evaluate resources usage, 2 analyze the productivity levels of the football teams and the sports results, and 3 see the influence of participation experience in reference to productivity and sports results. Using Malmquist Productivity Index, the results reflect a lack of consistent progression of efficiency, productivity, and technical change. This competition does not reward the efficient usage of resources and there is not a conclusive relationshop between permanence in the competition and productivity.

  14. Brand Management Model in Sport Industry of Iran: Professional Football League Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vajihe javani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012 with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911 responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation  model  (SEM  test  with  maximum  likelihood estimation  was  performed  to  test  the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. According to Results, brand image play a pivotal role between Iranian fans brand loyalty. Create an attractive and desirable brand image in the fans mind increases brand loyalty. And due to, revenue and profits increase through ticket sales and products of club and also attract more sponsors.

  15. The Study of Fans’ Brand Loyalty in Iranian Professional Football League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Javani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine winning brands influence on fans’ brand loyalty in Iranian professional football league. A ten-minute pen and paper questionnaire was distributed to fans of five superior teams of Iranian professional football league in 2009-2010 seasons. Team’s association questionnaire developed by Gladden and Funk (2001 was used for data collection. Reliability of the questionnaire was estimated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables using 912 participants. The findings showed three dimensions of brand associations influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. In addition, the obtained model of this research highlighted strong interactional effects between the three mentioned dimensions of brand associations.

  16. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.

  17. Understanding the drivers on medical workloads: an analysis of spectators at the Australian Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Kathryn; Haghighi, Pari Delir; Burstein, Frada; Williams, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    The present study was designed to further understand the psychosocial drivers of crowds impacting on the demand for healthcare. This involved analysing different spectator crowds for medical usage at mass gatherings; more specifically, did different football team spectators (of the Australian Football League) generate different medical usage rates. In total, 317 games were analysed from 10 venues over 2 years. Data were analysed by the ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests. RESULTS; Spectators who supported different football teams generated statistically significant differences in patient presentation rates (PPR) (F15, 618=1.998, P=0.014). The present study confirmed previous findings that there is a positive correlation between the crowd size and PPR at mass gatherings but found a negative correlation between density and PPR (r = -0.206, n=317, Pemergency medical care. In measuring demand for emergency medical services there is a need to develop a more sophisticated understanding of a variety of drivers in addition to traditional metrics such as temperature, crowd size and other physical elements. In this study we saw that spectators who supported different football teams generated statistically significant differences in PPR. What is known about this topic? Understanding the drivers of emergency medical care is most important in the mass gathering setting. There has been minimal analysis of psychological 'crowd' variables. What does this paper add? This study explores the psychosocial impact of supporting a different team on the PPR of spectators at Australian Football League matches. The value of collecting and analysing these types of data sets is to support more balanced planning, better decision support and knowledge management, and more effective emergency medical demand management. What are the implications for practitioners? This information further expands the body of evidence being created to understand the drivers of emergency medical demand and usage

  18. An evaluation of the Australian Football League Central Australian Responsible Alcohol Strategy 2005-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentha, Ricky; Wakerman, Johne

    2009-12-01

    In 2004, the Australian Football League Central Australia (AFLCA) implemented the Responsible Alcohol Strategy (RAS), which aimed to decrease alcohol consumption at matches, and to promote healthy lifestyle messages to the youth of Central Australia participating in Australian Rules football. The evaluation adopted a pre- and post-implementation design to monitor a number of performance indicators. The evaluation analysed routinely collected data from AFLCA, its Security Company, Alice Springs Police Department and Alice Springs Hospital; we surveyed AFLCA staff, club officials and umpires; and undertook direct observation at AFLCA events. The volume of alcohol sold at matches decreased. Survey data indicate decreased alcohol related violence, improved spectator behaviour and decreased spectator attendances. Police data suggest declining alcohol-related and violent behaviours, but trends were not statistically significant. Alice Springs Hospital injury admission data indicate a non-significant interaction between year and season effect. In a community context of high alcohol consumption and high rates of interpersonal violence, the strategies implemented were successful in decreasing alcohol consumption and related undesirable behaviours at football games. However, these measures have resulted in unintended consequences: decreased numbers of spectators attending games, decreased canteen sales and falling sponsorship. The decreased revenue has raised serious issues about sustainability of the alcohol intervention, and stimulated discussions with government and others about strategies to maintain this important alcohol reduction policy.

  19. Severe cervical spinal cord injuries related to rugby union and league football in New South Wales, 1984-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, T R; Lawson, J S; Wilson, S F; Engel, S; Rutkowski, S B; Aisbett, C W

    1998-04-20

    To determine the frequency and circumstances of serious cervical cord injuries associated with rugby union and league football in New South Wales. Retrospective review of patients with rugby football-related cervical spinal cord injuries. The two central spinal units in NSW, from January 1984 to July 1996. Admission to spinal units; injury resulting in permanent tetraplegia. During the review period, 115 rugby football players (56 union and 59 league) were admitted to the spinal units because of cervical spinal cord injuries. 49 patients had resultant permanent neurological deficits (complete tetraplegia [quadriplegia])--26 associated with rugby union and 23 with rugby league. Two patients died of injury sequelae within two weeks of admission. There was no significant change in the rate of football-related admissions to spinal units for either code. There was a small decline in the number (from 15 in 1984 to 1987 to 7 in 1992 to 1996) and incidence (from 1.2 to 0.5 per 10,000 participants) of patients with tetraplegia associated with rugby union. When this decline was tested as a trend over the years, it was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.06). No significant trend was found in the tetraplegia data associated with rugby league. Cervical spinal cord injuries leading to complete tetraplegia were most commonly associated with scrum-like plays in union and with tackles in league. Serious cervical spinal injuries associated with both codes of rugby continue to occur in NSW. Rugby football in its various forms is still an inherently dangerous game.

  20. Epidemiology and history of knee injury and its impact on activity limitation among football premier league professional referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi Mohtasham, Hamid; Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Khoshroo, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology and history of knee injury and its impact on activity limitation among football premier league professional referees in Iran. This was a descriptive study. 59 Football Premier League professional referees participated in the study. The knee injury related information such as injury history and mechanism was recorded. Injury related symptoms and their impacts on the activity limitation, ability to perform activities of daily living as well participation in sports and recreational activities was obtained through the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS). The results indicated that 31 out of 59 participants reported the history of knee injury. In addition, 18.6%, 22.4% and 81% of the referees reported that they had been injured during the last 6 months of the last year, and at some point in their refereeing careers, respectively. Results further indicated that 48.8% of the injuries occurred in the non-dominant leg and they occurred more frequently during training sessions (52%). Furthermore, the value of KOS was 85 ± 13 for Activities of Daily Living subscale and 90 ± 9 for Sports and Recreational Activities subscale of the KOS. Knee injury was quite common among the Football Premier League professional referees. It was also indicated that the injuries occurred mainly due to insufficient physical fitness. Therefore, it is suggested that football referees undergo the proper warm-up program to avoid knee injury.

  1. High league bench players and starters: differences in group interactions, group cohesion, role acceptance and self-confidence in football teams

    OpenAIRE

    Simonenkova Irina Petrovna

    2015-01-01

    Main staff players differ from bench players in their perceptions and demonstrate different responses. This research compares the situation of bench players with the situation of starters in high league Latvian football teams.

  2. Managed Play: The Media’s Impact on Play in the Australian Football League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Samuel Keith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available No industry has influenced the transformation of the Australian Football League (AFL into a professional, commercial business more than the media. Today, the AFL players are paid more than ever and are used as marketing tools to promote and sell the game, often to new fans in new markets of Australia - namely New South Wales and Queensland - who haven’t traditionally played Australian Football, preferring the rugby codes instead. But perhaps the biggest change in the AFL is that the play element is now used as function of business. Put simply, winning leads to more money. As such, the play element is now manipulated more than ever. The game has more coaches implementing more tactics, strategies, game plans and set plays than ever before. These changes can be linked back to the media’s influence on the game. This paper utilises the combined observations and theories of Johan Huizinga and Pierre Bourdieu to create a theoretical lens through which we can understand the media’s growing influence in sport and its impact on play’s transformation. The theory will then be expounded through an extensive analysis of the media’s influence in the AFL, particularly its play element. This analysis will be supported with insights and views from AFL fans, members, commentators and theorists.

  3. Drinking by professional Australian Football League (AFL) players: prevalence and correlates of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Paul M; Fitzgerald, John L; Jenkinson, Rebecca A

    2008-11-03

    To examine self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption and experience of alcohol-related harms among professional Australian Football League (AFL) players. Cross-sectional survey of player alcohol consumption and self-reported alcohol-related harms among members of all 16 professional AFL clubs. Data relating to the 2006 football year were collected between 25 July and 30 August 2006 at regular football training sessions using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Risky/high-risk drinking for long- and short-term harm at different times of the year; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score. 582 AFL players completed the questionnaire (an 83% response rate). Alcohol consumption varied at different times of the year. During the playing season (approximately 22 weeks), the level of risky/high-risk consumption for long-term harm in AFL players (11/564 [2%]) was typically lower than in age-matched Australian men in the general population (15%). However, risky/high-risk consumption for long-term harm was higher in AFL players during the end-of-season period (approximately 2 weeks) (303/561 [54%]) and vacation period (6-8 weeks) (231/559 [41%]) than in age-matched Australian men. Risky/high-risk drinking for short-term harm on a monthly basis was frequent at all times of the year (eg, 395/560 [71%] in the pre-season period). The mean AUDIT score was 8.8 (95% CI, 8.4 to 9.1; range, 0 to 36). Reports of harmful effects of drinking and negative consequences, such as getting involved in a fight (physical or verbal) while drinking (146/556 [26%]), were common. Risky/high-risk consumption for short-term harm on a monthly basis was associated with a variety of player characteristics, such as usually drinking in public locations (odds ratio, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.02 to 2.35]). AUDIT score was associated with variables such as marital status, with married players scoring more than two points lower (95% CI, - 3.58 to - 0.58) than single players. Formal club rules

  4. Concussion surveillance: do low concussion rates in the Qatar Professional Football League reflect a true difference or emphasize challenges in knowledge translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L.; Targett, Steve; Holmich, Per; Chalabi, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    To investigate concussion epidemiology in the first football (soccer) division of Qatar. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division Football League of Qatar. All first team players were included at the beginning of each season. Daily collection of training and match exposure from August

  5. What Happens When Employers are Free to Discriminate? Evidence from the English Barclays Premier Fantasy Football League

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Alex; Chevalier, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Research on employers' hiring discrimination is limited by the unlawfulness of such activity. Consequently, researchers have focused on the intention to hire. Instead, we rely on a virtual labour market, the Fantasy Football Premier League, where employers can freely exercise their taste for racial discrimination in terms of hiring and firing. The setting allows us to eliminate co-worker, consumer-based and statistical discrimination as potential sources of discrimination, thus isolating the ...

  6. Cervical stenosis in a professional rugby league football player: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon the athlete restricting himself from further trauma during games, which is a challenge for a professional athlete. Case presentation A 30-year old male front row Australian rugby league player presented complaining of neck pain after a hyperflexion and compressive injury during a game. Repeated trauma over a four month period resulted in radicular pain. Radiographs revealed decreased disc height at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels and mild calcification within the anterior longitudinal ligament at the C6-C7 level. MRI revealed a right postero-lateral disc protrusion at the C6-C7 level causing a C7 nerve root compression. Conclusion Recommendations from the available literature at the present time suggest that conservative management of cervical discogenic pain and disc protrusion, including chiropractic manipulation and ancillary therapies, can be successful in the absence of progressive neurological deficit. The current case highlights the initial successful management of a football athlete, and the later unsuccessful management. This case highlights the issues involvement in the management of a collision sport athlete with a serious neck injury.

  7. MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS OF FOOTBALL MATCH PERFORMANCES: COMPOSITION OF PROBABILISTIC PREFERENCES APPLIED TO THE ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Principe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article aims to analyze the technical performance of football teams in the FA Premier League during the 2015/2016 season. Data of twenty clubs over 38 matches for each club are considered using 23 variables. These variables have been explored in the football literature and address different features of technical performance. The different configuration of the data for teams in detached segments motivated the multi-criteria approach, which enables identification of strong and weak sectors in each segment. The uncertainty as to the outcome of football matches and the imprecision of the measures indicated the use of Composition of Probabilistic Preferences (CPP to model the problem. “R” software was used in the modeling and computation. The CPP global scores obtained were more consistent with the final classification than those of other methods. CPP scores revealed different performances of particular groups of variables indicating aspects to be improved and explored.

  8. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  9. The Control of Externalities in Sports Leagues: An Analysis of Restrictions in the National Hockey League

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis W. Carlton; Alan S. Frankel; Elisabeth M. Landes

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides one of the few successful demonstrations of the efficiency of certain types of restrictions in the context of a joint venture. The joint venture we examine is the National Hockey League (NHL) in the 1980s, which was then composed of 21 separately owned teams. (It now has 30 teams.) The restriction we analyze is the NHL rule on franchise relocation. Before one can fully understand the effect of the restriction, one must understand the theory of how sports leagues operate an...

  10. How International was the Secretariat of the League of Nations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dykmann, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, scholars have contested conventional narratives such as that the League of Nations was a complete ‘failure’ or that the United Nations was a novelty in comparison with the League. Scholars now offer more nuanced and archive-based analyses. However, while traditional research has...... emphasised the establishment of the first formally independent international civil service and the corresponding secretariat as one of the League's few big achievements, the subject has not substantially benefitted from these new historical studies. This article helps to shed some light on the secretariat......'s nature and how international the staff really was. After examining the prevailing image of the international civil service at the League, the data will be supplemented by an analysis of the archive material with regard to recruitment and selected personnel files. This article argues that the secretariat...

  11. Hip strength and range of motion: Normal values from a professional football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, Andrea B; Crossley, Kay M; Thorborg, Kristian; Whiteley, Rod J; Weir, Adam; Serner, Andreas; Hölmich, Per

    2017-04-01

    To determine the normal profiles for hip strength and range of motion (ROM) in a professional football league in Qatar, and examine the effect of leg dominance, age, past history of injury, and ethnicity on these profiles. Cross-sectional cohort study. Participants included 394 asymptomatic, male professional football players, aged 18-40 years. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer with an eccentric test in side-lying for hip adduction and abduction, and the squeeze test in supine with 45° hip flexion. Range of motion measures included: hip internal and external rotation in 90° flexion, hip IR in prone, bent knee fall out and hip abduction in side-lying. Demographic information was collected and the effect on the profiles was analysed using linear mixed models with repeated measures. Strength values (mean±SD) were: adduction=3.0±0.6Nm/kg, abduction=2.6±0.4Nm/kg, adduction/abduction ratio=1.2±0.2, Squeeze test=3.6±0.8N/kg. Range of motion values: internal rotation in flexion=32±8°, external rotation=38±8°, internal rotation in prone=38±8°, bent knee fall out=13±4.4cm, abduction in side-lying=50±7.3°. Leg dominance had no clinically relevant effect on these profiles. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age had a minor influence on squeeze strength (-0.03N/kg/year), external rotation (-0.30°/year) and abduction range (-0.19°/year) but past history of injury, and ethnicity did not. Normal values are documented for hip strength and range of motion that can be used as reference profiles in the clinical assessment, screening, and management of professional football players. Leg dominance, recent past injury history and ethnicity do not need to be accounted for when using these profiles for comparison purposes. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cultural Differences, Assimilation and Behavior: Player Nationality and Penalties in Football

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, Giacomo; Schokkaert, Jeroen; Swinnen, Johan F. M.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of a different cultural background on individual behavior, focusing on violence on the football field of southern European and nothern European football players in the English Premier League. We find that southern European football players collect on average more football penalties than their nothern European colleagues. We also find that the initially higher number of football penalties incurred by southern European players converges towards the local average, the longe...

  13. Designing Appraisal Pattern for Performance of Superior League Football Teams by Emphasizing on Stakeholders’ Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi TAYEBI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance assessment by stakeholders is a strategic process that this research formed based on Freeman Stakeholders’ theory (1986 and Lee Stakeholders’ model and its goal is replying to following questions in order to present proper model for performance assessment: Who are most important stakeholders of superior football teams? What are their most important purposes? What are most important actions for fulfilling their needs? The research information collected from ministry of sport and youth, federation, club universalities, library and f iled experts and in first stage based on Freeman theory and past studies and experts’ opinions, a questionnaire was developed with Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.891 and by using Shannon entropy model and TOPSIS method extracted 9 priorities out of 21. In second stage, a second questionnaire was developed with Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.928 and 20 most important requests out of 71extracted by TOPSIS method. In 3rd stage, a third questionnaire was developed through interview with managers of 3 sup erior leagues and took measures to examine most implorations actions for providing stakeholders requests that 49 executive actions was recognized and performed by QFD model and quality house model indicated relation among requests of stakeholders, actions, weighting and ranked ultimately 24 important actions was recognized and by using results and normalization, performance assessment model extracted from above three processes that indicated victory result and monetary benefits included their most important requests and teams shall take action to establish clear financial and planning unit and shall be assessed periodically.

  14. Sports betting marketing during sporting events: a stadium and broadcast census of Australian Football League matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Duong, Jenny; McLeod, Colin

    2012-04-01

    Using Australian Football League (AFL) matches as a case study, we investigated the frequency, length and content of marketing strategies for sports betting during two specific settings: 1) at stadiums during four live matches; and 2) during eight televised broadcasts of matches. Census of sports betting marketing during Round 12 of the 2011 AFL premiership season. Per match, there was an average of 58.5 episodes (median 49.5, s.d 27.8) and 341.1 minutes (median 324.1 minutes and s.d 44.5) of sports betting marketing at stadiums, and 50.5 episodes (median 53.5, s.d 45.2) and 4.8 minutes (median 5.0 minutes, s.d 4.0) during televised broadcasts. A diverse range of marketing techniques were used to: a) embed sports betting within the game; b) align sports betting with fans' overall experience of the game; and c) encourage individuals to bet live during the game. There were very few visible or audible messages (such as responsible gambling or Gambler's Help messages) to counter-frame the overwhelmingly positive messages that individuals received about sports betting during the match. This study raises important questions about the impacts of saturation, integrated and impulse gambling marketing strategies in sporting matches. Future research should explore: 1) how wagering industry marketing strategies may affect the attitudes and behaviours of community sub-groups (e.g. young male sports fans, and children); and 2) which public health and policy strategies, including regulation and harm minimisation messaging, will be effective in responding to wagering industry marketing strategies during sporting matches. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H.; Gorelik, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  16. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Gorelik, Alexandra [Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Epicentre, Parkville (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  17. Network Characteristics of Successful Performance in Association Football. A Study on the UEFA Champions League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago J. Pina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic interaction between teammates in association football has properties that can be captured by Social Network Analysis (SNA. The analysis of networks formed by team players passing a ball in a match shows that team success is correlated with high network density and clustering coefficient, as well as with reduced network centralization. However, oversimplification needs to be avoided, as network metrics events associated with success should not be considered equally to those that are not. In the present study, we investigated whether network density, clustering coefficient and centralization can predict successful or unsuccessful team performance. We analyzed 12 games of the Group Stage of UEFA Champions League 2015/2016 Group C by using public records from TV broadcasts. Notational analyses were performed to categorize attacking sequences as successful or unsuccessful, and to collect data on the ball-passing networks. The network metrics were then computed. A hierarchical logistic-regression model was used to predict the successfulness of the offensive plays from network density, clustering coefficient and centralization, after controlling for the effect of total passes on successfulness of offensive plays. Results confirmed the independent effect of network metrics. Density, but not clustering coefficient or centralization, was a significant predictor of the successfulness of offensive plays. We found a negative relation between density and successfulness of offensive plays. However, reduced density was associated with a higher number of offensive plays, albeit mostly unsuccessful. Conversely, high density was associated with a lower number of successful offensive plays (SOPs, but also with overall fewer offensive plays and “ball possession losses” before the attacking team entered the finishing zone. Independent SNA of team performance is important to minimize the limitations of oversimplifying effective team synergies.

  18. The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jack; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) have remained the most prevalent injury in the Australian Football League (AFL) over the past 21 regular seasons. The effect of HSIs in sports is often expressed as regular season games missed due to injury. However, the financial cost of athletes missing games due to injury has not been investigated. The aim of this report is to estimate the financial cost of games missed due to HSIs in the AFL. Data were collected using publicly available information from the AFL's injury report and the official AFL annual report for the past 10 competitive AFL seasons. Average athlete salary and injury epidemiology data were used to determine the average yearly financial cost of HSIs for AFL clubs and the average financial cost of a single HSI over this time period. Across the observed period, average yearly financial cost of HSIs per club increased by 71% compared with a 43% increase in average yearly athlete salary. Over the same time period the average financial cost of a single HSI increased by 56% from $A25,603 in 2003 to $A40,021 in 2012, despite little change in the HSI rates during the period. The observed increased financial cost of HSIs was ultimately explained by the failure of teams to decrease HSI rates, but coupled with increases in athlete salaries over the past 10 season. The information presented in this report highlights the financial cost of HSIs and other sporting injuries, raising greater awareness and the need for further funding for research into injury prevention strategies to maximise economical return for investment in athletes.

  19. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Gorelik, Alexandra; Rotstein, Andrew H

    2017-03-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions.

  20. Operative shoulder instability injury management in Australian Football League players: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Manson, Brent; Bowe, Steven J; Gill, Stephen; Seward, Hugh; Hoy, Greg; Page, Richard

    2017-11-27

    The purpose of this study was to review the surgical management procedures of shoulder instability injuries in Australian Football League (AFL) players, and determine outcomes regarding return to sport and injury recurrence. Retrospective cohort study. Elite AFL players with shoulder instability resulting in surgery were assessed in a retrospective cohort design (72 players/77 shoulders). Type of initial injury, surgical management, return to sport and injury recurrence were obtained. The mean follow-up period post-surgery was 2.9 years. Return to sport outcomes were compared between arthroscopic and open surgery using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine associations between injury recurrence, type of injury, participant age and method of surgery. Shoulder instability injuries occurred most frequently during tackling (40%). Arthroscopic surgery was preferred for primary shoulder instability. Nine (16%) recurrences occurred in those who underwent arthroscopic surgery compared to two (9%) following open surgery. Return to the elite level was slightly but significantly (2 weeks, p=0.049) longer for open compared to arthroscopic surgery. Recurrence was 5 times more likely if the primary injury was a dislocation and more likely in players who were younger at the time of surgery. Tackling was the predominant mechanism for shoulder instability injuries in AFL players and arthroscopic surgery was more commonly performed for primary injuries. Sustaining a dislocation as the primary injury and younger age increased the likelihood of recurrent instability. Careful consideration should be given to the operative management of these individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Crowd medical services in the English Football League: remodelling the team for the 21st century using a realist approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Alison; Kemp, Anthony; Greenwood, Peter; Hart, Nick; Agnew, James; Barrett, John; Punshon, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the new model of providing care based on demand. This included reconfiguration of the workforce to manage workforce supply challenges and meet demand without compromising the quality of care. Design Currently the Sports Ground Safety Authority recommends the provision of crowd medical cover at English Football League stadia. The guidance on provision of services has focused on extreme circumstances such as the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, while the majority of demand on present-day services is from patients with minor injuries, exacerbations of injuries and pre-existing conditions. A new model of care was introduced in the 2009/2010 season to better meet demand. A realist approach was taken. Data on each episode of care were collected over 14 consecutive football league seasons at Millwall FC divided into two periods, preimplementation of changes and postimplementation of changes. Data on workforce retention and volunteer satisfaction were also collected. Setting The data were obtained from one professional football league team (Millwall FC) located in London, UK. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was to examine the demand for crowd medical services. The secondary outcome was to remodel the service to meet these demands. Results In total, 981 episodes of care were recorded over the evaluation period of 14 years. The groups presenting, demographic and type of presentation did not change over the evaluation. First aiders were involved in 87.7% of episodes of care, nurses in 44.4% and doctors 17.8%. There was a downward trend in referrals to hospital. Workforce feedback was positive. Conclusions The new workforce model has met increased service demands while reducing the number of referrals to acute care. It involves the first aid workforce in more complex care and key decision-making and provides a flexible registered healthcare professional team to optimise the skill mix of the team. PMID:29273665

  2. THE ADMISSION OF ALBANIA IN THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deona Cali Kalaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to focus on the questions of how important was the admission of Albania to the League of Nations as well as what was the reason of the change of attitude of the Great Powers and neighbors against Albanian candidature. In the paper is scrutinized the situation of Albania before membership in the League of Nations as well as the reasons that led it before this international body. The topic is interesting as the scrutiny of this moment of Albanian history in international relations helps to understand the events that followed in 1920s and how contributed this admission on the issue of borders and on international recognition.

  3. See you at the match: Motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Stander

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning through the motivation for sport consumption (individual – and game related factors was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a related to and b associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African

  4. Globalisation, football and emerging urban 'tribes': fans of the European leagues in a Nigerian city

    OpenAIRE

    Onyebueke, V.U.

    2015-01-01

    Football is arguably the world's most popular and globalised sport, and it has been implicated in the continuing efforts in social science disciplines to understand current globalisation processes. Electronic colonialism, the metonym for the dominance of global mediascape by transnational media corporations like Sky and Fox has combined with the ongoing commodification of football to create a complex world-wide web of football authorities, clubs, players and agents, sport equipment makers, sp...

  5. 30 Years Trend of Competitive Balance in Turkish Football Super League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Tugbay

    2018-01-01

    We must point out that the results of football games affect the competitive balance degree. In other words, the calculations we made in the score table at the end of the season give us a degree of competitive balance. The degree on which the concept of competitiveness is based is cited as competitive balance in football. Sports economics can be…

  6. Governing the league : Opportunism, credible threats ans social ties in football competition licensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.F.; Smittenaar, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the comparative effectiveness of three alternative licensing systems in professional football. The three systems’ main concern is with the promulgation of responsible financial behaviour among football clubs. To that effect, all three systems rely on entry control and ex ante budget

  7. Health and safety implications of injury in professional rugby league football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissane, C; White, J; Kerr, K; Jennings, S; Jennings, D

    2003-12-01

    Professional sport is characterized by high injury rates but is also covered by health and safety legislation. To examine the incidence of injury in professional rugby league as defined by the Reporting of Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR 95). All injuries received during playing and training to both first-team and 'academy' (rugby league is much higher than reported in other high-risk occupations such as mining and quarrying. The large differences in injury rates between first and academy teams have implications for young players likely to progress to first-team status.

  8. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2014-04-05

    The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35-65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m(2) or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2-9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95-5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64-5·08), both in favour of the intervention (pScottish Government and The UK Football Pools funded delivery of the programme through a grant to the Scottish Premier League Trust. The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme funded the assessment (09/3010/06). Copyright © 2014 Hunt et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Globalisation, football and emerging urban 'tribes' : fans of the European leagues in a Nigerian city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyebueke, V.U.

    2015-01-01

    Football is arguably the world's most popular and globalised sport, and it has been implicated in the continuing efforts in social science disciplines to understand current globalisation processes. Electronic colonialism, the metonym for the dominance of global mediascape by transnational media

  10. Cultural Differences, Behavior and Assimilation: Player Nationality and Penalties in Football

    OpenAIRE

    Schokkaert, Jeroen; De Luca, Giacomo; Swinnen, Jo

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of a different cultural background on individual behavior, focusing on the aggressiveness level of southern and nothern European football players in the English Premier League. We find that southern European football players collect on average more yellow and red cards as compared to their nothern European colleagues. We also find that the initially more aggressive football violent behavior displayed by southern European players coverges towards the local average, the lo...

  11. The challenge and impact of engaging hard-to-reach populations in regular physical activity and health behaviours: an examination of an English Premier League 'Football in the Community' men's health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, K; Drust, B; Murphy, R; Pringle, A; Richardson, D

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the challenges that men from hard-to-reach (HTR) populations encounter when attempting to commit to regular participation in physical activity and health behaviours, and to explore the psychological and social effects of participation in a twelve week football-led health improvement intervention. A twelve week football specific physical activity intervention targeting men from HTR populations was delivered by Everton Football Clubs' Football in the Community (FitC) scheme as part of a national programme of men's health delivered in/by English Premier League (EPL) football clubs. Men living in homeless shelters and/or recovering from substance misuse were recruited over a period of three months. The programme consisted of a two hour football session, twice weekly, alongside the dissemination of healthy living messages. Football sessions were conducted by a qualified FitC coach. This research was conducted during a twelve week period of immersed practitioner-research. Ethnographic and observational methodologies were adopted. Psychosocial issues were discussed with participants through informal client-researcher interactions and data were logged via field notes. Records of attendance were logged. Participants who failed to attend a session were contacted and their reason(s) for non-attendance were recorded. Data were analysed using deductive and inductive reasoning. Despite the apparent ambition of the participants to regularly participate in the FitC programme, adherence to the programme was poor. Economic, environmental and social barriers to engagement in the programme were apparent. Engagement in the programme resulted in positive psychosocial developments; the development of structure, social interaction and social capital. Community based football-led health improvement programmes endorsed by professional football clubs appear well positioned to connect with, and attract, men from HTR populations. The evidence suggests that such programmes can

  12. The Impact of Relationship Marketing on Team Loyalty (The Case Study:Sport Team Fans of Azadeghan Football League of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Ebrahimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of brand management of sport teams, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of relationship marketing dimensions, including team attachment, team trust, team involvement, and team selfexpression on team loyalty of fans of sport teams participating in Iran Azadeghan Football League. Sample size of this study included 480 fans of football teams, and structural equation modeling was used for analysis of data using Lisrel software. The results confirmed all hypotheses, except one hypothesis. Therefore, there is significant relationship between team self-expression and team attachment among football sport teams in Azadeghan Football League of Iran. The results show the importance of paying attention to fans of sports teams and use of their high potential and capacity that sports teams brand managers must pay particular attention to this enormous capacity. Regarding sports teams, the impact of relationship marketing, particularly dimensions of self-expression and team involvement was investigated for the first time in Iran.

  13. Preseason Workload Volume and High-Risk Periods for Noncontact Injury Across Multiple Australian Football League Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Marcus J; Dawson, Brian; Heasman, Jarryd; Rogalski, Brent; Rosenberg, Michael; Lester, Leanne; Peeling, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Colby, MJ, Dawson, B, Heasman, J, Rogalski, B, Rosenberg, M, Lester, L, and Peeling, P. Preseason workload volume and high-risk periods for noncontact injury across multiple Australian Football League seasons. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1821-1829, 2017-The purpose of this study was to assess the association between preseason workloads and noncontact injury risk in Australian football players. Individual player injury data were recorded over 4 full seasons (2012-15) from one professional club. Noncontact injury incidence (per 1,000 "on legs" field training and game hours) was compared across the preseason, precompetition, and in-season phases to determine relative noncontact injury risk. Preseason workloads (global positioning system-derived total distance run and sprint distance) and individual (fixed) injury risk factors (age, previous injury history) were incorporated into the analysis. A generalized estimating equation with a binary logistic function modeled potential risk factors with noncontact injury for selected periods across the annual cycle. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the relative injury risk. The (preseason) precompetition phase (19.1 injuries per 1,000 hours) and (in-season) rounds 12-17 (16.0 injuries per 1,000 hours) resulted in the highest injury incidence. Low cumulative total distances in late preseason (<108 km) and precompetition (76-88 km) periods were associated with significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater injury risk during the in-season phase. In conclusion, these results suggest players are at the greatest injury risk during the precompetition period, with low preseason cumulative workloads associated with increased in-season injury risk. Therefore, strength and conditioning staff should place particular emphasis on achieving at least moderate training loads during and leading into this phase, where competitive game play is first introduced.

  14. Prevalence of Os Styloideum in National Hockey League Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greditzer, Harry G.; Hutchinson, Ian D.; Geannette, Christian S.; Hotchkiss, Robert N.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Os styloideum describes an accessory carpal ossicle between the trapezoid, the capitate, and the second and third metacarpals. Injuries to this tissue have been described as part of the carpal boss syndrome. While the etiology of os styloideum remains uncertain, it may represent a physiologic response to altered loading forces in the wrist, similar to the development of cam-type deformity in the hips of ice hockey players or the Bennett lesion in the shoulders of baseball pitchers. Hypothesis: Professional hockey players will have a higher prevalence of os styloideum compared with the general population. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A retrospective review of 16 professional hockey players from 4 different National Hockey League (NHL) teams who underwent unilateral imaging of the wrist was performed. Seventeen wrists were reviewed for the presence of os styloideum. Results: Thirteen of 16 players (81%) had an os styloideum, representing an increased prevalence compared with the general population. Previous clinical and cadaveric studies estimated a general prevalence of up to 19% (P < 0.001). For the 10 players who had their leading wrist scanned, 9 had an os styloideum (90%). Ten of 11 (91%) players demonstrated a bone marrow edema pattern within the metacarpal and the os styloideum on magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant association between the presence of an os styloideum and the player’s position, leading wrist, or years in the league. Conclusion: There appears to be an increased prevalence of os styloideum among NHL players, and team physicians should consider this finding while formulating a differential diagnosis for dorsal wrist pain. Clinical Relevance: This study identified NHL players as having an increased prevalence of os styloideum compared with the general population. By doing so, these findings represent an opportunity to enhance our understanding of the etiology, clinical significance

  15. Creating the "International Mind": The League of Nations Attempts to Reform History Teaching, 1920-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Ken

    2016-01-01

    After the First World War, the League of Nations, through its International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, attempted to reshape the teaching of history in its member states. The League's supporters realized that its long-term success depended in part on supportive public opinion and that this, in turn, had implications for education. Aware…

  16. Siam and the League of Nations : modernization, sovereignty, and multilateral diplomacy, 1920-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, Stefan Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the relations between Siam and the League of Nations from 1920 to 1940. It identifies Siam’s policy towards the League as a cornerstone of Siam’s foreign policy and an important element of Siam’s domestic modernization during the sixth, seventh and eighth reigns of the Chakri

  17. The League of Nations and U.S. World Roles. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romey, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the issue of U.S. participation in the League of Nations is usually presented as a failure by Woodrow Wilson and the Republicans to compromise. Presents a lesson that clarifies the choice confronting the United States in 1919-20 and interprets the league as a historic innovation. (CFR)

  18. European Football Club Newspapers in Nigeria: Gratifications or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    European Football Club Newspapers in Nigeria: Gratifications or Media Imperialism. ... The implication is that even in Nigeria; news of foreign leagues is published by Nigerian citizens to draw readers away from local league, a development which is bound to affect negatively the nations sporting culture. The conclusion is ...

  19. How do professional Australian Football League (AFL) players utilise social media during periods of injury? A mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankervis, Brodie; Ferguson, Laura; Gosling, Cameron; Storr, Michael; Ilic, Dragan; Young, Mark; Maloney, Stephen

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how social media is used by a population of injured professional athletes, by comparing the content and frequency of posts on social media, pre and post-injury. A retrospective mixed methods design was utilised. Professional Australian Football League (AFL) players, injured during the 2015 season, were included in the study. Publicly accessible social media profiles for these players were identified on Twitter and Instagram. All posts published on verified profiles, from four weeks prior to injury until return to play, were extracted. Thematic analysis was used to investigate the content of these posts, while univariate and multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the frequency of posts during this time period. Two reoccurring themes were identified exclusively post-injury; 'supporting team from the sideline' and 'sharing information about injury and rehabilitation'. The frequency of total posts did not differ significantly pre and post-injury, but the frequency of injury related posts increased in the immediate post-injury phase, then decreased between 4-8 weeks and 8-12 weeks post-injury. The frequency of injury related posts was higher with more severe injuries. The findings of this study suggest that injured players use social media to seek social support from their followers, especially in the immediate post-injury period and after sustaining a severe injury. The role of social media in injury rehabilitation may warrant further investigation, to determine if it could be used to facilitate return to play. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac structure and function in elite Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Rugby Football League athletes: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher; Forsythe, Lynsey; Somauroo, John; Papadakis, Michael; George, Keith; Oxborough, David

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to define the Athletes Heart (AH) phenotype in Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander (NH&PI) Rugby Football League (RFL) athletes. Specifically, (1) to describe conventional echocardiographic indices of left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) structure and function in NH&PI RFL players and matched RFL Caucasian controls (CC) and (2) to demonstrate LV and RV mechanics in these populations. Ethnicity is a contributory factor to the phenotypical expression of the AH. There are no data describing the cardiac phenotype in NH&PI athletes. Twenty-one male elite NH&PI RFL athletes were evaluated using conventional echocardiography and myocardial speckle tracking, allowing the assessment of global longitudinal strain (ε) and strain rate (SR); and basal, mid and global radial and circumferential ε and SR. Basal and apical rotation and twist were also assessed. Results were compared with age-matched Caucasian counterparts (CC; n = 21). LV mass [42 ± 9 versus 37 ± 4 g/(m 2.7 )], mean LV wall thickness (MWT: 9.5 ± 0.7 and 8.7 ± 0.4 mm), relative wall thickness (RWT: 0.35 ± 0.04 and 0.31 ± 0.03) and RV wall thickness (5 ± 1 and 4 ± 1 mm, all p rugby players have a greater LV mass, MWT and RWT with concomitant reductions in circumferential and twist mechanics. This data acts to prompt further research in NH&PI athletes.

  1. Technical and tactical training team «Helios» Kharkiv in the first round of 23 Ukrainian football championship in the premier league 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Sleman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the characteristics of the model command of technical and tactical training team participating in the Ukrainian Premier League First League. Material and Methods: the research was conducted using the method of peer review. The experts were involved 5 specialists football. Results: the mean values for the analyzed variables in 10 games. The various technical and tactical actions and their percentage in the overall structure of the game team statistics for 20 games, as well as some indicators of team play "Helios" Kharkov. Conclusions: the obtained quantitative and qualitative indicators (coefficient of marriage as a team on the technical and tactical actions, as well as separately for each technical and tactical reception. The performances allow you to make adjustments to the training process this command to improve sportsmanship.

  2. Determinants of Demand for Televised Live Football: Features of the German National Football Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Rott, Armin

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes all 216 broadcasts of the German national football team from January 1993 to June 2008 to identify which factors ensure the success of televised sport broadcasts. The results reveal that demand depends mostly on the type of match and its importance in a tournament context. Vie...... rights agencies, advertisers, and media planners in determining the value of a particular broadcast....

