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Sample records for national emission standards

  1. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards for Hazardous... proposed rule titled, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers...

  2. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  3. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali...-5] RIN 2060-AN99 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental...

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). At the NLVF, parts of Building A-1 were contaminated with tritium by a previous contractor in 1995. The incident involved the release of tritium as HTO. This unusual occurrence led to a very small potential exposure to an offsite person. The HTO emission has continued at lower levels (probably re-emanation from building materials), even after cleanup activities in November and December 1997. A description of the incident and the potential effective dose equivalent (EDE) for offsite exposure are set forth in Appendix A

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T 2 O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

  6. 1990 INEL national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency issued on December 15, 1989 final rules governing air emissions of radionuclides. Requirements concerning radionuclide emissions from Department of Energy Facilities are addressed under Title 40, Code Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities.'' Section 61.94 of the regulations require that each DOE facility submit on an annual basis a report documenting compliance with the Subpart H requirements. This report addresses the section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for calendar year 1990. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy is the primary contact concerning NESHAPs compliance at the INEL

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE's Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP's worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

  8. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  9. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...-AO55 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY... the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now... signed a final rule amending the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum...

  10. 77 FR 33811 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  11. 77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production Risk and Technology Review..., Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass...

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale 'background levels' or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius

  13. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance...

  14. Miscellaneous Coating Manufacturing: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for miscellaneous coating manufacturing. Includes summary, rule history, compliance and implementation information, federal registry citations.

  15. Reinforced Plastic Composites Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for reinforced plastic composites production facilities. Regulates production and ancillary processes used to manufacture products with thermoset resins and gel coats.

  16. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit comment on specific issues...

  17. 76 FR 9409 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Primary Lead Smelting to address the results of the...

  18. Ethylene Oxide Emissions Standards for Sterilization Facilities: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for ethylene oxide emissions for sterilization facilities. Find the rule history information, federal register citations, legal authority, and related rules as well as a rule summary.

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  20. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This direct final action amends certain... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  1. Pesticide Active Ingredient Production Industry: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the pesticide active ingredient (PAI) production source category under section 112 of the Clean Air Act as amended (CAA or Act).

  2. Primary Aluminum Reduction Industry - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for each new or existing potline, paste production operation, and anode bake furnace associated with a primary aluminum reduction plant. Includes rule history, implementation information and additional resources.

  3. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3). Inadvertently...

  4. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two petitions for reconsideration... Any industry using a stationary 2211 Electric power reciprocating internal generation, combustion...

  5. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule... reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  6. Cellulose Products Manufacturing: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Cellulose Products Manufacturing, see the rule history for this Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), and find Compliance help for this source.

  7. 77 FR 73968 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...; FRL-9762-1] RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National... Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Coal... November 30, 2012, proposed ``Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National...

  8. 77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...-AQ93 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants,'' which was... Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants'' under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR...

  9. 77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... and 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of... manufacturing plants. Federal government Not affected. State/local/tribal government.... Portland cement...

  10. Subpart W: National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Operating Mill Tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subpart W limits the radon-222 emissions rate from uranium tailings piles to 20 picocuries per square meter per second and requires that new tailings impoundments meet certain work practice standards.

  11. 76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Production, Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Production, Polybutadiene Rubber Production, Polysulfide Rubber..., Epichlorohydrin Elastomers, Neoprene Rubber, and NBR source categories will not require additional control to meet... Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber Production, Epichlorohydrin Elastomers...

  12. 75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production... published a proposed rule for mercury emissions from the gold mine ore processing and production area source... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances, Incorporations by reference, Reporting...

  13. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants submittal - 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in 1996 were releases from the following: evaporation of tritiated water from containment ponds that receive drainage from E tunnel and from wells used for site characterization studies; onsite radioanalytical laboratories; the Area 5 RWMS facility; and diffuse sources of tritium and resuspension of plutonium. Section 1 describes these sources on the NTS. Section 2 tabulates the air emissions data for the NTS. These data are used to calculate the effective dose equivalents to offsite residents. Appendices describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources listed

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  18. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9756-4] RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule...

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km 2 (1,375 mi 2 ), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Y. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a

  5. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Ronald; Grossman, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo

  6. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Construction Approval to Energy Fuels for Tailings Cell A and the Phase I Evaporation Ponds at the proposed Pi[ntilde]on Ridge Uranium Mill. Tailings Cell A and the Phase I Evaporation Ponds are regulated under 40... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9649-9] Radionuclide National Emission Standards for...

  7. 77 FR 72294 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0234; EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0044; FRL-9733-2] RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating...

  8. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production AGENCY... for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the deadline for written comments... from the Aluminum Association. The Aluminum Association has requested the extension in order to allow...

  9. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9244-2] RIN 2060-AP36 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines and requesting public comment on one issue arising from the final rule. Specifically, EPA...

  10. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  11. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Lime Manufacturing Background Information Document (BID): Public Comments and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 20, 2002, the EPA proposed national emission standards for HAP emissions from lime manufacturing plants located at major source facilities (67 FR 78046). Summaries of the comments, and the EPA's responses, are presented in this BID.

  13. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  14. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions

  15. 77 FR 58219 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... for public health and the environment by reducing emissions of hexavalent chromium (a known human... alternatives to PFOS-based WAFS had been successfully used in the hard and decorative chrome source categories... the number of people exposed to risks greater than 1-in-1 million due to emissions of hexavalent...

  16. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  17. 76 FR 70833 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Primary Lead Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... INFORMATION: For specific information regarding the modeling methodology, contact Dr. Michael Stewart, Office... there is a malfunction, the emission limitation is still enforceable through injunctive relief. While... (GEP) stack height of 330 feet (as was done in the SIP and in modeling submitted by the Doe Run Company...

  18. 75 FR 41991 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act... confidential business information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Do not... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National Technology...

  19. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-01-01

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information

  20. Industrial Process Cooling Towers: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standards limiting discharge of chromium compound air emissions from industrial process cooling towers (IPCT's). Includes rule history, Federal Registry citations, implementation information and additional resources.

  1. Interpretation of Series National Standards of China on “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting and Reporting for Enterprises”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zong, Jianfang; Guo, Huiting; Sun, Liang; Liu, Mei

    2018-05-01

    Standardization is playing an increasingly important role in reducing greenhouse gas emission and in climatic change adaptation, especially in the “three” greenhouse gas emission aspects (measurement, report, verification). Standardization has become one of the most important ways in mitigating the global climate change. Standardization Administration of China (SAC) has taken many productive measures in actively promoting standardization work to cope with climate change. In April 2014, SAC officially approved the establishment of “National Carbon Emission Management Standardization Technical Committee” In November 2015, SAC officially issued the first 11 national standards on carbon management including > and the requirements of the greenhouse gas emissions accounting and reporting in 10 sectors including power generation, power grid, iron and steel, chemical engineering, electrolytic aluminum, magnesium smelting, plate glass, cement, ceramics and civil aviation, which proposes unified requirements of “what to calculate and how to calculate” the greenhouse gas emission for enterprises. This paper focuses on the detailed interpretation of the main contents of the first 11 national standards, so as to provide technical supports for users of the standards and to comprehensively promote the emission reduction of greenhouse gas at the enterprise level.

  2. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Response to... by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source Performance Standards for Portland Cement Plants...

  3. 76 FR 52737 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... quality impacts? D. What are the water quality and solid waste impacts? E. What are the secondary impacts... Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act J... Achievable Emission Rate lb Pounds LDAR Leak Detection and Repair MACT Maximum Achievable Control Technology...

  4. 78 FR 38001 - Reconsideration of Certain Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ..., FRL-9827-1] RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission... published in the Federal Register the proposed rule, ``Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup....'' That proposal opened for reconsideration certain issues, including those related to startup and...

  5. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST... parties interested in commenting must do so at this time. For further information, please see the... chromium anodizing sources, as those sources are subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart N, ``Chromium Emissions...

  6. 77 FR 49489 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ..., centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors, pneumatic controllers and storage vessels. This action... organic compound (VOC) emissions from gas wells, centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors... emissions from wet seal centrifugal compressors located between the wellhead and the point at which the gas...

  7. 75 FR 54969 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of... (NESHAP) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and to the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS...

  8. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company's management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring

  9. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  10. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  11. National Emission Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajtakova, E.; Spisakova, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation the Slovak National Emission Information System (NEIS) is presented. The NEIS represents hierarchical oriented modular system of acquisition, verification, saving and reporting of data about annual emissions and payments for pollution of atmosphere

  12. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... firms to operate and maintain the emissions control systems. Consistent with the legislative history, we... stores/malls, laundries, apartments, restaurants, and hotels/motels. The institutional boiler source...

  13. 77 FR 14324 - National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings-Addition of Dimethyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    .... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and... information claimed to be confidential business information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is... That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National Technology Transfer and...

  14. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY... hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the EPA received three petitions for...

  15. 76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY...) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance (NSPS) for Portland Cement... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No...

  16. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL TO EMIT CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EARLEY JN

    2008-07-23

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year.

  17. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H; RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL-TO-EMIT CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EARLEY JN

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year

  18. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  19. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr

  20. 76 FR 76259 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene...). The rule is applicable to facilities with affected sources associated with the production of aluminum... are subject to the requirements of this NESHAP: 14 primary aluminum production plants and one carbon...

  1. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... small coal-fired units (i.e., with a design heat input capacity of less than 10 MMBtu/hr) are subject to... existing area source coal-fired boilers with heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater may need to... most emissions from area source boilers, two pollutants emitted by coal-fired boilers, POM as 7-PAH and...

  2. National Emission Inventory (NEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...

  3. 76 FR 72769 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    .... \\4\\ Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition v. EPA, 255 F.3d 855 (DC Cir. 2001) (per curiam). \\5\\ National... insulation and bonded heavy- density products.'' The MACT rule for the Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing source...

  4. Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find regulatory information regarding the NESHAP for Aerospace manufacturing and rework facilities. This page contains the rule summary, rule history, and related rules and additional resources for this standard.

  5. 77 FR 55698 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... third parties,' such as strikes, sabotage, operator intoxication or insanity, and a variety of other... could lead to standards that are significantly less stringent than levels that are achieved by a well...

  6. 75 FR 32005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Manufacturers of motor vehicle parts and accessories. 221 Electric, gas, and sanitary services. 622 Health...)) vacating and remanding CAA section 112(d) MACT standards for the Brick and Structural Clay Ceramics source...

  7. Emission- and product standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, P. de

    1988-01-01

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an inventarization of the use of radioactive materials and ionizing-radiation emitting apparates in the Netherlands. Ch. 2 deals with the varous applications of radioactive materials in the Netherlands. Herein also the numbers and the various locations by application, and the amounts and character of the radioactive materials used, come under discussion. Besides, the various waste currents are considered separately. The use of ionizing-radiation emitting apparates is treated in ch. 3. In ch. 4 the differences and agreements of the various applications, concentrating on the emission and product standards to be drawn up, are entered further. Also on the base of these considerations, a number of starting points are formulated with regard to the way in which emission and product standards may be drawn up. Ch. 7 deals with the conclusions and indicates the most important hiates. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

  8. 76 FR 29031 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry BACT best available control technology BLDS bag leak... ODW Office of Drinking Water OECA Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance OHEA Office of Health... Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act J...

  9. 78 FR 6673 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ..., Energy and Economic Impacts A. What are the air quality impacts? B. What are the cost impacts? C. What... will assist in stabilizing the grid during periods of instability, preventing electrical blackouts and... important programs that protect the reliability and stability of the national electric service grid. The use...

  10. 77 FR 11390 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Source Categories. Subpart ZZZZZZ--NESHAP: Area Source Standards for Aluminum, Copper, and Other... Perchloroethylene Dry X X X Cleaning. N Hard and Decorative X X X Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing... Publishing X X X Industry. LL Primary Aluminum Reduction X X Plants. MM Chemical Recovery X X Combustion...

  11. 76 FR 2860 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0051, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington...

  12. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... `uncontrollable acts of third parties,' such as strikes, sabotage, operator intoxication or insanity, and a... accounting for malfunctions could lead to standards that are significantly less stringent than levels that...) to eliminate redundancy. 40 CFR 63.11494(c)(1)(vii) We are adding a new paragraph that lists lead...

  13. 78 FR 10005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    .... Open Clinker Storage Piles IV. Summary of Major Changes Since Proposal A. PM Parametric Monitoring B. Scaling for Continuous Parametric Monitoring of THC for Alternative OHAP Standard C. Work Practice... parametric monitoring system D/F dioxins and furans EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESP Electrostatic...

  14. 78 FR 66107 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Residual Risk and Technology Review for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... estimate VCS voluntary consensus standards WWW world wide web Organization of this Document. The... oxidizer RTR residual risk and technology review SAB Science Advisory Board SBA Small Business... acceptable in the world in which we live'' (Risk Report at 178, quoting NRDC v. EPA, 824 F.2d 1146, 1165 (D.C...

  15. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... During Periods of Startup, Shutdown and Malfunctions (SSM) VI. Requirements for Metal HAP Process Vents A. Definition of Metal HAP Process Vent B. Metal HAP Process Vent Standards VII. Technical Corrections and...: Chromium Compounds, Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, Paint and Allied Coatings and Mercury...

  16. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... 331492 0205 \\a\\ North American Industry Classification System. \\b\\ Maximum Achievable Control Technology... protective. NRDC v. EPA, 529 F.3d 1077, 1083 (DC Cir. 2008). On May 19, 2011, the EPA published a proposed... dioxin formation. Finalizing work practice standards for mercury. Revising the requirements in the NESHAP...

  17. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (''D'') Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ''D'' pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range[NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a

  19. National pollutants emission limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Pawelec, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  20. National pollutants emission limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Pawelec, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  1. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks

  2. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

  3. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  4. [Study on emission standard system of air pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Ren, Chun

    2012-12-01

    Scientific and reasonable emission standard system of air pollutants helps to systematically control air pollution, enhance the protection of the atmospheric environment effect and improve the overall atmospheric environment quality. Based on the study of development, situation and characteristics of national air pollutants emission standard system, the deficiencies of system were pointed out, which were not supportive, harmonious and perfect, and the improvement measures of emission standard system were suggested.

  5. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  6. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, D A

    1992-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA).

  7. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA)

  8. 76 FR 57105 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... CFR Parts 523, 534, and 535 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for...-2010-0079; FRL-9455-1] RIN 2060-AP61; 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency... Heavy-Duty National Program that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption for on-road...