  3. Predictive value of prior injury on career in professional American football is affected by player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Lyman, Stephen; Chehab, Eric L; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2009-04-01

    The National Football League holds an annual combine where individual teams evaluate college football players The abstract goes here and covers two columns. likely to be drafted for physical skills, review players' medical history and imaging studies, and perform a physical examination. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of specific diagnoses and surgical procedures on the likelihood of playing and length of career in the league by position. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A database for all players reviewed at the annual National Football League Combine by the medical staff of 1 National Football League team from 1987 to 2000 was created, including each player's orthopaedic rating, diagnoses, surgical procedures, number of games played, and number of seasons played in the National Football League. Athletes were grouped by position as follows: offensive backfield, offensive receiver, offensive line, quarterback, tight end, defensive line, defensive secondary, linebacker, and kicker. The percentage of athletes who played in the National Football League was calculated by position for each specific diagnosis and surgery. The effect of injury on the likelihood of playing in the league varied by position. Anterior cruciate ligament injury significantly lowered the likelihood of playing in the league for defensive linemen (P = .03) and linebackers (P = .04). Meniscal injury significantly reduced the probability of playing (P history of spondylolysis had a significant effect for running backs (P = .01). Miscellaneous injuries (eg. acromioclavicular joint, knee medial collateral ligament, carpal fractures) had isolated position-specific effects. The significant injuries and diagnoses appear congruent with the position-specific demands placed on the athletes. This information is useful to physicians and athletic trainers caring for college football athletes as well as those assessing these athletes at the National Football League Combine.

  4. COLLECTIVE SECURITY AND ITS MECHANISMS IN THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Struić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the idea of collective security has long existed in the history of international relations, the League of Nations was the first modern international organisation based on the idea of collective security at the global level. In this context, the author aims at giving a systematic review of collective security and its mechanisms comprised in the Covenant of the League of Nations. To this end, after introductory considerations and a short review of the conceptual definition, postulates, roots, and critiques of collective security, the paper discusses its mechanisms in the Covenant of the League of Nations in order to examine, firstly, which provisions encompassed these mechanisms and what they were composed of and secondly, why these mechanisms failed to achieve their purpose. For this reason, the conclusions in this paper rely on a normative analysis of the Covenant of the League of Nations, as well as on the specific examples from the history of international relations during the period considered.

  5. Increased injury rates after the restructure of Germany's national second league of team handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luig, Patrick; Krutsch, Werner; Nerlich, Michael; Henke, Thomas; Klein, Christian; Bloch, Hendrik; Platen, Petra; Achenbach, Leonard

    2018-02-05

    Scientific injury data in men's professional team handball injuries are rare and even less scientific information exists on injury prevention. In 2011, Germany's national second team handball league was restructured by merging the existing two regional leagues into one league. This study evaluates the injury patterns in professional team handball and compares the injury rates between the first and second league before and after the restructure. All players of Germany's national first and second men's team handball leagues have mandatory trauma insurance with the same insurance company. This retrospective cohort study analysed the injury data of three consecutive seasons 2010-2013 using standardized injury definitions. 1194 professional team handball players were included in this study. The majority of severe injuries affected the lower extremities, shoulders, and hands. The average injury incidence significantly differed between the first (4.9 injuries per 1000 h) and the second league (3.9 per 1000 h, p handball league and presents details on prevalence, incidence, and patterns of injury in professional men's team handball. This study is an important basis for developing injury prevention strategies that should focus on the shoulders, hands, and lower extremities and on reducing the number of matches and travel burden. III.

  6. The problem of distressed personality in a group of female footballers representing a club in the women’s first football league in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the keys to identifying health problems from the holistic perspective is the knowledge of Type D personality (distressed personality. Diagnosing this personality disorder among female football players may help sports psychologists, coaches, parents/caregivers, and all those engaged in training new sports entrants develop guidelines on how to resolve the problem. Methods. The study involved female footballers representing a Polish Ekstraliga football club, AZS-PSW Biała Podlaska, and was conducted with the use of the Polish adaptation of the DS14 scale. Results. In a group of 21 footballers, 7 (33.3% were diagnosed with Type D personality. Besides, a negative correlation was noted between the level of satisfaction with playing football and one of the dimensions of Type D personality - negative emotionality. Conclusions. The results of the study may be applicable in formulating practical recommendations while preparing mental training programmes.

  7. Comparison of economic activity leading U.S. sports leagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Strikalenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main activities of the leading sports leagues were described. Sources of revenue and expenditure were identified. The economic performance of professional sports leagues of the United States of America was compared. In the course of the study of economic efficiency of the leading American sports leagues are defined payroll (expense commands on the salaries of players for each team, the total payroll in the League and the average payroll, respectively, for each of the American League. The largest estimates on wages, both in the League and in teams - in the National football League, the largest player's contract - in the Highest League baseball, the minimum wage in the National hockey League; the highest average wages, a greater percentage of athletes with a salary of more than 1 million. $ (82,85 % in the National basketball Association were showed. This difference in the maximum income of the League and of average wages is due to several factors: the number of players in the team, the number of games in a season, and expenses on carrying out of competition and training activities.

  8. Concussion surveillance: do low concussion rates in the Qatar Professional Football League reflect a true difference or emphasize challenges in knowledge translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L; Targett, Steve; Holmich, Per; Chalabi, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    To investigate concussion epidemiology in the first football (soccer) division of Qatar. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division Football League of Qatar. All first team players were included at the beginning of each season. Daily collection of training and match exposure from August 2008 until April 2012 by club medical staff. Head injuries during training and match play were recorded on standardized injury cards. Injury incidence was calculated as number of injuries per hour exposed to risk and expressed as rate per 1000 hours. The incidence of concussions in professional club football in Qatar is 0.016 (0.000-0.033) per 1000 hours of exposure. The concussion incidence is only 25% of that in the previous European studies using the same time loss injury definition. This raises the possibility that concussions are underreported. Further research is necessary. In the meantime, concussion education of players, club medical, and support staff is warranted, in keeping with the Zurich concussion consensus call for the need for an increase in knowledge translation.

  9. Identity, football and Croatian national team members from the diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komar Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author briefly presents his fieldwork results, with an emphasis on studying the relationship between football and the construction of children’s, grandson’s and great-grandson’s national identities in first-generation Croatian migrants. Specifically, the research focuses on Croatian national football team members from the diaspora who rather choose to play for their “imagined homeland” than the national team of their country of birth. If we agree that one of sport’s functions is, among other things, to act as a mechanism of national solidarity - promoting the sense of identity and unity - football proves to be an ideal field for studying the symbolic dimensions of ethnicity, discursive shaping of identity and practices trough which athletic (and national loyalty is manifested. Through the coding of interview transcripts, organizing data into categories and analyzing conducted interviews, the author examines the dynamic relationship between expressing national identity and personal choices of the individual as to which national team he should join.

  10. A prospective epidemiological study of injury incidence and injury patterns in a Hong Kong male professional football league during the competitive season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wai-Yuk Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from injury recorders team visits. Operational injury definitions and procedures followed the recommendations of a football consensus. The overall injury incidence was 7.4 injuries/1000 player hours and 296 injuries were recorded. The relative risk of match injury was 17 times greater than the risk of training injury [relative ratio (RR, 17.3; 95% confidence injury (CI, 11.6–25.7; p < 0.001]. Ankle sprain was the most common injury type (16.2% of all injuries and 52% of these injuries were recurrent. Thigh strain was the second most common injury type with 82% of the injuries involving the hamstring muscle and 80% of hamstring strains were noncontact injuries. During the competitive season, the relative risk of injury was highest in October (RR, 6.8; 95% CI, 6.7–6.9; p < 0.001 and February (RR, 4.7; 95% CI, 4.3–5.2; p < 0.001. This highlighted that Hong Kong professional football has a high match injury incidence. The relative risk of injury was highest at the beginning of the competitive season. A prospective multicentre epidemiological study is warranted to examine regional differences in injury risks. Coaches, players, health professionals, and researchers should join their efforts to investigate the effect on injury incidence and injury pattern associated with the duration and content of the preseason period, and the number of friendly matches held during preseason.

  11. Management of chronic recurrent osteitis pubis/pubic bone stress in a Premier League footballer: Evaluating the evidence base and application of a nine-point management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Stephen S; Gille, Justus; Bark, Stefan; Riepenhof, Helge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent chronic groin pain and evaluate the evidence of the interventions. A professional footballer presented with chronic recurrent OP/PBS. The injury was managed successfully with a nine-point programme - 1. Acute pharmacological management. 2. Tone reduction of over-active structures. 3. Improved ROM at hips, pelvis and thorax. 4. Adductor strength. 5. Functional movement assessment. 6. Core stability. 7. Lumbo-pelvic control. 8. Gym-based strengthening. 9. Field-based conditioning/rehabilitation. The evidence for these interventions is reviewed. The player returned to full training and match play within 41 and 50 days, respectively, and experienced no recurrence of his symptoms in follow up at 13 months. This case report displays a nine-point conservative management strategy for OP/PBS, with non-time dependent clinical objective markers as the progression criteria in a Premier League football player. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Awareness among Indian professional football players about injury prevention strategies: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rohit; Rajasekar, Sannasi; Abraham, Allan; Samuel, Asir John

    2018-03-01

    To determine the awareness and application of the injury prevention strategies by professional Indian football players through Standard Questionnaire Based Survey. Descriptive Epidemiological Study. Professional football clubs in India. Among 150 professional footballers playing in India, 109 football players participated.. The online questionnaire was made in the Google drive application. An online URL (www.tinyurl.com/futbolscptrc) was made in Google accounts by Google drive. 150 professional footballers playing in India were identified and invited to participate in this descriptive epidemiological online survey. All duly filled questionnaire responses were automatically reached in the Google drive inbox. Descriptive analysis was used for the data analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 150 professional players at nine Indian League clubs. 109 players responded, which represents a response rate of 73%. The player age and number of years as a professional footballers were 25 (4) years (range 18-38 years) and 6 (4) years (range 1-16 years) respectively. The players were from one Premier (9), two Division One (6 and 16), and two Division Two (9 and 15) teams. Most of the professional Indian football players are aware about the injury prevention strategies. However, the application of these strategies is consistently followed by Premier division players.

  13. [The League of Nations Health Organization and the rise of Latin American participation, 1920-40].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The League of Nations Health Organization collaborated with Latin American specialists in public health and infectious diseases from the early 1920s to the outbreak of the Second World War. The League developed studies of infant health and nutrition, and leprosy. The approach was expert-oriented, and designed to develop public health on a scientific basis. There were conferences, tours and reports in Latin America. This paper demonstrates that the Latin American collaboration with the Health Organization was extensive and multi-faceted.

  14. Football Coaches' Practical Sense of Talent. A Qualitative Study of Talent Identification in Danish National Youth Team Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    This study explores the practical sense of talent among top-level football coaches in Denmark, and aims to identify specific structures of the coaches' expert knowledge related to talent identification. The theoretical foundation of the study is Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework......, in particular the concept of practical sense. The data compile from eight biographical, in-depth interviews with Danish national youth team football coaches. The interviews are analyzed through a process of coding and recoding. Thematic cross-case analyses as well as purposeful selected single-case analyses......' classificatory schemes. Conclusively, the study supports the theory that talent identification in top-level football is strongly connected to the coach's practical sense of the game and taste for football talents. Furthermore, the study points at the importance of being aware of the person "behind" the coach...

  15. Playing by the Rules: Researching, Teaching and Learning Sexual Ethics with Young Men in the Australian National Rugby League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Kath; Carmody, Moira; Evers, Clifton; Lumby, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) commissioned the Playing By The Rules research project in response to allegations of sexual assault by members of a professional rugby league team. This article offers an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches adopted by the team, and the subsequent workplace education…

  16. The Migration of African Americans to the Canadian Football League during the mid-20th Century: An Escape from Discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Longley; Todd Crosset; Steve Jefferson

    2007-01-01

    The institutional racial discrimination that existed in American professional team sports prior to World War II resulted in African American players effectively being barred from playing in the major professional leagues. Although the NFL color barrier did officially fall in 1946, to be quickly followed by the fall of the MLB color barrier one year later when Jackie Robinson made his debut for the Brooklyn Dodgers, these events were just the beginning of the struggles for African American ath...

  17. Implementation of concussion guidelines in community Australian Football and Rugby League-The experiences and challenges faced by coaches and sports trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Joanne L; Newton, Joshua D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-04-01

    While guidelines outlining the appropriate management of sport-related concussion have been developed and adapted for use within community sport, it remains unknown how they are experienced by those responsible for implementing them. Longitudinal study. 111 coaches and sports trainers from community-level Australian Football and Rugby League teams completed pre- and post-season surveys assessing their attitudes towards using concussion guidelines. Participants also provided post-season feedback regarding their experiences in using the guidelines. 71% of participants reported using the guidelines in the preceding season. Post-season attitude was related to pre-season attitude (p=0.002), football code (p=0.015), and team role (p=0.045). An interaction between team role and guideline use (p=0.012) was also found, with coaches who had used the guidelines, and sports trainers who had not, reporting more positive post-season attitudes towards using the concussion guidelines. Implementation challenges included disputing of decisions about return-to-play by players, parents, and coaches, and a perceived lack of time. Recommendations for improved guideline materials included using larger fonts and providing for witnessing of advice given to players. This is the first study to examine the implementation of concussion guidelines in community sport. Training of coaches/sports trainers needs enhancement. In addition, new education should be developed for parents/players about the importance of the return-to-play advice given to them by those who follow these guidelines. Information provided by those who attempted to use the guidelines will assist the refinement of implementation and dissemination processes around concussion guidelines across sports. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Francisco Giner and Adolfo Posada, precursors of the League of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Manzanero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contributions to the process of formation of the League of Nations which, from sociological and legal premises present in the enlightened ideas of the German philosopher Krause, were designed and represented by two eminent Spanish Krausist jurists, Giner and Posada. First, we will analyse the influence of the teleological tradition of the Interessenjurisprudenz in Krausist legal philosophy, and the function of this iusphilosophical trend as a modernising and emancipating movement from the prevailing positivist formalism of the time. Secondly, we will delve into the basic principles of the Krausist sociological and legal theory which have been a major factor of Europeanisation, for which we will review his most scathing criticism to the European doctrines of imperial nationalism. Finally, we will address the role of Krausism in the promotion and defense of Wilson's Fourteen Points and the League of Nations, and its views on what should be subject to contestation in terms of international law.

  19. Health policy in interwar Greece: the intervention by the League of Nations Health Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Vassiliki; Karakatsani, Despina

    2008-01-01

    The first serious attempts to deal with public health problems in Greece were undertaken between 1925 and 1935. This period also witnessed setbacks to developments in public health, caused by the lack of welfare infrastructure for social relief, as well as extensive health problems brought about by the settlement in Greece of 1,300,000 refugees from Asia Minor. In 1928 following the example set by other European countries, the Liberal Government appealed to international health organisations for support in order to effectively deal with these problems. This contribution constitutes a case study addressing the following issues: a) the impact the League of Nations Health Organisation intervention had on the establishment of public health services; b) the framework for a collaboration of the Rockefeller Foundation and the League of Nations Health Organisation; and c) the factors that led to the failure of the health care reorganisation.

  20. Scheduling for the National Hockey League Using a Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Sam; While, Lyndon; Barone, Luigi

    We describe a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm that derives schedules for the National Hockey League according to three objectives: minimising the teams' total travel, promoting equity in rest time between games, and minimising long streaks of home or away games. Experiments show that the system is able to derive schedules that beat the 2008-9 NHL schedule in all objectives simultaneously, and that it returns a set of schedules that offer a range of trade-offs across the objectives.

  1. BCS or Just BS: How College Football Could Crown the Wrong National Champion? Just Do the Math--Correctly!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, C.E. Wynn; Hornyak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 college football season is here, but there has been a continuing controversy swirling over how the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) selects its national champion. College football uses a multi-criterion decision matrix (MCDM) evaluation technique to determine which two teams will play for the national championship. We analyzed the BCS…

  2. Predicting higher selection in elite junior Australian Rules football: The influence of physical performance and anthropometric attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sam; Woods, Carl; Gastin, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To develop a physiological performance and anthropometric attribute model to predict Australian Football League draft selection. Cross-sectional observational. Data was obtained (n=4902) from three Under-18 Australian football competitions between 2010 and 2013. Players were allocated into one of the three groups, based on their highest level of selection in their final year of junior football (Australian Football League Drafted, n=292; National Championship, n=293; State-level club, n=4317). Physiological performance (vertical jumps, agility, speed and running endurance) and anthropometric (body mass and height) data were obtained. Hedge's effect sizes were calculated to assess the influence of selection-level and competition on these physical attributes, with logistic regression models constructed to discriminate Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players. Rule induction analysis was undertaken to determine a set of rules for discriminating selection-level. Effect size comparisons revealed a range of small to moderate differences between State-level club players and both other groups for all attributes, with trivial to small differences between Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players noted. Logistic regression models showed multistage fitness test, height and 20 m sprint time as the most important attributes in predicting Draft success. Rule induction analysis showed that players displaying multistage fitness test scores of >14.01 and/or 20 m sprint times of football players being recruited to the highest level of the sport. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  4. Non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament injury in an English Premier League football player with return to play in less than 8 weeks: applying common sense in the absence of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Monte-Colombo, Mathew; Mitchell, Adam; Haddad, Fares

    2015-01-01

    This case report illustrates and discusses the non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in an English Premier League football player, his return to play within 8 weeks and problem-free follow-up at 18 months post injury. When non-operative verses surgical ACL reconstruction is considered there are many fundamental gaps in our knowledge and currently, at elite level, there are no cases in cutting sports within the literature to guide these decisions. When the norm is for all professional footballers to be recommended surgery, it will be very challenging when circumstances and patient autonomy dictate a conservative approach, where prognosis, end points and risk are unclear and assumed to be high. This case challenges current dogma and provides a starting point for much needed debate about best practice, treatment options, research direction and not just at the elite level of sport. PMID:25917066

  5. Normal Variability of Weekly Musculoskeletal Screening Scores and the Influence of Training Load across an Australian Football League Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Alireza; Stewart, Andrew M; Hopkins, William G; Elias, George P; Lazarus, Brendan H; Rowell, Amber E; Aughey, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The sit and reach test (S&R), dorsiflexion lunge test (DLT), and adductor squeeze test (AST) are commonly used in weekly musculoskeletal screening for athlete monitoring and injury prevention purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the normal week to week variability of the test scores, individual differences in variability, and the effects of training load on the scores. Methods: Forty-four elite Australian rules footballers from one club completed the weekly screening tests on day 2 or 3 post-main training (pre-season) or post-match (in-season) over a 10 month season. Ratings of perceived exertion and session duration for all training sessions were used to derive various measures of training load via both simple summations and exponentially weighted moving averages. Data were analyzed via linear and quadratic mixed modeling and interpreted using magnitude-based inference. Results: Substantial small to moderate variability was found for the tests at both season phases; for example over the in-season, the normal variability ±90% confidence limits were as follows: S&R ±1.01 cm, ±0.12; DLT ±0.48 cm, ±0.06; AST ±7.4%, ±0.6%. Small individual differences in variability existed for the S&R and AST (factor standard deviations between 1.31 and 1.66). All measures of training load had trivial effects on the screening scores. Conclusion: A change in a test score larger than the normal variability is required to be considered a true change. Athlete monitoring and flagging systems need to account for the individual differences in variability. The tests are not sensitive to internal training load when conducted 2 or 3 days post-training or post-match, and the scores should be interpreted cautiously when used as measures of recovery.

  6. Does player unavailability affect football teams' match physical outputs? A two-season study of the UEFA champions league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Johann; Ekstrand, Jan; Khan, Karim M; McCall, Alan; Zumbo, Bruno D

    2018-05-01

    Player unavailability negatively affects team performance in elite football. However, whether player unavailability and its concomitant performance decrement is mediated by any changes in teams' match physical outputs is unknown. We examined whether the number of players injured (i.e. unavailable for match selection) was associated with any changes in teams' physical outputs. Prospective cohort study. Between-team variation was calculated by correlating average team availability with average physical outputs. Within-team variation was quantified using linear mixed modelling, using physical outputs - total distance, sprint count (efforts over 20km/h), and percent of distance covered at high speeds (>14km/h) - as outcome variables, and player unavailability as the independent variable of interest. To control for other factors that may influence match physical outputs, stage (group stage/knockout), venue (home/away), score differential, ball possession (%), team ranking (UEFA Club Coefficient), and average team age were all included as covariates. Teams' average player unavailability was positively associated with the average number of sprints they performed in matches across two seasons. Multilevel models similarly demonstrated that having 4 unavailable players was associated with 20.8 more sprints during matches in 2015/2016, and with an estimated 0.60-0.77% increase in the proportion of total distance run above 14km/h in both seasons. Player unavailability had a possibly positive and likely positive association with total match distances in the two respective seasons. Having more players injured and unavailable for match selection was associated with an increase in teams' match physical outputs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Six fundamental principles that facilitates the transition from junior to professional in football: An example from the Danish Premier League

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    around the athlete or team. Fourth, an intervention should take into consideration that an environment is always situated in a larger cultural setting of e.g. a national culture and a sport specific culture, and plan accordingly. Fifth and sixth, the intervention should aim to create and maintain...

  8. Efficiency of Sports Leagues - The Economic Implications of Having Two Leagues in the Indian Cricket Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vig, Arun

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide more and more money is being invested in sports teams and professional sports leagues. There are numerous sports that are popular in different parts of the world. In the United States, its American Football, in Europe and UK it is Football (soccer); in the Indian sub-continent and Australia it is Cricket that attracts the largest crowds. If we study the professional sporting leagues around the world usually there is only one major/premier league in every sport. Smaller leagues e...

  9. Intersection of Re-Designated National League for Nursing Centers of Excellence(TM) and Quality in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Nursing education is challenged to meet a growing demand for nurses, while substantiating the quality of the educational experience as well as the achievement of desired student outcomes. The National League for Nursing (NLN) Centers of Excellence (COE) in Nursing Education(TM) program represents high performing nursing schools which utilize…

  10. Impact of visors on eye and orbital injuries in the National Hockey League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Zurakowski, David; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2014-06-01

    Eye and orbital injuries are a significant risk to professional hockey league players and have resulted in career-ending injuries. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence, value lost, mechanism, and effect of visors on eye and orbital injuries over the last 10 National Hockey League (NHL) seasons: 2002-2003 to 2012-2013. Retrospective case-control study. Participants were 8741 NHL players who had played at least 1 game during the last 10 seasons. Using The Sports Network (TSN), ProSportsTransactions, and the Sporting News Hockey Register, NHL players were searched to identify eye and orbital injuries. The mechanism of injury was obtained from media reports and direct observation from online videos. The number of players wearing visors each year was obtained from The Hockey News annual visor survey. A total of 149 eye or orbital injuries over the last 10 seasons resulted in an overall incidence of 2.48 per 10 000 athlete exposures. A total of 1120 missed games led to a lost financial value of more than $33 million. Visor use among players grew from 32% in 2002-2003 to 73% in 2012-2013, and there was a significantly increased risk for having an eye or orbital injury when a visor was not worn (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.84-6.30). Most injuries were a result of being hit by a deflected or direct puck (37%) followed by being struck by a high stick (28%). Players who did not wear a visor were found to be involved in more fights, hits, and penalty minutes (p < 0.001). Eye and orbital injuries are mostly accidental in nature and represent a significant risk and cost to the NHL and its players. Eye and orbital injuries are significantly more likely in players who do not wear visors. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Technical and tactical preparedness of the team «Helios» of Kharkov in the 25th football championship of Ukraine in the first league (the first round in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Zhurid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define model characteristics of technical and tactical preparedness of the team which participated in the championship of Ukraine of the first league for the purpose of further improvement and correction of the educational and training process. Material & Methods: researches were carried out by means of method expert estimates. 5 specialists of football were involved as experts. Results: average values of the registered sizes for 10 games were analyzed. Various technical and tactical actions and their differences for the first and second times, and also separate indicators of a game of players and the team «Helios» of Kharkov are analyzed. Conclusions: quantitative and qualitative indicators (flaw coefficient were received as on team technical and tactical actions, and separately on each technical-tactical technique for every period of a game.

  12. The development, retention and decay rates of strength and power in elite rugby union, rugby league and American football: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Daniel Travis; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John; McGuigan, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Strength and power are crucial components to excelling in all contact sports; and understanding how a player's strength and power levels fluctuate in response to various resistance training loads is of great interest, as it will inevitably dictate the loading parameters throughout a competitive season. This is a systematic review of training, maintenance and detraining studies, focusing on the development, retention and decay rates of strength and power measures in elite rugby union, rugby league and American football players. A literature search using MEDLINE, EBSCO Host, Google Scholar, IngentaConnect, Ovid LWW, ProQuest Central, ScienceDirect Journals, SPORTDiscus and Wiley InterScience was conducted. References were also identified from other review articles and relevant textbooks. From 300 articles, 27 met the inclusion criteria and were retained for further analysis. STUDY QUALITY: Study quality was assessed via a modified 20-point scale created to evaluate research conducted in athletic-based training environments. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) quality rating of the included studies was 16.2 ± 1.9; the rating system revealed that the quality of future studies can be improved by randomly allocating subjects to training groups, providing greater description and detail of the interventions, and including control groups where possible. Percent change, effect size (ES = [Post-Xmean - Pre-Xmean)/Pre-SD) calculations and SDs were used to assess the magnitude and spread of strength and power changes in the included studies. The studies were grouped according to (1) mean intensity relative volume (IRV = sets × repetitions × intensity; (2) weekly training frequency per muscle group; and (3) detraining duration. IRV is the product of the number of sets, repetitions and intensity performed during a training set and session. The effects of weekly training frequencies were assessed by normalizing the percent change values to represent the weekly changes in

  13. Incidence and characteristics of injuries during the 2010 FELDA/FAM National Futsal League in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Shariff A Hamid

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In Malaysia, futsal is a popular sport played by individuals across all ages and genders. Despite its popularity, information on futsal related injury in Malaysia is not available. The purpose of this study is to examine the injury incidence and injury patterns among amateur men and women futsal players in Malaysia. METHODS: Players reported injury to the tournament medical team during the FELDA/FAM National Futsal League 2010 were interviewed and assessed by a Sports Medicine registrar. Player's socio-demographic profiles and information about the injury were documented in the injury report form adapted from medical report form used by FIFA: Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-Marc. RESULTS: A total of 86 injuries were reported from 141 matches, equivalent to an incidence of 91.5 injuries per 1000 player hours (95% CI 72.2 to 110.8, or 61.0 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% CI 48.1 to 73.9. Most were minor injuries resulted from contact with another player. Injuries often involved the lower extremity (44% followed by the trunk (14% and the upper limb (13%. Ankle (n = 7; 39% and knee (n = 6; 33% sprains were the most prevalent diagnoses of time-loss injuries. A significant association between time-loss and type of injury was found χ2 (1,N = 86 = 3.99, p = 0.04. In addition, time-loss injury was significantly associated with playing surface χ2 (1,N = 86 = 10.11, p = 0.018. CONCLUSION: The injury rate during the FELDA/FAM National Amateur Futsal Men's League in Malaysia was lower compared with previous Futsal World Cups competition. Most injuries resulted from contact with another player were minor and did not lead to time-loss from participation. Time-loss injury was significantly associated with type of injury and playing surface.

  14. Unravelling hieroglyphs : Urban traffic signs and the League of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schipper

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les enjeux de signalisation routière pendant l'entre-deux-guerres. Il esquisse d'abord la relation souvent difficile entre l'automobile et la ville d'une part et la société en général. Il revient sur le rôle de la signalisation routière dont la mise en place a contribué à encadrer ces rapports. À la veille de la Première Guerre Mondiale, des milliers de panneaux décorent déjà les routes européennes. Depuis la guerre, la nouvelle Société des Nations réussit à s'accaparer les discussions sur la signalisation routière au début des années 1920, puis commence ses travaux sur la signalisation routière spécifiquement urbaine à partir de 1926. La Conférence Européenne sur le Trafic Routier en 1931 est le sommet de ce mouvement. Le système n'a pas changé fondamentalement depuis. A l'inverse des propositions des représentants urbains, la SdN n’est cependant pas devenue le coordinateur central des problèmes de signalisation routière. L’article conclut par nuancer la qualification des panneaux routiers comme des hiéroglyphes par le journaliste français Baudry de Saunier en 1931.This article discusses road traffic signs in the Interwar years. The article first sketches the often difficult relationship between the car and the city and society at large. It proposes road signs were introduced in part to mitigate this antagonistic relation. On the eve of the First World War thousands of signs already adorned European roads. After the war the new League of Nations managed to seize discussions on road signs in the early 1920s, and started to work on specifically urban road signs from 1926 onwards. The European Conference on Road Traffic in 1931 formed the apex of this development. The system has not fundamentally changed since. Contrary to the proposal of urban representatives, the League did not, however, become the supreme arbiter of traffic signs. The article concludes by nuancing a 1931

  15. Priorities for injury prevention in women's Australian football: a compilation of national data from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Participation in Australian football (AF) has traditionally been male dominated and current understanding of injury and priorities for prevention are based solely on reports of injuries in male players. There is evidence in other sports that indicates that injury types differ between males and females. With increasing participation in AF by females, it is important to consider their specific injury and prevention needs. This study aimed to provide a first injury profile from existing sources for female AF. Compilation of injury data from four prospectively recorded data sets relating to female AF: (1) hospital admissions in Victoria, 2008/09-13/14, n=500 injuries; (2) emergency department (ED) presentations in Victoria, 2008/09-2012/13, n=1,879 injuries; (3) insurance claims across Australia 2004-2013, n=522 injuries; (4) West Australian Women's Football League (WAWFL), 2014 season club data, n=49 injuries. Descriptive results are presented as injury frequencies, injury types and injury to body parts. Hospital admissions and ED presentations were dominated by upper limb injuries, representing 47% and 51% of all injuries, respectively, primarily to the wrist/hand at 32% and 40%. Most (65%) insurance claim injuries involved the lower limb, 27% of which were for knee ligament damage. A high proportion of concussions (33%) were reported in the club-collected data. The results provide the first compilation of existing data sets of women's AF injuries and highlight the need for a rigorous and systematic injury surveillance system to be instituted.

  16. Mediated football: representations and audience receptions of race/ethnicity, gender and nation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, J.; Spaaij, R.

    2015-01-01

    Mediated football is one of the most popular global cultural practices. Within this cultural practice, meanings given to race/ethnicity, gender and nation are naturalized often in an implicit and unacknowledged manner. In this article, we build on existing literature to critically examine the often

  17. A 26 year physiological description of a National Hockey League team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinney, H A; Dewart, Randy; Game, Alex; Snydmiller, Gary; Warburton, Darren; Bell, Gordon

    2008-08-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the physiological profile of a National Hockey League (NHL) team over a period of 26 years. All measurements were made at a similar time of year (pre-season) in 703 male (mean age +/- SD = 24 +/- 4 y) hockey players. The data were analyzed across years, between positions (defensemen, forwards, and goaltenders), and between what were deemed successful and non-successful years using a combination of points acquired during the season and play-off success. Most anthropometric (height, mass, and BMI) and physiological parameters (absolute and relative VO2 peak, relative peak 5 s power output, abdominal endurance, and combined grip strength) showed a gradual increase over the 26 year period. Defensemen were taller and heavier, had higher absolute VO2 peak, and had greater combined grip strength than forwards and goaltenders. Forwards were younger and had higher values for relative VO2 peak. Goaltenders were shorter, had less body mass, a higher sum of skinfolds, lower VO2 peak, and better flexibility. The overall pre-season fitness profile was not related to team success. In conclusion, this study revealed that the fitness profile for a professional NHL ice-hockey team exhibited increases in player size and anaerobic and aerobic fitness parameters over a 26 year period that differed by position. However, this evolution of physiological profile did not necessarily translate into team success in this particular NHL franchise.

  18. Integration of the functional movement screen into the National Hockey League Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Chip P; Kuropkat, Christiane; Gumieniak, Robert J; Gledhill, Norman; Jamnik, Veronica K

    2015-05-01

    The sport of ice hockey requires coordination of complex skills involving musculoskeletal and physiological abilities while simultaneously exposing players to a high risk for injury. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) was developed to assess fundamental movement patterns that underlie both sport performance and injury risk. The top 111 elite junior hockey players from around the world took part in the 2013 National Hockey League Entry Draft Combine (NHL Combine). The FMS was integrated into the comprehensive medical and physiological fitness evaluations at the request of strength and conditioning coaches with affiliations to NHL teams. The inclusion of the FMS aimed to help develop strategies that could maximize its utility among elite hockey players and to encourage or inform further research in this field. This study evaluated the outcomes of integrating the FMS into the NHL Combine and identified any links to other medical plus physical and physiological fitness assessment outcomes. These potential associations may provide valuable information to identify elements of future training programs that are individualized to athletes' specific needs. The results of the FMS (total score and number of asymmetries identified) were significantly correlated to various body composition measures, aerobic and anaerobic fitness, leg power, timing of recent workouts, and the presence of lingering injury at the time of the NHL Combine. Although statistically significant correlations were observed, the implications of the FMS assessment outcomes remain difficult to quantify until ongoing assessment of FMS patterns, tracking of injuries, and hockey performance are available.

  19. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in the National Hockey League: Epidemiology and Performance Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaffe, Robert; Leiter, Jeff; MacDonald, Peter

    2018-03-27

    To determine the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the National Hockey League (NHL) and to examine the effects of this injury on return-to-play status and performance. Case series; level of evidence, 4. This was a 2-phase study. Phase I used the NHL electronic injury surveillance system and Athlete Health Management System to collect data on ACL injuries and man games lost over 10 seasons (2006/2007-2015/2016). Data collected in phase I were received in deidentified form. Phase II examined the performance impact of an ACL injury. Players were identified through publically available sources, and performance-related statistics were analyzed. Data collected in phase II were not linked to data collected in phase I. A paired t test was used to determine any difference in the matching variables between controls and cases in the preinjury time period. A General linear model (mixed) was used to determine the performance impact. Phase I: 67 ACL injuries occurred over 10 seasons. The incidence for all players was 0.42/1000 player game hours (forward, 0.61; defenseman, 0.32, goalie, 0.08) and by game exposure was 0.2/1000 player game exposures (forward, 0.33; defenseman, 0.11; goalie, 0.07). Forwards had a greater incidence rate of ACL tears with both game hours and game exposures when compared with defensemen and goalies (P game (P game (0.001). Number of games and seasons played after an ACL injury did not differ compared with controls (P = 0.068, 0.122, respectively). Anterior cruciate ligament injuries occur infrequently, as it relates to other hockey injuries. Despite a high return to play, the performance after an ACL injury demonstrated a decrease in points and goals per game and per season.

  20. Time-loss injuries versus non-time-loss injuries in the first team rugby league football: a pooled data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissane, Conor; Hodgson, Lisa; Jennings, De

    2012-09-01

    To describe the injury rates in first team rugby league in terms of those injuries that require missed playing time and those that do not. A pooled data analysis from 2 independent databases. Rugby league match and training environment over several seasons from 1990 to 2003. Injuries were reported as rates per 1000 hours of participation and as percentages with their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 1707 match injuries were recorded. Of these injuries, 257 required players to miss the subsequent match. The remaining 1450 injuries did not require players to miss the next game. They represented 85% (95% CI, 83-87) of all injuries received and recorded. The ratio of non-time-loss (NTL) to time-loss (TL) injuries was 5.64 (95% CI, 4.96-6.42). There were 450 training injuries, of which 81 were TL injuries and 369 NTL injuries. The NTL training injury rate was 4.56 (95% CI, 3.58-5.79) times higher than TL injury rate. Non-time-loss injuries represent the largest proportion of injuries in rugby league. If NTL injuries are not recorded, the workload of practitioners is likely to be severely underestimated.

  1. Does Ramadan affect the risk of injury in professional football?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L.; Smiley, Faten; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Chalabi, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether fasting during Ramadan influences injury incidence in professional Muslim and non-Muslim footballers. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division League of Qatar. About 527 male football players (462 Muslim and 65 non-Muslim) from 7 league clubs (first year of data

  2. The Relative Age Effect On The Selection In The Slovakia National Football Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulič Martin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to determine the relative age effect (RAE on selection in the Slovakia national football teams. A factor that may have a significant impact on the quality of players chosen for the national teams or may result in a poor selection of players for the elite teams. Anthropometric and cognitive acceleration of players born in the first months of the calendar year concerning the overall context of the competition for placement in the national teams may be considered as a significant advantage. The aim of this research was to examine, determine and verify the presence of relative age effect in the selection of football players for the Slovakia national teams starting with the under 16 age category (U-16 through to the A - senior national football team. We presumed that the elite teams under this review and study consisted predominantly of players born in the first quarter of the calendar year, while also presuming that relative age effect receded with the increasing age category. Our survey sample U16 consisted of 79 players, U17 consisted of 47 players, U18 consisted of 58 players, U19 consisted of 71 players, U21 consisted of 52 players and A - senior national team consisted of 302 Slovakia national football players. The information obtained from the Slovak Football Association has been processed by the application of statistical methods and statistical significance test (T-test. Our research confirmed the presence of relative age effect in the U-16, U-17 and U-18 teams under our investigation (p≤0.01. In the U19 and U21 age categories, statistical significance has not been confirmed. As for the senior national team, statistically significant difference has been found in relation to players born in the last quarter of the year as opposed to players born in the first three months of the year (p≤0.01. Our results have shown that with the increasing age, the relative age effect fades and vanishes in full in the

  3. Low back pain status in elite and semi-elite Australian football codes: a cross-sectional survey of football (soccer, Australian rules, rugby league, rugby union and non-athletic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McHardy Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. Methods A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form (MPQ-SF, along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17–39, 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16–46 and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18–39. Results Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42 and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40. A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p Conclusion Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition.

  4. Sports hernia in National Hockey League players: does surgery affect performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoi, Andre; O'Neill, Craig; Damsgaard, Christopher; Fehring, Keith; Tom, James

    2013-01-01

    Athletic pubalgia is a complex injury that results in loss of play in competitive athletes, especially hockey players. The number of reported sports hernias has been increasing, and the importance of their management is vital. There are no studies reporting whether athletes can return to play at preinjury levels. The focus of this study was to evaluate the productivity of professional hockey players before an established athletic pubalgia diagnosis contrasted with the productivity after sports hernia repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Professional National Hockey League (NHL) players who were reported to have a sports hernia and who underwent surgery from 2001 to 2008 were identified. Statistics were gathered on the players' previous 2 full seasons and compared with the statistics 2 full seasons after surgery. Data concerning games played, goals, average time on ice, time of productivity, and assists were gathered. Players were divided into 3 groups: group A incorporated all players, group B were players with 6 or fewer seasons of play, and group C consisted of players with 7 or more seasons of play. A control group was chosen to compare player deterioration or improvement over a career; each player selected for the study had a corresponding control player with the same tenure in his career and position during the same years. Forty-three hockey players were identified to have had sports hernia repairs from 2001 to 2008; ultimately, 80% would return to play 2 or more full seasons. Group A had statistically significant decreases in games played, goals scored, and assists. Versus the control group, the decreases in games played and assists were supported. Statistical analysis showed significant decreases in games played, goals scored, assists, and average time on ice the following 2 seasons in group C, which was also seen in comparison with the control group. Group B (16 players) showed only statistical significance in games played versus the control group

  5. [The 1935 veterinary agreements of the League of the Nations: A vision of a united veterinary Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, S

    2018-01-01

    A group of leading veterinary experts engaged by the league of the Nations created three new Veterinary Conventions focusing at consequently controlling the import, export and transit of animals and animal products. The aim was on one hand to facilitate trade and on the other hand to make sure that livestock epidemic laws were respected. The outbreak of war prevented the laws from coming into effect. Nevertheless they became the basis for veterinary regulations of the World Trade Organisation and of the European Union.

  6. Injury rates of the German Women’s American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ezechieli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE. The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE. Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined.

  7. Comparison of selected variables of gaming performance in football

    OpenAIRE

    Parachin, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Title: Comparison of selected variables of gaming performance in football Objectives: Analysis of selected variables of gaming performance in the matches of professional Czech football teams in the Champions League and UEFA Europa League in 2013. During the observation to register set variables, then evaluate obtained results and compare them. Methods: The use of observational analysis and comparison of selected variables of gaming performance in competitive matches of professional football. ...

  8. Low back pain status in elite and semi-elite Australian football codes: a cross-sectional survey of football (soccer), Australian rules, rugby league, rugby union and non-athletic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Daff, Chris; Odell, Andrew; Garbutt, Peter; McHardy, Andrew; Hardy, Kate; Dragasevic, George

    2009-04-17

    Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP) is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form) (MPQ-SF), along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17-39), 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16-46) and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18-39). Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42) and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40). A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p < 0.001). Elite subjects were more likely to experience more frequent (daily or weekly OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29-2.42) and severe LBP (discomforting and greater OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.29-2.38). Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition.

  9. Technical-tactical preparedness of the team “Helios” of Kharkov in the 25th football championship of Ukraine in the first league

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Zhurid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define model characteristics of technical-tactical preparedness of the team, that participated in the championship of Ukraine of the first league for the purpose of the further improvement and correction of the educational-training process. Material & Methods: the researches were carried out by means of the method of expert estimates. Results: average values of the registered sizes for 16 games are analyzed. Various technical-tactical actions and their differences for the first and second times, and also separate indicators of a game of players and the team “Helios” of Kharkov are analyzed. Conclusions: quantitative and qualitative indicators (defect coefficient as on team technical-tactical actions, and separately on each technical-tactical technique for every period of a game are received.

  10. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. Methods We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35–65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m2 or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2–9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. Findings 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95–5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64–5·08), both in favour of the intervention (p<0·0001). Eight serious adverse events were reported, five in the intervention group (lost consciousness due to drugs for pre-existing angina, gallbladder removal, hospital admission with suspected heart attack, ruptured gut, and ruptured Achilles tendon) and three in the comparison group (transient ischaemic attack, and two deaths). Of these, two adverse events were reported as related to

  11. Frequency of Self-Reported Concussion Amongst Professional and Semi-Professional Footballers in Ireland During the 2014 Season: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Nicola; Lawless, Martin; Kelly, Seamus; Buggy, Conor

    2018-01-08

    This paper examines the occupational risk of concussion amongst professional and semi-professional footballers in Ireland during the 2014 League of Ireland season. As part of a broader nationally representative study examining occupational safety and health (OSH) awareness amongst professional footballers, this empirical quantitative study, utilising a convenience sample is the first and largest investigation of the frequency of, and attitudes towards, concussion and concussion reporting amongst Irish senior professional and semi-professional footballers. A census survey using an anonymous questionnaire was provided to available League of Ireland clubs between March and May 2015. Permission to access players was provided by the Professional Footballers Association of Ireland. This convenience sample was determined by club availability in relation to match fixtures. Participation by the footballers was voluntary. At the time, there were 250 professional and semi-professional players within the League available to participate. A total of 149 footballers participated in the study. Sixty percent of the participants were employed on a semi-professional basis and the majority of all participants were aged between 18 and 30. 15.7% of the participants reported having received a concussion in the 2014 season with semi-professional players having a noticeably higher (though not significant) reporting rate. Analysis indicated that there was a significant association between playing position and concussion reporting with defenders having the greater odds of reporting a concussion than other playing positions. Professional and semi-professional footballers have a relatively equal risk of receiving a concussion. This research is the first major investigation of the self-reported frequency of, and attitudes towards, concussion amongst Irish senior professional and semi-professional footballers. The results have important implications for coaches, clinicians, parents, players and

  12. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  13. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2017-01-01

    This essay aims to describe how actions in the football field relate to the different national teams’ and countries’ cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Inspired by Edgar Schein’s framework of culture, the Brazilian...... and Italian national team football cultures were examined. The basis of the analysis was both document and video analysis. The documents were mostly research studies and popular books on the national football cultures, while the video analysis included all matches including Italy and Brazil from the World Cup...... in 2010 and 2014. The cultural analysis showed some coherence between the national football cultures and the national teams, which suggested a national dialect with the language of the game. Each national dialect seemed to be based on different basic assumptions and to some extent specific symbolic...

  14. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  15. Scottish Premier League Reading Stars Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…

  16. Characterization of the intensity of effort of blind athletes from the Brazilian Football 5-A-Side national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Pereira Souza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Football 5-a-side is a sport played by blind athletes that takes part in the Paralympic Games since 2004. The Brazilian national team is currently considered the best team in the world in this sport. Objective: To analyze the variations of intensity of effort (average per position and group average made by blind athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side national team during six matches simulations. Methods: The sample on this research is the intentional type, made with eight blind male players,  ages ranging from 21 to 30 years old (23.8 ± 3.3, all of them part of the Brazilian Football 5-a-side National team, which played in the 2012 Paralympics Games in England. In was evaluated the VO2máx and the heart rate during six simulations of official matches. Results: The intensity of effort of the blind athletes of the Brazilian Football 5-a-side National Team is intermittent and remains 52.5 % of the total time of a match (50 minutes with an intensity of effort between the zone 2 (between threshold ventilation and respiratory compensation point and the zone 3 (above the respiratory compensation point averaging 89.8 % of the HR max. Conclusion: The intensity of effort is greater than the Football of 11 and, that in the Futsal players.

  17. Europe’s Elite Football: Financial Growth, Sporting Success, Transfer Investment, and Private Majority Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Rohde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s elite football clubs are a small group of about 30 clubs mostly originating from the Big Five leagues in England, Italy, Spain, Germany, and France. These clubs top Deloitte’s Football Money League ranking Europe’s top football clubs by revenues. They also win the vast majority of national and European football competitions, and account for the major share of FIFA World Cup appearances. Nevertheless, empirical analyses studying the antecedents of financial success of this peculiar sample are rare. This paper extends previous research by building an empirical model of financial performance and applying it to a unique, high-quality dataset of the top 30 EU football clubs by club revenues analyzed over ten consecutive seasons from 2004 to 2013. Fixed effects models are performed to account for time trends and club fixed effects. The results show that financial success is driven by national and international sporting success, as well as brand value; sporting success is driven by team investments, and team investments tend to be driven by (foreign private majority investors.

  18. Injuries in youth football: national emergency department visits during 2001-2005 for young and adolescent players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michael J; Myers, Richard; Christian, Jennifer B; Palmisciano, Lynne; Linakis, James G

    2009-03-01

    Limited research exists describing youth football injuries, and many of these are confined to specific regions or communities. The authors describe U.S. pediatric football injury patterns receiving emergency department (ED) evaluation and compare injury patterns between the younger and older youth football participants. A retrospective analysis of ED data on football injuries was performed using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program. Injury risk estimates were calculated over a 5-year period (2001-2005) using participation data from the National Sporting Goods Association. Injury types are described for young (7-11 years) and adolescent (12-17 years) male football participants. There were an estimated total of 1,060,823 visits to U.S. EDs for males with football-related injuries. The most common diagnoses in the younger group (7-11 years) were fracture/dislocation (29%), sprain/strain (27%), and contusion (27%). In the older group (ages 12-17 years), diagnoses included sprain/strain (31%), fracture/dislocation (29%), and contusion (23%). Older participants had a significantly higher injury risk of injury over the 5-year study period: 11.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.2 to 12.8) versus 6.1 (95% CI = 4.8 to 7.3) per 1,000 participants/year. Older participants had a higher injury risk across all categories, with the greatest disparity being with traumatic brain injury (TBI), 0.8 (95% CI = 0.6 to 1.0) versus 0.3 (95% CI = 0.2 to 0.4) per 1,000 participants/year. National youth football injury patterns are similar to those previously reported in community and cohort studies. Older participants have a significantly higher injury risk, especially with TBI.

  19. Impact of playing American professional football on long-term brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Newberg, Andrew; Thatcher, Robert; Jin, Yi; Wu, Joseph; Keator, David; Willeumier, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The authors recruited 100 active and former National Football League players, representing 27 teams and all positions. Players underwent a clinical history, brain SPECT imaging, qEEG, and multiple neuropsychological measures, including MicroCog. Relative to a healthy-comparison group, players showed global decreased perfusion, especially in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and cerebellar regions. Quantitative EEG findings were consistent, showing elevated slow waves in the frontal and temporal regions. Significant decreases from normal values were found in most neuropsychological tests. This is the first large-scale brain-imaging study to demonstrate significant differences consistent with a chronic brain trauma pattern in professional football players.

  20. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2014-01-01

    levels (Schein, 2004) in which each player and his actions can be considered an artefact - a concrete symbol in motion embedded in espoused values and basic assumptions. Therefore, the actions of each dialect are strongly connected to the underlying understanding of football. By document and video......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...

  1. Venous Thromboembolism Within Professional American Sport Leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Meghan; Astolfi, Matthew; Padegimas, Eric; DeLuca, Peter; Hammoud, Sommer

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports have described players in professional American sports leagues who have been sidelined with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or a pulmonary embolism (PE), but little is known about the clinical implications of these events in professional athletes. To conduct a retrospective review of injury reports from the National Hockey League (NHL), Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Football League (NFL) to take a closer look at the incidence of DVT/PE, current treatment approaches, and estimated time to return to play in professional athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. An online search of all team injury and media reports of DVT/PE in NHL, MLB, NBA, and NFL players available for public record was conducted by use of Google, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus. Searches were conducted using the professional team name combined with blood clot , pulmonary embolism , and deep vein thrombosis . A total of 55 venous thromboembolism (VTE) events were identified from 1999 through 2016 (NHL, n = 22; MLB, n = 16; NFL, n = 12; NBA, n = 5). Nineteen athletes were reported to have an upper extremity DVT, 15 had a lower extremity DVT, 15 had a PE, and 6 had DVT with PE. Six athletes sustained more than 1 VTE. The mean age at time of VTE was 29.3 years (range, 19-42 years). Mean (±SD) time lost from play was 6.7 ± 4.9 months (range, 3 days to career end). Seven athletes did not return to play. Players with upper extremity DVT had a faster return to play (mean ± SD, 4.3 ± 2.7 months) than those with lower extremity DVT (5.9 ± 3.8 months), PE (10.8 ± 6.8 months), or DVT with PE (8.2 ± 2.6 months) ( F = 5.69, P = .002). No significant difference was found regarding time of return to play between sports. VTE in professional athletes led to an average of 6.7 months lost from play. The majority of athletes were able to return to play after a period of anticoagulation or surgery. Those with an upper extremity DVT returned to play

  2. Football: a catalyst for insecurity? Analysis of this social phenomenon and its incidence in security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Briceño Rodriguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the time of its origins, football has been directly linked with the theme of security from different angles, inherently, reciprocal and even complementary. Nevertheless, due to its popularity, and its capacity to appeal to large audiences, its role has been misinterpreted in today´s societies. One can ask whether football plays as a catalyst to the increase of insecurity and violence. Having evidenced the vulnerabilities and sensibilities that surround this particular nexus, the following essay aims to analyze its similarities and externalities. For this, it is necessary to study the main prevarications of security and later on, compare it with the personal insights of professional football players that belong to the top European leagues (more specifically the Spanish, German, Italian and Portugal leagues. These operate as an open market for the export of national footballers, which brings a variety of benefits for both the athlete and our country as it enables Colombia to have a more relevant position in this sport´s agenda as a Soft Power. Also, it is important to take in consideration the time and money invested by footballers to contribute for the betterment of their communities.

  3. Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms, Suzie Aparicio; Welch Bacon, Cailee E; Parsons, John T; Bay, R Curtis; Cohen, Randy P; DeZeeuw, Terry; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich

    2015-12-01

    The "Appropriate Medical Coverage for Intercollegiate Athletics" (AMCIA) document was created to support assessment and calculation of athletic training personnel requirements. However, little is known regarding disparities between current and recommended staffing practices. To identify the staffing and employment characteristics of athletic health care services at Football Bowl Subdivision-level institutions. Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. Head athletic trainers and athletic training staff members who were knowledgeable about budget and staff. The survey, Assessment of Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions, was used to evaluate personal, university, and staff demographics; staffing and employment topics; and AMCIA variables and use. The survey was accessed and partially completed by 104 individuals (response rate = 84.6%). A total of 79 athletic trainers (response rate = 76%) completed the entire survey. One-third of the respondents (34.2%, n = 26) met the recommended number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) for football, two-thirds of the respondents (65.7%, n = 50) failed to meet the recommendation, and 26.2% (n = 27) were missing data needed for FTE calculation. Among those who did not meet the recommended FTEs (n = 50), 38.0% (n = 19) were within 1 FTE of being compliant, 26.0% (n = 13) were within 2 FTEs, and 24.0% (n = 12) were within 3 FTEs. About one-third of respondents (35.9%, n = 37) reported not using the AMCIA, citing lack of funding (29.7%, n = 11), lack of administrative support (21.6%, n = 8), and other reasons (37.8%, n = 14). The majority of institutions that used the AMCIA were able to provide justification for staffing. For most of the institutions that failed to meet their recommendation, adding 1-3 FTE athletic trainers for football would change their compliance status. A uniform definition of the term FTE within collegiate athletics is needed to allow for structured

  4. Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    MS, Suzie Aparicio; Welch Bacon, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Bay, R. Curtis; Cohen, Randy P.; DeZeeuw, Terry; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2015-01-01

    Context The “Appropriate Medical Coverage for Intercollegiate Athletics” (AMCIA) document was created to support assessment and calculation of athletic training personnel requirements. However, little is known regarding disparities between current and recommended staffing practices. Objective To identify the staffing and employment characteristics of athletic health care services at Football Bowl Subdivision-level institutions. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants Head athletic trainers and athletic training staff members who were knowledgeable about budget and staff. Main Outcome Measure(s) The survey, Assessment of Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions, was used to evaluate personal, university, and staff demographics; staffing and employment topics; and AMCIA variables and use. Results The survey was accessed and partially completed by 104 individuals (response rate = 84.6%). A total of 79 athletic trainers (response rate = 76%) completed the entire survey. One-third of the respondents (34.2%, n = 26) met the recommended number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) for football, two-thirds of the respondents (65.7%, n = 50) failed to meet the recommendation, and 26.2% (n = 27) were missing data needed for FTE calculation. Among those who did not meet the recommended FTEs (n = 50), 38.0% (n = 19) were within 1 FTE of being compliant, 26.0% (n = 13) were within 2 FTEs, and 24.0% (n = 12) were within 3 FTEs. About one-third of respondents (35.9%, n = 37) reported not using the AMCIA, citing lack of funding (29.7%, n = 11), lack of administrative support (21.6%, n = 8), and other reasons (37.8%, n = 14). Conclusions The majority of institutions that used the AMCIA were able to provide justification for staffing. For most of the institutions that failed to meet their recommendation, adding 1–3 FTE athletic trainers for football would change their

  5. [Football, television and emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, O; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J

    2000-04-15

    To know the influence of televised football on the use of emergency department (ED). We assessed the number, demographic characteristics and acuity of patients attended during the broadcast of football matches played by FC Barcelona during Champions' League (n = 12), and they were compared with days without televised football (n = 12). Televised football was associated with a decrease in visits to ED (-18%; p = 0.002). Such a decrease was observed for all ED units, but only for traumatology unit reached statistical significance (-28%; p = 0.006). Decay of ED visits were mainly due to a decrease of low-acuity consults (-30%; p = 0.04). There is a significant decrease on ED use associated with televised football.

  6. Childhood football play and practice in relation to self-regulation and national team selection; a study of Norwegian elite youth players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikstad, Martin K; Høigaard, Rune; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Haugen, Tommy

    2018-03-09

    Childhood sport participation is argued to be important to understand differences in self-regulation and performance level in adolescence. This study sought to investigate if football-specific activities in childhood (6-12 years of age) is related to self-regulatory skills and national under 14- and 15-team selection in Norwegian elite youth football. Data of practice histories and self-regulatory skills of 515 youth football players selected at Norwegian regional level were collected and further analysed using multilevel analyses. The results revealed that high self-regulated players were more likely to be selected for national initiatives, and increased their involvement in peer-led football practice and adult-led football practice during childhood, compared to players with lower levels of self-regulation. While national level players reported higher levels of peer-led football play in childhood, the interaction effect suggest that the regional level players increased their involvement in peer-led play during childhood compared to national level players. In conclusion, the findings indicate that childhood sport participation may contribute to later differences in self-regulation, and highlights the importance of childhood engagement in football-specific play and practice in the development of Norwegian youth football players.

  7. Promoting heart health: an HBCU collaboration with the Living Heart Foundation and the National Football League Retired Players Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peggy; Duren-Winfield, Vanessa; Onsomu, Elijah O; Hoover, Eddie L; Cammock, Cheryl E; Roberts, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the United States and African Americans are disproportionately affected. Cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, family history of heart disease, and physical inactivity are often higher in African American young adults. The aim of the current study was to assess cardiovascular disease risk factors at a historically black college and university (HBCU) in North Carolina. A collaborative partnership was established that included Living Heart Foundation, the NFL Retired Players Association and a HBCU. Ninety-one students (77 females and 14 males) aged 18 to 55 years (mean, 24 y, SD = 9 y) were recruited via dissemination of flyers, brochures, mass e-mailing, and announcements. Demographic and medical history data were collected. Stata version 10.1 was used for all analyses. Fifty-three percent of the participants reported having experienced a chronic health condition, 32% were overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25-29.9 kg/m2) and 31% obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). Five percent of females and 23% of males had high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 mg/dL or less, indicative of a risk for developing heart disease. There is an urgent need to intervene among African American college students and address behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Such interventions may have a major impact on their overall and future health outcomes. Strategies to be employed need to focus on the integration of culturally appropriate healthy lifestyle programs into the curriculum and university health centers. Consultations with stakeholders for ideas and resources should be encouraged.

  8. Developmental contexts and sporting success: birth date and birthplace effects in national hockey league draftees 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Logan, A Jane

    2007-08-01

    To examine relative age and birth place effects in hockey players drafted to play in the National Hockey League (NHL) between 2000 and 2005 and determine whether these factors influenced when players were chosen in the draft. 1013 North American draftees were evaluated from the official NHL website, which provided birthplace, date of birth and selection order in the draft. Population size was collected from Canadian and American census information. Athletes were divided into four quartiles on the basis of selection date to define age cohorts in hockey. Data between the Canadian and American players were also compared to see if the optimal city sizes differed between the two nations. Relative age and birthplace effects were found, although the optimal city size found was dissimilar to that found in previous studies. Further, there were inconsistencies between the Canadian and American data. Contextual factors such as relative age and size of birthplace have a significant effect on likelihood of being selected in the NHL draft.

  9. The League of Nations' rescue of Armenian genocide survivors and the making of modern humanitarianism, 1920-1927.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Keith David

    2010-01-01

    The essay centers of the efforts by the League of Nations to rescue women and children survivors of the 1915 Armenian Genocide. This rescue -- a seemingly unambiguous good -- was at once a constitutive act in drawing the boundaries of the international community, a key moment in the definition of humanitarianism, and a site of resistance to the colonial presence in the post-Ottoman Eastern Mediterranean. Drawing from a wide range of source materials in a number of languages, including Turkish, Armenian, and Arabic, the essay brings the intellectual and social context of humanitarianism in initiating societies together with the lived experience of humanitarianism in the places where the act took form. In so doing, it draws our attention to the proper place of the Eastern mediterranean, and its women and children, in the global history of humanitarianism. The prevailing narrative of the history of human rights places much of its emphasis on the post-World War II era, the international reaction to the Holocaust, and the founding of the United Nations. yet contemporary human rights thinking also took place within practices of humanitarianism in the interwar period, and is necessarily inseparable from the histories of refugees, colonialism, and the non-West.

  10. Cardiac events in football and strategies for first-responder treatment on the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Christian; Drezner, Jonathan; Kramer, Efraim; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-12-01

    The incidence and outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and global strategies for prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in football are not known. The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of cardiac events in football and to investigate the preventive measures taken among the Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) member associations internationally. A questionnaire was sent to the member associations of FIFA. The first section addressed the previous events of SCA, SCD or unexplained sports-related sudden death within the last 10 years. Further questions focused on football player medical screening strategies and SCA resuscitation response protocols on the field. 126 of 170 questionnaires were returned (response rate 74.1%), and 103 questionnaires (60.6%) were completed sufficiently to include in further analysis. Overall, 107 cases of SCA/SCD and 5 unexplained football-associated sudden deaths were reported. These events occurred in 52 of 103 responding associations (50.5%). 23 of 112 (20.5%) footballers survived. 12 of 22 (54.5%) players treated with an available automated external defibrillators (AED) on the pitch survived. A national registry to monitor cardiac events was established in only 18.4% of the associations. Most associations (85.4%) provide regular cardiac screening for their national teams while 75% screen teams of the national leagues. An AED is available at all official matches in 68% of associations. National registries to accurately measure SCA/SCD in football are rare and greatly needed. Deficiencies in emergency preparations, undersupply of AEDs on the field during matches, and variability in resuscitation response protocols and training of team-staff members should be addressed to effectively prevent SCD in football.

  11. Claims to protection: the rise and fall of feminist abolitionism in the League of Nations' Committee on the Traffic in Women and Children, 1919–1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliley, Jessica R

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the League of Nations Advisory Committee on the Trafficking of Women and Children (CTW) to assess the impact of international feminists on the interwar anti-sex trafficking movement. It argues that women who were firmly embedded in the transnational and international women's rights movement built a coalition on the CTW to ensure the prominence of the feminist abolitionist position of sex trafficking in the 1920s. This position was defined by calls for equal standards of morality between the sexes, resistance to laws that treated prostitutes as a group and infringed on their human rights, and unwavering demands for the abolition of state-regulated prostitution. Changes in the personnel and bureaucratic structure of the CTW and the rising tide of nationalism served to undermine the feminist abolitionists' position in the League in the 1930s.

  12. Home advantage in the soccer: comparison between the Brazilian championship and the main national leagues of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gomes Moreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Home advantage is a phenomenon that has been investigated in many sporting competition. Nevertheless, data from Brazilian soccer and comparisons between different leagues are rare in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to perform a survey of the advantage of playing at home in the first division of the Brazilian Championship (Série A, by means of percentage of available points won while playing at home, and to compare this with the principal national leagues of the world for the seasons from 2002/03 to 2006/07. The results showed that there was a significantly greater advantage to playing at home for teams in the Brazilian Championship (64.9 ± 2.2%; p Resumo ResumoA vantagem em casa é um fenômeno que tem sido investigado em muitos confrontos esportivos. Contudo, dados do futebol brasileiro e comparações entre ligas são limitados na literatura. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi fazer um levantamento da vantagem em casa do Campeonato Brasileiro da primeira divisão (Série A, por meio do percentual de aproveitamento dos pontos em casa, e compará-la com as principais ligas nacionais do mundo nas temporadas de 2002/03 a 2006/07. Os resultados demonstraram que o Campeonato Brasileiro obteve vantagem em casa significantemente maior (64,9 ± 2,2%; p<0.05 em comparação com as ligas da Alemanha, Argentina, Espanha, Inglaterra, Itália e Portugal. Apenas na comparação com a liga francesa não houve diferença estatística (p=0,050. Conclui-se que no Campeonato Brasileiro a vantagem em casa foi maior do que as principais ligas nacionais de futebol do mundo no período analisado. Possíveis fatores que contribuíram para isso foram discutidos.

  13. [Influence of Ankle Braces on the Prevalence of Ankle Inversion Injuries in the Swiss Volleyball National League A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, J; Kneubühler, S; Rogan, S

    2016-06-01

    Ankle inversion is a common injury among volleyball players. The injury rate during a game is 2.1 times higher than during training. As a result, the preventive use of ankle braces is frequently observed in Swiss volleyball leagues. Studies have shown that ankle braces have a preventive effect on the prevalence of ankle inversion. In Switzerland there has been no investigation into the preventive use of braces and their influence on prevalence. For this reason, the goals of this study are 1) to determine when, why and by whom ankle braces are worn and 2) to evaluate the injury rate of users and non-users of ankle braces. A modified questionnaire was sent to 18 men's and women's teams of the Swiss National League A. The questionnaire included questions about injury rates and the circumstances of ankle inversion injuries. The data were statistically analysed with Microsoft Excel 2012 and SPSS Version 20. The overall response rate was 61 %, allowing data from 181 players to be analysed. 33 % (59 of 181) of the players used an ankle brace. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ankle inversion between users (12 injured) and non-users (8 injured) (p = 0.006). Wearing an ankle brace during training or during a game made no difference in the prevention of injuries (p = 0.356). More athletes were injured during training (n = 13) than during a game (n = 7). The results of the present study indicate that volleyball players preferably wear ankle braces to prevent injury. More than one third of the players in the study wore an ankle brace, 60 % for primary prevention and 40 % for secondary prevention due to a previous injury. The study shows that significantly more users than non-users of ankle braces were injured. This is contrary to literature. Furthermore it was shown that more injuries occur during training than during a game. This finding results from the fact that ankle braces were rarely worn during training. It is

  14. A systematic video analysis of National Hockey League (NHL) concussions, part I: who, when, where and what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Michael G; Comper, Paul; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Echemendia, Ruben J

    2015-04-01

    Although there is a growing understanding of the consequences of concussions in hockey, very little is known about the precipitating factors associated with this type of injury. To describe player characteristics and situational factors associated with concussions in the National Hockey League (NHL). Case series of medically diagnosed concussions for regular season games over a 3.5-year period during the 2006-2010 seasons using an inclusive cohort of professional hockey players. Digital video records were coded and analysed using the Heads Up Checklist. Of 197 medically diagnosed concussions, 88% involved contact with an opponent. Forwards accounted for more concussions than expected compared with on-ice proportional representation (95% CI 60 to 73; p=0.04). Significantly more concussions occurred in the first period (47%) compared with the second and third periods (p=0.047), with the majority of concussions occurring in the defensive zone (45%). Approximately 47% of the concussions occurred in open ice, 53% occurred in the perimeter. Finally, 37% of the concussions involved injured players' heads contacting the boards or glass. This study describes several specific factors associated with concussions in the NHL, including period of the game, player position, body size, and specific locations on the ice and particular situations based on a player's position. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. STS-27 crew poses for inflight portrait on forward flight deck with football

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    With WILSON NFL football freefloating in front of them, STS-27 astronauts pose on Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, forward flight deck for inflight crew portrait. Crewmembers, wearing blue mission t-shirts, are (left to right) Commander Robert L. Gibson, Mission Specialist (MS) Richard M. Mullane, MS Jerry L. Ross, MS William M. Shepherd, and Pilot Guy S. Gardner. Forward flight deck overhead control panels are visible above crewmembers, commanders and pilots seats in front of them, and forward windows behind them. An auto-set 35mm camera mounted on the aft flight deck was used to take this photo. The football was later presented to the National Football League (NFL) at halftime of the Super Bowl in Miami.

  16. Quantification of Accelerometer Derived Impacts Associated With Competitive Games in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Goulet, Grant C; McLellan, Christopher P

    2017-02-01

    Wellman, AD, Coad, SC, Goulet, GC, and McLellan, CP. Quantification of accelerometer derived impacts associated with competitive games in National Collegiate Athletic Association division I college football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 330-338, 2017-The aims of the present study were to (a) examine positional impact profiles of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division I college football players using global positioning system (GPS) and integrated accelerometry (IA) technology and (b) determine if positional differences in impact profiles during competition exist within offensive and defensive teams. Thirty-three NCAA division I Football Bowl Subdivision players were monitored using GPS and IA (GPSports) during 12 regular season games throughout the 2014 season. Individual player data sets (n = 294) were divided into offensive and defensive teams, and positional subgroups. The intensity, number, and distribution of impact forces experienced by players during competition were recorded. Positional differences were found for the distribution of impacts within offensive and defensive teams. Wide receivers sustained more very light and light to moderate (5-6.5 G force) impacts than other position groups, whereas the running backs were involved in more severe (>10 G force) impacts than all offensive position groups, with the exception of the quarterbacks (p ≤ 0.05). The defensive back and linebacker groups were subject to more very light (5.0-6.0 G force) impacts, and the defensive tackle group sustained more heavy and very heavy (7.1-10 G force) impacts than other defensive positions (p ≤ 0.05). Data from the present study provide novel quantification of positional impact profiles related to the physical demands of college football games and highlight the need for position-specific monitoring and training in the preparation for the impact loads experienced during NCAA division I football competition.

  17. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  18. The role of community in the development of elite handball and football players in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, N N; Nielsen, A B; Elbe, A-M; Karbing, D S

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the place of early development in a sample of Danish male elite and youth handball and football players. The sample included 366 handball and football players from the elite Danish league in the season 2011-2012 and a comparison sample of youth players under the age of 12 from 2003, including 147,221 football and 26,290 handball players. Odds ratio analysis showed that both population size and density significantly affected the proportional number of youth players per community and the odds of athletes reaching an elite level in football and handball. The odds for youth player registrations in both handball and football increased in rural in contrast to urban communities. However, elite football players primarily came from communities of high density (>1000 pop./km(2)), whereas elite handball players primarily came from less densely populated communities (100 to <250 pop./km(2)). Furthermore, there seems to be a relation between representation of elite and talent clubs in different communities and the probability of becoming an elite player in both sports. The limited number of elite players in both sports from rural communities may be due to national talent development strategies that do not incorporate development support for clubs in rural areas. Additionally, the results of the study clearly suggest the need to include the youth player population to advance research findings in birthplace effect studies.

  19. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  20. Physical determinants of Division 1 Collegiate basketball, Women's National Basketball League and Women's National Basketball Association athletes: with reference to lower body sidedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Tania; Binetti, Molly; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J; Dolci, Filippo; Specos, Christina

    2017-03-31

    In female basketball the assumed components of success include power, agility, and the proficiency at executing movements using each limb. However, the importance of these attributes in discriminating between playing levels in female basketball have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to compare lower body power, change of direction (COD) speed, agility, and lower-body sidedness between basketball athletes participating in Division 1 Collegiate basketball (United States), Women's National Basketball League (WNBL) (Australia), and Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) (United States). Fifteen female athletes from each league (N = 45) completed a double and single leg counter-movement jump, static jump, drop jump, 5-0-5 COD Test, and an offensive and defensive Agility Test. One-way analysis of variance with post-hoc comparisons, were conducted to compare differences in physical characteristics (height, body mass, age) and performance outcomes (jump, COD, agility assessments) between playing levels. Separate dependent t-tests were performed to compare lower body sidedness (left vs. right lower-limbs) during the single-leg CMJ jumps (vertical jump height) and 5-0-5 COD test for each limb within each playing level. WNBA athletes displayed significantly greater lower body power (P = 0.01 - 0.03) compared to WNBL athletes, significantly faster COD speed (P = 0.02 - 0.03), and offensive and defensive agility performance (P = 0.02 - 0.03) compared to WNBL and Collegiate athletes. WNBL athletes also produced faster defensive agility performance compared to Collegiate athletes (P = 0.02). Further, WNBA and WNBL athletes exhibited reduced lower body sidedness compared to Collegiate athletes. These findings indicate the importance of lower body power, agility, and reduced lower body imbalances to execute more proficient on court movements, required to compete at higher playing levels.

  1. League of Our Own: Creating a Model United Nations Scrimmage Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Brian; Carter, Neal; Grove, Andrea K.

    2009-01-01

    Model United Nations (MUN) provides a great forum for students to learn about global issues and political processes, while also practicing communication and negotiation skills that will serve them well for a lifetime. Intercollegiate MUN conferences can be problematic, however, in terms of logistics, budgets, and student participation. In order to…

  2. EVALUATION PROGRAM SEVEN A SIDE FOOTBALL COACHING NATIONAL PARALIMPIC COMMITTEE (NPC) OF INDONESIA AT ASEAN PARAGAMES 2015 IN SINGAPORE

    OpenAIRE

    Asmawi, Moch.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate program seven a side football National Paralimpic Committee (NPC) of Indonesia at ASEAN Paragames 2015 in Singapore. The research is qualitative research approach to evaluation using the model Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP). Triangulation method of collecting data using questionnaires, interviews, document study and observation. Research result that: 1) Evaluation of Context: have a legal basis and strong government policy, vision mission ...

  3. Football match spectator sound exposure and effect on hearing: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a one-group pretest–post-test design of football spectators attending a premier soccer league match at a designated FIFA 2010 training stadium in Gauteng, South Africa. Individual spectator noise exposure for the duration of the football match and post-match changes in hearing thresholds were measured with ...

  4. Game Related Statistics Discriminating Between Starters and Nonstarters Players in Women’S National Basketball Association League (WNBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gòmez, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo, Alberto; Ortega, Enrique; Sampaio, Jaime; Ibàñez, Sergio-José

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that allow discriminating between starters and nonstarter players in women’s basketball when related to winning or losing games and best or worst teams. The sample comprised all 216 regular season games from the 2005 Women’s National Basketball Association League (WNBA). The game-related statistics included were 2- and 3- point field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful), free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, blocks, fouls, steals, turnovers and minutes played. Results from multivariate analysis showed that when best teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.47), successful free-throws (SC = 0.44), fouls (SC = -0.41), assists (SC = 0.37), and defensive rebounds (SC = 0.37). When the worst teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field- goals (SC = 0.37), successful free-throws (SC = 0.45), assists (SC = 0.58), and steals (SC = 0.35). The results showed that the successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and the assists were the most powerful variables discriminating between starters and nonstarters. These specific characteristics helped to point out the importance of starters’ players shooting and passing ability during competitions. Key points The players’ game-related statistical profile varied according to team status, game outcome and team quality in women’s basketball. The results of this work help to point out the different player’s performance described in women’s basketball compared with men’s basketball. The results obtained enhance the importance of starters and nonstarters contribution to team’s performance in different game contexts. Results showed the power of successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and assists discriminating between starters and nonstarters in all the analyses. PMID:24149538

  5. Non-metric multidimensional performance indicator scaling reveals seasonal and team dissimilarity within the National Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Robertson, Sam; Sinclair, Wade H; Collier, Neil French

    2018-04-01

    Analysing the dissimilarity of seasonal and team profiles within elite sport may reveal the evolutionary dynamics of game-play, while highlighting the similarity of individual team profiles. This study analysed seasonal and team dissimilarity within the National Rugby League (NRL) between the 2005 to 2016 seasons. Longitudinal. Total seasonal values for 15 performance indicators were collected for every NRL team over the analysed period (n=190 observations). Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to reveal seasonal and team dissimilarity. Compared to the 2005 to 2011 seasons, the 2012 to 2016 seasons were in a state of flux, with a relative dissimilarity in the positioning of team profiles on the ordination surface. There was an abrupt change in performance indicator characteristics following the 2012 season, with the 2014 season reflecting a large increase in the total count of 'all run metres' (d=1.21; 90% CI=0.56-1.83), 'kick return metres' (d=2.99; 90% CI=2.12-3.84) and decrease in 'missed tackles' (d=-2.43; 90% CI=-3.19 to -1.64) and 'tackle breaks' (d=-2.41; 90% CI=-3.17 to -1.62). Interpretation of team ordination plots showed that certain teams evolved in (dis)similar ways over the analysed period. It appears that NRL match-types evolved following the 2012 season and are in a current state of flux. The modification of coaching tactics and rule changes may have contributed to these observations. Coaches could use these results when designing prospective game strategies in the NRL. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A prospective study of concussions among National Hockey League players during regular season games: the NHL-NHLPA Concussion Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Rizos, John; Kang, Jian; Burke, Charles J

    2011-05-17

    In 1997, the National Hockey League (NHL) and NHL Players' Association (NHLPA) launched a concussion program to improve the understanding of this injury. We explored initial postconcussion signs, symptoms, physical examination findings and time loss (i.e., time between the injury and medical clearance by the physician to return to competitive play), experienced by male professional ice-hockey players, and assessed the utility of initial postconcussion clinical manifestations in predicting time loss among hockey players. We conducted a prospective case series of concussions over seven NHL regular seasons (1997-2004) using an inclusive cohort of players. The primary outcome was concussion and the secondary outcome was time loss. NHL team physicians documented post-concussion clinical manifestations and recorded the date when a player was medically cleared to return to play. Team physicians reported 559 concussions during regular season games. The estimated incidence was 1.8 concussions per 1000 player-hours. The most common postconcussion symptom was headache (71%). On average, time loss (in days) increased 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.62) for every subsequent (i.e., recurrent) concussion sustained during the study period. Controlling for age and position, significant predictors of time loss were postconcussion headache (p < 0.001), low energy or fatigue (p = 0.01), amnesia (p = 0.02) and abnormal neurologic examination (p = 0.01). Using a previously suggested time loss cut-point of 10 days, headache (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-3.54) and low energy or fatigue (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.85) were significant predictors of time loss of more than 10 days. Postconcussion headache, low energy or fatigue, amnesia and abnormal neurologic examination were significant predictors of time loss among professional hockey players.

  7. A systematic video analysis of National Hockey League (NHL) concussions, part II: how concussions occur in the NHL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Michael G; Comper, Paul; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Echemendia, Ruben J

    2015-04-01

    Concussions in sports are a growing cause of concern, as these injuries can have debilitating short-term effects and little is known about the potential long-term consequences. This work aims to describe how concussions occur in the National Hockey League. Case series of medically diagnosed concussions for regular season games over a 3.5-year period during the 2006-2010 seasons. Digital video records were coded and analysed using a standardised protocol. 88% (n=174/197) of concussions involved player-to-opponent contact. 16 diagnosed concussions were a result of fighting. Of the 158 concussions that involved player-to-opponent body contact, the most common mechanisms were direct contact to the head initiated by the shoulder 42% of the time (n=66/158), by the elbow 15% (n=24/158) and by gloves in 5% of cases (n=8/158). When the results of anatomical location are combined with initial contact, almost half of these events (n=74/158) were classified as direct contact to the lateral aspect of the head. The predominant mechanism of concussion was consistently characterised by player-to-opponent contact, typically directed to the head by the shoulder, elbow or gloves. Also, several important characteristics were apparent: (1) contact was often to the lateral aspect of the head; (2) the player who suffered a concussion was often not in possession of the puck and (3) no penalty was called on the play. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Searching for South America: Secret Agents, Police Officers and Pimps in the League of Nations in the 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Schettini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the cultural encounters among League of Nations’ special agents and official authorities of Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro in the first international investigation on traffic of women. Marked by cultural distances, such encounters resulted in the emergence of an idea of “South America” as a specific region in a broader moral geography. Although they sought to create the conditions for international collaborative initiatives, the League of Nations’ agents did not recognize the local meanings of anti-traffic legislation and its utility for the same police forces they reputed inefficient.