  9. Activity and gamma-ray emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debertin, K.

    1983-01-01

    The standards made available by PTB are standards defined with regard to their activity A. If standard and measuring sample do not contain the same nuclide, the comparison with the standard is made via the emission rate R of the photons of a given energy. For this comparison, the value recommended by PTB for PTB standards should be used, as this value in many cases has been derived by emission rate measurements on specimens whose activity has been directly correlated with the activity of the standards released. (orig./DG) [de

  10. Regulatory impact analysis of national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for by-product coke oven charging, door leaks, and topside leaks. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    Under the authority of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, a Natioal Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants is proposed to control emissions from By-product Coke Oven Charging, door leaks, and topside leaks. Because the EPA considers the regulation for By-product Coke Oven batteries to be a major rule, the attached Regulatory Impact Analysis was prepared to fulfill the requirements of E012291. The document reviews the need for regulation, control techniques, regulatory options, costs of control, economic impacts, benefits of the regulation, and compares benefits and costs associated with the regulation

  11. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  12. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  13. The Problem of National Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Lil

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the development of national standards is another way in which the literacy crisis is being managed and maintained, a crisis arising from the tension between America's promise to the individual that he or she will have full access to intellectual resources and the needs of capitalism to have a differentiated, stratified workforce. (TB)

  14. 77 FR 51499 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 [NHTSA 2012-0126] RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium... purpose of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because the GHG standards fundamentally regulate fuel...

  15. 75 FR 25323 - Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Highway... reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint Final Rule is consistent with the...

  16. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines: Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is amending the existing emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for new commercial aircraft engines. These standards are equivalent to the NOx emission standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  17. 76 FR 22342 - National Standard 10 Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    .... 110218147-1199-01] RIN 0648-BA74 National Standard 10 Guidelines AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... comment on potential adjustments to the National Standard 10 Guidelines. DATES: Written comments regarding... advisory guidelines (which shall not have the force and effect of law), based on the national standards to...

  18. The national standards program for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    In 1970 a standards committee called ANS-15 was established by the American Nuclear Society (ANS) to prepare appropriate standards for research reactors. In addition, ANS acts as Secretariat for a national standards committee N17 which is responsible to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for the national consensus efforts for standards related to research reactors. To date ANS-15 has completed or is working on 14 standards covering all aspects of the operation of research reactors. Of the 11 research reactor standards submitted to the ANSI N17 Committee since its inception, six have been issued as National standards, and the remaining are still in the process of review. (author)

  19. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  20. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plants. 61.63 Section 61.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any...

  1. 76 FR 59922 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 [NHTSA 2010-0079; EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9455-1] RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel... comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions...

  2. 40 CFR 205.52 - Vehicle noise emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle noise emission standards. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.52 Vehicle noise emission standards. (a) Low Speed Noise Emission Standard. Vehicles which are manufactured after...

  3. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  4. Establishing National Carbon Emission Prices for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T.K. Mai (Te-Ke); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of the paper is to establish national carbon emissions prices for the People’s Republic of China, which is one of the world’s largest producers of carbon emissions. Several measures have been undertaken to address climate change in China, including the establishment of a

  5. 40 CFR 89.120 - Compliance with emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). (c) For each nonroad engine family, except Tier 1 engine families with rated power at or above 37 kW... representing an engine family have emissions less than or equal to each emission standard, that family complies with the emission standards. (b) If any test engine representing an engine family has emissions greater...

  6. 40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... locomotives in the engine family are designed to operate. (1) You must meet the numerical emission standards... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.101... following is true: (i) The same emission controls are applied during the test conditions causing the...

  7. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  8. 40 CFR 61.62 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission... dichloride purification. The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in ethylene dichloride purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for 3-hour period), except as...

  9. National standards for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.; Corbin, L.T.

    1981-01-01

    Standards needs for the nuclear industry are being met by a number of voluntary organizations, such as ANS, ASTM, AWS, ASME, and IEEE. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) coordinates these activities and approves completed standards as American National Standards. ASTM has two all-nuclear committees, E-10 and C-26. A C-26 subcommittee, Test Methods, has been active in writing analytical chemistry standards for twelve years. Thirteen have been approved as ANSI standards and others are ready for ballot. Work is continuing in all areas of the nuclear fuel cycle

  10. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  11. Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Direct Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule will adopt the current voluntary NOx and CO emissions standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), bringing the United States aircraft standards into alignment with the international standards.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  14. 14 CFR 34.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.11 Standard for fuel venting emissions. (a) No fuel venting emissions shall be discharged into the atmosphere from any new or in-use aircraft gas... include one of the following: (1) Incorporation of an FAA-approved system that recirculates the fuel back...

  15. National Framework for GHG Emission Trading in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.; Nikitina, E.

    2003-01-01

    If Russia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), domestic implementation of its international commitments under this international regime will require special national responses, i.e. institutional capacity building for application of its mechanisms. The Kyoto Protocol and its mechanisms, particularly, international emission trading (IET) and joint implementation (JI), mark a turning point, with opportunities for Russia to benefit from an economic and environmental standpoint from international cooperation. Russia might wish to sell to other parties a surplus in its assigned amount for the first commitment period in 2008-2012, as according to existing estimates its GHG emissions are expected to be below their 1990 base level. In order to participate in international emission trading, Russia has to meet several international requirements, including providing national inventory and reporting and establishing national registry compatible with the standard international format. It is to establish a domestic institutional regime defining laws and rules of behaviour for its participants, the administrative frameworks, and designing major schemes for domestic emission trading programme. Russia's emission trading system is not formed yet. This is a challenging innovation for Russia, as in its previous environmental management practices it did not have any experience in domestic emission trading with other air pollutants. The paper examines the key elements suggested in a number of existing proposals, assessments, and approaches of the government, parliamentarians and non-governmental experts for its institutional design which is at the core of ongoing climate policy debates in the country. These approaches and practical suggestions define the current state-of-the-art in domestic emission trading regime formation and channel the paths of its institutional development in the future. This paper analyses peculiarities

  16. Developing a 'Research Test Bed' to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's 'clean and green' image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water and Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal 'vehicle emissions research environment' supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  17. National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula" attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best…

  18. Towards Verifying National CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, I. Y.; Wuerth, S. M.; Anderson, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    With the Paris Agreement, nations around the world have pledged their voluntary reductions in future CO2 emissions. Satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 have the potential to verify self-reported emission statistics around the globe. We present a carbon-weather data assimilation system, wherein raw weather observations together with satellite observations of the mixing ratio of column CO2 from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 are assimilated every 6 hours into the NCAR carbon-climate model CAM5 coupled to the Ensemble Kalman Filter of DART. In an OSSE, we reduced the fossil fuel emissions from a country, and estimated the emissions innovations demanded by the atmospheric CO2 observations. The uncertainties in the innovation are analyzed with respect to the uncertainties in the meteorology to determine the significance of the result. The work follows from "On the use of incomplete historical data to infer the present state of the atmosphere" (Charney et al. 1969), which maps the path for continuous data assimilation for weather forecasting and the five decades of progress since.

  19. New national emission inventory for navigation in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Morten

    standards for navigation, in order to gain emission improvements in line with those achieved for other mobile sources. The new fuel consumption estimates for national sea transport are regarded as much more accurate than the DEA fuel sales data used previously, and the recommendation for DEA is to replace their current fuel sales figures by the new estimates calculated in this project. Such updated fuel consumption time series for national sea transport will lead, in turn, to changes in the energy statistics for fisheries (gas oil) and industry (heavy fuel oil), so the national energy balance can remain unchanged. For international transport, fuel sales data as such are regarded as highly accurate for Denmark, since they are compiled from audited information from the Danish oil suppliers, and the inventory approach follows good practice for the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Changes (UNFCCC) and United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) convention, when fleet activity data are missing. However, in order to make inventory upgrades and to support Danish policymakers in bunker emissions allocation, fleet activity-based estimates calculated in a further project would be useful.

  20. CO2 emission standards and investment in carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, Jan; Sisternes, Fernando J. de; Herzog, Howard J.; Webster, Mort D.

    2014-01-01

    Policy makers in a number of countries have proposed or are considering proposing CO 2 emission standards for new fossil fuel-fired power plants. The proposed standards require coal-fired power plants to have approximately the same carbon emissions as an uncontrolled natural gas-fired power plant, effectively mandating the adoption of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for new coal plants. However, given the uncertainty in the capital and operating costs of a commercial scale coal plant with CCS, the impact of such a standard is not apparent a priori. We apply a stochastic generation expansion model to determine the impact of CO 2 emission standards on generation investment decisions, and in particular for coal plants with CCS. Moreover, we demonstrate how the incentive to invest in coal-CCS from emission standards depends on the natural gas price, the CO 2 price, and the enhanced oil recovery price, as well as on the level of the emission standard. This analysis is the first to consider the entire power system and at the same time allow the capture percentage for CCS plants to be chosen from a continuous range to meet the given standard at minimum cost. Previous system level studies have assumed that CCS plants capture 90% of the carbon, while studies of individual units have demonstrated the costs of carbon capture over a continuous range. We show that 1) currently proposed levels of emission standards are more likely to shift fossil fuel generation from coal to natural gas rather than to incentivize investment in CCS; 2) tighter standards that require some carbon reductions from natural gas-fired power plants are more likely than proposed standards to incentivize investments in CCS, especially on natural gas plants, but also on coal plants at high gas prices; and 3) imposing a less strict emission standard (emission rates higher than natural gas but lower than coal; e.g., 1500 lbs/MWh) is more likely than current proposals to incentivize

  1. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  2. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources

  3. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  4. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  5. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-27

    Tom Wenzel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicle, specifically on the relationship between vehicle weight and vehicle safety.

  6. National standards for high school psychology curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best of teachers to present all of psychology in a single course for students who begin with virtually no formal knowledge of psychology. The standards presented here constitute the first of two reports in this issue of the American Psychologist (January 2013) representing recent American Psychological Association (APA) policies that support high-quality instruction in the teaching of high school psychology. These standards provide curricular benchmarks for student learning in the high school course.

  7. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...... inventory is able to take into account the data requirements of air quality models...

  8. National emissions from tourism: An overlooked policy challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gössling, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Tourism has been recognized as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sector on a global scale. Yet, only few studies assess tourism's share in national emissions. This paper compares and analyses existing inventories of national emissions from tourism. Studies are difficult to compare, because they use different system boundaries and allocation principles, omitting or including lifecycle emissions and GHG other than CO 2 . By outlining and analysing these differences, the paper estimates the contribution made by tourism to national emissions, and its greenhouse gas intensity in comparison to other economic sectors. Results indicate that while emissions from tourism are significant in all countries studied, they may, in some countries, exceed ‘official' emissions as calculated on the basis of guidelines for national emission inventories under the Kyoto Protocol. This is a result of the fact that bunker fuels are not considered in national GHG inventories, leading to underestimates of the energy- and GHG intensity of tourism economies. While further growth in tourism emissions can be expected in all countries studied, energy-related vulnerabilities are already considerable in many of these. Climate policy for tourism, on the other hand, is largely non-existent, calling for immediate action to consider this sector in national legislation. - Highlights: • Emissions from tourism are equivalent to 5–150% of ’official’ national emissions. • Inconsistent methods are used to calculate national tourism emissions. • Tourism is an energy-intense economic sector compared to other sectors. • Emissions from tourism are growing rapidly. • National policy is not concerned with tourism-related emissions

  9. 76 FR 30308 - National Standard 10 Guidelines; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Standard 10 Guidelines; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... to the National Standard 10 (NS10) Guidelines and announced a public meeting to be held on May 19... presentations will be given on the National Standard 10 ANPR. The public will be allowed to comment at the...

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  12. Why We Should Establish a National System of Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennen, Thomas J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the need to establish a national system of standards for public libraries. Discusses local standards, state standards, and international standards, and suggests adopting a tiered approach including three levels: minimum standards; target standards; and benchmarking standards, as found in total quality management. (LRW)

  13. Cross-Referencing National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education with National Standards in Personal Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education correlate with National Standards in Personal Finance Education. A content analysis revealed that the National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education, established by the National Business Education Association…

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-01-01

    Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided

  15. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  16. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)

  17. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  18. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2014 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2014 from PNNL Campus sources is 2E 05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 3E-6 mrem (3E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-6 mrem (1E-8 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2014. The total radiological dose for 2014 to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 3E-5 mrem (3E-7 mSv) EDE, or more than 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2015 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI from routine major and minor point source emissions in 2015 from PNNL Campus sources is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 1.8E-6 mrem (1.8E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 4.4E-8 mrem (4.4E-10 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2015. The total radiological dose to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE, or more than 10,000 times less than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, with which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  20. Modeling a clean energy standard for electricity: Policy design implications for emissions, supply, prices, and regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Anthony; Palmer, Karen; Woerman, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The electricity sector is responsible for roughly 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and a reduction in CO 2 emissions from electricity generation is an important component of the U.S. strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Toward that goal, several proposals for a clean energy standard (CES) have been put forth, including one espoused by the Obama administration that calls for 80% clean electricity by 2035 phased in from current levels of roughly 40%. This paper looks at the effects of such a policy on CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector, the mix of technologies used to supply electricity, electricity prices, and regional flows of clean energy credits. The CES leads to a 30% reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions between 2013 and 2035 and results in dramatic reductions in generation from conventional coal. The policy also results in fairly modest increases on national electricity prices, but this masks a wide variety of effects across regions. - Highlights: ► We model a clean energy standard (CES) for electricity at 80% by 2035. ► We analyze effects on CO 2 emissions, investment, prices, and credit trading. ► 80% CES leads to 30% reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions by 2035. ► Modest national average electricity price increase masks regional heterogeneity

  1. Standardized emissions inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jose I; Camacho, Dumar A; Huertas, Maria E

    2011-08-01

    There is still interest in a unified methodology to quantify the mass of particulate material emitted into the atmosphere by activities inherent to open-pit mining. For the case of total suspended particles (TSP), the current practice is to estimate such emissions by developing inventories based on the emission factors recommended by the USEPA for this purpose. However, there are disputes over the specific emission factors that must be used for each activity and the applicability of such factors to cases quite different to the ones under which they were obtained. There is also a need for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) emission inventories and for metrics to evaluate the emission control programs implemented by open-pit mines. To address these needs, work was carried out to establish a standardized TSP and PM(10) emission inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to seven of the eight mining companies operating in the northern part of Colombia, home to the one of the world's largest open-pit coal mining operations (∼70 Mt/year). The results obtained show that transport on unpaved roads is the mining activity that generates most of the emissions and that the total emissions may be reduced up to 72% by spraying water on the unpaved roads. Performance metrics were defined for the emission control programs implemented by mining companies. It was found that coal open-pit mines are emitting 0.726 and 0.180 kg of TSP and PM(10), respectively, per ton of coal produced. It was also found that these mines are using on average 1.148 m(2) of land per ton of coal produced per year.

  2. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  3. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources

  4. National treatment in international trade: National law and international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the principle of national treatment, namely one of the basic principles of international trade. The objective is to determine its outreach and contents set in the forms of international trade organising, primarily in the World Trade Organization, from a legal perspective, naturally, all in the context of the Serbian law. The analysis that has been carried out indicates that there is an obvious intention of our legislators to harmonise in principle our legislation with the WTO requirements and standards, which are incomplete themselves and cause disputes that are not resolved in the practice of dispute resolving either entirely or consistently. In our law, a step forward has been made in relation to the situation from the previous relevant legislation, because the application of this principle is extended not only to trade with goods but also to trade with services, and to industrial property rights. However, in the most significant, basic field, namely trade with goods, it is still being done in a general way, by simplifying the entire topic and bringing it down only to protection against discrimination and neglecting the sphere of protectionism. Such acting does not include all the complexity of this matter and it is not entirely harmonised with the WTO requirements. However, a good side of such an approach is that it gives the state more freedom for acting in this sphere, which may be acceptable in the transition period until full membership of Serbia in this organization.

  5. Implementation of sum-peak method for standardization of positron emission radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is being increasingly recognized as an important quantitative imaging tool for diagnosis and assessing response to therapy. As correct dose administration plays a crucial part in nuclear medicine, it is important that the instruments used to assay the activity of the short-lived radionuclides are calibrated accurately, with traceability to the national or international standards. The sum-peak method has been widely used for radionuclide standardization. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of PET radiopharmaceuticals at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE). (author)

  6. 77 FR 37587 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Z89.1-2003 as Appendix E, to the main text. Adds ``ASTM E1164-02 Colorimetry--Standard Practice for... National complete citations for standards on Standards Referred to in This colorimetry, headforms, and...

  7. 77 FR 37617 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Z89.1-2003 as Appendix E, to the main text. Adds ``ASTM E1164-02 Colorimetry--Standard Practice for... National complete citations for standards on Standards Referred to in This colorimetry, headforms, and...

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  9. 50 CFR 600.345 - National Standard 8-Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Standard 8-Communities. 600.345....345 National Standard 8—Communities. (a) Standard 8. Conservation and management measures shall... overfishing and rebuilding of overfished stocks), take into account the importance of fishery resources to...

  10. Teaching about Personal Finance: The National Standards for Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew T.; Suiter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    In "Proposed National Standards for Financial Literacy: What's In? What's Out?", Maier, Figart, and Nelson pose the question: "How should educators use the standards?" In answering that question, they suggest a number of issues and topics that they believe should be taught along with the "National Standards for…

  11. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  12. 40 CFR 403.6 - National pretreatment standards: Categorical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... falls within that particular subcategory. If an existing Industrial User adds or changes a process or... best of my knowledge and belief, true, accurate, and complete. I am aware that there are significant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW...

  13. GHG emission estimates for road transport in national GHG inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The annual reporting procedures of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have now produced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories from 40 so-called Annex I countries for 18 years. This article analyses a subset of these data: emissions from road transport. The article

  14. The Need for National Credentialing Standards for Addiction Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geri; Scarborough, Jim; Clark, Catherine; Leonard, Justin C.; Keziah, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the current state of credentialing for addiction counselors in the United States and provide recommendations to the addiction counseling field regarding national standards for credentialing.

  15. Interactions between California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard and the National Renewable Fuel Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whistance, Jarrett; Thompson, Wyatt; Meyer, Seth

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the economic interactions between a national renewable fuel policy, namely the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in the United States, and a sub-national renewable fuel policy, the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) in California. The two policies have a similar objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but the policies differ in the manner in which those objectives are met. The RFS imposes a hierarchical mandate of renewable fuel use for each year whereas the LCFS imposes a specific annual carbon-intensity reduction with less of a fuel specific mandate. We model the interactions using a partial-equilibrium structural model of agricultural and energy markets in the US and Rest-of-World regions. Our results suggest the policies are mutually reinforcing in that the compliance costs of meeting one of the requirements is lower in the presence of the other policy. In addition, the two policies combine to create a spatial shift in renewable fuel use toward California even though overall renewable fuel use remains relatively unchanged. - Highlights: • Results suggest the RFS and LCFS are mutually reinforcing. • Overall level of renewable fuel use is similar across scenarios. • Renewable fuel use shifts toward California in the presence of the LCFS. • Higher ethanol blend (e.g. E85) use also shifts toward California.

  16. Asset Accounting According to National and International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Utenkova

    2014-01-01

    The Article overviews the issues of complying National Accounting Standards at the enterprises of Ukraine with International Financial Reporting Standards. Key provisions of national and international standards governing the accounting of fixed assets (NP(S)A 7 'Property, Plant, Equipment', IFRS 16 'Fixed Assets') have been analyzed. It has been found that the list of PPE regulated by both accounting standard frameworks is not identical. Specifics of fixed assets recognition, their classifica...

  17. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS.

  18. National Provider Identifier Standard - Data Dissemination

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Plan and Provider Enumeration System, NPPES, downloadable file, also referred to as the NPI Downloadable File, contains FOIA disclosable NPPES health...

  19. Understanding the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available on 1 February 2011, also provide for the implementation of the waste management hierarchy that requires waste avoidance, reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery and waste treatment, and disposal as a last resort. The standards address aspects of waste...

  20. National Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian; Halverson, Mark A.; Myer, Michael; Loper, Susan A.; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2013-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed this project for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE’s BECP supports upgrading building energy codes and standards, and the states’ adoption, implementation, and enforcement of upgraded codes and standards. Building energy codes and standards set minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction for new and renovated buildings, and impact energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for the life of buildings. Continuous improvement of building energy efficiency is achieved by periodically upgrading energy codes and standards. Ensuring that changes in the code that may alter costs (for building components, initial purchase and installation, replacement, maintenance and energy) are cost-effective encourages their acceptance and implementation. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 is the energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors.

  1. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK...

  2. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK...

  3. Toward a National Standards Strategy Conference Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Telephone: 202/785-3756 Fax: 202/429-9417 Email: glucksmans@asme.org Oscar Gomez Ciencia y Tecnologia Sandy’s Carretera a Masaya 1.5 Cuadra a Este...U.!3^ iromonng UJ y .prhnoloeies M into international standards. U.S. firms T^to^ÄtoWId products to all kinds of standards in Z^^ÄSä...fW y £- lWB*rWpEJ-<fc5ifc -••Jar ■■ ^LV>• it* w Robert L. Mallett is Deputy

  4. The National Teaching Standard: Route to Rigor Mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, John D.

    The actions of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards with regard to national teaching standards and an associated examination are critiqued. The board was established on the basis of a recommendation by an advisory council of the Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. The board, which is composed of politicians, business…

  5. 50 CFR 600.325 - National Standard 4-Allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... promote conservation (in the sense of wise use) by optimizing the yield in terms of size, value, market... Section 600.325 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND....325 National Standard 4—Allocations. (a) Standard 4. Conservation and management measures shall not...

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  7. Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

  8. 78 FR 35559 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ...; Signage AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Direct... signage standards by adding references to the latest versions of the American National Standards Institute... earlier ANSI standards, ANSI Z53.1-1967, Z35.1-1968 and Z35.2-1968, in its signage standards, thereby...

  9. 75 FR 68296 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... ``Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... performance standards for new units and emission guidelines for existing units for specific categories of...

  10. 76 FR 18407 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources: Hospital... performance standards and emissions guidelines for hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators by the U.S... amendments to the new source performance standards and emissions guidelines, correcting inadvertent drafting...

  11. 75 FR 63259 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... performance standards for new units and emission guidelines for existing units for specific categories of... standards and emission guidelines for large municipal waste combustion units, small municipal waste...

  12. Standardization in dust emission measurement; Mesure des emissions de poussieres normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, R. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte, (France)

    1996-12-31

    The European Standardization Committee (CEN TC 264WG5) is developing a new reference method for measuring particulate emissions, suitable for concentrations inferior to 20 mg/m{sup 3} and especially for concentrations around 5 mg/m{sup 3}; the measuring method should be applicable to waste incinerator effluents and more generally to industrial effluents. Testing protocols and data analysis have been examined and repeatability and reproducibility issues are discussed

  13. Refreshing the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…

  14. National Framework of Professional Standards for Change Leadership in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2009-01-01

    The ten professional standards form what Francis Duffy refers to as a "National Framework of Professional Standards for Change Leadership in Education." Each standard has examples of the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that the research suggests are important for effective change leadership. Duffy's hope is that this proposed…

  15. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory

  16. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  17. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9219-4; NHTSA 2010-0079] RIN 2060-AP61; RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty vehicles...-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on...

  18. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  19. National environmental targets and international emission reduction instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    According to the agreed burden sharing within the European Union the overall EU emission reduction target as agreed by in the Kyoto protocol is converted into national greenhouse gas reduction-targets for each of the member states. In parallel with national emission reduction initiatives common EU policies for emission reductions are considered. Currently discussed is the introduction of a market for tradable permits for CO 2 -emissions to achieve emission reductions within the power industry and other energy intensive industries. In parallel with this markets for green certificates to deploy renewable energy technologies seem to be appearing in a number of countries, among these Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Belgium (Flanders), England and Australia. Although these national initiatives for a green certificate market are fairly different, they could be a starting point for establishing a common EU certificate market. But interactions between national targets for greenhouse gas emissions and these international instruments for emission reduction are not a trivial matter, especially not seen in relation to the possible contributions of these instruments in achieving national GHG-reduction targets. The paper is split into three parts all taking a liberalised power market as starting point: The first part discusses the consequences of a general deployment of renewable energy technologies, using planning initiatives or national promotion schemes (feed-in tariffs). In the second part an international green certificate market is introduced into the liberalised power market context, substituting other national promotion schemes. Finally, in the third part a combination of an international green certificate market (TGC) and an international emission-trading scheme for CO 2 is analysed within the liberalised international power market set-up. The main conclusion is that neither the use of national renewable support schemes nor the introduction of a TGC-market into a liberalised

  20. Evaluation of compliance with national legislation on emissions in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joao F.P. Gomes [Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oeiras (Portugal). Centro de Tecnologias Ambientais

    2005-04-01

    More than 13 years after publication of the first air quality laws in Portugal and more than 10 years after the publication of the respective emission limits, it seems appropriate to analyze the degree of compliance by the Portuguese manufacturing industry. Using the data from emission measurements made regularly by the Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, the only officially accredited laboratory according to standard ISO 17025. The author analyzed a set of 400 sources in terms of compliance with the emission limits regarding total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. He evaluated compliance through a nondimensional parameter and plotted it versus the emission flow rate to derive conclusions: the results indicate that emission limits are generally met regarding sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides but not for the other pollutants considered in this study. However, noncompliance occurs mainly for very low emission flow rates, which suggests some alterations in the emission limits, which are being revised at the moment. These alterations will include the exemption of measurements in minor sources. 7 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Evaluation of compliance with national legislation on emissions in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João F P

    2005-04-01

    More than 13 years after publication of the first air quality laws in Portugal and more than 10 years after the publication of the respective emission limits, it seems appropriate to analyze the degree of compliance by the Portuguese manufacturing industry. Using the data from emission measurements made regularly by the Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, the only officially accredited laboratory according to standard ISO 17025, I analyzed a set of approximately 400 sources in terms of compliance with the emission limits regarding total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. I evaluated compliance through a nondimensional parameter and plotted it versus the emission flow rate to derive conclusions: the results indicate that emission limits are generally met regarding sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides but not for the other pollutants considered in this study. However, noncompliance occurs mainly for very low emission flow rates, which suggests some alterations in the emission limits, which are being revised at the moment. These alterations will include the exemption of measurements in minor sources.

  2. 40 CFR 1045.107 - What are the not-to-exceed emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the not-to-exceed emission... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.107 What are the not-to-exceed emission standards? Not...) For engines equipped with a catalyst, use NTE multipliers from the following table across the...

  3. Influence of trade on national CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, Jesper; Pade, Lise-Lotte; Minx, Jan; Lenzen, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    International trade has an impact on national CO 2 emissions and consequently on the ability to fulfil national CO 2 reduction targets. Through goods and services traded in a globally interdependent world, the consumption in each country is linked to greenhouse gas emissions in other countries. It has been argued that in order to achieve equitable reduction targets, international trade has to be taken into account when assessing nations' responsibility for abating climate change. Especially for open economies such as Denmark, greenhouse gases embodied in internationally traded commodities can have a considerable influence on the national 'greenhouse gas responsibility'. By using input-output modelling, we analyse the influence from international trade on national CO 2 emissions. The aim is to show that trade is the key to define CO 2 responsibility on a macroeconomic level and that imports should be founded in a multi-region model approach. Finally, the paper concludes on the need to consider the impact from foreign trade when negotiating reduction targets and base line scenarios. (Author)

  4. When We Review the National Visual Arts Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The National Art Education Association (NAEA) has clearly defined the role of art with six content and achievement standards that are broad in coverage and designed specifically to ensure a thorough and comprehensive art program for K-4, 5-8 and 9-12. To meet the standards, students learn vocabularies and concepts associated with various types of…

  5. School Climate and the National School Climate Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Patricia A.; Freibeg, Jo Ann

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, more and more areas of educational practice are being guided by sets of national standards for content, leadership, professional ethics, family-school partnerships, and school accreditation, among others. Similarly, there is growing appreciation that standards are needed to effectively measure improvement in school climate. The…

  6. Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Eye and Face Protection. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    On March 13, 2015, OSHA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to revise its eye and face protection standards for general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals, longshoring, and construction by updating the references to national consensus standards approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). OSHA received no significant objections from commenters and therefore is adopting the amendments as proposed. This final rule updates the references in OSHA's eye and face standards to reflect the most recent edition of the ANSI/International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA) eye and face protection standard. It removes the oldest-referenced edition of the same ANSI standard. It also amends other provisions of the construction eye and face protection standard to bring them into alignment with OSHA's general industry and maritime standards.