  9. Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Players of American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mez, Jesse; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Kiernan, Patrick T; Abdolmohammadi, Bobak; Alvarez, Victor E; Huber, Bertrand R; Alosco, Michael L; Solomon, Todd M; Nowinski, Christopher J; McHale, Lisa; Cormier, Kerry A; Kubilus, Caroline A; Martin, Brett M; Murphy, Lauren; Baugh, Christine M; Montenigro, Phillip H; Chaisson, Christine E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Kowall, Neil W; Weuve, Jennifer; McClean, Michael D; Cantu, Robert C; Goldstein, Lee E; Katz, Douglas I; Stern, Robert A; Stein, Thor D; McKee, Ann C

    2017-07-25

    Players of American football may be at increased risk of long-term neurological conditions, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To determine the neuropathological and clinical features of deceased football players with CTE. Case series of 202 football players whose brains were donated for research. Neuropathological evaluations and retrospective telephone clinical assessments (including head trauma history) with informants were performed blinded. Online questionnaires ascertained athletic and military history. Participation in American football at any level of play. Neuropathological diagnoses of neurodegenerative diseases, including CTE, based on defined diagnostic criteria; CTE neuropathological severity (stages I to IV or dichotomized into mild [stages I and II] and severe [stages III and IV]); informant-reported athletic history and, for players who died in 2014 or later, clinical presentation, including behavior, mood, and cognitive symptoms and dementia. Among 202 deceased former football players (median age at death, 66 years [interquartile range, 47-76 years]), CTE was neuropathologically diagnosed in 177 players (87%; median age at death, 67 years [interquartile range, 52-77 years]; mean years of football participation, 15.1 [SD, 5.2]), including 0 of 2 pre-high school, 3 of 14 high school (21%), 48 of 53 college (91%), 9 of 14 semiprofessional (64%), 7 of 8 Canadian Football League (88%), and 110 of 111 National Football League (99%) players. Neuropathological severity of CTE was distributed across the highest level of play, with all 3 former high school players having mild pathology and the majority of former college (27 [56%]), semiprofessional (5 [56%]), and professional (101 [86%]) players having severe pathology. Among 27 participants with mild CTE pathology, 26 (96%) had behavioral or mood symptoms or both, 23 (85%) had cognitive symptoms, and 9 (33%) had signs of dementia. Among 84 participants with severe CTE pathology, 75 (89

  10. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.

  11. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robert OROSZ; Ferenc MEZO

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N=425 football-players of the First Division Men’s Junior and Adolescent Football Championships of the Hungarian Football League, and their coaches (N=21). The app...

  12. Defense Planning for National Security: Navigation Aids for the Mystery Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    on the first game day of the regu- lar National Football League season, there is no reli- able and adequate substitute for the real thing. Actual...London, UK: Pimlico, 1999; Clifford J. Rogers, War Cruel and Sharp: English Strategy under Edward III, 1327-1360, Woodbridge, UK: The Boy- dell Press

  13. Injuries in male and female semi-professional football (soccer) players in Nigeria: prospective study of a National Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi Babatunde Alex; Aiyegbusi, Ayoola Ibifubara; Fapojuwo, Oluwaseun Akinleye; Badru, Oluwaseun Abdulganiyu; Babalola, Anike Rasheedat

    2017-03-21

    Research on the epidemiology of football injuries in Africa is very sparse despite its importance for injury prevention planning in a continent with limited sports medicine resources. The vast majority of studies available in literature were conducted in Europe and only a very few studies have prospectively reported the pattern of football injury in Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and pattern of injuries in a cohort of male and female semi-professional football players in Nigeria. A prospective cohort design was conducted, in which a total of 756 players with an age range of 18-32 years (356 males and 300 females) from 22 different teams (12 male and 10 female teams), were prospectively followed in a National Football Tournament. Physiotherapists recorded team exposure and injuries. Injuries were documented using the consensus protocol for data collection in studies relating to football injury surveillance. An overall incidence of 113.4 injuries/1000 h (95% CI 93.7-136.0) equivalent to 3.7 injuries/match and time-loss incidence of 15.6 injuries/1000 h were recorded for male players and 65.9 injuries/1000 h (95% CI 48.9-86.8) equivalent to 2.2 injuries/match and time-loss incidence of 7.9 injuries/1000 h were recorded for female players. Male players had a significantly higher risk of injuries [IRR = 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.45)]. Injuries mostly affected the lower extremity for both genders (n = 81, 70% and n = 31, 62% for males and females respectively). Lower leg contusion (n = 22, 19%) and knee sprain (n = 9, 18%) were the most common specific injury types for male and female players respectively. Most of the injuries were as a result of contact with another player (n = 102, 88%-males; n = 48, 96%-females). Time-loss injuries were mostly estimated as minimal (n = 11, 69%) for male players and severe (n = 4, 66%) for female players. The overall incidence of injuries among Nigerian semi-professional football

  14. Comparative Analysis of Competitive Balanceo f Basketball League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Jungić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basketball is a sport that has a very long tradition in the territory of ex-Yugoslavia. The breakdown of the country led to a de- crease in quality of basketball in the newly created countries. The unsteadiness of quality of the teams in national leagues resulted in formation of the Regional Adriatic Basketball League (ABA in 2001. The main goal of this research was to measure the competitive balance in ABA, Spanish (ACB and National Basketball Association League (NBA. The competitive balance was calculated by using Ratio of Standard Deviation index (RSD and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.The results of RSD showed that the most equable was ABA league, then came ACB league, while the most unequable was NBA league. The calculating of HHI index gave a different result. NBA is the most equable, then comes ABA league, and the last one is ACB league, which is the most unequable according to this parameter. ABA league has less quality than ACB and NBA league, but the results show that it is competitively the most balanced league. According to the RSD rates, NBA league is the most unequable. The main reason for that is a huge number of teams taking part in the league, which causes the unequable distribution of quality players. Ac- cording to HHI, NBA is the most equable. Reason for that are different mechanisms whose goal is to reach and maintain the competitive balance.

  15. Continental Mathematics League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartararo, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Continental Mathematics League, which offers a series of meets for children in grades 3 though 9. In addition, a Calculus League and a Computer Contest are offered. The league allows schools to participate by mail so that rural schools can participate. (CR)

  16. Knee Osteoarthritis Is Associated With Previous Meniscus and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery Among Elite College American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew V; Nepple, Jeffrey J; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J; Brophy, Robert H

    Football puts athletes at risk for knee injuries such meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, which are associated with the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Previous knee surgery, player position, and body mass index (BMI) may be associated with knee OA. In elite football players undergoing knee magnetic resonance imaging at the National Football League's Invitational Combine, the prevalence of knee OA is associated with previous knee surgery and BMI. Retrospective cohort. Level 4. A retrospective review was performed of all participants of the National Football League Combine from 2005 to 2009 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the knee because of prior knee injury, surgery, or knee-related symptoms or concerning examination findings. Imaging studies were reviewed for evidence of OA. History of previous knee surgery-including ACL reconstruction, meniscal procedures, and articular cartilage surgery-and position were recorded for each athlete. BMI was calculated based on height and weight. There was a higher prevalence of OA in knees with a history of previous knee surgery (23% vs 4.0%, P 30 kg/m 2 was also associated with a higher risk of OA ( P = 0.007) but player position was not associated with knee OA. Previous knee surgery, particularly ACL reconstruction and partial meniscectomy, and elevated BMI are associated with knee OA in elite football players. Future research should investigate ways to minimize the risk of OA after knee surgery in these athletes. Treatment of knee injuries in football athletes should consider chondroprotection, including meniscal preservation and cartilage repair, when possible.

  17. Locomotor activity of professional football referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Manilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the structure of the motor activity of foreign (European football referees qualifications and Ukrainian arbitrators (Premier League, the first, second league. The objectives of the study was to determine the amount and direction of the motor activity of soccer referees. Also perform a comparative analysis of the motor activity of football referees of different qualifications in Europe and Ukraine. Material : The study involved 38 referees - soccer referees first, second, of the Premier League with the different regions of Ukraine, as well as foreign arbitrators FIFA. Results : It was found that in the period of the motor activity of the arbitrator was walking - 13.0% of the total distance when moving, running at a moderate pace - 67.4%, accelerating - 16.7%, jumps - 2.9%. Average per match referee overcomes distance 8970.2 m: foreign arbitrators - 12,030.0 m., Arbitrators Premier League - 9292.5 m., 1 league - 7530.0 m., 2 leagues - 7028.3 m. Ukrainian Premier League referees are inferior to move moderate jogging foreign arbitrators FIFA respectively - 6,425.0 m (69.1% and 9615.3 m (79.9%. Conclusions : The results of the research showed that the magnitude of motor activity during football matches in professional arbitrators may be different. It depends on their physical fitness Championship (competition, the league, the level of the teams playing, the nature of the intensity of the match. The arbitrator must remain near the gaming moments to control them and prevent possible confrontation.

  18. Spinal-cord injuries in Australian footballers, 1960-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R

    1987-08-03

    A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League.

  19. The Football

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL ! ARTICLE. The Football. 1. From Euclid to Soccer it is ... ARRao. A football is a 3-dimensional convex polyhedron with each face a regular pentagon or a regular hexagon and with at least one hexagonal face. This article is in two parts. In this first part, we will prove that a football exists and is unique and in the.

  20. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L. [HDR Engineering Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  1. Caracterização do processo de análise do jogo em clubes da 1ª liga portuguesa profissional de futebol na época 2005/2006 Characterization of match analysis process in Portuguese first football league teams: season 2005/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Silva

    2011-09-01

    analysis process of 1st portuguese football league teams. The goals of this study were those of knowing: 1 the importance of match analysis; 2 the frequency of its accomplishment; 3 the professionals involved; 4 the instruments and systems used; and 5 the importance given to different axes of analysis. The sample was set up of sixteen coaches from the 1st Portuguese professional football 2005/06 league (89% of the universe taken for study. To each coach it was applied a questionnaire previously ratified by eight specialists. The obtained results revealed that match analysis seems to acquire its pertinence in planning strategic and tactic dimensions. Agreeing with this idea, the elected dimensions of analysis are related with strategy and tactics. The less appreciated dimensions of analysis are related with time-motion analysis. It seems to be usual to use an instrument with predefined categories. The coach is the match analysis protagonist of his own team and confers the duty of scouting opponent teams to a member of the technical staff. The analysis systems used aren't sophisticated and only a minority admits to use computerised technologies. In summary, in the mentioned league the process of match analysis is sistematized and focuses mainly on tactical and strategic aspects of the game. However, despite being used instruments with predefined categories, the analysis systems used are unsophisticated.

  2. Big Social Data Analytics in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebjerg, Nicolai H.; Hedegaard, Niklas; Kuum, Gerda

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the predictive power of bigsocial data in regards to football fans’ off-line and on-linebehaviours. We address the research question of to what extentcan big social data from Facebook predict the numberof spectators and TV ratings in the case of Danish NationalFootball...... data, Football fans, Spectators, TV rating...

  3. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players' perceptions of women in the athletic training room using a role congruity framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M; Henderson, Angela C; Peel, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non-sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Male football players within the 2 university programs. We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean = 3.61 +/- 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean = 2.82 +/- 1.27; P female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean = 3.71 +/- 1.07 versus mean = 3.39 +/- 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Both quantitative and qualitative evidence were provided for the support of role congruity theory.

  4. The Financial Performance of the Greek Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Dimitropoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial performance of the football clubs participating within the first division of the Greek football league for a period of 14 years (1993-2006 and to propose specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs. We perform financial analysis of key accounting ratios extracted from the football club’s annual financial statements in order to explain the particular causes of the recent financial crisis which characterizes the Greek professional football league. The analysis of the clubs’ annual financial statements revealed that the Greek football clubs are highly leveraged, have intense liquidity and profitability problems and face an increased danger of financial distress, despite the increased amounts that football clubs invested during 2005. The above mentioned crisis can be attributed to aggregate financial mismanagement and political inefficiencies during the last fifteen years. The paper proposes specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs and the overall competitiveness of the Greek football league.

  5. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  6. Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for young football talents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan

    2008-01-01

      Introduction The national football and sports elite unions in Denmark urge young football talents to complete upper secondary education while they are building football careers. The football culture has a magnetic attraction on young football players. Yet, attempting a professional career...... in football involves great mental and physical strains that profoundly affect the future lives of the young talents. Aims The study aimed to examine young (aged 15-19) male football players´ subjective experience and biographic memories of life as a football talent. An emphasis was placed on daily life...... experiences, especially the difficulties of submitting to the demands of both football training and education. Methods The study was a qualitative inquiry into the young football players´ subjective experiences of balancing football and education. The study used focus group interviews with 6-8 players from 4...

  7. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-09-01

    Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455-2461, 2017-This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.

  8. Football Hooliganism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Testa, A.; Hughson, J.; Moore, K.; Spaaij, R.; Maguire, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hooliganism has been among the most popular topics in football studies for decades. To some observers, the issue is well and truly over-researched (Moorhouse, 2000) and has ‘unreasonably biased research into football, so that issues such as the administration of the game and its

  9. A systematic review of concussion in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Levi, Christopher R; Schofield, Peter W; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Kohler, Ryan M N; Stanwell, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Concussion remains one of the inherent risks of participation in rugby league. While other injuries incurred by rugby league players have been well studied, less focus and attention has been directed towards concussion. The current review examined all articles published in English from 1900 up to June 2013 pertaining to concussion in rugby league players. Publications were retrieved via six databases using the key search terms: rugby league, league, football; in combination with injury terms: athletic injuries, concussion, sports concussion, sports-related concussion, brain concussion, brain injury, brain injuries, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, TBI, craniocerebral trauma, head injury and brain damage. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were all included. 199 rugby league injury publications were identified. 39 (20%) were related in some way to concussion. Of the 39 identified articles, 6 (15%) had the main aim of evaluating concussion, while the other 33 reported on concussion incidence as part of overall injury data analyses. Rugby league concussion incidence rates vary widely from 0.0 to 40.0/1000 playing hours, depending on the definition of injury (time loss vs no time loss). The incidence rates vary across match play versus training session, seasons (winter vs summer) and playing position (forwards vs backs). The ball carrier has been found to be at greater risk for injury than tacklers. Concussion accounts for 29% of all injuries associated with illegal play, but only 9% of injuries sustained in legal play. In comparison with other collision sports, research evaluating concussion in rugby league is limited. With such limited published rugby league data, there are many aspects of concussion that require attention, and future research may be directed towards these unanswered questions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  10. Incidence and variance of foot and ankle injuries in elite college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D; Jost, Patrick W; Honkamp, Nicholas; Norwig, John; West, Robin; Bradley, James P

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a study on the risk for foot and ankle injuries in college football players on the basis of injury type and player position. In February 2006, we evaluated 320 intercollegiate football players at the National Football League Combine. All pathologic conditions and surgical procedures of the foot and ankle were recorded, and data were analyzed by player position to detect any trends. Seventy-two percent (n = 231) of the players had a history of foot and ankle injuries, with a total of 287 foot and ankle injuries (1.24 injuries/player injured). The most common injuries were lateral ankle sprain (n = 115), syndesmotic sprain (50), metatarsophalangeal dislocation/turf toe (36), and fibular fracture (25). Foot and ankle injuries were most common in kickers/punters (100% incidence), special teams (100%), running backs (83%), wide receivers (83%), and offensive linemen (80%). Lateral ankle sprains, the most common injuries, were treated surgically only 2.6% of the time. Offensive linemen were most likely to have had syndesmotic sprains (32%), and quarterbacks had the highest incidence of fibular fractures (16%). Foot and ankle injuries are common in collegiate football players, affecting 72% of players. Thirteen percent underwent surgical treatment. Trends are seen in the types of injuries for the different player positions.

  11. What are the benefits of hosting a major league sports franchise?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Rappaport; Chad R. Wilkerson

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few decades the number of U.S. metropolitan areas large enough to host a franchise from one of the four major professional sports leagues has soared. Even as major league baseball, football, basketball and hockey have expanded to include more franchises, demand by metro areas continues to exceed supply. Metro areas have thus been forced to compete with each other to retain and attract franchises. ; The resulting large public spending on new sports facilities has been quite contr...

  12. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN ENGLISH FOOTBALL: HISTORY AND PRESENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad ROŞCA

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive research is to present what kind of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities English football clubs are implementing. The paper was designed by approaching the examples of the twenty clubs playing in the 2010-2011 season of the Premier League. A key finding is that football clubs are not only interested in the sporting outcome on the field, but they are also aware of their social status. An implication of this research would be to encourage academics to...

  13. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M.; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Coleman, Michael J.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE. Future research is needed to investigate the pathomechanism underlying the development of CSP after repetitive head impacts, and its potential association with neuropathologically confirmed CTE. PMID:26414478

  14. Selected Musculoskeletal and Performance Characteristics of Members of a Women's Professional Football Team: Application of a Pre-participation Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Beth; Brosky, Joseph A; Velarde, Lynnuel; Pariser, David P; Boyce, David A

    2010-02-01

    Although it is common practice to administer pre-participation examinations (PPE) of athletes prior to training, there are no clearly established formats. Elements integral to the PPE fall within the scope of physical therapist practice, and are often categorized as a form of primary prevention for musculoskeletal disorders as defined in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. The purpose of this study is to describe the design and implementation of a PPE for a women's professional (gridiron) football team. The results and findings from this PPE provide one of the first musculoskeletal profiles and information about selected physical characteristics from members of a female professional football team. Players from the Kentucky Karma women's football team, a member of the National Women's Football League (NWFA), volunteered to participate in a PPE. Of twenty-five eligible team members, thirteen consented to participate. The PPE consisted of a health history questionnaire, a musculoskeletal screening, and a series of physical performance and agility tests. The players' average (± SD) age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage were 29.6 (± 5.6) yrs., 1.66 (± .05) m, 66.8 (± 12.6) kg, 24.1 (± 3.7), and 27.4 (± 6.6) %, respectively. Commonly reported injuries were similar to those reported in men's collegiate football. This is one of the first papers to report on a model PPE for a women's professional football team. Future research is needed to establish a standard PPE, recognize common injuries, and develop prevention strategies unique to women's professional football.

  15. Comparative analysis of indexes of physical preparedness of footballers of professional commands of different level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalenko V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with results of the research of physical preparedness of professional teams of footballers of different level. The pedagogical testing program of the physical skills level includes control exercised recommended by the scientific-methodical committee of Ukrainian Federation of Football. The article presents indices of physical preparedness of footballers of different playing roles of the top league teams of Ukrainian championship and first league of Ukrainian team championship. Differences of physical preparedness structure of goalkeepers, defenders, halfbacks and forwards are revealed.

  16. 2011 FIRST LEGO League

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Myles (left) and Agrippa Kellum from Armstrong Middle School in Starkville, watch as their LEGO robot competes during a Dec. 4 tournament. Elementary and middle school students from across Mississippi gathered in Hattiesburg to participate in the Mississippi Championship FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) LEGO League Tournament. Stennis supports FIRST LEGO League each year by providing mentors, training and tournament volunteers.

  17. Leagues Revive Debate in City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Bess

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the National Association for Urban Debate Leagues is reviving debate competitions among high school students in city schools. Starting in Atlanta in 1985 and boosted by seed money from the billionaire George Soros' Open Society Institute, urban educators and their supporters in 2002 formed the National Association for…

  18. ABOUT THE SMART SPORTS DEVELOPMENT. EVIDENCE FROM THE UK PREMIERE LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Ionut Dumitrache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.

  19. Competitive Balance in the Austrain, Czech, Hungarian and Ukranian Soccer Leagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šíma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitive Balance in the Austrain, Czech, Hungarian and Ukranian Soccer Leagues This study deals with measuring and evaluating the static competitive balance in four chosen national soccer/football leagues. These are (in alphabetical order the premier leagues in the Austrian, Czech, Hungarian, and Ukrainian soccer/football divisions. Static balance shows how teams in the league tables of each year differ from each another. It is determined by a calculation of determinant divergences in the percentages of winnings. The results of this work provide graphic illustrations of the development of the competitive balance in the aforementioned contests over the latest forty-two years. They identify the development trend of this phenomenon. Of the contests studied, it is the Czech premier league which used to show the highest static balance. However, nowadays, the Austrian and Hungarian leagues are more balanced in the short term. On the contrary, it is the Ukrainian league which is the least balanced. There is an apparent longterm decline of competition balance within all of the analyzed competitions. However, this decline varies a lot within the group. Vyrovnanost soutěže v rakouské, české, maďarské a ukrajinské fotbalové lize Studie se zabývá měřením a vyhodnocením statické vyrovnanosti soutěže čtyř vybraných národních fotbalových lig. Těmito ligami (alfabeticky řazeno jsou česká, maďarská, rakouská a ukrajinská liga. Statická vyrovnanost vypovídá o tom, jak se od sebe lišily týmy v ligových tabulkách každého ročníku. Je stanovena pomocí výpočtu směrodatných odchylek v procentech výher. Výsledky této práce ukazují za pomoci grafů vývoj statické vyrovnanosti vybraných soutěží za posledních čtyřicet dva let. Určují vývojový trend tohoto fenoménu. Z vybraných soutěží vykazuje česká liga nejvyšší statickou vyrovnanost. Přesto jsou dnes rakouská a maďarská liga kr

  20. Designing Experiences to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  1. The possession game? A comparative analysis of ball retention and team success in European and international football, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Possession is thought of as central to success in modern football, but questions remain about its impact on positive team outcomes (Bate, 1988; Hughes & Franks, 2005; Pollard & Reep, 1997; Stanhope, 2001). Recent studies (e.g. Bloomfield, Polman, & O'Donoghue, 2005; Carling, Williams, & Reilly, 2005; James, Mellallieu, & Holley, 2002; Jones, James, & Mellalieu, 2004; Lago, 2009; Lago & Martin, 2007; Lago-Peñas & Dellal, 2010; Lago-Peñas, Lago-Ballesteros, Dellal, & Gómez, 2010; Taylor, Mellalieu, & James, 2005; Tucker, Mellalieu, James, & Taylor, 2005) that have examined these questions have often been constrained by an exclusive focus on English or Spanish domestic play. Using data from five European leagues, UEFA and FIFA tournaments, the study found that while possession time and passing predicted aggregated team success in domestic league play, both variables were poor predictors at the individual match level once team quality and home advantage were accounted for. In league play, the effect of greater possession was consistently negative; in the Champions League, it had virtually no impact. In national team tournaments, possession failed to reach significance when offensive factors were accounted for. Much of the success behind the 'possession game' was thus a function of elite teams confined in geographic and competitive space. That ball hegemony was not consistently tied to success suggests that a nuanced approach to possession is needed to account for variant strategic environments (e.g. James et al., 2002) and compels match analysts to re-examine the metric's overall value.

  2. Optymalizacja treningu sportowego w piłce nożnej na przykładzie piłkarzy IV ligowego zespołu „Grom Osie” = Optimization of sports training in football for example IV football league team, "Grom Osie"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Stanisław Stankiewicz

    2017-02-01

    Analysing the population can say unequivocally that their preparation in the field of anaerobic stands on very good terms for the fourth league form conditions. The average value of time obtained in the course of 20 m was 3,181 sec. Attempting to maximum power and measuring the decrease in power, led by the test "Rast" was released the result of the average maximum power players "Thunder" of the order of 13.4 W / kg and t is the result of better than encountered in the literature.

  3. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girl....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  4. League Bilong Laif: Rugby, Education and Sport-for-Development Partnerships in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2016-01-01

    League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…

  5. The effects of perceived managerial support on organizational commitment: An example of professional football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan ADİLOĞULLARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the support from managers that the professional footballers perceive in their commitment to their teams. Material and Methods: In this study, 641 professional football players were randomly participated from the professional football leagues organized by Turkish Football Federation in the season of 2015-2016. Data were collected by administrating the “Perceived Managerial Support Questionnaire” developed by Giray and Sahin (2012 and the “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire” which developed by Meyer and Allen (1997 and adapted to Turkish language by Wasti (2000 that has three subscales and 18 items. The data obtained in the study were evaluated by the Mann Withney U test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and the regression analyses as well as the percent-frequency analyses via SPSS programme. Results: Results revealed that there was a significant relationship between the level of organizational commitment and managerial support of professional football players that they perceive from their managers. In relation to perceived managerial support of football players, there was a significant difference between the groups according to league category and educational status of football players who participated in the present study. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the level of organizational commitment among the groups according to football players’ age, level of league, educational status and duration of professional football career. Conclusion: According to results of this study that the professional football players’ commitment of their teams is predicted by the perceived managerial support from their managers is considered as an important conclusion. In this premise, results of the present study shed light on our understanding of the organizational management in football to be aware of football player’s expectations from their managers and provide such awareness in

  6. Identity fusion predicts endorsement of pro-group behaviours targeting nationality, religion, or football in Brazilian samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Tiago; Newson, Martha; Natividade, Jean Carlos; Vázquez, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel

    2018-04-01

    A visceral feeling of oneness with a group - identity fusion - has proven to be a stronger predictor of pro-group behaviours than other measures of group bonding, such as group identification. However, the relationship between identity fusion, other group alignment measures and their different roles in predicting pro-group behaviour is still controversial. Here, we test whether identity fusion is related to, but different from, unidimensional and multidimensional measures of group identification. We also show that identity fusion explains further variance of the endorsement of pro-group behaviour than these alternative measures and examine the structural and discriminant properties of identity fusion and group identification measures in three different contexts: nationality, religion, and football fandom. Finally, we extend the fusion literature to a new culture: Brazil. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research explicitly addressing a comparison between these two forms of group alignment, identity fusion and identification with a group, and their role in predicting pro-group behaviours. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Lack of evidence for significant hepatitis B transmission in Australian Rules footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, D J; Lindschau, P B; Burrell, C J

    1995-03-20

    To determine the prevalence of markers of past hepatitis B infection among participants in Australian Rules football, to estimate the potential exposure of Australians to hepatitis B virus (HBV) in contact sport. A point prevalence survey for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and core antigen (anti-HBc), supported by a questionnaire used to determine the history of risk and exposure, in South Australian National Football League (SANFL) players supervised at club level by general practitioners and sports medicine specialists. Of 245 players from seven clubs, 49 were excluded from the study because they had been previously vaccinated. Of 196 eligible participants, 117 submitted blood samples and, of these, 85 returned questionnaires. One player was positive for anti-HBc (a prevalence rate of 0.85%). This individual and three anti-HBc-negative players were positive for anti-HBs in the absence of a history of vaccination. We could not ascertain whether these additional three players had been previously infected, or vaccinated without this fact having been recorded on the questionnaires. No single behavioural factor correlated with positive anti-HBs results. The prevalence of markers of past hepatitis B infection in SANFL football players was no different to that in blood donors of the same age group from the same city. There was no evidence for any additional HBV transmission due to participation in football over that in the blood donor population. Vaccination of footballers and people engaged in similar sports is of benefit in conferring protection on the individual, but would be unlikely to make a significant public health impact on community rates of HBV infection.

  8. Prevalence and variance of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D; Flanigan, David C; Norwig, John; Jost, Patrick; Bradley, James

    2005-08-01

    Shoulder injuries are the fourth most common musculoskeletal injury encountered in American football players. There is little information in the literature on the role of playing position in the type of shoulder injuries seen. There is a high prevalence of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate American football players, with type of injury varying by playing position. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. A total of 336 elite collegiate American football players were invited to the National Football League Combine for physical testing and medical evaluation. Current and historical data were evaluated for the purpose of this study, and all players underwent radiographic examinations, including plain radiographs and/or magnetic resonance imaging when necessary. All shoulder pathological conditions and shoulder surgical procedures were recorded. Players were categorized by position for the analysis of position-specific trends. Of the players, 50% had a history of shoulder injuries, with a total of 226 shoulder injuries (1.3 injuries per player injured); 56 players (34%) had a total of 73 surgeries. The most common injuries were acromioclavicular separation (41%), anterior instability (20%), rotator cuff injury (12%), clavicle fracture (4%), and posterior instability (4%). The most common surgeries performed were anterior instability reconstruction (48%), Mumford/Weaver-Dunn surgery (15%), posterior instability surgery (10%), and rotator cuff surgery (10%). Shoulder injuries were more common in quarterbacks and defensive backs. Surgery was more common in linebackers or linemen. A history of anterior instability was more common in defensive players, with surgery required 76% of the time. Linemen had more rotator cuff injuries and posterior instability than players in other positions. Shoulder injuries are common injuries in elite collegiate football players, with one-third undergoing surgical procedures. There are definitive trends in the types of injuries

  9. Mortality rates or sociomedical indicators? The work of the League of Nations on standardizing the effects of the Great Depression on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the first international effort by the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) to standardize the study of the effects of the economic crisis of the 1930s on health. Instead of analysing this effort with the benefit of hindsight, this article takes into account the actors' perspectives and, therefore, it relies on the documents produced by the LNHO and public health experts of the 1930s, as well as on the historical scholarship on this subject. This article shows that, despite the declining death rates in Europe and in the US during the crisis, the LNHO considered that death rates concealed a more subtle effect of the crisis on health; hence, they launched a project aimed at making the effect visible. It describes the LNHO programme and the guidelines and methods set out by the organization in 1932 to observe this subtle effect through sociomedical investigations. The results of these surveys are summarized and the article discusses how the eugenic arguments used to explain them were not accepted by the LNHO. The article also shows how some members of the LNHO considered the results of the sociomedical surveys inconclusive and questioned the usefulness of socioeconomic indicators; in so doing, they raised concerns about the intervention of the LNHO in national matters and about the risks of crossing the established limits between science and politics. This article shows that an historical analysis, which takes into account the points of view of the actors involved, illuminates the factors that led the LNHO to conclude that mortality rates were the best method for measuring the effects of the economic crisis on health and that, as they were declining, the Great Depression was not having any deleterious effect on public health.

  10. Brain damage in former association football players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortland, O.; Tysvaer, A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)

  11. Body Size Changes Among National Collegiate Athletic Association New England Division III Football Players, 1956-2014: Comparison With Age-Matched Population Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kayla R; Harmatz, Jerold S; Zhao, Yanli; Greenblatt, David J

    2016-05-01

    Collegiate football programs encourage athletes to pursue high body weights. To examine position-dependent trends over time in body size characteristics among football players in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC) from 1956 to 2014 and to compare the observed absolute and relative changes with those in age-matched male population controls. Descriptive laboratory study. Medical school affiliated with a NESCAC institution. Football team rosters from the 10-member NESCAC schools, available as public documents, were analyzed along with body size data from general population males aged 20 to 29 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Body weight, height, and calculated body mass index were evaluated using analysis of variance, linear regression, and nonlinear regression to determine the distribution features of size variables and changes associated with time (year), school, and position. Among NESCAC linemen, absolute and relative changes over time in body weight and body mass index exceeded corresponding changes in the NHANES population controls. New England Small College Athletic Conference offensive linemen body weights increased by 37.5% from 1956 to 2014 (192 to 264 lb [86.4 to 118.8 kg]), compared with a 12% increase (164 to 184 lb [73.8 to 82.8 kg]) since 1961 in the NHANES population controls. Body mass index changed in parallel with body weight and exceeded 35 kg/m(2) in more than 30% of contemporary NESCAC offensive linemen. Among skill players in the NESCAC group, time-related changes in body size characteristics generally paralleled those in the NHANES controls. High body weight and body mass indices were evident in offensive linemen, even among those in Division III football programs with no athletic scholarships. These characteristics may be associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. We need approaches to encourage risk

  12. "A Miniature League of Nations": Inquiry into the Social Origins of the International School, 1924-1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugonjic, Leonora

    2014-01-01

    Today, the International School of Geneva is known as the world's oldest and largest private international school, having opened in 1924 under the name "International School". Many schools have attempted to foster an international environment in a general sense; this school is the first to claim an "inter-national" identity…

  13. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  14. Imaging of American football injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.

  15. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G.; Unsell, Bryan J.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  16. Change in attendance of stadiums in European leagues resulting from change in the number of clubs in cities: estimation with double difference method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya A. Andreeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to assess the external effects of the emergence of a new football club in European cities. Methods statistical methods regression analysis double difference method generalization and typologization methods. Results the article examines the problems of ensuring competition in the football market in the context of club matches attendance. The scientific researches are analyzed which cover the issues of economic theories application to the problems in the sports sphere. It is concluded that a different economic approach is required in the countries with a low level of private capital in football since the main power there belongs not to the clubs but to the regional governments. The article also introduces the concept of external effects for the football market. To assess their impact on competition in football the analysis of all European football Championships since the early 1990s till today was carried out. Basis on the performed analysis the types of the cities representatives in the highest football divisions are defined supercompetitive leagues leagues with centripetal competition leagues with distributed competition and noncompetitive leagues. Basing on the assessment of clubs configuration changes in different leagues a number of hypotheses were formulated about the impact of configuration changes on the attendance of matches. The assessment is conducted by the method of double difference of the external effects of the clubs configuration changes in the cities of France Italy Hungary and Greece. Scientific novelty the concept of external effect in the economics of football is applied to the assessment of attendance the external effect of the change in the number of clubs in a city was formulated and evaluated a typology of leagues according to the degree of competitiveness was introduced based on the analysis of data for the period of twenty years. Practical significance the basic results can be used for making decisions on the

  17. The Football

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    edge iff they are centres of adjacent faces of the cube, .... 'proof' for the preceding lemma does not work always: .... wants to play football with a solid with sharp edges and ... This will be needed later in part ... no two of these arcs meeting each other except at the ... vertex in any other component by travelling along edges.

  18. Evolution of activities in international biological standardization since the early days of the Health Organisation of the League of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizaret, P

    1988-01-01

    The main activities in international biological standardization during the 18 years that followed the first international biological standardization meeting in London in 1921 were concerned with expressing the potencies of test preparations in comparison with reference materials. After the Second World War, however, it became clear that the testing of biological substances against international reference materials was only one among several measures for obtaining safe and potent products. The activities in international biological standardization were therefore widened so that, by the strict observance of specific manufacturing and control requirements, it was possible to gain further in safety and efficacy. At the end of 1987, 42 international requirements for biological substances were available and were being used as national requirements, sometimes after minor modification, by the majority of WHO's Member States. This is of utmost importance for the worldwide use of safe and potent biological products, including vaccines.

  19. Room for Improvement in Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Intake of Male Football (Soccer) Players in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Michael C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Athletes require sufficient nutrition knowledge and skills to enable appropriate selection and consumption of food and fluids to meet their health, body composition, and performance needs. This article reports the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of male football (soccer) players in Australia. Players age 18 years and older were recruited from 1 A-League club (professional) and 4 National Premier League clubs (semiprofessional). No significant difference in general nutrition knowledge (GNK; 54.1% ± 13.4%; 56.8% ± 11.7%; M ± SD), t(71) = -0.91, p = .37, or sports nutrition knowledge (SNK; 56.9% ± 15.5%; 61.3% ± 15.9%), t(71) = -1.16, p = .25) were noted between professional (n = 29) and semiprofessional (n = 44) players. In general, players lacked knowledge in regard to food sources and types of fat. Although nutrition knowledge varied widely among players (24.6-82.8% correct responses), those who had recently studied nutrition answered significantly more items correctly than those who reported no recent formal nutrition education (62.6% ± 11.9%; 54.0% ± 11.4%), t(67) = 2.88, p = .005). Analysis of 3-day estimated food diaries revealed both professionals (n = 10) and semiprofessionals (n = 31) consumed on average less carbohydrate (3.5 ± 0.8 gC/kg; 3.9 ± 1.8 gC/kg) per day than football-specific recommendations (FIFA Medical and Assessment Research Centre [F-MARC]: 5-10 gC/kg). There was a moderate, positive correlation between SNK and carbohydrate intake (n = 41, ρ = 0.32, p = .04), indicating that players who exhibited greater SNK had higher carbohydrate intakes. On the basis of these findings, male football players in Australia would benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and fat in an attempt to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices.

  20. Football versus football: effect of topic on /r/ realization in American and English sports fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jessica; Walker, Abby

    2013-12-01

    Can the topic of a conversation, when heavily associated with a particular dialect region, influence how a speaker realizes a linguistic variable? We interviewed fans of English Premier League soccer at a pub in Columbus, Ohio. Nine speakers of British English and eleven speakers of American English were interviewed about their favorite American football and English soccer teams. We present evidence that the soccer fans in this speech community produce variants more consistent with Standard American English when talking about American football than English soccer. Specifically, speakers were overall more /r/-ful (F3 values were lower in rhotic environments) when talking about their favorite American football team. Numeric trends in the data also suggest that exposure to both American and British English, being a fan of both sports, and task may mediate these effects.

  1. Association of equipment worn and concussion injury rates in National Collegiate Athletic Association football practices: 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P; Cohen, Randy

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of football-related concussions has been extensively examined. However, although football players experience more at-risk exposure time during practices than competitions, there is a dearth of literature examining the nature of the activities or equipment worn during practice. In particular, varying levels of equipment worn during practices may place players at varying levels of risk for concussion. To describe the epidemiology of NCAA men's football concussions that occurred during practices from the 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years by amount of equipment worn. Descriptive epidemiology study. Men's collegiate football data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) during the 5-year study period were analyzed. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (RRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals. During the study period, 795 concussions were reported during practices, resulting in an injury rate of 0.39 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) (95% CI, 0.36-0.42). Among NCAA divisions, Division III had the highest concussion rate (0.54/1000 AEs), followed by Division I (0.34/1000 AEs) and Division II (0.24/1000 AEs) (all P values for RRs comparing divisionsconcussions in practice occurred when players were fully padded (69.9%), followed by wearing shells (23.5%) and helmets only (1.9%). The practice concussion rate was higher in fully padded practices (0.66/1000 AEs) compared with practices when shells were worn (0.33/1000 AEs; RR=1.99 [95% CI, 1.69-2.35]; Pconcussion rate of the preseason (0.76/1000 AEs) was higher than that of the regular season (0.18/1000 AEs; RR=4.14 [95% CI, 3.55-4.83]; Pconcussion rate were scrimmages (1.55/1000 AEs). Although only 3 concussions were sustained during scrimmage practices in which players wore shells, the concussion rate (2.84/1000 AEs) was higher than all other reported rates. Practice concussion rates are highest during fully padded practices, preseason practices, and

  2. Identyfikacja różnic w poziomie zdolności szybkościowych i wytrzymałościowo szybkościowych na przykładzie zawodników drugoligowego zespołu piłki nożnej = The identification of the differences in the level of the speed abilities and the endurance-speed abilities: a case study from the second league football team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Różycki

    2015-11-01

                                                                     Abstract                 The use of technical-tactical abilities is to a great extent dependent on the condition preparation of the player. In order to obtain the information on the players abilities to perform locomotive tasks a collection of tests and trials is carried out. The aim of the work was to identify the differences in the level of speed abilities and endurance-speed abilities of the players of the second league football club basing on a test including multiple effort tasks of maximum intensity with short-term breaks of the active character (modified Rast Test. The analyzed parameters included: start speed, run speed, speed endurance 1, speed endurance 2. The analysis of the research data has proved that the group varies in the abilities to perform locomotive tasks. The highest level of differences was detected in the parameter of start speed, the lowest in speed endurance 1. The cluster analysis appeared to be a sufficient method of identification of relatively homogenous groups of players. Key words: football, condition abilities, cluster analysis. [1] e-mail: waldemarrozycki@op.pl, tel: 608 149 380

  3. Refereeing and the perspectives of a career in football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petracovschi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the profile of the referee from the Football County Association from the Timis county. With the help of the sociological investigation, a questionnaire with 32 items was applied on a group of 63 referees (57 male and 6 female. It has been noticed that the majority of referees have practiced football up to a certain level and failing to make a sportive career in football has determined the choice of a career in refereeing. In conclusion, refereeing is an option for a future career that can be practiced at the highest level (1st League of UEFA referee until the age of 45. After reaching this age, these people can become observers (for the Romanian Football Federation or UEFA.