  7. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in this section based... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES...

  8. 77 FR 68717 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ..., 1918, and 1926 [Docket No. OSH-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal. SUMMARY: With this notice, OSHA is withdrawing the proposed rule that...

  9. 77 FR 68684 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ..., 1918, and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Final rule; confirmation of effective date. SUMMARY: OSHA is confirming the effective date of its...

  10. Gridded National Inventory of U.S. Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasakkers, Joannes D.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Turner, Alexander J.; Weitz, Melissa; Wirth, Tom; Hight, Cate; DeFigueiredo, Mark; Desai, Mausami; Schmeltz, Rachel; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a gridded inventory of US anthropogenic methane emissions with 0.1 deg x 0.1 deg spatial resolution, monthly temporal resolution, and detailed scale dependent error characterization. The inventory is designed to be onsistent with the 2016 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissionsand Sinks (GHGI) for 2012. The EPA inventory is available only as national totals for different source types. We use a widerange of databases at the state, county, local, and point source level to disaggregate the inventory and allocate the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions for individual source types. Results show large differences with the EDGAR v4.2 global gridded inventory commonly used as a priori estimate in inversions of atmospheric methane observations. We derive grid-dependent error statistics for individual source types from comparison with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) regional inventory for Northeast Texas. These error statistics are independently verified by comparison with the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) grid-resolved emission inventory. Our gridded, time-resolved inventory provides an improved basis for inversion of atmospheric methane observations to estimate US methane emissions and interpret the results in terms of the underlying processes.

  11. 76 FR 65971 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 523 and 535 [NHTSA 2010-0079; EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9455-1] RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty vehicles, responding to the...

  12. Ultraviolet Radiation Dose National Standard of México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, R.; Rosas, E.

    2006-09-01

    We present the Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Dose National Standard for México. The establishment of this measurement reference at Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM) eliminates the need of contacting foreign suppliers in the search for traceability towards the SI units when calibrating instruments at 365 nm. Further more, the UV Radiation Dose National Standard constitutes a highly accurate and reliable source for the UV radiation dose measurements performed in medical and cosmetic treatments as in the the food and pharmaceutics disinfection processes, among other.

  13. 40 CFR 60.562-1 - Standards: Process emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operated, or 180 days after initial startup whichever comes first. (1) Continuous emissions. For each vent... reconstructed affected facility 20 to 100 1. If total combined uncontrolled emissions are equal to or greater... maximum production rate at which the affected facility will be operated, or 180 days after initial startup...

  14. Effects of national accounting standards convergence to international accounting standards on foreign direct investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Farazandehnia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors on attracting foreign investors to invest on Tehran Stock Exchange is to have transparent accounting rules and regulations. When there are some consistency between national accounting standards and international accounting standards, we may, at least, expect foreign investors to have better understanding on financial statements. In 2006, there were some changes on Iranian national accounting standards in an attempt to make them closer to international accounting standards. In this study, we select the information of 153 firms five years before and after this regulation and study the effect of convergence from national accounting standards to international accounting standards on foreign direct investment. Using some statistical tests, the study has determined that there was no meaningful relationship between foreign direct investment before and after change on accounting standards. In addition, there was no difference on the information quality before and after change on accounting standards. However, there was some meaningful relationship between the information quality and foreign direct investment.

  15. 75 FR 80219 - National Emission Standards for Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating); National Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ....html . Persons interested in presenting oral testimony or inquiring as to whether a public hearing is... Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking APA Administrative Procedure Act ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances... risk measures and information in making an overall judgment on acceptability. Or, the EPA may find, in...

  16. 40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033... engine family is considered in compliance with the applicable numerical emission standards in § 1033.101... certify by design without new emission test data. To do this, submit the application for certification...

  17. The Online Translator: Implementing National Standard 4.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christine

    2003-01-01

    A pedagogical idea for addressing National Standard 4.1 (Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of language studied and their own) suggests the deliberate use of the online translator to illustrate to students the syntactical errors that occur when translating idioms from one language to another. (VWL)

  18. National Standards for Financial Literacy: Rationale and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, William; Walstad, William B.

    2014-01-01

    The "National Standards for Financial Literacy" describe the knowledge, understanding, and skills that are important for students to learn about personal finance. They are designed to guide teachers, school administrators, and other educators in developing curriculum and educational materials for teaching financial literacy. In this…

  19. The Learning Behaviors Scale: National Standardization in Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jessica L.; McDermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Drogalis, Anna Rhoad; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the national standardization and validation of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) for use in Trinidad and Tobago. The LBS is a teacher rating scale centering on observable behaviors relevant to identifying childhood approaches to classroom learning. Teachers observed a stratified sample of 900 students across the islands'…

  20. The implications of the National Norms and Standards for School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This aspiration is demonstrated in many education policies including the National Norms and Standards for School Funding (NNSSF) policy. While inequalities in resource allocation from the state have been removed, inequalities persist due to the inability of the state to provide free education to all, parents' inability to pay ...

  1. National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization Relevant for Sustainability in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Morbiducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This paper gives an overview of existing and planned standards, and examples on how to use them as a framework for the development of methods and tools for assessment.

  2. Evaluation of emission characteristics and compliance of emission standards for in-use petrol driven vehicles in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, S M; Singh, A; Sharma, N; Sharma, K; Shanmugum, P

    2001-01-01

    The tail pipe CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emission characteristics of in-use petrol driven vehicles were evaluated between November 1996 through September 1997 in Delhi. A total of 4300 vehicles were checked at CRRI Pollution Checking Centre. Approximately 90% of the total vehicles meet the prescribed CO emission standards even without following routine I/M practices. The age of the vehicles appeared to have influence on the emission characteristics. The non-compliance level was found to be higher for older vehicles. Insignificant correlation was observed between CO and HC emissions for all categories of in-use petrol driven vehicles. The emission reduction (gain) in CO and HC emissions was observed for two wheelers equipped with four-stroke engines and four wheelers fitted with catalytic converters over their respective conventional vehicles. The observed high compliance levels indicate that existing tail pipe emission standards are lenient and need to be reviewed. The emission standards are proposed for different categories of in-use petrol driven vehicles.

  3. National standards in science education: Teacher perceptions regarding utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Carol Louise Parsons

    The purpose of this naturalistic study was to determine what factors most influence middle school science teachers' intentions to utilize or ignore national standards, as a toot for reform in their classrooms, schools, or districts. Results indicate. that teachers with. minimal training were unlikely to use national standards documents due to their perceptions of a lack of support from peers, administrators and a high-stakes state accountability system. Teachers with more extensive training were more inclined to use national standards documents as philosophical guides for reform because they believed in the validity of the recommendations. Implications are discussed, chief among them that short-term professional development may actually do more harm than good if teachers retain or develop unexamined misconceptions about national standards recommendations as a result. In addition, due to the concerns expressed by teachers regarding state curriculum mandates and standardized testing, this study indicates that changes in these external factors must be instituted before teachers will commit themselves to standards-based reforms. It is suggested that staff development focus on opportunities for reflection and application which will promote conceptual change in teachers. A model predicated on the notion that the process of implementing reform is essentially an issue of promoting conceptual change in teachers is proposed. This model, termed the Reform Implementation as Conceptual Change, or RICC, focuses specifically on the cognitive processes teachers may go through when they are exposed to an innovation such as national standards. Stages such as integrated application, accommodation, assimilation, disconnection, and false accommodation, are described. The impact that professional development and training may have on the likelihood that teachers will experience these various stages is also discussed. This model serves as a theoretical framework for explaining why some

  4. The development of national standards for adult educators in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Justin; Richardson, Brent H.

    2012-06-01

    Since gaining independence from South Africa in 1990, Namibia has placed considerable emphasis on education, including adult learning. As a means of improving the quality of adult learning, the Namibian Ministry of Education commissioned the development of national standards in 2010 to express competency requirements for adult educators. Particular attention was paid to the views of adult learners who participated through thirty focus groups. The participatory process revealed that the work of an adult educator is more complex and demanding than had previously been appreciated. The required competencies were categorised under four headings: (1) Knowledge as an adult educator, (2) Practice as an adult educator, (3) Relationships as an adult educator and (4) Ethics and professionalism as an adult educator. The Namibia Qualifications Authority, acting under its legislative mandate of setting occupational standards for occupations, jobs, posts and positions, approved the national standards in 2011.

  5. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  6. Towards better GHG emissions savings with use of ISO GHG standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Kook Weng

    2010-01-01

    The 15th Conference of Parties (COP 15) at Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009 highlighted the need to combat climate change by facing the challenge of committing to reducing our emissions at all three levels with locally appropriate mitigation actions (LAMAs) at the local level to be linked to the nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and then contribute onwards to globally appropriate mitigation actions (GAMAs). The aim is to find solutions for both adaptation and mitigation by ensuring sufficient means are made available to support such efforts. This is because the world in entering a new phase that will be characterised by green growth in business. Thus be it agriculture that uses local knowledge of specific crop and livestock varieties to help in secure food supply, bio-energy, transport, industries, there must be policies to understand ecosystem-based to link people, biodiversity, energy, water and carbon so as to be more resilient and adaptable to the need for a low carbon economy in todays society.Climate change therefore affects organisations in many areas and they include legal compliance, carbon market, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. Promoting sustainability requires making efficient use of energy, water and natural resources, decrease in waste load through recycling and streamlining the processes leading to everything that decreases their CO 2 and water footprints. Currently there are many GHG schemes and programmes and the issues centres around compatibility, costs and most importantly credibility. Achieving real GHG emissions reduction requires controlled and verified emissions reductions and quantification that are sound and verifiable. Thanks to the development of the ISO suite of standards on GHG and related matters, the use of these harmonised standards has given the assurance that a tonne of carbon is a tonne of carbon be it in Malaysia, Mali or Mongolia.The use of these standards like ISO 14064 Part 1

  7. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Webb, J; Misselbrook, T H

    2009-01-01

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model...... of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) (±6% of the mean total), but large differences in NH3 emissions (±24% of the mean). These differences arose from the different approaches to TAN immobilization in litter, other N losses and mineralization in the models. As a result of those differences estimates of TAN available...... at spreading differed by a factor of almost 3. Results of the FF scenario for broilers produced a range of estimates of total changes in TAN (±9% of the mean total), and larger differences in the estimate of NH3 emissions (±17% of the mean). The different approaches among the models to TAN immobilization...

  8. Nonattainment of national ambient air quality standards: implications for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.; Kotecki, R.; Senew, M.

    1979-10-01

    In accordance with the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, EPA established regulations governing new and existing sources of emissions in areas where the NAAQS are being exceeded. These requirements may constrain the implementation of a national energy policy to increase the use of coal in utilities and industries. The states designated the nonattainment areas and prepared State Implementation Plans, outlining strategies for attaining the standards by the deadline of December 31, 1982. This report contains maps of nonattainment areas for all pollutants and summaries of the attainment strategies for those pollutants most likely to affect fossil-fueled energy development - SO/sub 2/, TSP, and NO/sub x/. The review of SIPs indicates that attainment of SO/sub 2/ standards should be relatively easy. Attainment of TSP standards may be more difficult since point sources are already well controlled and further reductions in emissions will require controls on fugitive sources. NO/sub x/ nonattainment is currently limited to three small areas. The report also contains an examination of emission limitations in nonattainment areas and a national assessment of the potential constraints of nonattainment on energy development in 1985 to 1990. The assessment concludes that constraints on projected new coal-fired utilities should not be significant. Constraints on expanded industrial coal use from TSP nonattainment may be significant but the effects of SO/sub 2/ nonattainment should be limited.

  9. Updating OSHA standards based on national consensus standards. final rule; confirmation of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-14

    OSHA is confirming the effective date of its direct final rule that revises a number of standards for general industry that refer to national consensus standards. The direct final rule states that it would become effective on March 13, 2008 unless OSHA receives significant adverse comment on these revisions by January 14, 2008. OSHA received no adverse comments by that date and, therefore, is confirming that the rule will become effective on March 13, 2008.

  10. Waterberg coal characteristics and SO2 minimum emissions standards in South African power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makgato, Stanford S; Chirwa, Evans M Nkhalambayausi

    2017-10-01

    Key characteristics of coal samples from the supply stock to the newly commissioned South African National Power Utility's (Eskom's) Medupi Power Station - which receives its supply coal from the Waterberg coalfield in Lephalale (Limpopo Province, South Africa) - were evaluated. Conventional coal characterisation such as proximate and ultimate analysis as well as determination of sulphur forms in coal samples were carried out following the ASTM and ISO standards. Coal was classified as medium sulphur coal when the sulphur content was detected in the range 1.15-1.49 wt.% with pyritic sulphur (≥0.51 wt.%) and organic sulphur (≥0.49 wt.%) accounted for the bulk of the total sulphur in coal. Maceral analyses of coal showed that vitrinite was the dominant maceral (up to 51.8 vol.%), whereas inertinite, liptinite, reactive semifusinite and visible minerals occurred in proportions of 22.6 vol.%, 2.9 vol.%, 5.3 vol.% and 17.5 vol.%, respectively. Theoretical calculations were developed and used to predict the resultant SO 2 emissions from the combustion of the Waterberg coal in a typical power plant. The sulphur content requirements to comply with the minimum emissions standards of 3500 mg/Nm 3 and 500 mg/Nm 3 were found to be ≤1.37 wt.% and ≤0.20 wt.%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alignment of Teacher-Developed Curricula and National Standards in Qatar's National Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Zaki, Eman; Allen, Nancy; Al Mula, Badria; Al Mutawaha, Fatma; Al Bin Ali, Hessa; Kerr, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which teacher developed curriculum was aligned with the national standards in Qatar. Three sources of data included teacher response to a questionnaire, teacher interviews and expert rating of the alignment of teacher-developed materials with curriculum standards. A survey and interview questions measured…

  12. Summative and Formative Evaluations, National Skill Standards Project. Prepared for the National Grocers Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Michael S.

    In 1993-1996, the Grocers Research and Educational Foundation of the National Grocers Association developed entry-level skill standards for the food marketing industry. A coalition formed early in the project directed the skill standard development process and solicited input from major organizations involved in the industry. The validity of the…

  13. Developing an ANSI [American National Standards Institute] standard for semitrailers used to transport radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed new American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard has been prepared which establishes requirements for the design, fabrication, and maintenance of semitrailers used in the highway transport of weight-concentrated radioactive loads. A weight-concentrated load is any payload which exceeds 1,488 kilograms per lineal meter (1,000 lb/ft) over any portion of the semitrailer. The proposed standard also provides detailed procedures for in-service inspections, as well as requirements for testing and quality assurance. The standard addresses only semitrailers, excluding the tractor. Trailers already in service may be certified as complying with the standard if they meet the requirements of the standard. This standard is intended to provide guidance and acceptance criteria needed to establish a uniform minimum level of performance for the designer, manufacturer, owner, operator, and shipper. This standard is not intended to apply to special, non-routine shipments of a one-time or occasional nature which require special permitting. The background and history of the standard are traced and a summary discussion of the standard is provided in this article

  14. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, D.; Plevin, R.; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2015-01-01

    We compare two types of fuel market regulations — a renewable fuel mandate and a fuel emission standard — that could be employed to simultaneously achieve multiple outcomes such as reduction in fuel prices, fuel imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We compare these two types of regulations in a global context taking into account heterogeneity in carbon content of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels. We find that although neither the ethanol mandate nor the emission standard is certain to reduce emissions relative to a business-as-usual baseline, at any given level of biofuel consumption in the policy region, a mandate, relative to an emission standard, results in higher GHG emissions, smaller expenditure on fuel imports, lower price of ethanol-blended gasoline and higher domestic fuel market surplus. This result holds over a wide range of values of model parameters. We also discuss the implications of this result to a regulation such as the US Renewable Fuel Standard given recent developments within the US such as increase in shale and tight oil production and large increase in average vehicle fuel economy of the automotive fleet. - Highlights: • Biofuel mandates and fuel GHG emission standards are analyzed from a multiple criteria perspective • An emission-standard always results in lower global emissions while requiring less biofuel relative to a biofuel mandate • An emission-standard results in higher fuel price in the home region relative to a biofuel mandate • Emission standards lead to more shuffling of both fossil fuels and biofuels between home and abroad • The relative impact of the policies on fuel imports depends on the relative cost-effectiveness of domestic & imported biofuel • Recent developments oil production and fuel economy increase the net benefits of an LCFS approach relative to RFS

  15. EP&R Standards Project Report: Technical Review of National Incident Management Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2007-04-24

    The importance and necessity for a fully developed and implemented National Incident Management System (NIMS) has been demonstrated in recent years by the impact of national events such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Throughout the history of emergency response to major disasters, especially when multiple response organizations are involved, there have been systemic problems in the consistency and uniformity of response operations. Identifying national standards that support the development and implementation of NIMS is key to helping solve these systemic problems. The NIMS seeks to provide uniformity and consistency for incident management by using common terminology and protocols that will enable responders to coordinate their efforts to ensure an efficient response.

  16. National Certification Standard for Ground Source Heat Pump Personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, John [Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-31

    The National Certification Standard for the Geothermal Heat Pump Industry adds to the understanding of the barriers to rapid growth of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) industry by bringing together for the first time an analysis of the roles and responsibilities of each of the individual job tasks involved in the design and installation of GHP systems. The standard addresses applicable qualifications for all primary personnel involved in the design, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of GHP systems, including their knowledge, skills and abilities. The resulting standard serves as a foundation for subsequent development of curriculum, training and certification programs, which are not included in the scope of this project, but are briefly addressed in the standard to describe ways in which the standard developed in this project may form a foundation to support further progress in accomplishing those other efforts. Follow-on efforts may use the standard developed in this project to improve the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of curriculum development and training programs for GHP industry personnel, by providing a more complete and objective assessment of the individual job tasks necessary for successful implementation of GHP systems. When incorporated into future certification programs for GHP personnel, the standard will facilitate increased consumer confidence in GHP technology, reduce the potential for improperly installed GHP systems, and assure GHP system quality and performance, all of which benefit the public through improved energy efficiency and mitigated environmental impacts of the heating and cooling of homes and businesses.

  17. National plan of allocation of CO2 emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The directive 2003/87/CE of the European parliament and council from October 13, 2003 establishes a trading system of CO 2 emission quotas for some companies of the energy generation industry, of the manufacturing industry and of services. These quotas are tradable and negotiable and an initial amount of quotas is allocated to these companies according to their facilities in concern. The national plan of quotas allocation must precise the total amount of tradable emissions and its share among the different sectors of activity and facilities. The first project of allocation plan was transmitted to the European Commission on July 6, 2004 after its public consultation between June 8 and June 29 2004. Modifications have been added to meet the requests of the Commission and the French plan was finally approved on December 17, 2004 for an annual amount of 156.51 Mt of CO 2 quotas during the 2005-2007 period. This paper precises the modifications requested by the commission, the modifications of the French juridical system necessary to complete the implementation of the French part of the European quotas trading system, the elaboration of the next allocation plan for the 2008-2012 period, and the link between the European emissions trading system and the 'joint implementation' and 'clean development ' mechanisms implemented by the Kyoto protocol. (J.S.)

  18. Emission projections 2008-2012 versus national allocation plans II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhoff, Karsten; Ferrario, Federico; Grubb, Michael; Gabel, Etienne; Keats, Kim

    2006-01-01

    We compare the national allocation plans (NAPs), proposed and submitted by EU Member States as of October 2006, with our estimations for CO 2 emissions by the installations covered by these NAPs. The collective allocations proposed under phase II NAPs exceed the historic trend of emissions extrapolated forward. Using our projections we find, depending on uncertainty in fuel prices, economic growth rates, performance of the non-power sector and CDM/JI availability, a 15% chance of a 'dead market' with emissions below cap even at zero prices. With an expected inflow of committed CDM/JI credits of 100 MtCO 2 /year, allowance supply will exceed demand in 50% of cases without any carbon price, and in 80% of our euros20/tCO 2 scenarios. Banking of allowances towards post-2012 conditions could create additional demand, but this is difficult to anticipate and conditional on policy evolution. The proposed phase II NAPs would result in low prices and only small volumes of CDM/JI would enter the EU ETS. CDM/JI would almost exclusively be public-sector funded, placing the cost of Kyoto compliance entirely upon governments. (Author)

  19. Radiation-based quantitative bioimaging at the national institute of standards and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on a long history of providing physical measurements and standards for medical x rays and nuclear medicine radionuclides, the laboratory has expanded its focus to better support the extensive use of medical physics in the United States today, providing confidence in key results needed for drug and device development and marketing, therapy planning and efficacy and disease screening. In particular, to support more quantitative medical imaging, this laboratory has implemented a program to provide key measurement infrastructure to support radiation-based imaging through developing standard, benchmark phantoms, which contain radioactive sources calibrated to national measurement standards, to allow more quantitative imaging through traceable instrument calibration for clinical trials or patient management. Working closely with colleagues at the National Institutes of Health, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the Food and Drug Administration and Cornell University, this laboratory has taken the initial steps in developing phantoms, and the protocols to use them, for more accurate calibration of positron emission tomography (PET or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT cameras, including recently standardizing 68 Ge. X-ray measurements of the laboratory′s recently developed small, resilient and inexpensive length standard phantom have shown the potential usefulness of such a "pocket" phantom for patient-based calibration of computed tomography (alone or with PET systems. The ability to calibrate diagnostic imaging tools in a way that is traceable to national standards will lead to a more quantitative approach; both physician and patient benefit from increased accuracy in treatment planning, as well as increased safety for the patient.

  20. 77 FR 42988 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    .... OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus... Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Direct final rule; correction. SUMMARY: OSHA is correcting a... confusion resulting from a drafting error. OSHA published the DFR on June 22, 2012 (77 FR 37587). OSHA also...

  1. 77 FR 43018 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    .... OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus... Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking; correction. SUMMARY: OSHA is correcting a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) with regard to the construction...

  2. 40 CFR 60.24 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... energy input from all fuel except biomass if the unit is a boiler. Combustion turbine means: (1) An... been demonstrated, States may balance the emission guidelines, compliance times, and other information... energy input” in § 60.4102 of this chapter promulgated on October 19, 2007, provided that the State...

  3. Estimation of light duty vehicle emissions in Islamabad and climate co-benefits of improved emission standards implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Izhar Hussain; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) hold a major share in Islamabad's vehicle fleet and their contribution towards air pollution has not been analyzed previously. Emissions for the base year (2014) and two optimistic 'what-if' scenarios were estimated by using the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model. Considering the recent implementation of Euro II as emission standard in Pakistan, scenario 1 assumed entire LDV fleet meeting at least Euro II standards while scenario 2 assumed all LDVs meeting Euro IV standards except motorcycles which would be meeting Euro III emission standards. Higher average age for all vehicles and lower share of Euro compliant vehicles was found in the base case. Low engine stress mode (lower speeds with frequent decelerations) was observed for all vehicles especially on arterials and residential roads. Highest overall emissions (59%) were observed on arterials, followed by residential roads (24%) and highways (17%) with higher emissions observed during morning (8-10 am) and evening (4-6 pm) rush hours. Composite emission factors were also calculated. Results reveal that 1094, 147, 11.1, 0.2 and 0.4 kt of CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively were emitted in 2014 by LDVs. Compared with the base year, scenario 1 showed a reduction of 9%, 69%, 73%, 13% and 31%, while scenario 2 exhibited a reduction of 5%, 92%, 90%, 92% and 81% for CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively. As compared to the base year, a 20 year CO2-equivalent Global Warming Potential (GWP) reduced by 55% and 64% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively, while a 100 year GWP reduced by 40% and 44% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively. Our results demonstrated significant co-benefits that could be achieved in emission reduction and air quality improvement in the city by vehicle technology implementation.

  4. Possibilities of using ISO 1406X standards in the management of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, G.; Priesol, J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to define and describe using of ISO 1406X standards for organization, which production of greenhouse gas emissions represents an important environmental aspect especially in terms of financial benefits accruing from trading with saved / reduced emissions. Following the main aim of this paper, we have set the following sub-objectives and tasks: - Define and describe the algorithm of implementation of program on greenhouse gas emissions according to the requirements and guidelines of the ISO 1406X in the organization; - Create a model of comprehensive management of greenhouse gas emissions standards as described.

  5. Evolving diesel common rail technology for future low emission standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppe, D.; Bercher, P.; Guerrassi, N.; Spadafora, P. [Delphi Diesel Systems, Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The Diesel fuel injection equipment will remain a key element for Diesel engine technology evolution. Achieving emission targets at competitive prices has been and will continue to be a major technical challenge to the engine manufacturer. Delphi is continously developing its Common Rail System and its components for fulfill future stricter emission legislation while simultaneously improving performance on noise, fuel consumption and power output. The outstanding and unique injector concept combined with innovative control strategies has largely contributed to the improvement of exhaust emission and performance, consumption and NVH over the lifetime of Diesel vehicles. Recently, Euro 4 common rail applications have been introduced on several applications by adding further capability such as multiple injection, small-injected quantity control and improved atomization. This papers will describe the latest Common Rail System developments that Delphi will introduce into the market to comply with future legislative emission targets. Further, a novel common rail injector will be presented, that uses a revolutionary, direct acting operating principle, where the nozzle is directly operated by a piezo actuator, without the use of a servo-hydraulic flow circuit. The superior performance of this injector concept will be shown, especially with regard to it's near square rate injection shape, minimum quantity capability as well as multiple injection performance. The direct acting operating principle allows rapid opening and closing of the injector, without compromising pilot quantity capability. The emission benefit obtained by such opening and closing behavior will be shown. Finally, based on the findings discussed, the papers will conclude on key features of future common rail systems. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Litter-based manure systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidy, B.; Webb, J.; Misselbrook, T.H.; Menzi, H.; Luesink, H.H.; Hutchings, N.J.; Eurich-Menden, B.; Dohler, H.; Dammgen, U.

    2009-01-01

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model

  7. National Training and Education Standards for Health and Wellness Coaching: The Path to National Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q.; Lawson, Karen; Moore, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to announce the findings of the job task analysis as well as national training and education standards for health and wellness coaching (HWC) that have been developed by the large-scale, collaborative efforts of the National Consortium for Credentialing Health and Wellness Coaches (NCCHWC) and (2) to invite commentary from the public. The rapid proliferation of individuals and organizations using the terms of health and/or wellness coaches and the propagation of private industry and academic coach training and education programs endeavoring to prepare these coaches has created an urgent and pressing need for national standards for use of the term health and wellness coach, as well as minimal requirements for training, education, and certification. Professionalizing the field with national standards brings a clear and consistent definition of health and wellness coaching and accepted practice standards that are uniform across the field. In addition, clear standards allow for uniform curricular criteria to ensure a minimal benchmark for education, training, and skills and knowledge evaluation of professional health and wellness coaches. PMID:25984418

  8. Municipal Solid Waste Landfill New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) -- Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 1998 document of questions and answers are provided as a guide for those subject to the new source performance standards (NSPS) or emission guidelines (EG), as well as those implementing the NSPS or EG.

  9. Executive Summary: EPA's Waiver Decision on California's Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter from EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson to Governor Schwarzenegger denies California's request for a waiver of Federal preemption for motor vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  10. 40 CFR 91.207 - Credit calculation and manufacturer compliance with emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engine family in kW (sales weighted). The power of each configuration is the rated output in kilowatts as... emission standards. (a) For each engine family, certification emission credits (positive or negative) are... of nitrogen credit status for an engine family, whether generating positive credits or negative...

  11. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES... from your engines may not exceed the numerical emission standards in paragraph (a) of this section. See... specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION... the fuel type on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in this section based on the following types of hydrocarbon...

  13. 78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    .... Examples of sources of formaldehyde gas inside homes include cigarette smoke, unvented, fuel- burning... derived an inhalation unit risk factor for assessing formaldehyde cancer risk. The risk factor and... formaldehyde by inhalation (Ref. 8). This draft IRIS assessment was peer-reviewed by the National Research...

  14. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.106... streams, including hazardous waste, fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks shall not exceed the...

  15. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.104...) of this section, a boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste must achieve a destruction...