  4. The Epidemiology of Overuse Conditions in Youth Football and High School Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kevin; Simon, Janet E; Grooms, Dustin R; Starkey, Chad; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-10-01

      High-intensity sport training at the youth level has led to increased concern for overuse conditions. Few researchers have examined overuse conditions in youth sports.   To examine the rates, risks, and distributions of overuse conditions between youth and high school football players.   Descriptive epidemiologic study.   Youth and high school football teams.   The Youth Football Safety Study (YFSS) investigated youth football athletes from age 5 to 14 years. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) focused on high school football athletes 14 to 18 years old. The YFSS data consisted of 210 team-seasons, and the NATION data consisted of 138 team-seasons.   Athletic trainers collected football injury and exposure data during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Injury rates, risks, and distributions were calculated, with injury rate ratios, risk ratios, and injury proportion ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing youth and high school football players.   The YFSS reported 1488 injuries, of which 53 (3.6%) were overuse conditions. The NATION reported 12 013 injuries, of which 339 (2.8%) were overuse conditions. The overuse condition rate did not differ between high school and youth football (3.93 versus 3.72/10 000 athlete-exposures; injury rate ratio = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.79, 1.41). However, the 1-season risk of overuse condition was higher in high school than in youth football players (2.66% versus 1.05%; risk ratio = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.84, 3.47). Compared with high school football players, youth football players had greater proportions of overuse conditions that were nontime loss (ie, football players. However, differences existed between the 2 levels of competition. Although additional research on the incidence of overuse conditions across all youth and high school sports is needed, these findings may highlight the need for programming that is specific to competition level.

  5. Football Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Timothy

    2006-05-01

    This talk discusses a series of one-minute physics lectures given to the ˜ 8 x 10^4 fans that attend the University of Nebraska home football games. The lecture topics range from gyroscopic motion to ionizing collisions between linebackers and I-backs. The problem of simultaneous edification and amusement of the fan in the stands is considered. Several physics tips for the Vols will be proffered.

  6. Impact of the 1998 Football World Cup on Suicide Rates in France: Results from the National Death Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, Gaelle; Contrand, Benjamin; Leffondre, Karen; Queinec, Raphaelle; Aouba, Albertine; Jougla, Eric; Miras, Alain; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in 1998 had a short-term impact on the number of suicides in France. Exhaustive individual daily data on suicides from 1979 to 2006 were obtained from the French epidemiological center on the medical causes of death (CepiDC-INSERM;…

  7. The incidence and nature of injuries sustained on grass and 3rd generation artificial turf: a pilot study in elite Saudi National Team footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutawa, M; Scott, M; George, K P; Drust, B

    2014-02-01

    To compare the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained by Saudi National Team footballers during match-play and training on natural grass and 3rd generation (3G) artificial turf. Injury data was collected on all Saudi National Team players competing at the Gulf Cup (Yemen December 2010: 3G) and the Asian Cup (Qatar January 2011; grass). A total of 49 players were studied (mean ± SD; Age 27 ± 4 yr; body mass 71.4 ± 6.7 kg; height 176.8 ± 6.3 cm; professional playing experience 9 ± 3 yr) of which 31 competed at the Gulf Cup, 32 at the Asian Cup (14 at both). A prospective cohort design was used to investigate the incidence, nature and severity of injuries sustained with data collected using a standardised injury questionnaire. All data were collected by the team physiotherapist with the definition of injury set at any injury that required player and clinician contact. Injury and exposure data were collected and reported for games, training and all football activity. A total of 82 injuries [incidence - 56.1 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Asian Cup (grass) and 72 injuries [incidence - 37.9 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Gulf Cup (3G). Incidence data for training, game and all football exposure injury rates were higher when playing on grass. The vast majority of injuries on both surfaces were very minor that, whilst requiring medical attention, did not result in loss of match/training exposure. Injuries that resulted in 1-3 days absence from training or game play had similar incidence rates (Grass: 7.4 vs. 3G: 7.4 injuries per 1000 h exposure). More severe injuries were less frequent but with a higher incidence when playing on grass. Lower limb injuries were the most common in both tournaments with a higher incidence on grass (Grass: 14.2 vs. 3G: 7.9 injuries per 1000 h exposure). Muscle injuries were the most frequent of all injuries with similar incidence rates on

  8. ‘Re-branding’ women’s football by means of a new sports product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Women’s football (soccer in the US) does not reach the same overall popularity levels as men’s football measured on a variety of factors, i.e. league attendances, participants, media attention, fan engagement or strength of business models as it translates into brand equity and revenue generation....... This article investigates how a new sports product, i.e. a new football (soccer ball) labelled ‘Sensational 1’, and its interaction with positive participation numbers concerning women’s football in Denmark can enhance the brand equity of women’s football in Denmark and exploit the associated commercial...... opportunities. In doing so, the article discusses how this development relates to factors like winning and success, passion and the business of sports, accountability and role models, brand articulation and marketability in the context of women’s football in Denmark....

  9. Football in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter Mindegaard

    2007-01-01

    A brief story of Danish football has been attempted, describing new patterns of time and location. The examples that have been chosen aim to show that football, as body culture, must be understood in connection with societal changes. Yet what do we learn by analysing these tendencies? Football...... of European sports culture. Such writing reduces football to a different concept: "soccer", that is, a hierarchical and competitive sport. This soccer paradigm does not recognise the diversity and pluralism of football as it exists today and as it has always existed. Football is a multiplicity...... of configurations, including not just elite and professional soccer, but also a game of the people, "grassroots football"....

  10. Manager to go? Performance dips reconsidered with evidence from Dutch football

    OpenAIRE

    Bruinshoofd, W.A.; ter Weel, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines whether the forced resignation of managers of Dutch football teams leads to an improvement in the results. We find by analysing 12 years of football in the highest Dutch league that forced resignations are preceded by declines in team performance and followed by improvements in performance. However, the improvement in performance after appointing a new manager does not exceed the seasonal average of both the old and new manager. More importantly, using a control group, it ...

  11. Body Size Changes Among National Collegiate Athletic Association New England Division III Football Players, 1956−2014: Comparison With Age-Matched Population Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kayla R.; Harmatz, Jerold S.; Zhao, Yanli; Greenblatt, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Collegiate football programs encourage athletes to pursue high body weights. Objective:  To examine position-dependent trends over time in body size characteristics among football players in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC) from 1956 to 2014 and to compare the observed absolute and relative changes with those in age-matched male population controls. Design:  Descriptive laboratory study. Setting:  Medical school affiliated with a NESCAC institution. Patients or Other Participants:  Football team rosters from the 10-member NESCAC schools, available as public documents, were analyzed along with body size data from general population males aged 20 to 29 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Main Outcome Measure(s):  Body weight, height, and calculated body mass index were evaluated using analysis of variance, linear regression, and nonlinear regression to determine the distribution features of size variables and changes associated with time (year), school, and position. Results:  Among NESCAC linemen, absolute and relative changes over time in body weight and body mass index exceeded corresponding changes in the NHANES population controls. New England Small College Athletic Conference offensive linemen body weights increased by 37.5% from 1956 to 2014 (192 to 264 lb [86.4 to 118.8 kg]), compared with a 12% increase (164 to 184 lb [73.8 to 82.8 kg]) since 1961 in the NHANES population controls. Body mass index changed in parallel with body weight and exceeded 35 kg/m2 in more than 30% of contemporary NESCAC offensive linemen. Among skill players in the NESCAC group, time-related changes in body size characteristics generally paralleled those in the NHANES controls. Conclusions:  High body weight and body mass indices were evident in offensive linemen, even among those in Division III football programs with no athletic

  12. MONITORING OF LOWER LIMB COMFORT AND INJURY IN ELITE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day. A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union. The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77 and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18. The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury

  13. Balancing performance-based expectations with a holistic perspective on coaching: a qualitative study of Swedish women's national football team coaches' practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how an exclusive sample of women's national football team coaches described how they implement careful coaching while facing social and organizational pressure to win medals. To consider coaches' negotiations, we drew on Noddings' concept of caring. Using an interpretive research paradigm, we conducted in-depth interviews with five Swedish women's national football team coaches. An abductive approach was used to simultaneously process the theoretical framework of "ethics of care" and the empirical data. The coaches unanimously adopted a holistic perspective to coaching. The coaching strategies they described included promoting players' development, well-being, and sustainable elite performance; listening to the players' voices and engaging in dialogue; and creating a positive environment and promoting fair play. These findings demonstrate that the women coaches, despite performance pressure, adopt caring coaching in the form of Noddings' pedagogical modelling, dialogue, and confirmation strategies, and provide an example of how coaches can adopt caring, holistic, and athlete-centred coaching while working at the highest level of competitive sport and achieving competitive success.

  14. Qualitative Impact Assessment 2010: An Independent Study Conducted by BDRC Continental, Ltd., February-July 2010. Premier League Reading Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) is in its eighth year. To complement a pre-post quantitative survey, an impact evidence base was required to inform consideration of continued funding into 2011 and beyond. PLRS is very highly regarded among child participants, parents, and librarians. The structure of the scheme, its basis on football, and the…

  15. Measuring of sport specific skills of football players

    OpenAIRE

    Koltai, Miklós; Wallner, Dietmar; Gusztafik, Ádám; Sáfár, Zoltán; Dancs, Henriette; Simi, Helmut; Hagenauer, Marcel; Buchgraber, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Sport Science at the University of West-Hungary, and the FH-Joanneum – together with students majoring in sport science – started a collaborative international research aimed at assessing the sport-specific skills of football players. The study closely monitored football players – from leagues at different levels – in terms of choice reaction time, short and long pass skills and agility skills with and without a ball. The most modern device available, the SmartSpeed – a photo...

  16. Using the Global Burden of Disease study to assist development of nation-specific fact sheets to promote prevention and control of hypertension and reduction in dietary salt: a resource from the World Hypertension League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Lackland, Daniel T; Lisheng, Liu; Niebylski, Mark L; Nilsson, Peter M; Zhang, Xin-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Increased blood pressure and high dietary salt are leading risks for death and disability globally. Reducing the burden of both health risks are United Nations' targets for reducing noncommunicable disease. Nongovernmental organizations and individuals can assist by ensuring widespread dissemination of the best available facts and recommended interventions for both health risks. Simple but impactful fact sheets can be useful for informing the public, healthcare professionals, and policy makers. The World Hypertension League has developed fact sheets on dietary salt and hypertension but in many circumstances the greatest impact would be obtained from national-level fact sheets. This manuscript provides instructions and a template for developing fact sheets based on the Global Burden of Disease study and national survey data. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Combinatorial aspects of construction of competition Dutch Professional Football Leagues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Competitions are defined as a set of meetings between a number of clubs at preset dates under preset rules. Such a problem can be divided in two subproblems: firstly developing a Home-Away schedule with oriented egde-colourings of complete graphs and secondly assigning the clubs to the Home-Away

  18. Shoulder instability in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Lance E; Asnis, Peter D; Griffith, Matthew H; Granito, David; Berkson, Eric M; Gill, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    Shoulder instability is a common problem in American football players entering the National Football League (NFL). Treatment options include nonoperative and surgical stabilization. This study evaluated how the method of treatment of pre-NFL shoulder instability affects the rate of recurrence and the time elapsed until recurrence in players on 1 NFL team. Retrospective cohort. Medical records from 1980 to 2008 for 1 NFL team were reviewed. There were 328 players included in the study who started their career on the team and remained on the team for at least 2 years (mean, 3.9 years; range, 2-14 years). The history of instability prior to entering the NFL and the method of treatment were collected. Data on the occurrence of instability while in the NFL were recorded to determine the rate and timing of recurrence. Thirty-one players (9.5%) had a history of instability prior to entering the NFL. Of the 297 players with no history of instability, 39 (13.1%) had a primary event at a mean of 18.4 ± 22.2 months (range, 0-102 months) after joining the team. In the group of players with prior instability treated with surgical stabilization, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence (10.5%) or the timing to the instability episode (mean, 26 months) compared with players with no history of instability. Twelve players had shoulder instability treated nonoperatively prior to the NFL. Five of these players (41.7%) had recurrent instability at a mean of 4.4 ± 7.0 months (range, 0-16 months). The patients treated nonoperatively had a significantly higher rate of recurrence (P = 0.02) and an earlier time of recurrence (P = 0.04). The rate of contralateral instability was 25.8%, occurring at a mean of 8.6 months. Recurrent shoulder instability is more common in NFL players with a history of nonoperative treatment. Surgical stabilization appears to restore the rate and timing of instability to that of players with no prior history of instability.

  19. Socials Interests in Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Fustes Ross

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The football is the most universal phenomenon, in evidence of it, the IFFA, the governing organization for this sport, has more countries than UNO and unit to Vatican, are considered among the most powerful organizations in the World and the more social members brings together. Its most negative part is the player’s professionalism, them received fabulous payments by her clubs; this clubs considered them like a goods from to transfer –buy –sell. These foot ball players signed the most lucrative contract; they forget the social spirit of this sport activity and at her community or nation.

  20. Football fever: goal distributions and non-Gaussian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, E.; Nußbaumer, A.; Janke, W.; Weigel, M.

    2009-02-01

    Analyzing football score data with statistical techniques, we investigate how the not purely random, but highly co-operative nature of the game is reflected in averaged properties such as the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams. As it turns out, especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. Instead, a good effective description of the data is provided by less basic distributions such as the negative binomial one or the probability densities of extreme value statistics. To understand this behavior from a microscopical point of view, however, no waiting time problem or extremal process need be invoked. Instead, modifying the Bernoulli random process underlying the Poissonian model to include a simple component of self-affirmation seems to describe the data surprisingly well and allows to understand the observed deviation from Gaussian statistics. The phenomenological distributions used before can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the “FIFA World Cup” series, and found the proposed models to be applicable rather universally. In particular, here we analyze the results of the German women’s premier football league and consider the two separate German men’s premier leagues in the East and West during the cold war times as well as the unified league after 1990 to see how scoring in football and the component of self-affirmation depend on cultural and political circumstances.

  1. VIth World Congress on Science and Football, Book of Abstracts, January 16-20, 2007, Antalya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-02-01

    and shooting but each of the football codes has its own unique skills. From Ronaldhinho's "elastico" (stretching an opponent one way and pass him on the other at top speed to Zidane's "roulette" (360-degree turn at high-speed to dribble past an opponent watching the game is more exciting than any other entertainment on the planet. The average number of viewers that watched the 2002 World Cup final exceeded 1.3 billion; the Superbowl final later this month and the Rugby Union World Cup in September 2007 will be watched live worldwide. Isn't there a passion involved; a passion that expands from the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro to the ivory league of the rich? Scientists cannot control all the variables involved but may measure the social, psychological and physical strength of the players. Still a trainer armed with information may go through the challenge with small and/or no losses.The profound beauty of football in any of its codes lies in the fact that football requires power, accuracy and coordination. Unlimited options are assessed, decisions are taken and action is conducted in less than seconds during the course of every game whether it is played in a street or in a stadium that holds hundred thousands. This is not only done by "the black antelopes" of Angola but also by children of age five to veteran adult players of 75 years. The scale of association football, for example, is evident in more than 200 nations; Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA has 207 members as of 2006 whereas United Nations has 191 members: Involvement of a natural instinct!Preventing injuries by training is equally important as the Brazilian samba, the German and Japanese efficiency, the Italian defence and the English fast players. Social and psychological aspects are apparent at world cups, whether soccer, rugby league or rugby union. Besides those who stock their food and beverage at home throughout the month of games, many others can easily find a seat in their

  2. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    organised as small-sided games is highly beneficial for enhancing overall fitness. In addition, studies indicate that team sports such as football may have an advantage over individual sports when it comes to personal development and the development of social capital. The aim of this paper is to explore...... a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework...... in a Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency...

  3. Community-Level Inequalities in Concussion Education of Youth Football Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Kerr, Zachary Y; Lee, Joseph G L

    2017-04-01

    USA Football has made the Heads Up Football (HUF) concussion education program available for coaches of youth football players. Existing evidence about the effectiveness of the HUF coach education program is equivocal. For HUF and other programs, there is growing concern that even effective interventions can increase inequalities if there is different uptake or impact by SES or other demographic factors. Understanding how adoption is patterned along these lines is important for understanding equity issues in youth football. This study tested the hypothesis that there will be lower adoption of HUF among coaches of youth football players in lower-SES communities. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the association between community-level characteristics and number of USA Football youth league coaches who have completed HUF. Data were collected in 2014 and analyzed in 2015-2016. Implementation of the HUF program was patterned by community-level socioeconomic characteristics. Leagues located in communities with a higher percentage of families with children aged football, it is important to consider not just the effectiveness of these interventions, but also whether they reduce or exacerbate health inequities. These results suggest that relying on voluntary adoption of coach education may result in inequitable implementation. Further study is required to identify and remedy organizational and contextual barriers to implementation of coach education in youth sport. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inter-Rater Reliability and Validity of the Australian Football League’s Kicking and Handball Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Ashley J.; Hopper, Luke S.; Joyce, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Talent identification tests used at the Australian Football League’s National Draft Combine assess the capacities of athletes to compete at a professional level. Tests created for the National Draft Combine are also commonly used for talent identification and athlete development in development pathways. The skills tests created by the Australian Football League required players to either handball (striking the ball with the hand) or kick to a series of 6 randomly generated targets. Assessors subjectively rate each skill execution giving a 0-5 score for each disposal. This study aimed to investigate the inter-rater reliability and validity of the skills tests at an adolescent sub-elite level. Male Australian footballers were recruited from sub-elite adolescent teams (n = 121, age = 15.7 ± 0.3 years, height = 1.77 ± 0.07 m, mass = 69.17 ± 8.08 kg). The coaches (n = 7) of each team were also recruited. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Inter-class correlations (ICC) and Limits of Agreement statistics. Both the kicking (ICC = 0.96, p handball tests (ICC = 0.89, p handball test. Key points The skill tests created by the AFL demonstrated acceptable levels of relative and absolute inter-rater reliability. Both the AFL’s skills tests are able to differentiate between athletes dominant and non-dominant limbs. However, only the kicking test could consistently differentiated between score outcomes over a range of Australian Football specific disposal distances. Both tests demonstrated poor concurrent validity, with no correlation found between coaches’ perceptions of technical skills and actual skill outcomes measured. PMID:26336356

  5. FIRST LEGO League Kickoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Randall Hicks (right), Jacobs Technology's Education Services manager at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center, answers questions about the playing field for FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) LEGO League's 2007 Challenge, `Power Puzzle.' More than 140 teachers, mentors, parents and students from 15 schools attended the Sept. 15 FLL season kickoff at StenniSphere, the visitor center at SSC. The teams from southern and central Mississippi and Mobile, Ala., who came to SSC heard rules for and asked questions about `Power Puzzle,' and saw robot demonstrations by Gulfport and Picayune high schools' past FIRST Robotics competitions. Using LEGO Mindstorms NXT kits, FLL teams of children ages 9-14 will spend the next three months building and programming robots to perform 'Power Puzzle's' challenge tasks, then pit them in competitions. They also will submit a research project about how energy choices impact the environment and the economy. The season will culminate at the Mississippi Championship Tournament on Dec. 8 at the Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College. FLL, considered the `little league' of the FIRST Robotics Competition, partners FIRST and the LEGO Group. Competitions aim to inspire and celebrate science and technology using real-world context and hands-on experimentation. NASA recognizes FIRST activities as an excellent hands-on method to increase student knowledge of science, engineering, technology and mathematics. Schools represented in this year's kickoff were: Madison Avenue Upper Elementary, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians' Conehatta Elementary, Hattiesburg's Lillie Burney Elementary, Pearl Upper Elementary, Long Beach Middle, Oktibehha Elementary, d'Iberville Middle, Saucier's West Wortham Middle, Picayune's Nicholson Elementary and Roseland Park Baptist Church Academy, Bay St. Louis' St. Stanislaus College and Mobile's Davidson High, as well as two home-school groups from the Jackson area.

  6. COMPARING THE COMPETITIVENESS BETWEEN BRAZILIAN AND EUROPEAN FOOTBALL (SOCCER (G-5 – INTERPRETATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Vicente di Gioia F. Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available World sport has been seen as a growing industry, generating revenues of roughly US$ 1 trillion a year. Playing a major role in this industry, football (soccer is accountable for an annual turnover of approximately US$ 250 billion – Brazil’s share being approximately 1% of that amount. The growing marketing and globalization of football has brought up new topics such as: the risks associated with competitiveness; the need for professional management; creating corporate teams; sports strategies and marketing; accounting; accountability.This paper aims at: i understanding the risks associated with the competitiveness of football leagues; ii comparing the competitive balance in the five largest European football markets (Germany, Spain, France, England and Italy in relation with Brazilian football and; iii interpreting these results in view of the literature concerning sports administration.

  7. Outrunning Asthma: Football Player Rashad Jennings Battled Childhood Asthma with Exercise and Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us Outrunning Asthma Football player Rashad Jennings battled childhood asthma with exercise and determination Photo: ABC National Football ... Dancing with the Stars” champion Rashad Jennings battled childhood asthma with grit and determination. He has partnered with ...

  8. A Case Study Exploring the Utilization of Fantasy Football and Its Effect on Teacher Morale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate if teacher morale increased, as measured on the Staff Morale Questionnaire (Smith, 1976), after the implementation of a fantasy football league on a secondary campus in southeast Texas. Teaching is an occupation with a high turnover rate (Briggs & Richardson, 1992; Ingersol, 2003; Rafferty,…

  9. Tailoring Spectator Experiences for Non-Regular Attendants to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  10. "I Found out the Hard Way": Micro-Political Workings in Professional Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew; Potrac, Paul; Jones, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the micro-political experiences of Adam (a pseudonym), a newly appointed fitness coach at a Football Association Premier League club, in his search for acceptance by senior colleagues. Data were collected through a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews, before being subject to a process of inductive analysis. Goffman's…

  11. Risk Factors for Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhiu, Bekim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Zahiti, Bedri; Shalaj, Ismet; Sllamniku, Sabit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.

  12. Tournaments, oriented graphs and football sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirzada S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Consider the result of a soccer league competition where n teams play each other exactly once. A team gets three points for each win and one point for each draw. The total score obtained by each team vi is called the f-score of vi and is denoted by fi. The sequences of all f-scores [fi]i=1n$\\left[ {{\\rm{f}}_{\\rm{i}} } \\right]_{{\\rm{i}} = 1}^{\\rm{n}} $ arranged in non-decreasing order is called the f-score sequence of the competition. We raise the following problem: Which sequences of non-negative integers in non-decreasing order is a football sequence, that is the outcome of a soccer league competition. We model such a competition by an oriented graph with teams represented by vertices in which the teams play each other once, with an arc from team u to team v if and only if u defeats v. We obtain some necessary conditions for football sequences and some characterizations under restrictions.

  13. Football officials activities during matches: a comparison of activity of referees and linesmen in European, Premiership and Championship matches

    OpenAIRE

    Di Salvo, Valter; Carmont, Michael R; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    We compared the notational activity of 68 referees and 170 referee’s assistants or linesmen officiating European matches from UEFA and the Champions League together with matches from the English Premiership and the English Championship competitions during the 2005/2006 football season using a computerised video system. We studied 328 games (14 European matches, UEFA and Champions league, 202 matches from the English Premiership and 112 from the English Championship).

  14. Forget (a while) the World Cup... support the CERN football team

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Teammates celebrate their victory and bring home the trophy. During this year's World Cup, it seems unlikely that there could exist a team that everyone would unanimously cheer for...at least, at CERN. Yet, the CERN FC team made up of various nationalities (Austrian, Belgian, English, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, Swiss,) won this year's Association Genevoise de Football Corporatif (AGFC) Championship, a championship for companies in Geneva. In 2002 the CERN Football team was re-formed and entered in the AGFC after a number of years in the wilderness. The team quickly progressed from Division D as a result of three successive promotions and competed in League A (the top flight) for the first time in 2005. CERN FC history was made two weeks ago. Having qualified for the end-of-season playoffs by finishing second in its regular season group, on Thursday 15 June the team qualified for the AGFC Division A Championship final by beating the Geneva Police 2-0 in the semi-final at Stade M...

  15. Football - Feminisation - Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    The researcher reviewed relevant primary and secondary literature relating to women’s football, female football consumption and identity dynamics in a European perspective. Between March and August 2013, 31 semi-structured interviews with Danish women aged between 24 and 60 years were conducted following......Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...

  16. Examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and communication ability levels of football arbiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahit Özdayı

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim:This study was done to determine the relations between emotional intelligence, communication ability and demographic variables for rating and amateur football arbiters in Turkey. Material and Methods: They are from Turkcell super league, Bank Asya 1st league (Ligue1, 2nd League (League 2, 3rd League (League 3 and amateur football matches arbiters in 2010-2011 football season. Study’s samples are consisting of arbiters elected randomly working actively in 2010-2011 football season. In research ‘Communication Abilities Evaluation Scale’ (reliability %89 and Bar-on EQ-i emotional intelligence scale (reliability %93 were used to get data. The collected data were analyzed by statistical pack programme and results were commented. Data frequency, percent analysis, t-test, One way anova(Post-hoc Tukey tests will used. Pearson correlation test was used in examining relation between the parameters. Results:Stress management and interpersonal relations shows difference in p<0.05 level according to arbiters’ rating conditions. Arbiters’ emotional intelligence levels, accordance to others are differentiate meaningfully according to their education variable (p<0.05. Self-awareness, interpersonal relations, accordance to conditions and environment, general mood sub-dimension level show difference meaningfully according to revenue variable (p<0.05. Arbiters’ communication ability levels were found meaningfully different according to their ratings (p<0.05. There is a meaningful positive way relation in %11 level between arbiters’ communication ability levels and emotional sub-dimension stress management level (p<0.05. Arbiters’ stress management levels grow up when their communication ability levels grow up. Conclusion: The referees shouldn’t be educated according to their categories, they should be developed a model and all of them should be educated by that model regularly.

  17. Implementation of the 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement in contact and collision sports: a joint position statement from 11 national and international sports organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricios, Jon S; Hislop, Michael David; Aubry, Mark; Bloomfield, Paul; Broderick, Carolyn; Clifton, Patrick; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Falvey, Éanna Cian; Grand, Julie; Hack, Dallas; Harcourt, Peter Rex; Hughes, David; McGuirk, Nathan; Meeuwisse, Willem; Miller, Jeffrey; Parsons, John T; Richiger, Simona; Sills, Allen; Moran, Kevin B; Shute, Jenny; Raftery, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement provides a global summary of best practice in concussion prevention, diagnosis and management, underpinned by systematic reviews and expert consensus. Due to their different settings and rules, individual sports need to adapt concussion guidelines according to their specific regulatory environment. At the same time, consistent application of the Berlin Consensus Statement’s themes across sporting codes is likely to facilitate superior and uniform diagnosis and management, improve concussion education and highlight collaborative research opportunities. This document summarises the approaches discussed by medical representatives from the governing bodies of 10 different contact and collision sports in Dublin, Ireland in July 2017. Those sports are: American football, Australian football, basketball, cricket, equestrian sports, football/soccer, ice hockey, rugby league, rugby union and skiing. This document had been endorsed by 11 sport governing bodies/national federations at the time of being published. PMID:29500252

  18. Performance-Based Outcomes Following Lisfranc Injury Among Professional American Football and Rugby Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sameer K; George, Andrew; Kadakia, Anish R; Hsu, Wellington K

    2018-04-27

    Professional National Football League (NFL) and rugby athletes have high rates of Lisfranc injuries. Although favorable return-to-play rates have been previously reported, a thorough assessment of postinjury performance is lacking. Professional NFL and rugby athletes who sustained a Lisfranc injury were identified using a well-established protocol confirmed by multiple sources of the public record. Return-to-play rate and time to return were determined for each athlete. League participation and game performance were collected 1 season prior to injury and up to 3 seasons after injury. Statistical analysis was performed, with P≤.05 being significant. A total of 47 athletes (NFL=35, rugby=12) with Lisfranc injuries were identified, having 23 ligamentous injuries and 24 fractures. Thirty-five (75%) were treated operatively. Among NFL players, 29 (83%) returned to play, taking 10.0±2.9 months to do so. Overall, NFL players started fewer games 2 and 3 seasons following surgery (P=.002 and .035, respectively) and showed a significant decline in performance 1 season after return compared with preinjury levels (21%; P=.05). Offensive players had a significantly greater decline in statistical performance compared with defensive counterparts (P=.02). Although professional NFL athletes return to play at a high rate (83%) following Lisfranc injury, their league participation and performance is significantly decreased on return. Ligamentous and bony injuries have similar prognoses; however, offensive players show greater declines in performance compared with defensive players. To best guide therapy, players, coaches, and team physicians should be aware of the impact of Lisfranc injuries on career performance and longevity. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. The Anatomy of American Football: Evidence from 7 Years of NFL Game Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pelechrinis

    Full Text Available How much does a fumble affect the probability of winning an American football game? How balanced should your offense be in order to increase the probability of winning by 10%? These are questions for which the coaching staff of National Football League teams have a clear qualitative answer. Turnovers are costly; turn the ball over several times and you will certainly lose. Nevertheless, what does "several" mean? How "certain" is certainly? In this study, we collected play-by-play data from the past 7 NFL seasons, i.e., 2009-2015, and we build a descriptive model for the probability of winning a game. Despite the fact that our model incorporates simple box score statistics, such as total offensive yards, number of turnovers etc., its overall cross-validation accuracy is 84%. Furthermore, we combine this descriptive model with a statistical bootstrap module to build FPM (short for Football Prediction Matchup for predicting future match-ups. The contribution of FPM is pertinent to its simplicity and transparency, which however does not sacrifice the system's performance. In particular, our evaluations indicate that our prediction engine performs on par with the current state-of-the-art systems (e.g., ESPN's FPI and Microsoft's Cortana. The latter are typically proprietary but based on their components described publicly they are significantly more complicated than FPM. Moreover, their proprietary nature does not allow for a head-to-head comparison in terms of the core elements of the systems but it should be evident that the features incorporated in FPM are able to capture a large percentage of the observed variance in NFL games.

  20. Hamstring muscle strains in professional football players: a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marcus C C W; Zarins, Bertram; Powell, John W; Kenyon, Charles D

    2011-04-01

    Investigations into hamstring strain injuries at the elite level exist in sports such as Australian Rules football, rugby, and soccer, but no large-scale study exists on the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Injury rates will vary between different player positions, times in the season, and across different playing situations. Descriptive epidemiology study. Between 1989 and 1998, injury data were prospectively collected by athletic trainers for every NFL team and recorded in the NFL's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected included team, date of injury, activity the player was engaged in at the time of injury, injury severity, position played, mechanism of injury, and history of previous injury. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). An athlete-exposure was defined as 1 athlete participating in either 1 practice or 1 game. Over the 10-year study period 1716 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.77 per 1000 A-E. More than half (51.3%) of hamstring strains occurred during the 7-week preseason. The preseason practice IR was significantly elevated compared with the regular-season practice IR (0.82/1000 A-E and 0.18/1000 A-E, respectively). The most commonly injured positions were the defensive secondary, accounting for 23.1% of the injuries; the wide receivers, accounting for 20.8%; and special teams, constituting 13.0% of the injuries in the study. Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in football, with the majority of injuries occurring during the short preseason. In particular, the speed position players, such as the wide receivers and defensive secondary, as well as players on the special teams units, are at elevated risk for injury. These positions and situations with a higher risk of injury provide foci for preventative interventions.

  1. Prevalence and Impact of Hip Arthroscopic Surgery on Future Participation in Elite American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Sheehan, Joe; Nho, Shane J; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Intra-articular injuries to the hip in elite athletes represent a source of significant pain and disability. Hip arthroscopic surgery has become the gold standard for the treatment of disorders involving the hip joint. To examine the incidence of and abnormalities treated with hip arthroscopic surgery as well as the impact on future participation in American football athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Athlete demographics, imaging findings, and physical examination results were gathered using the NFL Combine database. Information on prospective participation in the NFL with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and current status was gathered using publicly available databases and compared against all other athletes participating in the combine. Fourteen athletes (15 hips) had a history of arthroscopic hip surgery. Acetabular labral tears were treated in 93% (14 hips), with femoroacetabular impingement decompression performed in 33% (5 hips). Compared with athletes who had no history of hip arthroscopic surgery, those undergoing arthroscopic surgery did not possess a lower likelihood of being drafted (66% vs 71%, respectively; P = .78) or of being on an active roster (52% vs 43%, respectively; P = .44) after their first season in the NFL. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the number of regular-season games played (10.9 ± 4.8 with arthroscopic surgery vs 11.0 ± 5.1 without; P = .96) or started (7.0 ± 3.6 with arthroscopic surgery vs 7.1 ± 5.3 without; P = .98). American football athletes invited to the NFL Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery were not at risk for diminished participation when compared with all other athletes during their first season in the NFL.

  2. Monitoring the effect of football match congestion on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Pizzari, Tania

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of competitive football match congestion on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility. DESIGN: Repeated measures. SETTING: Elite male youth football. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen male elite youth football players from the national football association centre of ....... CONCLUSION: Isometric hamstring strength and pain can be considered for inclusion in-season to monitor player's post-match hamstring recovery characteristics during congested match fixtures.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of competitive football match congestion on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility. DESIGN: Repeated measures. SETTING: Elite male youth football. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen male elite youth football players from the national football association centre...... of excellence were included (age = 15.81 ±0.65 years, height = 171.95 ±6.89 cm, weight = 65.93 ±7.53 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hamstring strength and pain, ankle dorsiflexion, hip extension, knee extension and flexion range of motion. RESULTS: Hamstring strength was highest at baseline and significantly...

  3. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Wikman, Johan Michael; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second...... by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities...

  4. Euroscepticism in Italy: Evolution of Northern League Political Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Barabanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the key stages of the establishment of Italy’s Northern League as a rightwing hard eurosceptic party. Being initially a continual supporter of European integration and considering the transition to common currency as an opportunity available only to northern regions, which could secede and form an independent state, Northern League after losing the main point of its political agenda when the whole Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1998, became a eurosceptically-oriented party, which it is up to now. The authors dwell on the focal points of the party’s anti-EU program: Italy’s exit from the eurozone, the formation of Europe of macroregions, the reformation of supranational institutes and decision-making procedures. However, while confronting the Northern League policy with that of National Front in France and UKIP in the United Kingdom, the authors come to the conclusion that Euroscepticism for the former is just a sign of the shift in priorities rather than a strategy as for the latter. This can be explained by the fact that National Front and UKIP are still to fight for the place in the national mainstream, while Northern League has become its integral part long before. Nevertheless, under the new leadership of M.Salvini Northern League managed to become the fourth party on the national level according to the results of European parliament elections in 2014 and established itself as a significant power opponent to EU policy on a number of important issues, such as anti-Russian sanctions. Moreover, frequent visits of party members to Moscow and the party’s outspoken support of Russia on Crimea’s entrance into the Russian Federation provide an opportunity to consider Northern League a potential conductor of Russian interests in the European Union.

  5. Return to Play After Shoulder Instability Surgery in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Intercollegiate Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, R Judd; Daruwalla, Jimmy H; Gamradt, Seth C; McCarty, Eric C; Dragoo, Jason L; Hancock, Robert E; Guy, Jeffrey A; Cotsonis, George A; Xerogeanes, John W; Tuman, Jeffrey M; Tibone, James E; Javernick, Matthew A; Yochem, Eric M; Boden, Stephanie A; Pilato, Alexis; Miley, Jennifer H; Greis, Patrick E

    2017-08-01

    Recent attention has focused on the optimal surgical treatment for recurrent shoulder instability in young athletes. Collision athletes are at a higher risk for recurrent instability after surgery. To evaluate variables affecting return-to-play (RTP) rates in Division I intercollegiate football athletes after shoulder instability surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Invitations to participate were made to select sports medicine programs that care for athletes in Division I football conferences (Pac-12 Conference, Southeastern Conference [SEC], Atlantic Coast Conference [ACC]). After gaining institutional review board approval, 7 programs qualified and participated. Data on direction of instability, type of surgery, time to resume participation, and quality and level of play before and after surgery were collected. There were 168 of 177 procedures that were arthroscopic surgery, with a mean 3.3-year follow-up. Overall, 85.4% of players who underwent arthroscopic surgery without concomitant procedures returned to play. Moreover, 15.6% of athletes who returned to play sustained subsequent shoulder injuries, and 10.3% sustained recurrent instability, resulting in reduction/revision surgery. No differences were noted in RTP rates in athletes who underwent anterior labral repair (82.4%), posterior labral repair (92.9%), combined anterior-posterior repair (84.8%; P = .2945), or open repair (88.9%; P = .9362). Also, 93.3% of starters, 95.4% of utilized players, and 75.7% of rarely used players returned to play. The percentage of games played before the injury was 49.9% and rose to 71.5% after surgery ( P surgery. Scholarship status significantly correlated with RTP after surgery ( P = .0003). The majority of surgical interventions were isolated arthroscopic stabilization procedures, with no statistically significant difference in RTP rates when concomitant arthroscopic procedures or open stabilization procedures were performed. Athletes who returned to play often

  6. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M

    2008-01-01

    ) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  7. MRI to determine the chronological age of Ghanaian footballers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of fusion of the distal radius on magentic resonance imaging (MRI) and comparing it with the Fédération Internationale de Football. Association (FIFA) MRI grading. Methods. MRI scans of the left wrists of 86 players aspiring to play for the national U17 football team were recruited for the study during a. 'justify your inclusion ...