  16. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Meirong [Dongguan University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan, Guangdong Province (China); Beijing Normal University, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing (China); Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany); Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao [Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO{sub 2} and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  17. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO_2 and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  18. Additives: The key for automobiles to meet new emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many cities have been perplexed with automobile emissions causing them to become non-attainment areas. These cities usually resort to such tactics as trying to get people to car pool. In principle the concept is excellent, however, the American public is not ready to give up the independence of using their own automobile. Reformulated gasolines are presently being produced and plans for additional plants are being made to meet EPA gasoline requirements. How much reformulated gasoline is available? Where is the present production going? Who else has needs? Does Gasohol have any possibilities still? What contribution can other additives make and are there any bright spots on the horizon and if so what are they? All this will be revealed in this talk and paper at ETE. There will also be a panel discussion for others to present their ideas and contribute to the program

  19. Tanning lamps ultraviolet emissions and compliance with technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, A.; Facta, S.; Saudino, S.; Anglesio, L.; D'Amore, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the compliance of tanning lamps with technical standards EN 60335-2-27 'Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety. Part 2: Particular requirements for appliances for skin exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation' was analysed. Results of this analysis showed that none of the examined technical documentation produced by the lamps manufacturers is fully compliant with the standard technique. Furthermore data reported in the same manuals, such as effective radiant exposure or irradiance, would indicate that these sources may be the cause of undue exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. For this reason a measurement campaign on UV lamps used in tanning salons was organised. The first results of these measurements seem to confirm the doubts raised from the analysis of the lamp manuals: the use of a tanning lamp can lead to UV radiation exposure levels higher than reference maximum values recommended by EN 60335-2-27. (authors)

  20. Standard practice for leaks using bubble emission techniques

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes accepted procedures for and factors that influence laboratory immersion corrosion tests, particularly mass loss tests. These factors include specimen preparation, apparatus, test conditions, methods of cleaning specimens, evaluation of results, and calculation and reporting of corrosion rates. This practice also emphasizes the importance of recording all pertinent data and provides a checklist for reporting test data. Other ASTM procedures for laboratory corrosion tests are tabulated in the Appendix. (Warning-In many cases the corrosion product on the reactive metals titanium and zirconium is a hard and tightly bonded oxide that defies removal by chemical or ordinary mechanical means. In many such cases, corrosion rates are established by mass gain rather than mass loss.) 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, assoc...

  1. General guidance and procedures for estimating and reporting national GHG emissions for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, K.

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture account for a large share of total GHG emissions in most countries. Methane from ruminants, animal manure and rice fields, and nitrous oxide from agricultural soils are among the most important sources. In general, these emission estimates also are more uncertain than most other parts of the GHG emission inventory. IPCC has developed guidelines for estimating and reporting emissions of GHG. These guidelines shall be followed to secure complete, consistent, accurate and transparent reporting of emissions. However, the recommended methodologies are tiered, and choice of methods shall preferably reflect national circumstances, the national importance of a source, and different resources to prepare inventories. A country may also apply a national methodology given that it is well documented and not in conflict with good practice. Emission data reported under the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change are subject to external control, and the methodologies are reviewed by experts on agricultural inventories. (au)

  2. Criteria and air-toxic emissions from in-use automobiles in the National Low-Emission Vehicle program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Rich W; Gabele, Pete; Crews, William; Snow, Richard; Cook, J Rich

    2005-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air-toxic contaminants from in-use, light-duty low-emission vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited 25 LEVs in 2002 and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start urban dynamometer driving schedule of the Federal Test Procedure. The emissions measured included regulated pollutants, particulate matter, speciated hydrocarbon compounds, and carbonyl compounds. The results provided a comparison of emissions from real-world LEVs with emission standards for criteria and air-toxic compounds. Emission measurements indicated that a portion of the in-use fleet tested exceeded standards for the criteria gases. Real-time regulated and speciated hydrocarbon measurements demonstrated that the majority of emissions occurred during the initial phases of the cold-start portion of the urban dynamometer driving schedule. Overall, the study provided updated emission factor data for real-world, in-use operation of LEVs for improved emissions modeling and mobile source inventory development.

  3. How best management practices affect emissions in gas turbine power plants - an important factor to consider when strengthening emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinghai; Xing, Min; Hou, Min; England, Glenn C; Yan, Jing

    2018-04-27

    The Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) is considering strengthening the Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Stationary Gas Turbines, originally published in 2011 (DB11/847-2011), with a focus on reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the current operation of twelve (12) existing combined-cycle gas turbine power plants and the design of two (2) new plants in Beijing and their emission reduction potential, in comparison with a state-of-the-art power plant in California, United States. The study found that Best Management Practices (BMPs) could potentially improve the emission level of the power plants, and should be implemented to minimize emissions under current design characteristics. These BMPs include (1) more frequent tuning of turbine combustors; (2) onsite testing of natural gas characteristics in comparison to turbine manufacturer's specifics and tuning of turbine to natural gas quality; (3) onsite testing of aqueous ammonia to ensure adequate ammonia concentration in the mixed solution, and the purity of the solution; (4) more careful inspection of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) during operation and maintenance; (5) annual testing of the catalyst coupon on the SCR to ensure catalyst effectiveness; and (6) annual ammonia injection grid (AIG) tuning. The study found that without major modification to the plants, improving the management of the Beijing gas turbine power plants may potentially reduce the current hourly-average NOx emission level of 5-10 parts per million (ppm, ranges reflects plant variation) by up to 20%. The exact improvement associated with each BMP for each facility requires more detailed analysis, and requires engagement of turbine, HRSG, and SCR manufacturers. This potential improvement is an important factor to consider when strengthening the emission standard. However it is to be noted that with the continuous

  4. EU effect: Exporting emission standards for vehicles through the global market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, M; Janssens-Maenhout, G; Guizzardi, D; Galmarini, S

    2016-12-01

    Emission data from EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research), rather than economic data, are used to estimate the effect of policies and of the global exports of policy-regulated goods, such as vehicles, on global emissions. The results clearly show that the adoption of emission standards for the road transport sector in the two main global markets (Europe and North America) has led to the global proliferation of emission-regulated vehicles through exports, regardless the domestic regulation in the country of destination. It is in fact more economically convenient for vehicle manufacturers to produce and sell a standard product to the widest possible market and in the greatest possible amounts. The EU effect (European Union effect) is introduced as a global counterpart to the California effect. The former is a direct consequence of the penetration of the EURO standards in the global markets by European and Japanese manufacturers, which effectively export the standard worldwide. We analyze the effect on PM 2.5 emissions by comparing a scenario of non-EURO standards against the current estimates provided by EDGAR. We find that PM 2.5 emissions were reduced by more than 60% since the 1990s worldwide. Similar investigations on other pollutants confirm the hypothesis that the combined effect of technological regulations and their diffusion through global markets can also produce a positive effect on the global environment. While we acknowledge the positive feedback, we also demonstrate that current efforts and standards will be totally insufficient should the passenger car fleets in emerging markets reach Western per capita figures. If emerging countries reach the per capita vehicle number of the USA and Europe under current technological conditions, then the world will suffer pre-1990 emission levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A guide for determining compliance with the Clean Air Act Standards for radionuclide emissions from NRC-licensed and non-DOE federal facilities (Rev. 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued standards under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act of February 6, 1985 that limit airborne emissions of radionuclides to the atmosphere. In February 1989 these standards were re proposed , and in November 1989 final standards may be promulgated. This document provides guidance for determining compliance with one of the National Emissions for Hazardous Air Pollutants covering facilities that are licensed by NRC, and federal facilities not operated by the DOE, that could emit radionuclides to the ai00.

  6. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chloride plants. 61.64 Section 61.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a...

  7. National Emissions Inventory Vehicle Miles Traveled, U.S., 2014, EPA/OAR/OAQPS/AQAD

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains layers that depict gridded Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) for 2014 from the National Emission Inventory (NEI). The default 2014 National...

  8. Experience from implementing international standards in national emergency response planning national adjustments and suggestions for improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naadland Holo, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A process has been going on for some time in Norway to establish a harmonized background for emergency response planning for any kind of nuclear or radiological accident. The national emergency preparedness organisation with the crisis committee for nuclear accident, consisting of representatives from civil defence, defence, police-, health-, and food control authorities, has the authority to implement countermeasures to protect health, environment and national interests in case of an accident or in case of nuclear terrorism. However, in an early phase, the response plans need to be fully harmonized to ensure that every operational level knows their responsibility and the responsibilities of others. Our intention is to implement the IAEA standard 'preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency'. We believe this will simplify national and international communication and also simplify the crisis management if an accident occurs. In revising the national plans, and also the planning basis at regional and local level, as well as the planning basis for response to accidents at national nuclear facilities and in connection with arrival of nuclear submarines in Norwegian harbours, we have seen the need to make national adjustments to the international standards. In addition to the standard, there exist several other processes and routines for reporting different kinds of incidents. We have seen a need to coordinate this internally at the competent authority to simplify the routines. This paper will focus on the challenges we have met, our national solutions and some suggestions for simplification. National adjustments to the international standard. - Firstly, the threat categorization needs to be adjusted. First of all, we do not have nuclear power plants in Norway. In the aftermath of 11 September 2001 we also have focused more an the potential for nuclear terrorism. Nuclear terrorism is unlikely but puts up some new requirements in the

  9. Seventy Years of Radio Science, Technology, Standards, and Measurement at the National Bureau of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmor, C. Stewart

    This large volume describes all the forms of radio research done at the National Bureau of Standards (now, National Institute of Standards and Technology) from its founding in 1901 until about 1980. The volume truly reflects its subtitle; it describes in great detail research in radio propagation and all its connections with geophysics and geospace, but also radio as instrument for discovery and application in meteorology, navigation, and in standards of measurement and testing in electronics.The book is a bit unwieldy and some of its chapters will be of most interest to former NBS employees. For example, there is a lengthy chapter on the transfer of radio research work from Washington, D.C, to Boulder, Colo., in the early 1950s, complete with photostat of the quit claim deed to NBS from the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. On the other hand, radio research developed and flourished in this country in the early days at industrial (Bell Telephone, General Electric, Westinghouse) and government (NBS, Naval Research Laboratory) labs more than in academia, and it is very interesting to learn how the labs interacted and to read details of the organizational structure. I can attest personally to the great difficulties in locating materials concerning radio history. While we have numerous volumes devoted to certain popular radio heroes, little is available concerning government radio pioneers such as L. W. Austin, who directed the U.S. Navy's radio research for many years while situated physically at the Bureau of Standards, or J. H. Dellinger, long-time chief of the Radio Section and head spokesman on radio for the U.S. government until the 1930s.

  10. Reduction of CO/sub 2/ emissions through fuel economy standards for diesel cars in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, L.A.; Mehlia, T.M.I.; Hassan, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In Pakistan, like many developing countries, the increasing prosperity and population growth are resulting in accelerated growth in vehicle population and vehicle kilometers traveled. This causes air pollution due to huge CO/sub 2/ emissions. Automobile fuel economy standards have proven to be one of the most effective tools to control oil demand thereby reducing the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions like CO/sub 2/, This study presents the investigation to apply fuel economy standards in Pakistan, in order to predict the potential reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions and saving in fuel demand. The study is focused on only diesel cars and the data of diesel car owners for previous fifteen years is obtained from the related sources in Pakistan. A growth trend of diesel car owners was analyzed and the number of diesel car owners in future was predicted by applying database computer software. Calculations were made to study the effect of fuel economy standards in terms of saving in fuel demand and the reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions. The results reveal the potential application of fuel economy standards and it was found that a cumulative amount of fuel 39266775 liters can be saved and CO/sub 2/ emissions can be reduced by 106021 tons at the end of 2011-2012, if fuel economy standards are implemented in 2008-2009. (author)

  11. National fossil fuels consumption: Estimates of CO2 emissions and thermic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, Mario; Casale, Francesco

    1997-01-01

    The study on the basis of the national energy consumption from 1988 to 1994, estimates CO 2 emission rates produced by the most relevant hydrocarbons involved in the technological combustion processes and assess the potential thermic impact on the environment. Two calculation procedures have been developed taking into account once emission factors and other emission indexes in order to verify the two estimates. Besides, the work determines the national trend of CO 2 emission with regard to the aim for the stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions at 1990 levels by 2000

  12. 77 FR 52679 - Notice of Meeting of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... the organic program. The subcommittees are: Compliance, Accreditation, and Certification; Crops...-12] Notice of Meeting of the National Organic Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB). Written public comments are invited in advance of the...

  13. Standardized analysis of German cattle mortality using national register data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannwitz, Gunter

    2015-03-01

    In a retrospective cohort study of national register data, 1946 randomly selected holdings, with 286,912 individual cattle accumulating 170,416 animal-years were analyzed. The sample was considered to represent the national herd in Germany 2012. Within each holding, individual cattle records were stratified by current age (≤21 days, 3-6 weeks, 6-12 weeks, 3-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2, 2-4, 4-8, and >8 years), sex, breed (intensive milk, less intensive milk, and beef), and mean monthly air temperature (rate, slaughter rate, and federal state. 8027 on-site deaths (excluding slaughter for human consumption) were recorded, with cattle aged 2 years contributing 50.0%, 15.4%, and 34.6% of deaths, respectively. Poisson regression and generalized estimating equations (gee) accounting for intra-herd clustering were used to model the number of deaths. In both models, most age bands differed significantly, with highest rates in calves ≤21 days, falling to lowest rates in 1-2 year olds, and rising again thereafter in females. Males exhibited higher mortality than females from birth to 2 years. All breed categories differed significantly with lowest rates in beef and highest in intensive milk breeds. Larger holdings, temperatures ≤10°C, calving rates >0-0.5 per animal year were all associated with higher mortality. Via interaction, intensive and less intensive milk breed cattle aging 6 weeks to 6 months and intensive milk breed females >4 years were associated with higher mortality. There were no significant differences between federal states and slaughter rates. The standardized deviations of modeled dead cattle numbers from occurred deaths per calendar year per holding were calculated and a 95% reference range of deviations constructed. This approach makes a standardized active monitoring and surveillance system regardless of herd size possible, offering a useful, inexpensive and easy implementable aid in the detection of holdings deviant from mortality levels of the

  14. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Litter-based manure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, B.; Webb, J.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Menzi, H.; Luesink, H. H.; Hutchings, N. J.; Eurich-Menden, B.; Döhler, H.; Dämmgen, U.