  8. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Rikkert, Joris; Haes, Vincent De; Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D; Theelen, Thomas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a video set-up (study 1) and a retrospective study on professional football clubs' performances dependent on their outfit colours (study 2). The studies were conducted with 18 human volunteers aged 15-18 years (study 1) and league results from 10 professional European football teams over 17 years (1995-2013) (study 2). We analysed the number of correct assessments of the positions of virtual football players with different outfit colours (study 1) and analysed the relationship between match results and outfits' colours (study 2). Study 1 showed that the position of players wearing white outfits was better assessed in 5.2% of the trials compared to players wearing green outfits (P = 0.007). Study 2 showed that Manchester City conceded less goals against in away games in highly visible kits (r = 0.62; P = 0.024), while Newcastle United conceded less goals and won more points while playing in kits associated with low visibility (r = 0.63; P = 0.007; r = 0.50; P = 0.040, respectively). We conclude that the colour of football outfits affects evaluations of football players' positions on the field, with white tricots resulting in the best location assessment. The outfit colour may indirectly influence football match results, warranting more attention to the home and away shirts by team managers and football scientists.

  9. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, Pfootball athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  10. Cooperative Marketing alliances for New Products Commercialization as an entrepreneurial strategy; an Analytical-Comparative Study of Football Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salimi, Mehdi; Zarea, Hadi; Khajeheian, Datis

    2012-01-01

    Marketing of new products as important part of the commercialization process, plays a critical role in success of developer companies. Most of new products fail, and in sequence cause the company not to reach the financial and marketing aims. The paper concentrates on cooperative marketing...... alliances as a successful approach to commercialization of new products, by study the Iranian football premier league as a context for cooperative marketing alliances among football clubs and business enterprises. Popularity of football clubs has mentioned as a business platform, for commercialization...... usage from their equities, and help the business enterprise to joy from popularity of football club to exploit the market potential. Study results that cooperative marketing may offer an entrepreneurial approach to new product commercialization, and will promote the marketing abilities of football clubs....

  11. Asymmetry after hamstring injury in English Premier League: issue resolved, or perhaps not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, P; Drust, B; Robinson, M A; Vanrenterghem, J

    2015-06-01

    Hamstring injuries constitute one of the most concerning injuries in English Premier League football, due to its high primary incidence but also its recurrence. Functional methods assessing hamstring function during high-risk performance tasks such as sprinting are vital to identify potential risk factors. The purpose of this study was to assess horizontal force deficits during maximum sprint running on a non-motorized treadmill in football players with previous history of hamstring strains as a pre-season risk-assessment in a club setting. 17 male football players from one Premier League Club were divided into 2 groups, experimental (n=6, age=24.5±2.3 years) and control (n=11, age=21.3±1.2 years), according to history of previous hamstring injury. Participants performed a protocol including a 10-s maximum sprint on a non-motorized treadmill. Force deficits during acceleration phase and steady state phases of the sprint were assessed between limbs and between groups. The main outcome measures were horizontal and vertical peak forces during the acceleration phase or steady state. There were no significant differences in peak forces between previously injured and non-injured limbs, or between groups, challenging the ideas around functional force deficits in sprint running as a diagnostic measure of hamstring re-injury risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Knee injuries in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    swimming and basketball.1 In 2001 it was reported to have injury rates of 1 000 times ... knee injury in football are the age of the player, a previous injury and the ligamentous .... football is possible, although the success rates may vary from ...

  13. The Anthropology of Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological interest in football has been on the rise since the beginning of the century, which can be attested to by the rising number of studies, papers, collective publications and scientific conferences on the topic. Seeing as anthropology is no longer the study of the culturally bizarre and exotic, it is clear that the first anthropological studies of football as a cultural phenomenon are linked to those environments in which football figures as an important cultural trait, which is the reason why this sub discipline thrived in Europe or in places where football was treated as an esoteric phenomenon and where there as a longer tradition of anthropological study of native cultures. From the first analogies between the game of football and its rules with rituals of so called primitive cultures, the anthropological study of football developed into a relatively encompassing approach which includes interest in all the actors who establish the game as a public, cultural good – players, experts, supporters, journalists, organizers etc. – as well as its various cultural manifestations, in the form of a tool for the construction of identity and cultural symbol, a leisure activity with ties to economy, to a specific apotheosis of the concepts of globalization and commodification of culture. Anthropological studies of football are present in Serbia as well, and their subject matter corresponds to the role and position held by football, as a cultural artefact, in Serbian society and other countries in the region.

  14. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...

  15. Tackling in Youth Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. South Africa: ANC Youth League President found guilty of hate speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    On 15 March 2010, the Johannesburg Equality Court found African National Congress (ANC) Youth League President Julius Malema guilty of hate speech and harassment for his comments regarding rape survivors.

  17. The economics interests In Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Fustes-Ross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The football is the most popular sport in the Word and the economics interests have been fundamentals in his increase and expansion; this idea is confirmed by the numerous competitions for even sexes with categories from National Championships to regional events, continentals, intercontinental, Olympic Games and World Cup from majors, the most important event where showed the most expensive and important merchandise: the players. All this sport mechanism is capitalized by the owners clubs, business trade associations and greats corporations in the host cities, the nations participating also those without participation but with many fans. Each and every one are customers, is a chance for increase the sales.

  18. Approaches to realization of year cycle of Iraq football players’ sport training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek Drevel Khalaf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate ways of increase of Iraq football players’ training process effectiveness, depending on calendar of events. Material: analysis of technical-tactic actions was conducted by quantitative and qualitative characteristics of football players in every match. The analysis was presented by mean indicators of matches of the first (n=15 and second (n=15 rounds of championships of Iraq premier league 2011-2014. Results: we realized conception of periodization of Iraq elite football players’ sport training. Specific conditions of periodization of Iraq sportsmen’s training have been worked out and substantiated. Scientific-methodic basis of perfection of Iraq football players’ training process management has been formed. On the base of heuristic simulation we formulated algorithm of realization of Iraq premier league football players’ year cycle training. It is recommended to use higher and more significant loads with correlation 50% and 30% from total scope of training sessions. Conclusions: On principles of rational combination we built hierarchy of macro-cycles’ structural components, combined in single, formed year cycle during long term competition season.

  19. Robust estimates of the impact of broadcasting on match attendance in football

    OpenAIRE

    B Buraimo; D Forrest; R Simmons

    2006-01-01

    The paper employs data from 2,884 matches, of which 158 were televised, in the second tier of English football (currently known as The Football League Championship). It builds a model of the determinants of attendance that is designed to yield estimates of the proportionate changes in the size of crowds resulting from games being shown on either free-to-air or subscription based channels. The model has two innovatory features. First, it controls for the market size of home and away teams very...

  20. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  1. An investigation of individual functionality football referees qualifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Berezka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the level of individual functionality referees qualifications. Objective of the study was to determine the physiological parameters characterizing the functionality of football referees qualifications. Material : mainly experiment involved 29 highly qualified referees aged 21-45 years. In the main experiment participated 29 referees and 40 assistant referees (n = 69 Ukrainian Premier League. Results: found that the means and methods that use Ukrainian football referee high qualification in the special physical training for a competition, are not effective enough. Consequence of poorly planned training process is to increase the number of wrong decisions of the referees during the match associated with poor motor activity. Conclusions: data obtained in the course of educational research confirmed our theory about the necessity of individualization process special physical training qualifications of referees, which would entail increasing the functional and motor abilities of the referees, and as a consequence of better and successful completion of the work.

  2. Concussion management in US college football: progress and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the frequency and severity of concussions from sport is an important issue in public health currently addressed by a multifaceted approach. Given the large number of participants and the comparatively high risk of injury, American football is an important sport to consider when examining concussion management practices. Focusing on American football at the collegiate level, this manuscript describes current research regarding concussion epidemiology, policy, implementation of clinical diagnosis, management and return-to-play standards and athlete concussion education. Although American collegiate sports leagues have put forth concussion-related policies in recent years, the implementation of these policies and related effects on athlete concussion education, clinical management of concussion and ultimately athlete health outcomes are not well understood. Additional research is needed. PMID:27064258

  3. Nine-year risk of depression diagnosis increases with increasing self-reported concussions in retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Harding, Herndon P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2012-10-01

    Concussions may accelerate the progression to long-term mental health outcomes such as depression in athletes. To prospectively determine the effects of recurrent concussions on the clinical diagnosis of depression in a group of retired football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Members of the National Football League Retired Players Association responded to a baseline General Health Survey (GHS) in 2001. They also completed a follow-up survey in 2010. Both surveys asked about demographic information, number of concussions sustained during their professional football career, physical/mental health, and prevalence of diagnosed medical conditions. A physical component summary (Short Form 36 Measurement Model for Functional Assessment of Health and Well-Being [SF-36 PCS]) was calculated from responses for physical health. The main exposure, the history of concussions during the professional playing career (self-report recalled in 2010), was stratified into 5 categories: 0 (referent), 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10+ concussions. The main outcome was a clinical diagnosis of depression between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Classic tabular methods computed crude risk ratios. Binomial regression with a Poisson residual and robust variance estimation to stabilize the fitting algorithm estimated adjusted risk ratios. χ(2) analyses identified associations and trends between concussion history and the 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis. Of the 1044 respondents with complete data from the baseline and follow-up GHS, 106 (10.2%) reported being clinically diagnosed as depressed between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Approximately 65% of all respondents self-reported sustaining at least 1 concussion during their professional careers. The 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis increased with an increasing number of self-reported concussions, ranging from 3.0% in the "no concussions" group to 26.8% in the "10+" group (linear trend: P football and 2001 SF-36 PCS

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of general and football-specific emergency medical service activations by high school and collegiate certified athletic trainers: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Laura C; Swartz, Erik E; Cappaert, Thomas A; Hootman, Jennifer M

    2010-11-01

    To describe frequency and characteristics of emergency medical services (EMS) activations by certified athletic trainers (ATs) and effects of pre-season planning meetings on interactions between ATs and EMS both generally and specifically during football head/neck emergencies. Retrospective cross-sectional survey. 2009 Web-based survey. Athletic trainers (n = 1884; participation rate, 28%) in high school and collegiate settings. Athletic trainer work setting, AT demographics, history of pre-season planning meetings. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the prevalence of EMS activation, planning meetings, and characteristics of AT-EMS interactions (eg, episodes of AT-perceived inappropriate care and on-field disagreements). Chi square tests tested differences (P football injury, 59.9% vs 27.5%; P football season, high school ATs perceived more episodes of inappropriate care (10.4% vs 3.9%; P emergency care providers.

  5. Retention and attrition factors for female certified athletic trainers in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ashley; Mensch, James M; Jay, Michelle; French, Karen E; Mitchell, Murray F; Fritz, Stacy L

    2010-01-01

    Organizational effectiveness and the continuity of patient care can be affected by certain levels of attrition. However, little is known about the retention and attrition of female certified athletic trainers (ATs) in certain settings. To gain insight and understanding into the factors and circumstances affecting female ATs' decisions to persist in or leave the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (NCAA D-I FBS) setting. Qualitative study. The 12 NCAA D-I FBS institutions within the Southeastern Conference. A total of 23 women who were current full-time ATs (n = 12) or former full-time ATs (n = 11) at Southeastern Conference institutions participated. Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed via a grounded theory approach. Peer review and member checking methods were performed to establish trustworthiness. The decision to persist involved 4 main factors: (1) increased autonomy, (2) increased social support, (3) enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold, and (4) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of persistence, the NCAA D-I atmosphere and positive athlete dynamics, emerged under the main factor of enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold. The decision to leave included 3 main factors: (1) life balance issues, (2) role conflict and role overload, and (3) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of leaving, supervisory/coach conflict and decreased autonomy, emerged under the main factor of role conflict and role overload. A female AT's decision to persist in or leave the NCAA D-I FBS setting can involve several factors. In order to retain capable ATs long term in the NCAA D-I setting, an individual's attributes and obligations, the setting's cultural issues, and an organization's social support paradigm should be considered.

  6. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...

  7. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  8. CAUSES OF INJURIES AT THREE LEVELS IN COMPETITIVE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinku Kumar Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with comparison of causes of injuries among three groups of competitive footballers. Accordingly three groups of footballers were targeted. International, National and State groups footballers aged between 14 to 30 years. The data was collected with the help of questionnaires prepared by Cromwell, F.J. Walsh Gromley for Elite Gaelic footballers (2000 and it was modified by the investigator and utilized. In this study total 300 hundred players were targeted ; of which 100 footballers of each group. Total 318 injuries out of 300 hundred footballers were found out over the one year period; 125 injuries out of 84 footballers were found in international group footballers. 108 injuries out of 82 footballers were found in national group and 85 injuries out of 78 footballers were found in State group. The mean (SDs age of International group to State group footballers were 21.25 (7.08, 23.33 (7.78 and 19.91 (6.29 in years respectively. Their weight were 58.35 (18.45, 58.23 (19.01, and 53.99 (17.33 kg. respectively, their height were 167.33 (55.33, 166.09 (55.10 and 164.87 (54.66 cm. respectively, their training were 4.61 (1.47, 4.31 (1.43, and 4.10 (1.33 days in a week respectively, their training durations were 2.74 (.58, 2.34 (.78, and 1.99 (.66 hours respectively, their warm-up were 28.53 (9.33, 36.05 (11.05 and 22.8 (7.8 minutes respectively, and competition was 8.67 (2.81, 8.68 (2.78, and 6.58 (2.11 in one year respectively. The results revealed that only significant difference of occurrence of injuries was found (F=3.65, P <.05 in foul play. International group footballers were found to have got more occurrences of injuries as compared to the state group footballers. The study suggest that their was no fair play at high level competition. However, no significant difference of occurrence of injuries were observed among three groups of competitive footballers with respect to causes like collision, running, contact with ball

  9. Using video analysis for concussion surveillance in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the relationship between various player and game factors and risk of concussion; and to assess the reliability of video analysis for mechanistic assessment of concussion in Australian football. Prospective cohort study. All impacts and collisions resulting in concussion were identified during the 2011 Australian Football League season. An extensive list of factors for assessment was created based upon previous analysis of concussion in Australian Football League and expert opinions. The authors independently reviewed the video clips and correlation for each factor was examined. A total of 82 concussions were reported in 194 games (rate: 8.7 concussions per 1000 match hours; 95% confidence interval: 6.9-10.5). Player demographics and game variables such as venue, timing of the game (day, night or twilight), quarter, travel status (home or interstate) or score margin did not demonstrate a significant relationship with risk of concussion; although a higher percentage of concussions occurred in the first 5min of game time of the quarter (36.6%), when compared to the last 5min (20.7%). Variables with good inter-rater agreement included position on the ground, circumstances of the injury and cause of the impact. The remainder of the variables assessed had fair-poor inter-rater agreement. Common problems included insufficient or poor quality video and interpretation issues related to the definitions used. Clear definitions and good quality video from multiple camera angles are required to improve the utility of video analysis for concussion surveillance in Australian football. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Violent Behavior and Participation in Football during Adolescence: Findings From a Sample of Sibling Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football.…

  11. Croatian fan scene: Football in television beer commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biti Ozren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper attention is given to the mutual synergy between sports, commercials and alcohol. Therefore, we approach the research topic specified in the title with regards to the cultural history of football and beer, the functioning of the commercial industry within consumer culture and the structural practices of consuming football and beer trough which, at specific places and in special occasions, masculinity is performed. This research relies primarily on discourse analysis of football-beer commercials. For the purpose of enriching the insights gained by this method, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a market expert specialized in branding and an autoethnographic approach is present. The central part of the study is based on a corpus of advertisements that were broadcast on national television programs in the last ten years and that have emerged as part of a market designed advertising campaigns for major breweries during the World and European football championships. For the most of them, the common denominator is putting football fans in the forefront, whether in stadiums, bars, town squares or at home. Also, in most cases, they exclusively present male protagonists during their leisure time, united by their passion for football and beer, as well as their desire for relaxed socialization and fun. Apart from gender, the national context is essential, since these commercials usually visually, audibly and textually refer to the national football team of Croatia.

  12. Women’s football migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature....... The question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...

  13. Being a football kid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2016-01-01

    Media and mediatization must be seen as a prerequisite for children’s play today. Children’s fan cultures cover a wide range of topics; yet, football is a field with specific explanatory power due to its structural and cultural specificities. In this chapter, football is seen as a specific play...... practice, carried out both physically and through engagements with a diverse range of traditional and new media. The chapter draws on empirical fieldwork among Danish children aged 8 to 13, describing football kids as active users of media, active play practitioners, and active performers of identity...... projects in relation to friends and family. For these children, football as a mediatized play practice is their point of departure, forming the grounds of their everyday practices....

  14. Football emergency medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be called upon to intervene medically when a football player succumbs to a severe ... including safety and security services, emergency and primary health care medical ..... of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines 2005.

  15. Travelling with football teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ultimately on the performance of the teams on the playing field and not so much ... However, travelling with a football team presents the team physician .... physician to determine the nutritional ..... diarrhoea in elite athletes: an audit of one team.

  16. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  17. Emergency response facilities including primary and secondary prevention strategies across 79 professional football clubs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Aneil; Dhutia, Harshil; Gati, Sabiha; Yeo, Tee-Joo; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Keteepe-Arachi, Tracey; Richards, Thomas; Walker, Mike; Birt, Robin; Stuckey, David; Robinson, Laurence; Tome, Maite; Beasley, Ian; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-06-14

    To assess the emergency response planning and prevention strategies for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) across a wide range of professional football clubs in England. A written survey was sent to all professional clubs in the English football league, namely the Premiership, Championship, League 1 and League 2. Outcomes included: (1) number of clubs performing cardiac screening and frequency of screening; (2) emergency planning and documentation; (3) automated external defibrillator (AED) training and availability; and (4) provision of emergency services at sporting venues. 79 clubs (86%) responded to the survey. 100% clubs participated in cardiac screening. All clubs had AEDs available on match days and during training sessions. 100% Premiership clubs provided AED training to designated staff. In contrast, 30% of lower division clubs with AEDs available did not provide formal training. Most clubs (n=66; 83%) reported the existence of an emergency action plan for SCA but formal documentation was variable. All clubs in the Premiership and League 1 provided an ambulance equipped for medical emergencies on match days compared with 75% of clubs in the Championship and 66% in League 2. The majority of football clubs in England have satisfactory prevention strategies and emergency response planning in line with European recommendations. Additional improvements such as increasing awareness of European guidelines for emergency planning, AED training and mentorship with financial support to lower division clubs are necessary to further enhance cardiovascular safety of athletes and spectators and close the gap between the highest and lower divisions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Head impacts in a junior rugby league team measured with a wireless head impact sensor: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by players in a junior rugby league over a season of matches. METHODS The authors performed a prospective cohort analysis of impact magnitude, frequency, and distribution on data collected with instrumented XPatches worn behind the ear of players in an "under-11" junior rugby league team (players under 11 years old). RESULTS A total of 1977 impacts were recorded. Over the course of the study, players sustained an average of 116 impacts (average of 13 impacts per player per match). The measured linear acceleration ranged from 10g to 123g (mean 22g, median 16g, and 95th percentile 57g). The rotational acceleration ranged from 89 rad/sec 2 to 22,928 rad/sec 2 (mean 4041 rad/sec 2 , median 2773 rad/sec 2 , and 95th percentile 11,384 rad/sec 2 ). CONCLUSIONS The level of impact severity based on the magnitude of impacts for linear and rotational accelerations recorded was similar to the impacts reported in studies of American junior and high school football, collegiate football, and youth ice hockey players, but the players in the rugby league cohort were younger, had less body mass, and played at a slower speed than the American players. Junior rugby league players are required to tackle the player to the ground and use a different tackle technique than that used in American football, likely increasing the rotational accelerations recorded at the head.

  19. Belonging to a community-based football team: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynard, Lorrae; Howie, Linsey; Collister, Laura

    2009-08-01

    This study considered the benefits derived from participation in a community-based Australian Rules Football league in Melbourne, Australia. The RecLink league deliberately tackles the social and occupational disadvantages associated with mental illness, addictions, unemployment and homelessness. An ethnographic methodology was used to study one team from the RecLink football league throughout an entire season. Fieldnotes were written following participant observation at training, games and events, and five in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed. A constant comparative approach to data analysis was adopted. Three major themes were identified: a spirit of inclusion, team-building and meaning of team involvement. The first describes how members were accepted, welcomed and given the opportunity for team involvement, with the expectation that they 'had a go', and 'tried their best'. The second illustrates how the team collectively fostered a culture of friendship, cooperation and support. The third examines the significance of being part of the team, incorporating personal contributions and gains, and meanings attributed to team involvement. These findings demonstrated how football can be used as non-clinical, community-based occupational therapy: enabling participation in a personally meaningful and culturally valued occupation. Occupational therapists are challenged to explore further how such community-based sports programs may complement existing clinical and welfare-based approaches to social disadvantage.

  20. Football, Politics and Cultural Memory: The Case of HNK Hajduk Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Perasović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Memory is not something given or fixed, it is specific process which includes various definitions and re-definitions, interpretations and re-interpretations. Cultural memory could change through time and space; production of cultural memory depends also on various social actors. Starting from such position we wish to present main discourses and types of changes in interpretations of 102 years long history of Croatian football club Hajduk from the city of Split. Rogić (2000 divided contemporary Croatian history in three most important phases – 'primitive capitalist modernization' (from 1868. To 1945., 'totalitarian socialist modernization' (from 1945. to 1990. and 'transition' (from 1990. till today. In similar manner, we should divide history of Hajduk in three key phases: from 1911. when the club was founded to the end of the WW2. Second phase is marked by the Yugoslav period, from 1945. to 1990. The third phase starts with the independent Croatian state and the foundation of Croatian football league (1992. The presidents of the club and whole management, in all three periods, belonged to the local and national political/economical elite. Political elites were most influential social actors, shaping and changing interpretations of the past, in this case it means shaping relation to symbols and history of the club itself. The direction of those changes is linked to dominant discourses of particular social periods. While emphasis on Croatian identity of the club was silenced in the Yugoslav period, in the recent period of Croatian state, the anti-fascist component of the identity of the club is mostly forgotten or denied. Our thesis is based on the qualitative analyses of official books and monographs on the history of the club, with our focus on permitted and forbidden stories.

  1. Effect of turf toe on foot contact pressures in professional American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Gamradt, Seth C; Ellis, Scott J; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F; Hillstrom, Howard

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between turf toe and plantar foot pressures has not been extensively studied. Two hypotheses were tested in a cohort of professional American football players: first, that a history of turf toe is associated with increased peak hallucal and first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) plantar pressures; second, that decreased range of motion (ROM) of the first MTP correlates with increased peak hallucal and first MTP plantar pressures. Forty-four athletes from one National Football League (NFL) team were screened for a history of turf toe during preseason training. Dorsal passive MTP ROM and dynamic plantar pressures were measured in both feet of each player. Anatomical masking was used to assess peak pressure at the first MTP and hallux. First MTP dorsiflexion was significantly lower in halluces with a history of turf toe (40.6 +/- 15.1 degrees versus 48.4 +/- 12.8 degrees, p = 0.04). Peak hallucal pressures were higher in athletes with turf toe (535 +/- 288 kPa versus 414 +/- 202 kPa, p = 0.05) even after normalizing for athlete body mass index (p = 0.0003). Peak MTP pressure was not significantly different between the two groups tested. First MTP dorsiflexion did not correlate with peak hallucal or first MTP pressures. This study showed that turf toe is associated with decreased MTP motion. In addition, increased peak hallucal pressures were found. Further study is warranted to determine whether these pressures correlate with the severity of symptoms or progression of turf toe to first MTP arthritis.

  2. 28th Africa Cup of Nations (Gabon/Equatorial Guinea - 2012 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some recommendations were made to include “football eclipse” for a period to enable Nigeria reflect and plan for her football and a restructuring of the Nigerian Professional League to make it more productive and attractive. Keywords: Charlatans; Dogged determination; Landscape; Legion; Match rusty; Minnows; Tourney.

  3. The provision of medical care in English professional football: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Dominic; Scott-Bell, Andrea; Waddington, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    To compare the current methods of appointment, qualifications and occupational experience of club doctors and physiotherapists in English professional football with (i) those outlined in a study published in 1999, and (ii) Football Association (FA) medical regulations. Qualitative. Postal questionnaire survey of (head) doctors and physiotherapists at each of the clubs in the English Premiership, Championship and Football Leagues 1 and 2. Response rates of 35.8% and 45.6% respectively were obtained. The majority of football club doctors are GPs who have sports medicine qualifications and relevant occupational experience. Time commitments vary from full time to a few hours per week. Most are appointed through personal contacts rather than job advertisements and/or interview. Almost all football clubs have a chartered physiotherapist, many of whom have a postgraduate qualification. They work full time and long hours. Most are appointed through personal contacts rather than job advertisements. They are frequently interviewed but not always by someone qualified to judge their professional expertise. Football club medical provision has become more extensive and increasingly professional over the last 10-20years, with better qualified, more career-oriented and more formally contracted staff. It is likely that clinical autonomy has subsequently increased. However recruitment procedures still need to be improved, especially in relation to advertising vacancies, interviewing candidates, and including medical personnel on interview panels. In two aspects clubs appear not to be compliant with current FA medical regulations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  5. Causal Attributions of Success and Failure and Mood States in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepaniak Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to determine the causal attributions of success and failure in a football match in a group of football players, as well as to investigate the association of the players’ attributions with their level of achievement and the relationships between their causal attributions and affective states. Material and methods. The study involved 75 football players, including 44 players from the first league and 31 players from the third league. The research was carried out using the Profile of Mood States (POMS by D.M. McNair, M. Lorr, and L.F. Droppleman and a specially designed questionnaire concerning the causal attributions of success and failure. Results. It was found that the football players who participated in the study tended to attribute success to internal causes and failure to external causes. More frequent use of external attributions most likely had an adverse impact on the mood state of the players. Conclusion. Information concerning the attributions that a given player makes can be useful for coaches, as it can help them develop the athlete’s mental abilities more effectively. Beliefs related to attributions can be modified. It is worth considering the benefits of encouraging internal attributions in the case of success and external attributions in situations of failure.

  6. Football Fitness, a new concept in football clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Laila; Bennike, Søren

    2013-01-01

    are received and adapted in the Danish sports organizations and associations. The Danish Football Association has launched a new concept called "Football Fitness" with a focus on the health dimension of football, both of physiological, psychological and social nature, rather than a focus on the competition...... opportunity to access the knowledge of how the concept “football fitness” is organized, implemented and adapted in the participating clubs. This knowledge will be of great importance in relation to welfare policy, where the project can contribute with knowledge of possible changes to the Danish voluntary...... methods for the gathering and analysis of data. Key words: Football Fitness, Health promotion, Implementation, Sports clubs, Sports Organizations....

  7. Brachial neuropraxia in Canadian Atlantic University sport football players: what is the incidence of "stingers"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Rebecca M E; McVeigh, Sonja A; Thompson, Kara

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the incidence of brachial neuropraxia (stingers) among varsity football players during the 2010 season; (2) to determine if associations exist between sustaining a stinger and previous history of stingers, years played, equipment, age, body mass index (BMI), and conditioning; and (3) to provide descriptive statistics regarding stingers and position played, symptoms, activity during injury, mechanism of tackling, and reporting of stingers. Retrospective. Canadian Atlantic University Sport football league. Two hundred forty-four players. Two written questionnaires. Number of players experiencing stingers that occurred during the 2010 season. The incidence was 26% (64 of 244). A multivariate analysis revealed that previous history of a stinger (P football and are underreported to medical staff. Education of players at increased risk is needed.

  8. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  9. The influence of age-policy changes on the relative age effect across the Australian Rules football talent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Jade A Z; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Pyne, David B; Larkin, Paul; Robertson, Sam

    2018-03-21

    To identify the influence of age-policy changes on the relative age effect (RAE) across the Australian Football League (AFL) talent pathway. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of junior AFL players attending the National Draft (National), State, and State Under 16s (U16) combines between 1999-2016. Birth-date data was obtained for players attending the AFL State U16 (n=663, age: 15.9±0.4years), State (n=803, age: 19.1±1.7years), National (n=1111, age: 18.3±0.8years) combines. Corresponding aged-matched Australian general population birth rate data was also collected. A chi-squared analysis comparing birth month distributions found all combine groups differed significantly from the general population (Under 16s: χ 2 =62.61, State: χ 2 =38.83, National: χ 2 =129.13, pborn in January (4.9%, ptalent pathways. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Professional football squads as multicultural teams: Cultural diversity, intercultural experience, and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Maderer, Daniel; Holtbrügge, Dirk; Schuster, Tassilo

    2014-01-01

    After the Bosman ruling in 1995, the cultural diversity of professional football teams in Europe has increased considerably. Recruiting players regardless of their nationality allows football clubs to make use of a global talent pool and to combine the specific strengths of individuals with different cultural backgrounds. At the same time, it confronts them with the challenge of having players who speak different languages and who have different football philosophies ingrained in them. Based ...

  11. Comprehensive Coach Education Reduces Head Impact Exposure in American Youth Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Yeargin, Susan W.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite little evidence that defines a threshold of head impact exposure or that participation in youth sports leads to long-term cognitive impairments, it is prudent to identify methods of reducing the frequency of head impacts. Purpose: To compare the mean number of head impacts between youth football players in practice and games between leagues that implemented the Heads Up Football (HUF) educational program and those that did not (NHUF). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: During the 2014 season, head impact exposure was measured using xPatch accelerometers from 70 youth football players aged 8 to 15 years from 5 leagues. Data were collected during both games and practices. The NHUF group comprised 32 players from 8 teams within 3 leagues. The HUF group comprised 38 players from 7 teams within 2 leagues. Independent-sample t tests evaluated differences in head impact exposure across groups (ie, HUF and NHUF). Results: Players (mean ± SD: age, 11.7 ± 1.4 years; height, 152.2 ± 10.5 cm; weight, 51.6 ± 9.6 kg) experienced a total of 7478 impacts over 10g, of which 4250 (56.8%) and 3228 (43.2%) occurred in practices and games, respectively. The majority of impacts occurred within the NHUF group (62.0%), followed by the HUF group (38.0%). With a 10g impact threshold, the mean number of impacts during practice per individual event was lower in the HUF group (mean ± SD, 5.6 ± 2.9) than in the NHUF group (mean ± SD, 8.9 ± 3.1; difference, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.9-3.9). This difference was attenuated when the threshold was changed to 20g but remained significant (difference, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.3). At both the 10g and 20g impact thresholds, no differences were found in games. Conclusion: Players who participated in HUF leagues accumulated fewer head impacts per practice at both the 10g and 20g thresholds. Youth football leagues should consider the HUF educational program, while exploring additional interventions, to help reduce the

  12. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Cary A.

    2014-01-01

    The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

  13. Allama Shibli and the early Muslim League: A dissenting voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Islam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The All-India Muslim League (AIML was formed in 1906, with the primary aim to improve the educational and socioeconomic status of Muslims. Allama Shibli Nu‘mani (1857-1914 put forward an argument in support of Muslims recovering from the political stupor into which they had fallen after the British suppression of the 1857 uprising. He encouraged Muslims to participate in democratic politics in India, departing from the educational focus of his mentor, Sir Saiyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898. Shibli advanced a strong critique of the Muslim League’s limited ambitions in comparison with the Indian National Congress (INC. His critique, notably in ironic and emotive poetry, significantly contributed to the national discussion pertaining to the Muslim League’s reform and restructure. Based on Shibli’s original writings, this paper analyses his critique of the Muslim League and his efforts to overhaul its structure and policies. It examines the response of the Muslim League to these critiques and studies the extent to which its structure and policies changed.

  14. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    The researcher reviewed relevant primary and secondary literature relating to women’s football, female football consumption and identity dynamics in a European perspective. Between March and August 2013, 31 semi-structured interviews with Danish women aged between 24 and 60 years were conducted following......Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...

  15. Presence of metabolic syndrome in football linemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Jackie L; Calland, Doug; Hanks, Fiona; Johnston, Bruce; Pester, Benjamin; Sweeney, Robert; Thorne, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of symptoms associated with abdominal obesity that demonstrates a high risk for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. To evaluate football linemen in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I, II, and III schools for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria as well as to document other related biomarkers. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Three university locations on the first full day of football camp in early morning. Of 76 football linemen, 70 were able to provide blood samples. Height, mass, blood pressure, upper-body skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at various stations. Two small venous samples of blood were collected and analyzed in a hospital laboratory for fasting insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated hemoglobin. The last station was a verbal family history for cardiovascular disease and diabetes; also, athletes filled out a nutrition attitudes questionnaire. Of the 70 athletes, 34 were identified as having metabolic syndrome according to measures of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The mean total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for the group was 4.95, with 32 participants displaying values higher than 5.0. Twelve volunteers had total cholesterol levels greater than 200 mmol/L, 15 had high levels of C-reactive protein, and 9 had slightly elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Although athletes might be assumed to be protected from risks of cardiovascular disease, we found a high incidence of metabolic syndrome and other associated adverse biomarkers for heart disease in collegiate football linemen. Early screening, awareness, and intervention may have favorable effects on the overall health outcomes of football linemen.

  16. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  17. Chondral Rib Fractures in Professional American Football: Two Cases and Current Practice Patterns Among NFL Team Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Timothy R; Deimel, Jay F; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S; Beaulieu, Christopher F

    2016-02-01

    Although a recognized and discussed injury, chondral rib fractures in professional American football have not been previously reported in the literature. There currently exists no consensus on how to identify and treat these injuries or the expected return to play for the athlete. To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Two cases of NFL players with chondral rib injuries are presented. A survey regarding work-up and treatment of these injuries was completed by team physicians at the 2014 NFL Combine. Our experience in identifying and treating these injuries is presented in conjunction with a survey of NFL team physicians' experiences. Two cases of rib chondral injuries were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and treated with rest and protective splinting. Return to play was 2 to 4 weeks. NFL Combine survey results show that NFL team physicians see a mean of 4 costal cartilage injuries per 5-year period, or approximately 1 case per year per team. Seventy percent of team physicians use CT scanning and 43% use magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of these injuries. An anesthetic block is used acutely in 57% and only electively in subsequent games by 39%. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose chondral rib injuries in American football. CT scan is most commonly used to confirm diagnosis. Return to play can take up to 2 to 4 weeks with a protective device, although anesthetic blocks can be used to potentially expedite return. Chondral rib injuries are common among NFL football players, while there is no literature to support proper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries or expected duration of recovery. These injuries are likely common in other contact sports and levels of competition as well. Our series combined with NFL team physician survey results can aid team

  18. Prevalence of Pituitary Hormone Dysfunction, Metabolic Syndrome, and Impaired Quality of Life in Retired Professional Football Players: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, Charlene; Evans, Diana; Mathews, Amy; Cohan, Pejman; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Sim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Jihey; Wright, Mathew J.; Kernan, Claudia; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Yuen, Kevin C.J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypopituitarism is common after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we address the association between mild TBI (mTBI) and pituitary and metabolic function in retired football players. Retirees 30–65 years of age, with one or more years of National Football League (NFL) play and poor quality of life (QoL) based on Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Component Score (MCS) were prospectively enrolled. Pituitary hormonal and metabolic syndrome (MetS) testing was performed. Using a glucagon stimulation test, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was defined with a standard cut point of 3 ng/mL and with a more stringent body mass index (BMI)-adjusted cut point. Subjects with and without hormonal deficiency (HD) were compared in terms of QoL, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, metabolic parameters, and football career data. Of 74 subjects, 6 were excluded because of significant non-football-related TBIs. Of the remaining 68 subjects (mean age, 47.3±10.2 years; median NFL years, 5; median NFL concussions, 3; mean BMI, 33.8±6.0), 28 (41.2%) were GHD using a peak GH cutoff of <3 ng/mL. However, with a BMI-adjusted definition of GHD, 13 of 68 (19.1%) were GHD. Using this BMI-adjusted definition, overall HD was found in 16 (23.5%) subjects: 10 (14.7%) with isolated GHD; 3 (4.4%) with isolated hypogonadism; and 3 (4.4%) with both GHD and hypogonadism. Subjects with HD had lower mean scores on the IIEF survey (p=0.016) and trended toward lower scores on the SF-36 MCS (p=0.113). MetS was present in 50% of subjects, including 5 of 6 (83%) with hypogonadism, and 29 of 62 (46.8%) without hypogonadism (p=0.087). Age, BMI, median years in NFL, games played, number of concussions, and acknowledged use of performance-enhancing steroids were similar between HD and non-HD groups. In summary, in this cohort of retired NFL players with poor QoL, 23.5% had HD, including 19% with GHD (using a BMI-adjusted definition), 9% with hypogonadism, and

  19. Complex networks untangle competitive advantage in Australian football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Calum; Small, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We construct player-based complex network models of Australian football teams for the 2014 Australian Football League season; modelling the passes between players as weighted, directed edges. We show that analysis of these measures can give an insight into the underlying structure and strategy of Australian football teams, quantitatively distinguishing different playing styles. The relationships observed between network properties and match outcomes suggest that successful teams exhibit well-connected passing networks with the passes distributed between all 22 players as evenly as possible. Linear regression models of team scores and match margins show significant improvements in R2 and Bayesian information criterion when network measures are added to models that use conventional measures, demonstrating that network analysis measures contain useful, extra information. Several measures, particularly the mean betweenness centrality, are shown to be useful in predicting the outcomes of future matches, suggesting they measure some aspect of the intrinsic strength of teams. In addition, several local centrality measures are shown to be useful in analysing individual players' differing contributions to the team's structure.

  20. Changing the Culture: Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  1. Football and gender 'policing'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on boys who gained popularity and status at school through their investment in football, not only .... My view of race is that race is a social and cultural construction rather than a scientific term which ..... Martin's (2011) research on young boys and girls at play at an elementary school in London ..... Bloemfontein: SUN MEDIA.

  2. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change.[4] The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.

  3. Treating the Football Athlete: Coaches' Perspective from the University of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin C; Lark, Meghan E; Cederna, Paul S

    2017-02-01

    Although football is one of the most popular sports in America, its high injury incidence places concern on the injury prevention and safety of its players. This article investigates the perspectives of two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 football coaches on promoting injury management and player safety while maintaining a highly competitive team. Through obtaining their coaching philosophy team management topics, effective strategies that contribute to a team culture prioritizing player well-being were identified. Interactions of football coaches with physicians and medical specialists are explored to highlight strengths that can optimize the care and treatment of football athletes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies of anthropometric and functional parameters of the referees of different skills in football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Abdula

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problems of functional training of arbitrators of different skills are considered. The study involved 12 referees for the highest, first and second league championship and the championship of Ukraine on football. The level of Simply-weights is studied. It was used the methodology of S.A. Dushanin. Revealed the results of anatomical and physiological condition of the body: heart rate, body temperature and body weight reduction referees during a soccer match. Found that the anthropometric characteristics and the length of body weight statistically significant differences between the arbitrators are not. It is noted that the weight of the arbitrators is markedly reduced during the game. The average weight loss during a major league game the referee is 2.67 kg in the first league of referees’ weight decreased by 1.83 kg in the second league referees - is reduced by 1.92 kg. It is established that the level of functional training arbitrators league above the results of their younger colleagues.