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardized inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for emission factors (EFs) (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario for beef cattle produced very similar estimates of total losses of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) (±6% of the mean total), but large differences in NH 3 emissions (±24% of the mean). These differences arose from the different approaches to TAN immobilization in litter, other N losses and mineralization in the models. As a result of those differences estimates of TAN available at spreading differed by a factor of almost 3. Results of the FF scenario for broilers produced a range of estimates of total changes in TAN (±9% of the mean total), and larger differences in the estimate of NH 3 emissions (±17% of the mean). The different approaches among the models to TAN immobilization, other N losses and mineralization, produced estimates of TAN available at spreading which differed by a factor of almost 1.7. The differences in estimates of NH 3 emissions decreased as estimates of immobilization and other N losses increased. Since immobilization and denitrification depend also on the C:N ratio in manure, there would be advantages to include C flows in mass-flow models. This would also provide an integrated model for the estimation of emissions of methane, non-methane VOCs and carbon dioxide. Estimation of these would also enable an estimate of mass loss, calculation of the N and TAN concentrations in litter-based manures and further validation of model outputs.

  15. Impacts of nationally determined contributions on 2030 global greenhouse gas emissions: uncertainty analysis and distribution of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Hélène; Boucher, Olivier; Guivarch, Céline; Le Treut, Hervé; Criqui, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), submitted by Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change before and after the 21st Conference of Parties, summarize domestic objectives for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions for the 2025-2030 time horizon. In the absence, for now, of detailed guidelines for the format of NDCs, ancillary data are needed to interpret some NDCs and project GHG emissions in 2030. Here, we provide an analysis of uncertainty sources and their impacts on 2030 global GHG emissions based on the sole and full achievement of the NDCs. We estimate that NDCs project into 56.8-66.5 Gt CO2eq yr-1 emissions in 2030 (90% confidence interval), which is higher than previous estimates, and with a larger uncertainty range. Despite these uncertainties, NDCs robustly shift GHG emissions towards emerging and developing countries and reduce international inequalities in per capita GHG emissions. Finally, we stress that current NDCs imply larger emissions reduction rates after 2030 than during the 2010-2030 period if long-term temperature goals are to be fulfilled. Our results highlight four requirements for the forthcoming ‘climate regime’: a clearer framework regarding future NDCs’ design, an increasing participation of emerging and developing countries in the global mitigation effort, an ambitious update mechanism in order to avoid hardly feasible decarbonization rates after 2030 and an anticipation of steep decreases in global emissions after 2030.

  16. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart L of... - National Consensus Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Consensus Standards B Appendix B to Subpart L of... Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 1910—National Consensus Standards The following table contains a cross-reference listing of those current national consensus standards which contains information and guidelines...

  17. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Dämmgen, U; Döhler, H

    2008-01-01

    and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH3 emissions from agriculture...... the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models...

  18. [Study on standardization of cupping technique: elucidation on the establishment of the National Standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-zhong; Liu, Bing

    2010-02-01

    From the aspects of basis, technique descriptions, core contents, problems and solutions, and standard thinking in standard setting process, this paper states experiences in the establishment of the national standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping, focusing on methodologies used in cupping standard setting process, the method selection and operating instructions of cupping standardization, and the characteristics of standard TCM. In addition, this paper states the scope of application, and precautions for this cupping standardization. This paper also explaines tentative ideas on the research of standardized manipulation of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  19. 40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines in the engine family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  20. Disproportionality in Power Plants’ Carbon Emissions: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don

    2016-01-01

    Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity. PMID:27363677

  1. National trajectories of carbon emissions: analysis of proposals to foster the transition to low-carbon economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinzig, A.P.; Kammen, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we develop a framework for analyzing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions trajectories from the energy and industrial sectors of the world's nations under various policy options. A robust conclusion of our analysis is that early action by both developed and developing nations will be required to hold atmospheric CO 2 at or below doubled pre-industrial levels and incentives for renewed investments in energy-sector technologies are a required component of early action. We therefore develop and examine an international emissions regime that: (a) in the short-term 'jump starts' the political and project-implementation process by providing incentives to exploit profitable or low-cost carbon reduction opportunities; (b) in the near- and medium-term addresses the inequities resulting from historic imbalances in greenhouse-gas emissions while promoting efficient pathways for carbon reduction; and (c) in the long-term recognizes the equal rights of individuals to exploit the services of the atmosphere and pursue a reasonable standard of living in a low-carbon economy. We present and analyze a proposal to promote near-term activity in carbon reduction and energy innovation through a revitalized program of international joint implementation (JI) projects for carbon emissions reduction or carbon sequestration projects. Under our proposal, JI partner nations both receive full credit for carbon reductions that can be 'banked' and applied at a later date toward national emissions quotas in the climate convention. A finite program lifetime provides further impetus counting' of credits results in only modest additional cumulative carbon emissions relative to a similar scenario without cooperative partnerships. This 'JI banking' plan promotes critically needed scientific and institutional experience and innovation, initiates cost-effective carbon reductions, and provides vital national flexibility in meeting eventual targets. (author)

  2. Medical students call for national standards in anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farey, John E; Sandeford, Jonathan C; Evans-McKendry, Greg D

    2014-11-01

    The diminishing number of hours dedicated to formal instruction in anatomy has led to a debate within medical education as to the level required for safe clinical practice. We provide a review of the current state of anatomical education in Australian medical schools and state the case for national standards. In light of the review presented, council members of the Australian Medical Students' Association voted to affirm that consideration should be given to developing undergraduate learning goals for anatomy, providing a codified medical student position on the teaching of anatomy in Australian medical schools. Crucially, the position states that time-intensive methods of instruction such as dissection should be a rite of passage for medical students in the absence of evidence demonstrating the superiority of modern teaching methods. We believe the bodies with a vested interest in the quality of medical graduates, namely the Australian Medical Council, Medical Deans Australia & New Zealand, and the postgraduate colleges should collaborate and develop clear guidelines that make explicit the core knowledge of anatomy expected of medical graduates at each stage of their career with a view to safe clinical practice. In addition, Australian universities have a role to play in conducting further research into contemporary learning styles and the most efficacious methods of delivering anatomical education. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions-weighted clean energy standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, Makena; Griffin, James P.; Bernstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative cost-savings of utilizing a greenhouse gas emissions-weighted Clean Energy Standard (CES) in comparison to a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). Using a bottom-up electricity sector model for Hawaii, this paper demonstrates that a policy that gives “clean energy” credit to electricity technologies based on their cardinal ranking of lifecycle GHG emissions, normalizing the highest-emitting unit to zero credit, can reduce the costs of emissions abatement by up to 90% in comparison to a typical RPS. A GHG emissions-weighted CES provides incentive to not only pursue renewable sources of electricity, but also promotes fuel-switching among fossil fuels and improved generation efficiencies at fossil-fired units. CES is found to be particularly cost-effective when projected fossil fuel prices are relatively low. - Highlights: ► Proposes a GHG Emissions-Weighted Clean Energy Standard (CES) mechanism. ► Compares CES to RPS using a case study of Hawaii. ► Finds CES is up to 90% more cost-effective as a GHG abatement tool.

  4. Estimating national exhaust emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, Faruk; Elbir, Tolga

    2007-01-01

    The estimated exhaust emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey were presented. The emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), hydrocarbon compounds (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the diesel locomotives and railcars were calculated using the railway traffic data recorded by Turkish State Railways (TSR) for the period of 2000-2005. EPA emission factors were used for different vehicle types and operation modes such as shunting and line-hauling. Total emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey were estimated as 384 t y - 1 for HC, 1016 t y - 1 for CO, 6799 t y - 1 for NO X , 256 t y - 1 for PM, 357 t y - 1 for SO 2 and 383 537 t y - 1 for CO 2 for the year 2005. The distribution of emissions with respect to type of railway vehicles shows that the mainline locomotives contribute ∝ 91% to the total emissions. The increases of 22%, 39% and 49% in the current numbers of mainline locomotives, shunting locomotives and diesel railcars, respectively corresponding to the full capacity of railway network in Turkey will increase the annual emissions to 431 t y - 1 for HC, 1121 t y - 1 for CO, 7399 t y - 1 for NO X , 342 t y - 1 for PM, 552 t y - 1 for SO 2 and 420 256 t y - 1 for CO 2 . Total railway emissions constitute 0.15%, 0.08% and 4.21% of total Turkish traffic emissions for HC, CO and NO X , respectively. (author)

  5. National Emissions Trading; Interim Report by the Committee on the Kyoto mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    By emissions trading is meant that operators eligible for emissions trading can trade in emission rights, which entitle the operator to greenhouse gas emissions. The domestic emissions trading in gases released into the atmosphere would be limited to domestic units and emissions only. Emissions trading does not reduce emissions. Emissions are reduced by investments and changes in lines of action. The role of the national emissions trading depends on the overall national climate programme. Emissions trading - especially if it is connected with quotas imposed on greenhouse gas emissions or with other quantitative restrictions - is a strong instrument of which there is no previous experience in Finland. Compared to mere emission quotas, emissions trading might, however, offer a flexible and cost-efficient means of meeting the emission targets. The Committee thinks that the majority of - and most important - points speak in favour of the option that, if emissions trading is to be taken among the methodology of the climate policy, it is more profitable and more cost-efficient for Finland to use emissions trading as one instrument included in the climate policy together with other countries. The emissions trading area should also include countries that have lower costs of reducing emissions than those of Finland. The Committee does not propose that emissions trading between companies be initiated so as to be applicable in Finland only. If the EU Member States and the Community ratify the Kyoto Protocol and if emissions trading within the EU area begins, Finland will have to consider joining the trading system. If no decisions are made on the EU trading system by the year 2005, or if Finland cannot join it due to an implementation method that would be disadvantageous to Finland, Finland will have to consider joining the emissions trading system especially on the regional level covering the Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea States. Before joining any emissions trading

  6. National Emissions Trading; Interim Report by the Committee on the Kyoto mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    By emissions trading is meant that operators eligible for emissions trading can trade in emission rights, which entitle the operator to greenhouse gas emissions. The domestic emissions trading in gases released into the atmosphere would be limited to domestic units and emissions only. Emissions trading does not reduce emissions. Emissions are reduced by investments and changes in lines of action. The role of the national emissions trading depends on the overall national climate programme. Emissions trading - especially if it is connected with quotas imposed on greenhouse gas emissions or with other quantitative restrictions - is a strong instrument of which there is no previous experience in Finland. Compared to mere emission quotas, emissions trading might, however, offer a flexible and cost-efficient means of meeting the emission targets. The Committee thinks that the majority of - and most important- points speak in favour of the option that, i emissions trading is to be taken among the methodology of the climate policy, it is more profitable and more cost-efficient for Finland to use emissions trading as one instrument included in the climate policy together with other countries. The emissions trading area should also include countries that have lower costs of reducing emissions than those of Finland. The Committee does not propose that emissions trading between companies be initiated so as to be applicable in Finland only. If the EU Member States and the Community ratify the Kyoto Protocol and if emissions trading within the EU area begins, Finland will have to consider joining the trading system. If no decisions are made on the EU trading system by the year 2005, or if Finland cannot join it due to an implementation method that would be disadvantageous to Finland, Finland will have to consider joining the emissions trading system especially on the regional level covering the Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea States. Before joining any emissions trading

  7. National inventory report. Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions of the following greenhouse gases are covered in this report: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). In addition, the inventory includes calculations of emissions of the precursors NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO, as well as for SO{sub 2}. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions originating from the fossil part of CH{sub 4} and NMVOC are calculated according to the reporting guidelines to the UNFCCC, and accounted for in the inventory. (AG)

  8. National inventory report. Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H.; Gjerald, Eilev; Hoem, Britta; Ramberg, Simen Helgesen; Haugland, Hege; Valved, Hilde; Nelson, George Nicholas; Asphjell, Torgrim; Christophersen, Oeyvind; Gaustad, Alice; Rubaek, Birgitte; Hvalryg, Marte Monsen

    2012-07-01

    Emissions of the following greenhouse gases are covered in this report: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). In addition, the inventory includes calculations of emissions of the precursors NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO, as well as for SO{sub 2}. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions originating from the fossil part of CH{sub 4} and NMVOC are calculated according to the reporting guidelines to the UNFCCC, and accounted for in the inventory.(eb)

  9. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity less...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDDDD... the following applicable emission limits and work practice standards: If your boiler or process heater.... Hydrogen Chloride 0.02 lb per MMBtu of heat input. c. Mercury 0.000003 lb per MMBtu of heat input. d...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1105-87 - Emission standards for which nonconformance penalties are available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development component of the NCP in accordance with § 86.1113-87(h): 0.12. (ii) For petroleum-fueled medium... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for which nonconformance penalties are available. 86.1105-87 Section 86.1105-87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  12. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  13. Verification of the Danish emission inventory data by national and international data comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauser, P.; Thomsen, Marianne; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Hoffmann, L.; Lyck, E.; Boll Illerup, J.

    2007-08-15

    Danish emission intensity values, activity values and implied emission factors for identified key source categories are compared with corresponding values for the EU-15 countries (excluding Luxemburg). The emission values for all countries are based on national greenhouse gas inventories for the years 1990 (base year), 1997 and 2003 provided by the UNFCCC. The comparison is based on a proposed verification procedure that is designed for identifying emission indicators and evaluating data consistency and reliability for the energy and industry sectors. For all sectors the method gives good possibility for checking emission levels and consistency in time trends. (au)

  14. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions outside the national borders in FENCH-GHG energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at providing guidance to the workshop discussion on the accountability of full-energy-chain greenhouse gas emissions from the use of energy sources if emissions did not take place inside the national borders of a country. Examples of such emissions are those from the generation of imported electricity or from mining and transportation of coal and natural gas. The FENCH-GHG approach, if used in energy planning, would automatically take such greenhouse gas emissions, which are inherent to energy systems, into account. The paper raises the basics, practicality and the feasibility of dealing with extra-boundary emissions in energy planning. (author). 3 refs

  15. FTA National Transit GIS : data standards, guidelines and recommended practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) National Transit Geographic Information System (GIS) is a representative inventory of the public transit assets of the country. Creation of this national system is an ongoing and collaborative effort on the pa...