  5. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T

    2017-01-01

    Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual

  6. The Blindside Flick: Race and Rugby League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Cottle

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of race was virtually beyond the touchline in Australian rugby league before the 1960s. It was a white man’s game. Institutionalised racism meant that few Aboriginal men played rugby league at the highest professional level. It is now presumed that race and racism has no place in a game where these questions have been historically ‘out of bounds’. The dearth of critical writing in rugby league history indicates that racism in the sport has been subject to a form of social blindness and deemed unworthy of study. Rugby league’s white exclusionist past and the denial of racism in the present era indicate habits of mind which may be described in league argot as the ‘blindside flick’.

  7. FIRST LEGO League announces State Championship winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    PEAK Home School Network Team 1832 'Techno Warriors' of Brandon sport the Champions Award they won during the Dec. 8 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) LEGO League 2007 Mississippi Championship Tournament.

  8. Online news media reporting of football-related fatalities in Australia: A matter of life and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; Bekker, Sheree; Finch, Caroline F

    2018-03-01

    While deaths in sports settings are rare, they do occur. To develop an understanding of the sports and people most at risk, and to identify opportunities for prevention, routine and systematic data detailing the occurrence of these fatalities is required. There is currently no routine reporting of data of this nature in Australia. As there is often strong community interest in these incidents, the media offers an opportunity for surveillance. However before this can occur, understanding of the terminology used by the media is required. The aim of this study was to identify the terminology most frequently used in online Australian news media coverage of football-related deaths. Retrospective review of online news media. Three databases were searched for online news media reports of people who died while participating in football (all football codes) in Australia. A descriptive analysis of terminology was undertaken to identify the common language applied. Thirty-four football-related fatalities in Australia were identified between 2010-2016, via 149 separate articles. The most frequent terms identified in the media items were: Family; Club; Rugby; Football; Player; League; Died; Game; Death; Life; Loved; Hospital; Match; Young; Community; Playing; Friends; Sport; Heart; AFL [Australian Football League]. This study identified terminology used in reporting football-related fatalities in Australia, identifying common reference to terms relating to 'death' as metaphors and the frequent celebration of 'life.' The findings suggest that a reliance on researcher-generated terminology will be insufficient to reflect media discourse in prospective monitoring of sports deaths for surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. More Than the Win: The Relation between Appetitive Competition Motivation, Socialization, and Gender Role Orientation in Women's Football

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Siefert, Sabrina; Weierstall, Roland

    2017-01-01

    The ability to produce peak performance plays a decisive role in the success of athletes in competitive contest situations. Levels of appetitive competition motivation (ACM), i.e., the desire to defeat an opponent independent of secondary reinforcing factors, were assessed in professional female football/soccer players in the premier and regional leagues, using club level as the measurement of sport success. Furthermore, the influence of social environments predominantly encouraging masculine...

  10. Shirt sponsorship by gambling companies in the English and Scottish Premier Leagues: global reach and public health concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, C.; Ireland, R.; Minton, J.; Holman, D.J.; Philpott, M.; Chambers, S.

    2018-01-01

    While the nature of gambling practices is contested, a strong evidence\\ud base demonstrates that gambling can become a serious disorder and have\\ud a range of detrimental effects for individuals, communities and societies.\\ud Over the last decade, football in the UK has become visibly entwined with\\ud gambling marketing. To explore this apparent trend, we tracked shirt\\ud sponsors in both the English and Scottish Premier Leagues since 1992 and\\ud found a pronounced increase in the presence of...

  11. The League of Astronomers: Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Anthony; Brandel, A.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Thomas, N. H.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.; Astronomers, League of

    2014-01-01

    The University of Washington League of Astronomers (LOA) is an organization comprised of University of Washington (UW) undergraduate students. Our main goal is to share our interest in astronomy with the UW community and with the general public. The LOA hosts star parties on the UW campus and collaborates with the Seattle Astronomical Society (SAS) on larger Seattle-area star parties. At the star parties, we strive to teach our local community about what they can view in our night sky. LOA members share knowledge of how to locate constellations and use a star wheel. The relationship the LOA has with members of SAS increases both the number of events and people we are able to reach. Since the cloudy skies of the Northwest prevent winter star parties, we therefore focus our outreach on the UW Mobile Planetarium, an inflatable dome system utilizing Microsoft’s WorldWide Telescope (WWT) software. The mobile planetarium brings astronomy into the classrooms of schools unable to travel to the UW on-campus planetarium. Members of the LOA volunteer their time towards this project and we make up the majority of the Mobile Planetarium volunteers. Our outreach efforts allow us to connect with the community and enhance our own knowledge of astronomy.

  12. Quantifying movement demands of AFL football using GPS tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisbey, Ben; Montgomery, Paul G; Pyne, David B; Rattray, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) monitoring of movement patterns is widespread in elite football including the Australian Football League (AFL). However documented analysis of this activity is lacking. We quantified the movement patterns of AFL football and differences between nomadic (midfield), forward and defender playing positions, and determined whether the physical demands have increased over a four season period. Selected premiership games were monitored during the 2005 (n=80 game files), 2006 (n=244), 2007 (n=632) and 2008 (n=793) AFL seasons. Players were fitted with a shoulder harness containing a GPS unit. GPS data were downloaded after games and the following measures extracted: total distance (km), time in various speed zones, maximum speed, number of surges, accelerations, longest continuous efforts and a derived exertion index representing playing intensity. In 2008 nomadic players covered per game 3.4% more total distance (km), had 4.8% less playing time (min), a 17% higher exertion index (per min), and 23% more time running >18kmh(-1) than forwards and defenders (all p<0.05). Physical demands were substantially higher in the 2008 season compared with 2005: an 8.4% increase in mean speed, a 14% increase in intensity (exertion index) and a 9.0% decrease in playing time (all p<0.05). Nomadic players in AFL work substantially harder than forwards and defenders in covering more ground and at higher running intensities. Increases in the physical demands of AFL football were evident between 2005 and 2008. The increasing speed of the game has implications for game authorities, players and coaching staff.

  13. Football in England of first half 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Dohnal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    (English) This disetation describes progress of football as a sport in the first half of the 20th century, including his position in society during both World Wars Keywords: football competition, number of fans and their culture, football in World Wars, women football, football clubs, organisation of football, football and the media

  14. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (Pfootball elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.

  15. Elementy szkolenia w piłce nożnej. Różnice w szkoleniu klubu polskiego i niemieckiego = Training elements in football. Differences in the training system between polish club and german club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kalinowski

    2015-11-01

    Abstract In modern football control and monitoring of training can increase the effectiveness of teaching. It’s going to provide coaches and athletes comprehensive training conditions. The results obtained by the athletes representing football in Poland tend to looking for reasons causing this state of affairs. The aim  was to try to show the differences in training football between Polish and German club. The subject of observation and analysis were players representing Polish and German club. Footballers presented the highest levels of sports as evidenced by participation in the highest league in Poland and Germany. The research method was used direct observation and an analysis of the results of youth teams.   Key words: football, German, Poland, training.

  16. Football injuries: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  17. The Football of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schang Fabien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.

  18. The football laboratory: policing football supporters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Mastrogiannakis, D.; Dorville, C.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced security assemblage is now at the permanent disposal of authorities in their quest to pre-empt and manage risk at football matches. This chapter proposes the ‘football stadia-as-laboratories’ metaphor as an analytical lens through which to examine the security and risk management

  19. Discriminating talent-identified junior Australian football players using a video decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if a video decision-making task could discriminate talent-identified junior Australian football players from their non-talent-identified counterparts. Participants were recruited from the 2013 under 18 (U18) West Australian Football League competition and classified into two groups: talent-identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 25; 17.8 ± 0.5 years) and non-talent-identified (non-State U18 Academy selection; n = 25; 17.3 ± 0.6 years). Participants completed a video decision-making task consisting of 26 clips sourced from the Australian Football League game-day footage, recording responses on a sheet provided. A score of "1" was given for correct and "0" for incorrect responses, with the participants total score used as the criterion value. One-way analysis of variance tested the main effect of "status" on the task criterion, whilst a bootstrapped receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed the discriminant ability of the task. An area under the curve (AUC) of 1 (100%) represented perfect discrimination. Between-group differences were evident (P talent-identified and non-talent-identified participants, respectively. Future research should investigate the mechanisms leading to the superior decision-making observed in the talent-identified group.

  20. Psychological Factors in the Development of Football-Talent from the Perspective of an Integrative Sport-Talent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert OROSZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new, integrative model of sports talent. Following the theoretical part of the study a football-talent research is presented, in which a theoretical framework is provided by this new theory of sports talent. This research examines the role of psychological factors in football talent development. The sample was N=425 football-players of the First Division Men’s Junior and Adolescent Football Championships of the Hungarian Football League, and their coaches (N=21. The applied instruments were: Sporting Background Questionnaire, The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS – Hungarian version, Psychological Immune Competence Inventory (PICI, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, Co-Player Questionnaire, and Coach Questionnaire. As a result, significant differences were found between talented and control groups in the case of 27 variables out of 48 (6 scales of the SBQ, 5 scales of the ACSI-28, 9 scales of the PISI, 5 subscales and the Total self-concept scale of the TSCS, and in APM. More talented players showed more favourable values in each of the 27 intra-, and interpersonal dimensions. According to our results, the development of psychological factors (e.g. concentration, lack of anxiety, self-confidence, coping skills, and social skills within an integrative approach can enhance personal efficiency in developing football giftedness.

  1. As origens da participação da América Latina na Organização de Saúde da Liga das Nações, 1920 a 1940 The League of Nations Health Organization and the rise of Latin American participation, 1920-40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Weindling

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Organização de Saúde da Liga das Nações colaborou com especialistas latino-americanos em saúde pública e doenças infecciosas desde o início da década de 1920 e até a eclosão da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Desenvolveu estudos sobre saúde e nutrição infantil e sobre a lepra. A abordagem foi orientada por especialistas, tendo em mira o desenvolvimento da saúde pública em bases científicas. Houve conferências, visitas e relatórios sobre a América Latina. O artigo demonstra que a colaboração da América Latina com aquela organização internacional de saúde foi ampla e multifacetada.The League of Nations Health Organization collaborated with Latin American specialists in public health and infectious diseases from the early 1920s to the outbreak of the Second World War. The League developed studies of infant health and nutrition, and leprosy. The approach was expert-oriented, and designed to develop public health on a scientific basis. There were conferences, tours and reports in Latin America. This paper demonstrates that the Latin American collaboration with the Health Organization was extensive and multi-faceted.

  2. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Warm-Up Programme in Male Youth Football: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi B. A.; Akinbo, Sunday R. A.; Tella, Bosede A.; Olawale, Olajide A.

    2014-01-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a structured warm-up programme specially designed to prevent injuries among football players from age 14 years and above. However, studies to prove its efficacy are generally few and it is yet to be tested in male youth footballers and among African players. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of the FIFA 11+ programme in reducing the risk of injuries among male youth football players of the Lagos Junior League. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. All the 20 teams (414 players aged 14 -19 years) in the Premier League division were block-randomised into either an intervention (INT) or a control (CON) group. The INT group performed the FIFA 11+ exercises as warm-up during training sessions and the CON group performed usual warm-up. Participating teams were prospectively followed through an entire league season of 6 months in which they were visited every week to assess injured players for time-loss injuries in both groups. The primary outcomes were any injury to the players, injuries by type of exposure and injuries specific to the lower extremities. The secondary outcomes were injuries reported by body location, aetiology, mechanism and severity. In total, 130 injuries were recorded affecting 104 (25%) of the 416 players. Team and player compliance with the INT was 60% and 74% respectively. Based on the primary outcome measures of the study, the FIFA 11+ programme significantly reduced the overall rate of injury in the INT group by 41% [RR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40 – 0.86; p = 0.006)] and all lower extremity injuries by 48% [RR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.34 – 0.82; p = 0.004)]. However, the rate of injury reduction based on secondary outcomes mostly did not reach the level of statistical significance. The FIFA 11+ programme is effective in reducing the rates of injuries in male youth football players. Key points The FIFA 11+ has only been tested in randomised controlled trials conducted on female youth football players; this

  3. Free kick goals in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Nørgaard; Rasmussen, John

    2018-01-01

    We develop and use an advanced numerical model to investigate the window of opportunity of free kicks in association football. The planar multibody forward dynamics model comprises a two segment leg model with joint actuations, a football, a wall and the turf. Contact mechanics is defined to model...

  4. A History of College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…

  5. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat.

  6. Game story space of professional sports: Australian rules football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Dilan Patrick; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-05-01

    Sports are spontaneous generators of stories. Through skill and chance, the script of each game is dynamically written in real time by players acting out possible trajectories allowed by a sport's rules. By properly characterizing a given sport's ecology of "game stories," we are able to capture the sport's capacity for unfolding interesting narratives, in part by contrasting them with random walks. Here we explore the game story space afforded by a data set of 1310 Australian Football League (AFL) score lines. We find that AFL games exhibit a continuous spectrum of stories rather than distinct clusters. We show how coarse graining reveals identifiable motifs ranging from last-minute comeback wins to one-sided blowouts. Through an extensive comparison with biased random walks, we show that real AFL games deliver a broader array of motifs than null models, and we provide consequent insights into the narrative appeal of real games.

  7. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  8. Increasing Lower Extremity Injury Rates Across the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 Seasons of National Collegiate Athletic Association Football: An Unintended Consequence of the "Targeting" Rule Used to Prevent Concussions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Robert W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Wehr, Peter; Amendola, Annuziato

    2016-12-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) have gained increased societal interest in the past decade. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has implemented legislation and rule changes to decrease the incidence and risk of head injury impacts. The "targeting" rule forbids initiating contact with the crown of a helmet and targeting defenseless players in the head and neck area; however, there are concerns that this rule change has unintentionally led to an increased incidence of lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in lower extremity injury rates in NCAA football during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons. We hypothesized that the lower extremity injury rate has increased across the time period. Descriptive epidemiology study. Sixty-eight NCAA football programs provided 153 team-seasons of data to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program. Lower extremity injuries (ie, hip/groin, upper leg/thigh, knee, lower leg/Achilles, foot/toes) and SRCs sustained during NCAA football games were examined. We calculated injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) for lower extremity injuries and SRCs. Rate ratios (RRs) compared injury rates between the 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 seasons. Overall, 2400 lower extremity injuries were reported during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons; most were to the knee (33.6%) and ankle (28.5%) and caused by player contact (59.2%). The lower extremity injury rate increased in 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 compared with 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 (23.55 vs 20.45/1000 AEs, respectively; RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25). This finding was retained when restricted to injuries due to player contact (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32) but not for injuries due to noncontact/overuse (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80-1.14). When examining player contact injury rates by anatomic site, only ankle injuries had an increase (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.64). The SRC rate also increased in 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 compared with

  9. Effects of a lighter, smaller football on Acute match injuries in adolescent female football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K.; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersen, Lars L.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The high injury incidence during match-play in female adolescent football is a major concern. In football, males and females play matches with the same football size. No studies have investigated the effect of football size on injury incidence in female adolescent football. Thus......, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introducing a lighter, smaller football on the injury pattern in female adolescent football. METHODS We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial including 26 football teams representing 346 adolescent female football players (age...... 15-18 years). The teams were randomized to a new lighter, smaller football (INT, N.=12 teams) or a traditional FIFA size 5 football (CON, N.=14 teams) during a full match-season. Acute time-loss injuries and football-exposure during match-play were reported weekly by text-message questions...

  10. "It All Ended in an Unsporting Way": Serbian Football and the Disintegration of Yugoslavia, 1989-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Part of a wider examination into football during the collapse of Eastern European Communism between 1989 and 1991, this article studies the interplay between Serbian football and politics during the period of Yugoslavia's demise. Research utilizing interviews with individuals directly involved in the Serbian game, in conjunction with contemporary Yugoslav media sources, indicates that football played an important proactive role in the revival of Serbian nationalism. At the same time the Yugos...

  11. Franchise Relocations, Expansions, and Mergers in Professional Sports Leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Rascher

    2008-01-01

    All three sections in this chapter are interrelated. Expansions and relocations, especially in the early years of a league, are often the response to upstart rival leagues. More recently, relocations have occurred because another city offers a better facility lease regardless of whether the league as a whole is better off or not. Relocations, more so than expansions, often end up in court whether as an antitrust case accusing the league of monopolistically restricting business or as an emi...

  12. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  13. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  14. Football's coming home?: Digital reterritorialization, contradictions in the transnational coverage of sport and the sociology of alternative football broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matthew; Millward, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This article critically utilizes the work of Manuel Castells to discuss the issue of parallel imported broadcasts (specifically including live-streams) in football. This is of crucial importance to sport because the English Premier League is premised upon the sale of television rights broadcasts to domestic and overseas markets, and yet cheaper alternative broadcasts endanger the price of such rights. Evidence is drawn from qualitative fieldwork and library/Internet sources to explore the practices of supporters and the politics involved in the generation of alternative broadcasts. This enables us to clarify the core sociological themes of 'milieu of innovation' and 'locale' within today's digitally networked global society. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  15. Concussion Incidence and Return-to-Play Time in National Basketball Association Players: Results From 2006 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Cole, Brian J; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-09-01

    Various research efforts have studied concussions in the National Football League, Major League Baseball, and the National Hockey League. However, no study has investigated the incidence and return-to-play trends in the National Basketball Association (NBA), which this study aims to do. Increased media scrutiny and public awareness, in addition to the institution of a league-wide concussion protocol, may have resulted in more conservative return-to-play practices. Descriptive epidemiology study. All concussions to NBA players that were publicly reported in the media from the beginning of the 2006 NBA season to the end of the 2014 season were included. The incidence and return-to-play statistics were generated by synthesizing information from publicly available records. There were 134 publicly reported concussions to NBA players from the beginning of the 2006 season to the conclusion of the 2014 season, resulting in an average of 14.9 concussions per season. The incidence has not changed significantly during this time span. The average games missed after a concussion from 2006 to 2010 was 1.6, significantly less than the 5.0 games missed from 2011 to 2014, following the institution of the NBA concussion protocol (P = .023). Although the incidence of publicly reported concussions in the NBA has not changed appreciably over the past 9 seasons, the time missed after a concussion has. While players often returned in the same game in the 2006 season, the combination of implemented policy, national coverage, medical staff awareness, and player education may have contributed to players now missing an average of 4 to 6 games after a concussion. A multitude of factors has resulted in more conservative return-to-play practices for NBA players after concussions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Alcoholic dogs and glory for all: the Anti-Saloon League and public relations, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamme, Margot Opdycke

    2007-01-01

    In 1913, the Anti-Saloon League of America declared its intention to pursue national prohibition. While it continued to adhere to its core principles of agitation, it expanded its communication efforts and entered a partnership with the Scientific Temperance Federation, a spin-off of the education arm of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. The League's tactics were not necessarily new to the temperance movement -- or even to other reform movements of the time. What did set it apart was its single-minded focus on stopping the liquor traffic. Tracing through archival artifacts the League's communication strategies and tactics during 1913, then, this study contributes to a larger body of work that seeks to expand on the traditional model of public relations history.

  17. ATTITUDES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT RANKS TOWARDS TRAINING EXERCISES OF RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Molnar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Training exercises of recovery of sportsmen include both exercises implying hig- her level of training and exercises of optimal recovery of sportsmen. In order to use training exercises of recovery best way it is necessary to know how they react to the body of a sportsman concerning their character and length. It is also necessary to take into consideration the fact that human body adapts equally both to burden and adequ- ate recovery exercises. To increase the efficiency of training exercises of recovery it is inevitable to use different exercises and methods changing their use, that is, they should be applied in a complex way considering their change depending on sport activities and structure of training process. The aim of the study is to check and analyse attitudes of fooyball players of different ranks towards training exercises of recovery. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different ranks (super league of Serbia = 43, the first league of Serbia = 40 and Serbian league = 37. The sample of variables consists of the system of 10 attitudes (claims, and each attitude (claim consists of 5 verbal ca- tegories (marked from -2 to +2. To determine multivariate and univariate significance of differences between footballers of different competition ranks multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA have been ap- plied. Concerning the attitudes of training exercises of recovery statistically significant differences were got between the groups where 7 out of 10 attitudes were different. Con- cerning the correlation two types of attitudes were noticed. Footballers of different competition ranks do not have the same attitudes towards training exercises of recovery.

  18. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  19. TALENT IDENTIFICATION IN FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Rakojević

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is incerasing emphasis on clubs to detect players and nurture and guide them throught the talent identification proces. More over, different factors may contribute to performance prediction at different ages. Thus any such model would need to be agespecific (Reilly et al, 2000. The aim of this paper was to determine essential principles of proces talent identification and determine antropometric, physiological and psychological profile and football-specifc skills that could be used for talent identification in players aged 10-12 years.

  20. A crise da Liga das Nações de 1926: realismo neoclássico, multilateralismo e a natureza da política externa brasileira The League of Nations crisis of 1926: neoclassical realism, multilateralism, and the nature of Brazilian foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz Baracuhy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a natureza da política externa brasileira na crise da Liga das Nações (1926, a partir de modelo teórico do realismo neoclássico. As dinâmicas por posições de poder nos tabuleiros geopolítico e multilateral do sistema internacional e as percepções e estratégias diplomáticas da elite de política externa brasileira são consideradas no estudo teórico.The article analyzes the nature of Brazilian foreign policy in the crisis of the League of Nations (1926 from a neoclassical-realist theoretical perspective. Within this theoretical framework, the dynamics of power positioning in the geopolitical and multilateral chessboards of the international system and the perceptions and diplomatic strategies of the Brazilian foreign-policy elite are taken into account.

  1. Symptoms and risk factors of depression during and after the football career of elite female players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Birgit; Dvořák, Jiří; Junge, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health of elite athletes has received increasing attention in recent years, but no study has evaluated the career–time prevalence of depression, and very few have analysed risk factors of mental health problems during or after the career. Methods 157 (response rate 64.1%) female players who played in the German First League answered an anonymous online survey on details of their football career, stressful and helpful conditions, depression and need of psychotherapeutic support during and after the football career. Results The career–time prevalence of depression symptoms was 32.3%. Significant differences in the average depression score were observed for playing positions (F=2.75; pfootball. Furthermore, it seems very important to educate coaches, physicians, physiotherapists and club managers to recognise and prevent mental health problems of their players. PMID:27900184

  2. Metabolic power demands of rugby league match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Tom; Sirotic, Anita Claire; Rampinini, Ermanno; Coutts, Aaron James

    2015-01-01

    To describe the metabolic demands of rugby league match play for positional groups and compare match distances obtained from high-speed-running classifications with those derived from high metabolic power. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 25 players from a team competing in the National Rugby League competition over 39 matches. Players were classified into positional groups (adjustables, outside backs, hit-up forwards, and wide-running forwards). The GPS devices provided instantaneous raw velocity data at 5 Hz, which were exported to a customized spreadsheet. The spreadsheet provided calculations for speed-based distances (eg, total distance; high-speed running, >14.4 km/h; and very-high-speed running, >18.1 km/h) and metabolic-power variables (eg, energy expenditure; average metabolic power; and high-power distance, >20 W/kg). The data show that speed-based distances and metabolic power varied between positional groups, although this was largely related to differences in time spent on field. The distance covered at high running speed was lower than that obtained from high-power thresholds for all positional groups; however, the difference between the 2 methods was greatest for hit-up forwards and adjustables. Positional differences existed for all metabolic parameters, although these are at least partially related to time spent on the field. Higher-speed running may underestimate the demands of match play when compared with high-power distance-although the degree of difference between the measures varied by position. The analysis of metabolic power may complement traditional speed-based classifications and improve our understanding of the demands of rugby league match play.

  3. A Day at FIRST Lego League

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This article features an after-school FIRST Lego League (FLL) program at Chaminade Middle School in Chatsworth, California, USA. The after-school FLL program feeds into the high school FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC) program wherein aspiring young engineers come to the high school team with several years of FLL experience. Through the FLL…

  4. Examining Play Counts and Measurements of Injury Incidence in Youth Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Yeargin, Susan W; Djoko, Aristarque; Dalton, Sara L; Baker, Melissa M; Dompier, Thomas P

    2017-10-01

      Whereas researchers have provided estimates for the number of head impacts sustained within a youth football season, less is known about the number of plays across which such impact exposure occurs.   To estimate the number of plays in which youth football players participated during the 2013 season and to estimate injury incidence through play-based injury rates.   Descriptive epidemiology study.   Youth football.   Youth football players (N = 2098; age range, 5-15 years) from 105 teams in 12 recreational leagues across 6 states.   We calculated the average number of athlete-plays per season and per game using independent-samples t tests to compare age groups (5-10 years old versus 11-15 years old) and squad sizes (football players participated in 333.9 ± 178.5 plays per season and 43.9 ± 24.0 plays per game. Age groups (5- to 10-year-olds versus 11- to 15-year-olds) did not differ in the average number of plays per season (335.8 versus 332.3, respectively; t 2086.4 = 0.45, P = .65) or per game (44.1 versus 43.7, respectively; t 2092.3 = 0.38, P = .71). However, players from smaller teams participated in more plays per season (373.7 versus 308.0; t 1611.4 = 8.15, P football squad sizes may help reduce head-impact exposure for individual players. The AE-based injury rates yielded effect estimates similar to those of play-based injury rates.

  5. The Europeanisation of Romanian football: What do UEFA country coefficients reveal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roșca Vlad I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of communist regimes, Central and Eastern European states have been encouraged to Europeanise by aligning to Western standards. Even if politics and economy have been primarily concerned, football has often allowed easier and faster contact to occidental cultures than other facets of the civic society did. From a football club perspective, being Europeanized involves the abilities to establish a constant presence in continental cups, as well as to raise performances to higher, international standards. The game itself has strongly Europeanised over the years, with UEFA transforming its two continental inter-club competitions into iconic brands, ‘pluralizing’ fan attention between domestic leagues and international cups, with the latter ones enjoying increased awareness. While some UEFA member associations have properly mastered the process of Europeanisation, others saw their teams struggle to perform in Europe, which led to the creation of a cleavage between ‘elitist’ and ‘periphery’ countries. Results of Romanian teams in European competitions have fluctuated over the past and a half decade. The purpose of this research is to find out how far Europeanised Romanian football can be currently considered. The research question asks what is the current European dimension of Romanian club football? UEFA Country Coefficients are used as input data for computing statistical observations such as means and standard deviations, which are then compared with a three-levelled center-periphery model designed by Maguire (2001. Results indicate that Romanian football is still far away from the continental ‘center’ status it pretends to have. The Discussions section addresses some of the reasons for this distance. The article tries to fill in a research gap as most Europeanisation studies so far have focused on the hardcore concepts of economics, politics, or law, but rather few on social and cultural alignments, such as football

  6. A League of Their Own

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China and Arab nations continue to nurture strategic relationsc china and Arab nations have vowed to elevate their relationship to a strategic level——a new consensus,analysts say,that reflects their long-term mutual trust and shared aspirations for development.

  7. Community-based recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...

  8. Perspectives in football medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldén, M; Hägglund, M; Bengtsson, H; Ekstrand, J

    2018-04-12

    The high injury rate among men's professional football players is well-known. Therefore, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) launched an injury study already in 2001. This study, the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study (ECIS), currently includes data from a total of 51 clubs from 18 European countries with more than 14,000 registered injuries. With the 21 st  World Cup (WC) in Russia just around the corner, we have from our study identified a higher match injury rate and a higher proportion of severe injuries in the European Championships compared to the preceding club competitive seasons. Moreover, we have also recently showed that the muscle injury rate is higher when players are given a recovery window of five days or less between two matches. Considering the congested match schedule of the upcoming WC, it is therefore likely that injuries and fatigue once again will be a topic of discussion this summer.

  9. Nutrition practices and knowledge among NCAA Division III football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Elizabeth Lea; Wright, Cynthia Joy; Kirkpatrick, Christina M

    2017-01-01

    Participation in collegiate American football is physically demanding and may have long-term health implications, particularly in relation to cardiovascular and neurological health. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III (DIII) football players are a relatively unstudied population, particularly in terms of their dietary habits and knowledge. The aim of the present study was to descriptively evaluate the dietary intake of DIII football players including a subset of linemen and assess the nutritional knowledge and sources of information of these athletes. The study sample was 88 DIII football players including a subset of nine linemen. All participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, and a nutritional knowledge questionnaire that included a quiz and questions about their main sources of nutrition information. Heights and body masses were also recorded. The linemen submitted written 3-day diet records for assessment of their dietary intake. Of the 88 participants, >50% reported consuming starches/grains, meat and dairy daily, but football players had dietary habits that may both mitigate and increase their risk of chronic diseases. These athletes have room to improve their nutrition knowledge. Their reliance on athletic team staff for nutrition guidance highlights the importance of nutrition education for both athletes and staff and the potential role of a registered dietitian nutritionist.

  10. Match-to-match variation in physical activity and technical skill measures in professional Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the match-to-match variability in physical activity and technical performance measures in Australian Football, and examine the influence of playing position, time of season, and different seasons on these measures of variability. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system, accelerometer and technical performance measures (total kicks, handballs, possessions and Champion Data rank) were collected from 33 players competing in the Australian Football League over 31 matches during 2011-2012 (N=511 observations). The global positioning system data were categorised into total distance, mean speed (mmin(-1)), high-speed running (>14.4 kmh(-1)), very high-speed running (>19.9 kmh(-1)), and sprint (>23.0 kmh(-1)) distance while player load was collected from the accelerometer. The data were log transformed to provide coefficient of variation and the between subject standard deviation (expressed as percentages). Match-to-match variability was increased for higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance, coefficient of variation %: 13.3-28.6%) compared to global measures (speed, total distance, player load, coefficient of variation %: 5.3-9.2%). The between-match variability was relativity stable for all measures between and within AFL seasons, with only few differences between positions. Higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance), but excluding mean speed, total distance and player load, were all higher in the final third phase of the season compared to the start of the season. While global measures of physical performance are relatively stable, higher-speed activities and technical measures exhibit a large degree of between-match variability in Australian Football. However, these measures remain relatively stable between positions, and within and between Australian Football League seasons. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  11. Stop hitting the woodwork! CRM for better fan-identification in Romanian second division football clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roşca Vlad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to pundits, Romanian football is at an unprecedented low in terms of sporting quality and fan followship altogether. A mix of mismanagement and public regulations have transformed football clubs into under-financed organizations, unable to groom their academic work, raise quality players and, subsequently, perform at highest level which ultimately led to a decrease in entertainment on the pitch and of the numbers in attendance. Adding to this is the loss of brand identity that has created a rupture between clubs and their fan-bases. The paper aims to look at customer relationship management principles that lower-league clubs can use to build better fan relationships, while also identifying, using the same CRM optic, what actually led to the decline in quality. Second tier football has been chosen as opposed to top-flight because it consists of several clubs with development potential within their municipalities, because some of their problems are more stringent than in the upper league and, last but not least, in many cases, total attendance per game is as low as 50-300 people. The research starts with a general presentation of customer relationship management. In order to prepare CRM’s adaptation to the business of professional sports, some focus will be set on the services industry. The article then presents how CRM can be applied to sports, and, in the end, it narrows down to the specific case of Romanian football by starting the investigation from some of the challenges currently faced by the sport. Particular attention is granted to the online environment, as the latter one is host to a wide range of not very expensive CRM strategies and tactics that clubs can use, cost being a factor to be taken into account for a sector with scarce monetary resources. Last but not least, the paper ends with a set of recommendations as well as future ideas for research.

  12. Balance Performance of Professional Footballers with Long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omoyemi

    Some studies on certain physically-active individuals and amateur athletes have ... term LLMI, the effect of limb dominance on BPf and comparison of BPf in ... of lower limb weight bearing functional activities that ... professional footballers receiving training at the National ... This test measures the ability of the participant to.

  13. Football and Memories of Croatian Fascism on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tea Sindbæk

    2016-01-01

    On 19 November 2013, as Croatia’s national football team defeated Iceland and thus secured its participation in the World Championship, Croatian defender Josip Šimunić celebrated by leading a chant associated with the fascist Ustasha regime, known for its genocidal campaigns against Serbs, Jews...... and Roma in Croatia and Bosnia during the Second World War. As a result of his celebration, Šimunić was fined by Zagreb’s county court for inciting racist hatred and the International Football Association, FIFA, banned Šimunić from participating in 10 international matches including the World Championship...... of memory negotiation that took place on the Facebook page supporting Šimunić and on the petition webpage. Indeed, the Facebook page and its users vehemently contested both the official Croatian interpretation and that of the international football organization, trying instead to construct from below...

  14. Top-level football coaches' practical sense of talent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    process of identification, development and selection takes place. Therefore, it is a much-desired quality in top-level coaches to be able to identify "true" talent. This study explores the ways in which talent identification is carried out among top-level football coaches, and it aims to identify specific...... structures of expert knowledge related to talent identification. The underlying basis of the study is the assumption that "talent can only be talent and recognized as such where it is values" [1], and that talent identification in top-level football is a question of the coaches' trained eye [2] and tacit...... this point of view, the study explores eight Danish National Youth Team football coaches' expert knowledge and ways of identifying talents. The data compile from biographical, in-depth interviews [5] with the coaches. The in-depth interviews are conducted and analyzed using meaning condensation and meaning...

  15. A Qualitative Examination of Police Officers' Perception of Football Supporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Several studies stress the importance of thorough knowledge of supporter culture in order to assess the actual level of risk at football matches thereby ensuring a balanced approach by the police in order to avoid conflict situations. This study examines how Danish police officers perceive...... and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...... engaging in dialogue with football supporters. As a consequence of these findings, the East Jutland Police department initiated an educational programme on dialogue policing in 2010. The programme has been successfully evaluated and is now implemented on a national basis....

  16. In a league of their own

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, L

    2002-01-01

    The eviction of Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith from the top position at UCL is evidence of a change in university management. Vice-chancellors are discarded like football managers if they don't get results according to Lucy Hodges (1 page).

  17. A European Football Family? German and British Television Broadcasts of the 2010 Football World Cup and the Representation of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Lichtenstein

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Football World Cup tournament ranks amongst the largest international sports events, captivating vast live and television audiences. A key characteristic of football can be seen in its community-building function. Football provides opportunities for identification, strengthening local and national bonds. But does this also apply to the still vague category of Europe? Does the televised coverage of the Football World Cup hold the potential to foster a European identity? This paper employs a quantitative content analysis of the German and British live-commentaries of the 2010 World Cup matches between European and non-European teams. It analyzes and compares the description and evaluation of European and non-European participants. TV-commentaries have proven an ability to influence the audiences´ perception of the match. It is therefore assumed that the commentaries contribute to a feeling of European identity and unity – if they make the European category salient. The analysis reveals some differences in the portrayal of European and non-European participants with the commentators paying more attention to participants from European countries. Whereas the evaluation of the European and non-European teams differs, the evaluation of the individual football players is well-balanced. In regard to the analyzed criteria, British and German commentaries tend to be very similar.

  18. The collapsed football pla yer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 265 ... FIFA Medical Officer and Honorary Part-time Lecturer, Wits Centre for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Johannesburg .... Management of a collapsed player does not.

  19. Football injury: a literature review *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  20. Football performance and its determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Macháček, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on enumeration of the essential psychosocial determinants affecting performance of the footballers. These determinants are divided into three sections. Personality of athlete as a key factor influencing his performance is discussed in the chapter one. Social and cultural environment are the subjects of the second chapter. Specifics and partial aspects of sports environments are presented in the third chapter. Definition of performance in football and the possibility of its...

  1. The association between hip and groin injuries in the elite junior football years and injuries sustained during elite senior competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, B J; Bailey, M; Cook, J L; Makdissi, M; Scase, E; Ames, N; Wood, T; McNeil, J J; Orchard, J W

    2010-09-01

    To establish the relationship between the history of hip and groin injuries in elite junior football players prior to elite club recruitment and the incidence of hip and groin injuries during their elite career. Retrospective cohort study. Analysis of existing data. 500 Australian Football League (AFL) players drafted from 1999 to 2006 with complete draft medical assessment data. Previous history of hip/groin injury, anthropometric and demographic information. The number of hip/groin injuries resulting in > or =1 missed AFL game. Data for 500 players were available for analysis. 86 (17%) players reported a hip/groin injury in their junior football years. 159 (32%) players sustained a hip/groin injury in the AFL. Players who reported a previous hip or groin injury at the draft medical assessment demonstrated a rate of hip/groin injury in the AFL >6 times higher (IRR 6.24, 95% CI 4.43 to 8.77) than players without a pre-AFL hip or groin injury history. This study demonstrated that a hip or groin injury sustained during junior football years is a significant predictor of missed game time at the elite level due to hip/groin injury. The elite junior football period should be targeted for research to investigate and identify modifiable risk factors for the development of hip/groin injuries.

  2. Scoring on the stock exchange? The effect of football matches on stock market returns : an event study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Peenstra, W.

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the effect of results of football matches on the stock market performance of football teams. We analyse 1274 matches of eight teams in the national and European competition during 2000-2004. We find that the stock market response is significant and positive for victories and negative for

  3. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Manuel Gonçalves Baptista

    Full Text Available Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R and assistant referees (AR participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9% and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4% were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62% of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR and level (international/national of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of p<0.01, PVVS scores did not differ between R and AR (p = 0.88, or between national- and international-level officials (p = 0.66. Similarly, QoV scores did not differ between R and AR in frequency (p = 0.50, severity (p = 0.71 or bothersomeness (p = 0.81 of symptoms, or between international-level vs national-level officials for frequency (p = 0.03 or bothersomeness (p = 0.07 of symptoms. However, international-level officials reported less severe symptoms than their national-level counterparts (p<0.01. Overall, 18.3% of officials had either never had an eye examination or if they had, it was more than 3 years previously. Regarding refractive correction, 4.2% had undergone refractive surgery and

  4. 'Thoroughly Good Football': Teachers and the Origins of Elementary School Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Colm

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of elementary school soccer (football), addressing topics such as: the role of public schools in organized soccer, soccer in elementary schools, the first schoolboy soccer association, South London Schools' Football Association, the London Schools' Football Association, and the English Schools' Football Association. (CMK)

  5. League of Women Voters Education Fund providing a forum for public information and participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, E.

    1993-01-01

    In March of 1992, the League of Women Voters Education Fund (LWVEF) signed a five-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide American citizens with information and training on the management and clean up of nuclear waste from both civilian and defense sources. During Year 1 of the agreement the LWVEF updated The Nuclear Waste Primer: A Citizens Handbook. Activities in Year 2 of the agreement will include: (1) Oversight of the project by an Advisory Committee; (2) A national Train-the-Trainers Conference; (3) Grants to state and local Leagues for model community education projects; (4) Publication of Taking Nuclear Waste Issues to the Village Square, a discussion leader's guide on organizing community education programs on nuclear wastes issues and a magazine article on defense waste issues in the the National Voter, the membership magazine of the League of Women Voters of the United States; and (5) Technical assistance to Leagues and other organizations via a Citizen's Nuclear Waste Clearinghouse

  6. The Incidence of Concussion in a Professional Australian Rugby League Team, 1998–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Savage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P=0.0217. Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches.

  7. Sports context of the original families of three generations of national football team players [Sportovní kontext původních rodin tří generací fotbalových reprezentantů

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Válková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family context is considered to be an important phenomenon influencing life-span sports careers. In spite of this fact,the role of family as related to different historical changes is rarely investigated. The research concept of the study is based on the "theory of transition" (early sports socialization and on the principle of "generation transfer" (parent-child interaction within various micro (family and macro (socio-economic contexts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the presented study is to find out the relationship between family context and early sports socialization in families of national football team players in the Czech Republic in three different socio-economic periods. METHODS: Three generations of national football team players were investigated. The research sample P (n = 69 was made up of subsamples: P1 (n = 23 - the current generation of national football team players from the year 1991, P2 (n = 23 - the generation playing in the years 1981-2001 and P3 (n = 23 - the generation playing in the years 1965-1987. Data were gained by means of semistructured interview oriented to family background in the period of the players' early sports socialization. Responses were analysed and classified on a categorical scale (5 domains per 4 categories, then processed using descriptive statistics. Comparisons of selected categories were processed using the non-parametric Chi-Square test at a significance level of p RESULTS: The equal role of fathers was found in all three generations in equal categories (type of education, involvement in football, the motivation approach. The role of mothers became different related to the progress in women's emancipation, but was supportive for sports career development of the children. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasized the importance of early sports socialization in the family, the importance of generation transfer, the function of the father, mother and siblings as motivators, regardless of participation

  8. Children's rights in football: Welfare and work

    OpenAIRE

    Brackenridge, CH

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines issues of labour and play in children's football. It asks whether global capitalism and the growth of girls' and women's football might lead to greater sexual victimization among female players.

  9. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  10. The World Football League Plays Ethnopolis United. The Problems of Asymmetry and Interoperability in Future War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDowall, Greg

    1998-01-01

    .... The high-tech American game generated considerable spectator and media interest, but the expensive new equipment and facilities needed to play it restricted the growth of the sport among the local populations...

  11. Kicking the Football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  12. Football-related injuries among 6- to 17-year-olds treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Adam D; Nelson, Nicolas G; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn; McKenzie, Lara B

    2011-03-01

    Football is one of the most popular youth sports in the United States despite the high rate of injuries. Previously published studies have investigated football-related injuries that occurred in organized play but have excluded those that occurred during unorganized play. Through use of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database, cases of football-related injuries were identified for analysis. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates. An estimated 5 252 721 children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old were treated in US emergency departments for football-related injuries. The annual number of cases increased by 26.5% over the 18-year study period. The 12- to 17-year-old age group accounted for 77.8% of all injuries and had nearly twice the odds of sustaining a concussion. The findings suggest the need for increased prevention efforts to lower the risk of football-related injury in children and adolescents.

  13. A PROBABILITY BASED APPROACH FOR THE ALLOCATION OF PLAYER DRAFT SELECTIONS IN AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bedford

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Australian Rules Football, governed by the Australian Football League (AFL is the most popular winter sport played in Australia. Like North American team based leagues such as the NFL, NBA and NHL, the AFL uses a draft system for rookie players to join a team's list. The existing method of allocating draft selections in the AFL is simply based on the reverse order of each team's finishing position for that season, with teams winning less than or equal to 5 regular season matches obtaining an additional early round priority draft pick. Much criticism has been levelled at the existing system since it rewards losing teams and does not encourage poorly performing teams to win matches once their season is effectively over. We propose a probability-based system that allocates a score based on teams that win 'unimportant' matches (akin to Carl Morris' definition of importance. We base the calculation of 'unimportance' on the likelihood of a team making the final eight following each round of the season. We then investigate a variety of approaches based on the 'unimportance' measure to derive a score for 'unimportant' and unlikely wins. We explore derivatives of this system, compare past draft picks with those obtained under our system, and discuss the attractiveness of teams knowing the draft reward for winning each match in a season

  14. Factors That Influence Running Intensity in Interchange Players in Professional Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-11-01

    Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (P met ) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and P met . As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.

  15. Healthy food and beverages in senior community football club canteens in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kylie; Kennedy, Vanessa; Kingsland, Melanie; Sawyer, Amy; Rowland, Bosco; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2012-08-01

    Little is known of the extent to which senior sports clubs support the consumption of healthy food and beverages. This study of senior community football clubs aimed to describe: i) the food and beverages available in club canteens; ii) the perceived acceptability of club representatives (e.g. club president or secretary) to selling healthy food and beverages in club canteens; iii) the perceived barriers of club representatives to providing healthy food and beverage options in their club canteen; iv) the associations between the availability of healthy options in canteens, perceived barriers to healthy food and drink availability, and club characteristics; and (v) the food and beverages usually purchased from canteens by club members. The study involved 70 senior community football clubs (Australian Rules Football, Soccer, Rugby League and Rugby Union) across New South Wales, Australia. Club representatives and club members took part in cross-sectional telephone surveys. The most frequently available items at club canteens were regular soft drinks and potato chips or other salty snacks (available at 99% of clubs). Approximately two-thirds (66%) of club representatives agreed or strongly agreed that clubs should provide a greater variety of healthy food options. Perishability and lack of demand were the most frequently cited barriers to healthy food provision. Healthy food options were more available at AFL clubs compared with other football codes. Overall, 6% of club members reported purchasing a healthy food option. Senior community football clubs primarily stock and sell unhealthy food and beverage items. There is support within clubs for providing more healthy options; however, clubs face a number of barriers to the inclusion of healthy foods in club canteens.

  16. Reliability of an instrument to determine lower limb comfort in professional football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Kinchington1, Kevin Ball1, Geraldine Naughton21School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; 2The Centre of Physical Activity Across the Lifespan (COPAAL, Australian Catholic University, Victoria, AustraliaAims and Objectives: This study extends previous work in the field of injury awareness using a novel lower limb comfort index (LLCI, which was developed to assess comfort in professional football. Participants rated comfort for designated anatomical segments of the lower limb utilizing a seven point Likert scale. The aims of the study were (i to assess the reliability of the LLCI in a competitive football environment (Australian Rules and Rugby League, and (ii to assess whether LLCI measurements were responsive to changes in lower limb comfort over time.Methods and Results: The reliability of the LLCI was observed in two professional football environments: Training Week (mean difference 0.1 point, intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC 0.99 for n = 41 participants; and Match Day (mean difference 0.2 points, ICC 0.97 for n = 22 players. Measurements of lower limb comfort were responsive to changes in comfort over time. Within-player differences were not significant for periods 0–8 hrs (P > 0.05 but, generally, significant for time periods 0–24 hrs (P < 0.05, and significant between 24–96 hrs (P < 0.01. The results indicate that the LLCI was reliable when tested for repeated measures and indicated how the index measures lower limb comfort changes over time.Conclusion: This study shows that the use of a lower limb comfort index, when used in a competitive football environment, is both reliable and responsive to change during both a training week and under match day conditions.Keywords: lower limb comfort, musculoskeletal, football, injury

  17. Training habits and injuries of masters' level football players: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham-West, R; Button, C; Milburn, P D; Mündermann, A; Sole, G; Schneiders, A G; Sullivan, S J

    2009-05-01

    To profile training habits and injuries in football players participating in a national Masters tournament. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used to survey male football players attending the 2008 New Zealand Masters Games. Information regarding player demographics, football injuries, football related training, and risk factors for injury were collected. 199 Players were recruited, with a median age of 44 yrs (range 35-73) and a median football playing history of 15 yrs (range 0-66). Irrespective of age, 112 (84%) players included a warm-up and 104 (78%) included a stretching regime in their regular training programme. In the 12 months prior to the tournament, 128 football related injuries were reported by 93 players (64 injuries/100 players or 46 injured players/100 players). The most frequently injured region was the lower limb; specifically the lower leg (n=23), ankle (n=18), hamstring (n=17), knee (n=15), and Achilles tendon (n=15). This study provides a preliminary insight into the training habits and injury profiles of Masters football players. Despite all players including some form of injury prevention strategy in their training, a significant number of players experienced an injury in the 12 months prior to the tournament.

  18. Football fever: self-affirmation model for goal distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Janke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of football games, as well as matches of most other popular team sports, depends on a combination of the skills of players and coaches and a number of external factors which, due to their complex nature, are presumably best viewed as random. Such parameters include the unpredictabilities of playing the ball, the players' shape of the day or environmental conditions such as the weather and the behavior of the audience. Under such circumstances, it appears worthwhile to analyze football score data with the toolbox of mathematical statistics in order to separate deterministic from stochastic effects and see what impact the cooperative and social nature of the "agents" of the system has on the resulting stochastic observables. Considering the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams, it turns out that especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. On the contrary, some more specific probability densities such as those discussed in the context of extreme-value statistics or the so-called negative binomial distribution fit these data rather well. There seemed to be no good argument to date, however, why the simplest Poissonian model fails and, instead, the latter distributions should be observed. To fill this gap, we introduced a number of microscopic models for the scoring behavior, resulting in a Bernoulli random process with a simple component of self-affirmation. These models allow us to represent the observed probability distributions surprisingly well, and the phenomenological distributions used earlier can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the "FIFA World Cup" series, and found the proposed models to be applicable in

  19. Implementation of the 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement in contact and collision sports: a joint position statement from 11 national and international sports organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricios, Jon S; Ardern, Clare L; Hislop, Michael David; Aubry, Mark; Bloomfield, Paul; Broderick, Carolyn; Clifton, Patrick; Echemendia, Ruben J; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Falvey, Éanna Cian; Fuller, Gordon Ward; Grand, Julie; Hack, Dallas; Harcourt, Peter Rex; Hughes, David; McGuirk, Nathan; Meeuwisse, Willem; Miller, Jeffrey; Parsons, John T; Richiger, Simona; Sills, Allen; Moran, Kevin B; Shute, Jenny; Raftery, Martin

    2018-05-01

    The 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement provides a global summary of best practice in concussion prevention, diagnosis and management, underpinned by systematic reviews and expert consensus. Due to their different settings and rules, individual sports need to adapt concussion guidelines according to their specific regulatory environment. At the same time, consistent application of the Berlin Consensus Statement's themes across sporting codes is likely to facilitate superior and uniform diagnosis and management, improve concussion education and highlight collaborative research opportunities. This document summarises the approaches discussed by medical representatives from the governing bodies of 10 different contact and collision sports in Dublin, Ireland in July 2017. Those sports are: American football, Australian football, basketball, cricket, equestrian sports, football/soccer, ice hockey, rugby league, rugby union and skiing. This document had been endorsed by 11 sport governing bodies/national federations at the time of being published. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. It's not football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, G

    1998-01-01

    Today I am as happy as I could ever be. I have created a lot out of very little, I have worked full time, played full time, got full-time friends, full-time independence, had full-time love and am lucky enough to be with my new full-time love who helps me a great deal both physically and mentally. It is definitely no fun coughing until your chest is sore in the morning, afternoon and evening. Having wringing night-sweats from cepacia. Wanting to sleep more than Mr Sleep from Sleepland. Taking tablets the size of which sunk the Belgrano. Finding time for physiotherapy, eating the right meals, playing on my Playstation. Depression has got through on previous occasions, but not for long, and it has never resulted in anything more than a 'wake up and smell the coffee' call from myself. Having CF is no ball game (otherwise it would be called football or something!), but I have had a lot of fun and will continue to do so for however long. Two years, five years, 20 years--who's to say, not me. We could all have the same left, I just hope that everyone has as much fun.

  1. Nutrition and culture in professional football. A mixed method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Mutsumi; Kennedy, Eileen; Reeves, Sue; Cronin, Linda

    2012-02-01

    An adequate diet is essential for the optimal performance of professional football (soccer) players. Existing studies have shown that players fail to consume such a diet, without interrogating the reasons for this. The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties professional football players experience in consuming a diet for optimal performance. It utilized a mixed method approach, combining nutritional intake assessment with qualitative interviews, to ascertain both what was consumed and the wider cultural factors that affect consumption. The study found a high variability in individual intake which ranged widely from 2648 to 4606 kcal/day. In addition, the intake of carbohydrate was significantly lower than that recommended. The study revealed that the main food choices for carbohydrate and protein intake were pasta and chicken respectively. Interview results showed the importance of tradition within the world of professional football in structuring the players' approach to nutrition. In addition, the players' personal eating habits that derived from their class and national habitus restricted their food choice by conflicting with the dietary choices promoted within the professional football clubs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Red shirt colour is associated with long-term team success in English football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Martin J; Gresty, Karen A; Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    The colour of sportswear has been shown to influence the outcome of bouts for several different combat sports. The generality of these effects, and whether they extend to collaborative forms of contests (team sports), is uncertain. Since 1947, English football teams wearing red shirts have been champions more often than expected on the basis of the proportion of clubs playing in red. To investigate whether this indicates an enhancement of long-term performance in red-wearing teams, we analysed the relative league positions of teams wearing different hues. Across all league divisions, red teams had the best home record, with significant differences in both percentage of maximum points achieved and mean position in the home league table. The effects were not due simply to a difference between teams playing in a colour and those playing in a predominantly white uniform, as the latter performed better than teams in yellow hues. No significant differences were found for performance in matches away from home, when teams commonly do not wear their "home" colours. A matched-pairs analysis of red and non-red wearing teams in eight English cities shows significantly better performance of red teams over a 55-year period. These effects on long-term success have consequences for colour selection in team sports, confirm that wearing red enhances performance in a variety of competitive contexts, and provide further impetus for studies of the mechanisms underlying these effects.

  3. Moderate to severe injuries in football: a one-year prospective study of twenty-four female and male amateur teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.

  4. Comparison of injury incidences between football teams playing in different climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard JW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John W Orchard,1 Markus Waldén,2 Martin Hägglund,3 Jessica J Orchard,1 Ian Chivers,4 Hugh Seward,5 Jan Ekstrand21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Native Seeds, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Australian Football League Medical Officers Association, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Australian Football League (AFL teams in northern (warmer areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler areas. Conversely, in soccer (football in Europe, teams in northern (cooler areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999–2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.10 with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58, knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16–1.74, and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.37 all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47–1.03. In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction that are

  5. Treating the Football Athlete: Coaches’ perspective from the University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin C.; Lark, Meghan E.; Cederna, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Although football is one of the most popular sports in America, its high injury incidence places concern on the injury prevention and safety of its players. This article investigates the perspectives of two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 football coaches on promoting injury management and player safety while maintaining a highly competitive team. Through obtaining their coaching philosophy on a wide range of team management topics, effective strategies that contribute to a team culture prioritizing player well-being were identified. Furthermore, the interactions of football coaches with physicians and medical specialists are explored to highlight collaborative strengths that can be used to optimize the care and treatment of football athletes. PMID:27886827

  6. WOMEN, FOOTBALL AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION. AIMS AND QUESTIONS, METHODOLOGICAL AND THEORETICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Pfister

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to introduce a new research topic and provide information about a European research project focusing on football as a means of European integration. Using the results of available studies of the author and other scholars, it is to be discussed whether and how women can participate in football cultures and contribute to a European identity. Based on theoretical approaches to national identity, gender and socialization, as well as and on the analysis of various intersections between gender, football and fandom, it can be concluded that women are still outsiders in the world of football and that it is doubtful whether female players and fans will contribute decisively to Europeanization processes.

  7. Football gambling three arm-controlled study: gamblers, amateurs and laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberfeld, Ronen; Gersner, Roman; Rosenberg, Oded; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2013-01-01

    Football (soccer) betting, as a strategic form of betting, became one of the favorite wagers for pathological gamblers. Previous studies demonstrated the psychological and biological significance of the 'illusion of control' (personal control) and 'near miss' results in gambling. In our study, we explored whether knowledge and expertise of pathological sports gamblers can ensure a successful bet. Participants were divided into three groups of individuals - pathological gamblers, amateurs and laypersons - and were asked to predict in advance the general result and the exact result of football matches in the European Champions League Round of 16. The 165 participants included 53 pathological sports gamblers (52 males and 1 female), 78 laypersons (45 females and 33 males) and 34 amateurs (all males). After a thorough statistical analysis, we found no significant differences between the groups, no matter what kind of previous knowledge they had acquired. This study demonstrates that the 'illusion of control' of pathological gamblers, attained by knowledge of the game and its latest data and information (especially in a strategic gamble as football betting), has no factual background. Moreover, our study demonstrates without a doubt that there is no significant difference between the male pathological sports gamblers group and the male/female laypersons group. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. DIFFERENCES IN THE LEVEL OF SITUATIONAL –MOTOR ABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT LEVEL COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 170 subjects, football players - senior citizens, aged 18-27 years from the territory of Montenegro.Utilizes a system of 16 variables, situational-motor abilities. Our aim was to determine the discriminatory ability of their rank according to the modalities of which belong to the players tested (second and third league competitions. Results of canonical discriminant analysis of the players in situational-motor variables that belong to different ranks of the competitions, significant at the .00 level. Therefore, we can speak of two quantitatively and qualitatively different groups of patients.

  9. The Sport League's Dilemma : Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it.Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either

  10. League Tables as Policy Instruments: Uses and Misuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Jamil; Saroyan, Alenoush

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the role and usefulness of league tables that are increasingly used to measure and compare the performance of tertiary education institutions. The article begins with a general overview and a typology of league tables. It continues with a discussion of the controversies they have generated, including the basis and the range…

  11. Stadium Relocation in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Lillo, Gonzalo Leal

    The aim of this paper is to conceptually illustrate the tension between commercialisation and club authenticity, which is a potential consequence of stadium relocation. There is a commercial pressure for relocating a football club to new and more modern facilities, but also a pressure from...

  12. The Football Team Composition Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantuso, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Most professional European football clubs are well-structured businesses. Therefore, the financial performance of investments in players becomes crucial. In this paper, after the problem is discussed and formalized, an optimization model with the objective of maximizing the expected value...

  13. Variability of aerobic abilities of football players during competition season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are differences in VO2max during one season in a team of semi-professional football players. This study will also determine the differences between groups, in relation to their position in the team, as well as in relation between the first team and the reserves. This study was conducted on a male football team, between 16 and 28 years of age and with no health problems, competing in a third-tier league. The technique employed is testing and the instrument is the Shuttle Run test that estimated their aerobic capacity. The testing was conducted indirectly during field tests at the beginning of the preparatory period, at the beginning of the competing period and at the end of the season. After a statistical analysis, it can be concluded that there are significant differences between the initial testing, control testing, and final testing. The initial testing was done at the beginning of the preparatory period and the results of the test ranged from 41.50 to 58.10 ml/kg/min. Then after six weeks, which was also right before the start of the competitive part of the season, the control testing was conducted and the results ranged from 46.90 to 62.30 ml/kg/min. Finally, at the end of the season, after all league matches had been played, the final testing was carried out and the results were obtained ranging from 43.80 to 62.00 ml/kg/min. All the testing was conducted on a sample of 31 players, where no relation was discovered between the status of the players at any of the three time points. However, there were some statistically significant differences from the aspect of the players' position but that is due to the goalkeepers being statistically different from the rest of the team. The cause of the differences in the obtained results are differences in intensity, volume and type of training depending on the stage of the season, as well as the specificity of training for the various positions in

  14. Betting, Forex Trading, and Fantasy Gaming Sponsorships-a Responsible Marketing Inquiry into the 'Gamblification' of English Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stimuli in the form of marketing inducements to gamble money on sports have increased in recent years. The purpose of the present paper is to tackle the extended definition of the gamblification of sport using sponsorship and partnership deals of gambling, forex trading, and fantasy gaming as a proxy for assessing its environmental impact. Using data about sponsorship deals from English Football Premier League, the paper builds on the evidence of English football's gamblification process to discuss the impact that the volume, penetration, and marketing strategies of sports betting might have on public health and well-being. Findings demonstrate that gambling marketing has become firmly embedded in the financial practices of many Premiership football clubs. It is argued that such associations are not trivial, and that the symbolic linkage of sport and newer gambling forms can become an issue of public health, especially affecting vulnerable groups such as minors and problem gamblers. The present study is the first to explore in-depth the relationship and potential consequences and psychosocial impacts of sports-related marketing, particularly in relation to football.

  15. Established – outsider relations in youth football tournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa; Agergaard, Sine; Maguire, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This article examines Scandinavian constructions and readings of potential football migrants from the African continent by providing an investigation of the dynamics and narratives surrounding African football teams’ participation in three youth football tournaments. Drawing on Elias and Scotson’...

  16. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    Full Text Available Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8% had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005, lower age (p < 0.001, attending a local derby (p < 0.001, alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001, attending a weekend match (p < 0.001, and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001. About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  17. The Countryside is Dry Firewood Ready to Burn. The Colombian Marxist-Leninist League, 1971-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Molano Camargo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a history of the Marxist-Leninist League of Colombia, a Maoist organization active during the 1970s and strongly linked to the struggle for land in different regions of the country, as part of the National Association of Peasant Smallholders (Asociación Nacional de Usuarios Campesinos–anuc. By discussing the readings that blame Maoism for the crisis of anuc in the mid-1970s and highlighting the contribution of the League to the formation of revolutionary peasant leaders, the article seeks to contribute to the study of the Colombian Maoist left. The paper also points out the difficulties and limitations faced by the protagonists in the attempt to grant continuity to their organizational project. The main sources used for the research were the memoirs of surviving League members, with press documents and literature on the historical context serving as secondary sources.

  18. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE REHABILITATION OF A COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYER FOLLOWING ANKLE FRACTURE: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Luis A; Kaplan, Lee D; Musto, Tony; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; Gailey, Robert S; Kelley, William P; Alemi, Timothy J; Espinosa, Braulio; Mandler, Eli; Scavo, Vincent A; West, Dustin C

    2016-06-01

    Multiple rehabilitation factors including overall wellness need to be considered when an athlete returns to sport after an injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe a multidisciplinary approach for return to sport of a Division I collegiate football player following a traumatic ankle fracture requiring surgical repair. The assessment and treatment approach included the use of a performance-based physical therapy outcome measure, self-reported functional abilities, body composition assessments, and nutritional counseling. A 21 year-old running back fractured his lateral malleolus due to a mechanism of injury of excessive eversion with external rotation of the ankle. Surgical intervention included an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of the fibula and syndesmosis. In addition to six months of rehabilitation, the patient received consultations from the team sports nutritionist specialist to provide dietary counseling and body composition testing. The Comprehensive High-level Activity Mobility Predictor-Sport (CHAMP-S), a performance-based outcome measure, self-report on the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI-ADL, FADI-S), and body composition testing using whole body densitometry (BOD POD®), were administered throughout rehabilitation. The subject was successfully rehabilitated, returned to his starting role, and subsequently was drafted by a National Football League (NFL) franchise. High-level mobility returned to above pre-injury values, achieving 105% of his preseason CHAMP-S score at discharge. Self-reported function on the FADI-ADL and FADI-Sport improved to 100% at discharge. Body fat percentages decreased (13.3% to 11.9%) and fat mass decreased (12.0 kg to 11.0kg). Lean body mass (78.1 kg to 81.5 kg) and lbm/in increased (1.14 kg/in to 1.19 kg/in). His BMI changed from 29.8 kg/m(2) to 30.6 kg/m(2). This case report illustrates the positive effects of a multidisciplinary approach where combining physical therapy and

  19. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE REHABILITATION OF A COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYER FOLLOWING ANKLE FRACTURE: A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D.; Musto, Tony; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A.; Gailey, Robert S.; Kelley, William P.; Alemi, Timothy J.; Espinosa, Braulio; Mandler, Eli; Scavo, Vincent A.; West, Dustin C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and Purpose Multiple rehabilitation factors including overall wellness need to be considered when an athlete returns to sport after an injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe a multidisciplinary approach for return to sport of a Division I collegiate football player following a traumatic ankle fracture requiring surgical repair. The assessment and treatment approach included the use of a performance-based physical therapy outcome measure, self-reported functional abilities, body composition assessments, and nutritional counseling. Case Description A 21 year-old running back fractured his lateral malleolus due to a mechanism of injury of excessive eversion with external rotation of the ankle. Surgical intervention included an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of the fibula and syndesmosis. In addition to six months of rehabilitation, the patient received consultations from the team sports nutritionist specialist to provide dietary counseling and body composition testing. The Comprehensive High-level Activity Mobility Predictor-Sport (CHAMP-S), a performance-based outcome measure, self-report on the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI-ADL, FADI-S), and body composition testing using whole body densitometry (BOD POD®), were administered throughout rehabilitation. Outcomes The subject was successfully rehabilitated, returned to his starting role, and subsequently was drafted by a National Football League (NFL) franchise. High-level mobility returned to above pre-injury values, achieving 105% of his preseason CHAMP-S score at discharge. Self-reported function on the FADI-ADL and FADI-Sport improved to 100% at discharge. Body fat percentages decreased (13.3% to 11.9%) and fat mass decreased (12.0 kg to 11.0kg). Lean body mass (78.1 kg to 81.5 kg) and lbm/in increased (1.14 kg/in to 1.19 kg/in). His BMI changed from 29.8 kg/m2 to 30.6 kg/m2. Discussion This case report illustrates the positive effects of a

  20. Whole-Person Impairment in Younger Retired NFL Players: The Orthopaedic Toll of a Professional Football Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; Carter, Chris; Finch, Nathan A; Hammarstedt, Jon E; Dunne, Kevin F; Stake, Christine E

    2014-05-01

    Professional American football is a physically demanding, high-impact sport with an elevated risk of injury. Orthopaedic injuries may impose acute, short-term or cumulative consequences throughout a player's lifetime. Several studies have addressed health and psychosocial concerns of an older, retired population of players in the National Football League (NFL); however, minimal research has examined the orthopaedic toll on younger, retired players. This study reports total whole-person impairment (WPI) percentages in a cohort of younger, retired NFL players who presented for disability evaluations based on the use of standardized American Medical Association (AMA) impairment guidelines. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. During the study period of February 2011 to August 2013, 65 younger retired NFL players presented for impairment evaluations. The mean time between retirement and impairment evaluation was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-16.4 years). A complete history and physical examination was performed on all symptomatic joints. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 100% of presenting players to assess orthopaedic burden. Body-part impairment (BPI) percentage for each affected joint was generated. The impairment data for each extremity were then combined with spine impairment data to create WPI percentage. Player demographics, including age, position, and playing time, were also recorded. The average WPI percentage was 37% (range, 19%-53%). Players participating in >30 games (n = 54) had a higher mean WPI percentage (38%) than those playing in 5 seasons (n = 46) were 2.4 times more likely to have a WPI of at least 37% (P = .007). The most common joints players reported as symptomatic were lumbar (n = 63; 97%) and cervical spine (n = 58; 89%). The mean age at evaluation was 33.5 years (range, 27-42 years), and the mean number of seasons played was 7.5 (range, 3-14 seasons). The mean number of games played was 98.4 (range, 2-236 games). This study demonstrated

  1. Influence of tactics efficiency on results in serbian soccer super league in season 2009/2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEKSANDAR JANKOVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This research aims to compare the expression of football teams tactics, with different levels ofperformance, defined on the basis of placement on the table, after a competitive season. More precisely, it isnecessary to determine whether and to what extent there are differences in the implementation of certain tacticalassets (features in the organization of successful attacks, among teams that are placed differently on the table.Methods. In the tactical analysis of expression of 12 teams divided into 3 groups based on placement on thetable a total of 228 games in the 2009/2010 Super League in Serbia were covered. The first group (G1 consistedof the teams that took the top four place in the standings, the second group (G2 teams that were placed from 7thto 11th place and a third group (G3 consisted of four last placed teams. Observed parameters are related to theefficiency of pass games and the structure of successful attacks, attacks that have been completed by a shot to thegoal. All observed parameters were conducted with specially made software, which is used to analyse footballgames.Results. By analysing the frequency of successful attacks, it was found that there is a statistically significantdifference in the number of successful attacks among the teams that are placed differently on the table (p =0.001, in favor of the better placed team. Also, the success of the attack, seen through their precision indicatesthe differences in their distribution (p = 0.025 among these groups. The results further suggest that the structureof attack is not related to the placement of the teams in the standings. However, the success of passing proved tobe an important factor in achieving a better placement (p = 0.004, and the distance from which kick is directedat goal (p = 0.021.Conclusion. The results of this study may help to identify those tactic features in football, which contribute toachieving better results.

  2. Epidemiological Patterns of Ankle Sprains in Youth, High School, and College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Daniel R; Koldenhoven, Rachel M; Hertel, Jay; Onate, James A; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-02-01

    Variations in ankle injury rates and distributions among competition levels are unclear, but such data may help inform strategies to prevent ankle sprains during American football. To describe the epidemiological patterns of ankle sprains in youth, high school (HS), and collegiate American football. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data regarding youth, HS, and college football athletes were collected from 3 injury surveillance programs: (1) the Youth Football Safety Study (YFSS), (2) the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION), and (3) the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP). During the 2012-2014 seasons, the YFSS, NATION, and NCAA ISP included 310, 184, and 71 football team-seasons, respectively. Athletic trainers (ATs) attended each practice and game and reported injuries and athlete-exposures (AEs) via their preferred injury documentation application. Ankle sprain rates for each type of ankle sprain were calculated overall, by event type (ie, practices and games), and specifically for severe injuries (ie, participation restriction time >21 days) and recurrent injuries (as defined by ATs). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare ankle sprain rates by competition level and event type. Injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were used to compare differences in severity, surgical needs, recurrence, injury mechanism, and injury activity by competition level. RRs and IPRs with 95% confidence intervals excluding 1.00 were considered statistically significant. A total of 124, 897, and 643 ankle sprains were reported in youth, HS, and college football, respectively. This led to respective rates of 0.59, 0.73, and 1.19 sprains per 1000 AEs. The ankle sprain rate in college football was higher than the rates in HS (RR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.48-1.82) and youth (RR = 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65-2.43) football. The proportion of ankle sprains that were recurrent in youth football was higher than the proportions in HS (IPR

  3. Position of women's football in the Czech Republic (Based on the example of women's football in the Pardubice Region)

    OpenAIRE

    Merklová, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Title: Position of women's football in the Czech Republic (Based on the example of women's football in the Pardubice Region) Objectives: The aim of the thesis is to describe the position of Czech women's football, map women's football in the Pardubice Region and find out female football players' opinions on women's football in the Czech Republic. Methods: An empirical research method is used in this thesis. The research was implemented by a paper-based questionnaire survey. The questionnaire ...

  4. Women, Football and History: International Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jean; Hess, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Special edition of the International Journal of the History of Sport The papers in this collection, however, have their focus on developments related to women and football that occur outside the locus of established scholarship. In particular, the studies concentrate on the geographic locations of New Zealand, Australia and the USA, and, unique for such a collection, the papers cover four major football codes. The investigations are also not limited to women playing football, but female sp...

  5. History of football club Sokol Slapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chroust, Luboš

    2013-01-01

    DIPLOMOVÁ PRÁCE Historie fotbalového klubu Sokol Slapy The history of football club Sokol Slapy Vedoucí práce: PaedDr. Ladislav Pokorný Autor: Bc. Luboš Chroust Title: The history of football club Sokol Slapy Anotation: This diploma thesis deals with the history of soccer club Slap, its operation and last, but not least it's successes in the field. Key words: history, Slapy, football, club

  6. Effects of expertise on football betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football (soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football, and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

  7. Effects of expertise on football betting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Billieux, Joël; Bizzini, Lucio; Monney, Grégoire; Fresard, Emmanuelle; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; El-Guebaly, Nady; Zullino, Daniele; Khan, Riaz

    2012-05-11

    Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of "illusion of control." The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the "illusion of control." Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

  8. Recommendations for the content and conduct of European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) musculoskeletal ultrasound courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naredo, E.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Conaghan, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To develop education guidelines for the conduct of future European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) courses. Methods: We undertook a consensus-based, iterative process using two consecutive questionnaires sent to 29 senior ultrasonographer rheumatolog......Objective: To develop education guidelines for the conduct of future European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) courses. Methods: We undertook a consensus-based, iterative process using two consecutive questionnaires sent to 29 senior ultrasonographer...... attending the intermediate and advanced courses. Conclusion: We have developed European agreed guidelines for the content and conduct of EULAR ultrasound courses, which may also be recommended to national and local MSUS training programmes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  9. Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts v. Bellotti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-07

    The Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts instituted a class action suit challenging the constitutionality of a statute requiring minors seeking an abortion to obtain parental consent or to persuade a judge of their maturity to give informed consent or that abortion would be in their best interest. In order to invoke judicial review, the plaintiffs moved their suit to federal court. The District Court dismissed the case on grounds that federal review power would interfere with state administration. On appeal, the First Circuit Court of Appeals decided that the plaintiffs could proceed with their action. The Circuit Court found that federal adjudication would not unduly interfere with state administration and remanded the case for further proceedings. Although it affirmed the statute's validity, the circuit court ruled that the plaintiffs must be allowed the opportunity to demonstrate the statute's unconstitutionality.

  10. Concurrent validation of an inertial measurement system to quantify kicking biomechanics in four football codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Stephanie; Duthie, Grant; Robertson, Sam; Hopkins, William; Ball, Kevin

    2018-05-17

    Wearable inertial measurement systems (IMS) allow for three-dimensional analysis of human movements in a sport-specific setting. This study examined the concurrent validity of a IMS (Xsens MVN system) for measuring lower extremity and pelvis kinematics in comparison to a Vicon motion analysis system (MAS) during kicking. Thirty footballers from Australian football (n = 10), soccer (n = 10), rugby league and rugby union (n = 10) clubs completed 20 kicks across four conditions. Concurrent validity was assessed using a linear mixed-modelling approach, which allowed the partition of between and within-subject variance from the device measurement error. Results were expressed in raw and standardised units for assessments of differences in means and measurement error, and interpreted via non-clinical magnitude-based inferences. Trivial to small differences were found in linear velocities (foot and pelvis), angular velocities (knee, shank and thigh), sagittal joint (knee and hip) and segment angle (shank and pelvis) means (mean difference: 0.2-5.8%) between the IMS and MAS in Australian football, soccer and the rugby codes. Trivial to small measurement errors (from 0.1 to 5.8%) were found between the IMS and MAS in all kinematic parameters. The IMS demonstrated acceptable levels of concurrent validity compared to a MAS when measuring kicking biomechanics across the four football codes. Wearable IMS offers various benefits over MAS, such as, out-of-laboratory testing, larger measurement range and quick data output, to help improve the ecological validity of biomechanical testing and the timing of feedback. The results advocate the use of IMS to quantify biomechanics of high-velocity movements in sport-specific settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ELITE JUNIOR AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALLERS DURING MATCH-PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Veale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian Football (AF is Australia's major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR, Blood Lactate (BLa, Core Temperature (Tcore, and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007. Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001 with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001. This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches.

  12. Evaluation of football players’ power during a maturation period by use the RAST test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sieroń

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract          Introduction: Properly planned and implemented training cycle should influence the development      of motor skills, responsible for anaerobic work. The ability to quickly achieve and maintain high power is crucial to the final success of football (Stankiewicz               i Cieślicka, 2013. Performing     a specific test several Times, during preparation for the league games, gives the coaches and instructors of the sport the ability to dispense appropriate training loads, before the start and during the game. Moreover, they can freely watching the progress of the pupil. An athlete who, under intense effort, will reach high speeds with a low power loss, will achieve a high level of tolerance to fatigue. The ability to rapidly speed up and to multiple repetition of this activity, is now the basic requirement of most sports, such as football, basketball, handball, athletics, tennis and more.          The aim of the study is to assess the power of football players of different ages with the RAST test. In addition, relative power will be tested with reference to the body weight of the subjects.         Conclusion: By analyzing the study population, it can be concluded that body mass is significantly dominant in the group of high school students, which undoubtedly influences their ability to gain more power. Furthermore, taking into account the results of the relativized power, it has to be stated, that after weight loss relative power is also significantly dominant in high school students, which is evidence for their more advanced biological development and the impact of football training on the obtained results.

  13. Interchange rotation factors and player characteristics influence physical and technical performance in professional Australian Rules football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Patrick A; Kempton, Thomas; Ryan, Samuel; Hocking, Joel; Coutts, Aaron J

    2018-03-01

    To examine the effects of match-related and individual player characteristics on activity profile and technical performance during rotations in professional Australian football. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system data and player rating scores were collected from 33 professional Australian football players during 15 Australian football League matches. Player rating scores were time aligned with their relative total and high-speed running (HSR) distance (>20kmh -1 ) for each on ground rotation. Individual players' maximal aerobic running speed (MAS) was determined from a two-kilometre trial. A multilevel linear mixed model was used to examine the influence of rotations on physical activity profiles and skill execution during match play. Rotation duration and accumulated distance resulted in a trivial-to-moderate reduction in relative total and HSR distances as well as relative rating points. The number of disposals in a rotation had a small positive effect on relative total and HSR distances and a large positive effect on relative rating points. MAS was associated with a moderate-to-large increase in relative total distance, but had a large negative effect on relative rating points. Previous rotation time, stoppages and the number of rotations in the quarter had a trivial-to-small negative effect on relative total and HSR distances. A greater speed (mmin -1 ) was associated with a trivial increase in rating points during a rotation, while there was a trivial decrease in relative total distance as rating points increased. The complex relationship between factors that influence activity profile and technical performance during rotations in Australian football needs to be considered when interpreting match performance. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  15. The relative age effect in a professional football club setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Vaeyens, Roel; Matthys, Stijn P J; Santisteban, Juanma; Goiriena, Juan; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2009-09-01

    The relative age effect is an uneven distribution of birth date favouring subjects born in the initial months of a selection year. This study compared the birth-date distributions between several subgroups of Basque football players to identify whether the relative age effect is influenced by age and/or skill level. The study comprised 13,519 players including 114 senior professionals from the Spanish league's AC Bilbao over 21 seasons; over the season 2005-2006, it comprised elite youth (n=189) from the same club's academy; regional youth (n=4382) U11-U14 locally federated players; school youth (n=8834) U10-U11 locally registered school district players. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Basque male population. Significant chi-square values were followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the quartile and half-year distributions to examine subgroup differences in the relative age effect. Birth-date distributions of all groups of players showed a significant bias towards early birth in the selection year compared with the reference population (senior, chi-2(3) = 24.4, P talent.

  16. GAME-RELATED STATISTICS THAT DISCRIMINATED WINNING, DRAWING AND LOSING TEAMS FROM THE SPANISH SOCCER LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lago-Peñas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze men's football competitions, trying to identify which game-related statistics allow to discriminate winning, drawing and losing teams. The sample used corresponded to 380 games from the 2008-2009 season of the Spanish Men's Professional League. The game-related statistics gathered were: total shots, shots on goal, effectiveness, assists, crosses, offsides commited and received, corners, ball possession, crosses against, fouls committed and received, corners against, yellow and red cards, and venue. An univariate (t-test and multivariate (discriminant analysi