  16. Viewpoint Mitigation of emissions through energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances including room air conditioners. The number of users of air conditioners is predicted to grow dramatically in Malaysian households in the future. To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, the Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in early 2004. This paper attempts to predict the potential mitigation of emissions through energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in Malaysia. The calculations were based on the growth of room air conditioners ownership data in Malaysian households. The study found that the energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners would mitigate a significant amount of emissions in this country

  17. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2009-10-27

    I appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. My comments are directed at the choice of vehicle footprint as the attribute by which to vary fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, in the interest of protecting vehicle occupants from death or serious injury. I have made several of these points before when commenting on previous NHTSA rulemakings regarding CAFE standards and safety. The comments today are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or the University of California. My comments can be summarized as follows: (1) My updated analysis of casualty risk finds that, after accounting for drivers and crash location, there is a wide range in casualty risk for vehicles with the same weight or footprint. This suggests that reducing vehicle weight or footprint will not necessarily result in increased fatalities or serious injuries. (2) Indeed, the recent safety record of crossover SUVs indicates that weight reduction in this class of vehicles resulted in a reduction in fatality risks. (3) Computer crash simulations can pinpoint the effect of specific design changes on vehicle safety; these analyses are preferable to regression analyses, which rely on historical vehicle designs, and cannot fully isolate the effect of specific design changes, such as weight reduction, on crash outcomes. (4) There is evidence that automakers planned to build more large light trucks in response to the footprint-based light truck CAFE standards. Such an increase in the number of large light trucks on the road may decrease, rather than increase, overall safety.

  18. Estimating marginal CO2 emissions rates for national electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reduction afforded by a demand-side intervention in the electricity system is typically assessed by means of an assumed grid emissions rate, which measures the CO 2 intensity of electricity not used as a result of the intervention. This emissions rate is called the 'marginal emissions factor' (MEF). Accurate estimation of MEFs is crucial for performance assessment because their application leads to decisions regarding the relative merits of CO 2 reduction strategies. This article contributes to formulating the principles by which MEFs are estimated, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses in existing approaches, and presenting an alternative based on the observed behaviour of power stations. The case of Great Britain is considered, demonstrating an MEF of 0.69 kgCO 2 /kW h for 2002-2009, with error bars at +/-10%. This value could reduce to 0.6 kgCO 2 /kW h over the next decade under planned changes to the underlying generation mix, and could further reduce to approximately 0.51 kgCO 2 /kW h before 2025 if all power stations commissioned pre-1970 are replaced by their modern counterparts. Given that these rates are higher than commonly applied system-average or assumed 'long term marginal' emissions rates, it is concluded that maintenance of an improved understanding of MEFs is valuable to better inform policy decisions.

  19. A direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Heather; Baker, Kirk R; Akhtar, Farhan; Napelenok, Sergey L; Possiel, Norm; Wells, Benjamin; Timin, Brian

    2013-03-05

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA's responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and risks associated with ambient ozone pollution using a statistical approach to adjust recent air quality to simulate just meeting the current standard level, without specifying emission control strategies. One drawback of this purely statistical concentration rollback approach is that it does not take into account spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ozone response to emissions changes. The application of the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) in the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model is discussed here to provide an example of a methodology that could incorporate this variability into the risk assessment analyses. Because this approach includes a full representation of the chemical production and physical transport of ozone in the atmosphere, it does not require assumed background concentrations, which have been applied to constrain estimates from past statistical techniques. The CMAQ-HDDM adjustment approach is extended to measured ozone concentrations by determining typical sensitivities at each monitor location and hour of the day based on a linear relationship between first-order sensitivities and hourly ozone values. This approach is demonstrated by modeling ozone responses for monitor locations in Detroit and Charlotte to domain-wide reductions in anthropogenic NOx and VOCs emissions. As seen in previous studies, ozone response calculated using HDDM compared well to brute-force emissions changes up to approximately a 50% reduction in emissions. A new stepwise approach is developed here to apply this method to emissions reductions beyond 50% allowing for the simulation of more stringent reductions in ozone concentrations. Compared to previous rollback methods, this

  20. 30 CFR Appendix I to Subpart M of... - National Consensus Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Consensus Standards I Appendix I to... Machinery and Equipment Pt. 56, Subpt. M, App. I Appendix I to Subpart M of Part 56—National Consensus... object protective structures (FOPS) may consult the following national consensus standards, as applicable...

  1. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications...-9668-2] RIN 2060-AP37 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  2. 76 FR 22383 - National Fire Codes: Request for Proposals for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Chemical Extinguishing Systems. NFPA 22-2008 Standard for Water 5/23/2011 Tanks for Private Fire Protection... Ensembles for Technical Rescue Incidents. NFPA 1925-2008 Standard on Marine Fire- 5/23/2011 Fighting Vessels... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Codes: Request...

  3. National Construction of Global Education: A Critical Review of the National Curriculum Standards for South Korean Global High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Park, Minjeong; Choi, Il-Seon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate what global visions of education are reflected in the selected national curriculum standards, with special reference to two seemingly contradictory forces: globalization and nationalism. This paper examines the socio-economic and cultural foundations of the curriculum and explains how the national curriculum…

  4. National Emissions Inventory (NEI) 2005 Point Facility Data for the US (US EPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays 2005 USEPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) point facility information for the United States. The map service was created for inclusion...

  5. National Emissions Inventory (NEI) 2011 Point Facility Data for the US (US EPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays 2011 USEPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) point facility information for the United States. The map service was created for inclusion...

  6. Compliance with future emission standards of mobile machines by developing a monovalent natural gas combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prehn, Sascha; Wichmann, Volker; Harndorf, Horst; Beberdick, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Within the presented project a monovalent natural gas engine is being developed. Based on a serial diesel engine the operation mode of this prototype is changed to a spark ignition concept. The long term purpose of this new engine is an agricultural application. One major objective of the project is the investigation and evaluation of a combustion process, able to fulfil the performance requests as well as the European emission limits for nitrogen oxides NO x , and carbon monoxide CO of mobile machinery, which become into law in October 2014 (EU stage IV). At the time there are no legislative regulations existing regarding the methane emissions of the observed engines. To get a benefit in greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel or gasoline engines the methane emissions have to be minimized while operating in natural gas mode. In the course of the current project an engine operation with a methane emission less than 0.5 g/kWh (representing the EURO VI limit for heavy duty vehicles) could be demonstrated. In contrast to diesel engines for agricultural applications it is possible to comply with the emission standards without using a high sophisticated after treatment system consisting of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), particulate filter (DPF) and SCR catalyst. The usage of a three way catalyst optimized for high methane conversions is sufficient for a stoichiometry gas operation with exhaust gas recirculation. Therefore a significant cost advantage is given.

  7. The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gütschow, Johannes; Jeffery, M. Louise; Gieseke, Robert; Gebel, Ronja; Stevens, David; Krapp, Mario; Rocha, Marcia

    2016-11-01

    To assess the history of greenhouse gas emissions and individual countries' contributions to emissions and climate change, detailed historical data are needed. We combine several published datasets to create a comprehensive set of emissions pathways for each country and Kyoto gas, covering the years 1850 to 2014 with yearly values, for all UNFCCC member states and most non-UNFCCC territories. The sectoral resolution is that of the main IPCC 1996 categories. Additional time series of CO2 are available for energy and industry subsectors. Country-resolved data are combined from different sources and supplemented using year-to-year growth rates from regionally resolved sources and numerical extrapolations to complete the dataset. Regional deforestation emissions are downscaled to country level using estimates of the deforested area obtained from potential vegetation and simulations of agricultural land. In this paper, we discuss the data sources and methods used and present the resulting dataset, including its limitations and uncertainties. The dataset is available from doi:10.5880/PIK.2016.003 and can be viewed on the website accompanying this paper (de/primap-live/primap-hist/" target="_blank">http://www.pik-potsdam.de/primap-live/primap-hist/).

  8. Implementation of NOx emissions standard in the Gas Transmission Company in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veenstra, T.; Coors, P.; Rosmalen, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 and 1990 new NO x emission standards came in force for firing installations (boilers, gas turbines and engines). Gasunie (the gas transportation company in The Netherlands) owns 55 gas turbines and 10 gas engines for the gastransport system, with a total capacity of about 570 MW, installed in 8 compressor stations. Having the most stringent emission levels of Europe (together with Germany) Gasunie reduced the total NO x amount from 3600 tons of NO x in 1987 to 630 tons of NO x in 1990. This reduction was mostly based on our own development of a new precombustion chamber for the lean burn gas engines. Besides that studies and research were carried out for NO x reduction on the gas turbine to meet the current legislation (115 ppm NO x ) and a strategy is made to meet future emission standards. This is necessary because the expected future NO x standards for stand alone gas turbines will be about half of the present standards

  9. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national

  10. Developing social standards for wilderness encounters in Mount Rainier National Park: Manager-defined versus visitor-defined standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher J. Lah

    2000-01-01

    This research compared the differences found between manager-defined and visitor-defined social standards for wilderness encounters in Mount Rainier National Park. Social standards in recreation areas of public land are defined by what is acceptable to the public, in addition to the area’s management. Social standards for the encounter indicator in Mount Rainier’s...

  11. 75 FR 65067 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Reform Act URE--Unit Risk Estimate VOC--Volatile Organic Compounds WAFS--Wetting Agent/Fume Suppressant...; Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations; Pharmaceuticals Production; The... Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks; Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank...

  12. 77 FR 6627 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... aluminum to provide resistance to corrosion. The chromium anodizing process is used to coat aircraft parts... Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks; and Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid... Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks; and Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities...

  13. 76 FR 72049 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Shipbuilding and Ship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... received during the comment period that some facilities route conventional spray gun overspray to control... a control device for the sole purpose of using conventional spray guns. We expect the vast majority... number of facilities choosing to use conventional spray guns with a control device. We are also...

  14. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... Cooling Tower PEPO--Polyether Polyols PET--Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate) Resin PM--Particulate Matter POM...., fixed roofs on storage vessels and oil water separators; covers on surface impoundments, containers and... category: Solid-state resins (PET bottle grade resins), polyester film and engineering resins. They are all...

  15. 75 FR 10184 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... issuing the technical correction, EPA has taken the necessary steps to eliminate drafting errors and... Products Manufacturing-- Technical Amendment AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; technical correction. SUMMARY: This action clarifies regulatory text of the ``Revision of Source...

  16. 75 FR 31317 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... & Coating Manufacturing.. 325510 Area source facilities engaged in mixing pigments, solvents, and binders... repellant coatings for concrete and masonry. Adhesive Manufacturing......... 325520 Area source facilities... various areas of air pollution control. IV. Why are we amending the rule? Our intention in this area...

  17. 78 FR 25185 - Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Sewage Treatment Plants X X X X P Primary Copper Smelters X X X X Q Primary Zinc Smelters X X X X R Primary Lead Smelters X X X X S Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants.... X X X X T Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: Wet X X X X Process Phosphoric Acid Plants. U Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: X X X X...

  18. 78 FR 27375 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources, National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ..., at the Exon Mobil Refinery located in Baytown, Texas? Modification is necessary in order to allow... the point of generation, but rather changes the location where the owner or operator measures the... characteristics of the waste streams at their points of generation, assuming the facility's total annual benzene...

  19. 75 FR 522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... associated with these analyses did not influence the basic decision to regulate this source category or the... that decision was not supported with a rational explanation. Response: As the commenter recognizes, in... and manganese). We reviewed the listing decision for this area source category and did not identify...

  20. 77 FR 30283 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources, National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... pathological waste, in an April 15, 1999, letter still valid? A: Yes. Since the definitions of terms used in... the alternative monitoring plan from March 24, 2006, is no longer valid since an exemption provided in...

  1. 75 FR 19252 - Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... commenced on or after 06/16/2004). IIII Stationary Compression Ignition Yes. Internal Combustion Engines. JJJJ Stationary Spark Ignition Yes. Internal Combustion Engines. Including amendments issued October 8.... IIII Auto & Light Duty Truck (Surface X Coating). JJJJ Paper & Other Webs (Surface X Coating). KKKK...

  2. 40 CFR Table 36 to Subpart Uuu of... - Work Practice Standards for HAP Emissions From Bypass Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for HAP Emissions From Bypass Lines 36 Table 36 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Table 36 Table 36 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Work Practice Standards for HAP Emissions From Bypass Lines...

  3. 40 CFR 63.7925 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for closed vent systems and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for closed vent systems and control... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for closed vent systems and control devices? 63.7925 Section 63.7925...

  4. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  5. 75 FR 18850 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program AGENCY: National Protection...-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security Information (SSI), or Protected Critical... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Program Description The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), 6 CFR...

  6. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids... interim rule entitled National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for..., 2013 / Rules and Regulations [[Page 79567

  7. 78 FR 9055 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the..., Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo...

  8. Implementation of sum-peak method for standardization of positron emission radionuclides; Implementacao do metodo pico-soma para padronizacao de radionuclideos emissores de positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: mcfragoso@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is being increasingly recognized as an important quantitative imaging tool for diagnosis and assessing response to therapy. As correct dose administration plays a crucial part in nuclear medicine, it is important that the instruments used to assay the activity of the short-lived radionuclides are calibrated accurately, with traceability to the national or international standards. The sum-peak method has been widely used for radionuclide standardization. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of PET radiopharmaceuticals at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE). (author)

  9. Emission pathway modeling to analyze national ambition levels of decarbonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, Mikiko; Waisman, Henri

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP) is a knowledge network comprising 15 Country Research Teams and several Partner Organizations which develop and share methods, assumptions, and findings related to deep decarbonization. It analyzes the technical decarbonization potential, exploring options for deep decarbonization, but also better taking into account existing infrastructure stocks. It shows the possibility to reduce total CO 2 -energy emissions by 45% by 2050, with bottom-up analyses by 15 Country Research Teams

  10. Guidelines for drafting national and international seismic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podrouzek, J.

    1989-01-01

    The main principles of engineering reliability are discussed in relation to the formation of seismic standards. The basic recommendations of the International Association of Earthquake Engineering in the field of inspection and earthquake resistance evaluation of engineering structures and systems are characterized. Attention is also paid to efforts aimed at a unification of standards and regulations, based on the fact that quasistatic and response spectra methods are largely common to the standards amd regulations. However, as the potential of computer techniques increases, more complex computer programs appear and the amount of tenuous input data increases, and this can affect the quality of seismic inspections. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  11. Air Emissions Damages from Municipal Drinking Water Treatment Under Current and Proposed Regulatory Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2017-09-19

    Water treatment processes present intersectoral and cross-media risk trade-offs that are not presently considered in Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory analyses. This paper develops a method for assessing the air emission implications of common municipal water treatment processes used to comply with recently promulgated and proposed regulatory standards, including concentration limits for, lead and copper, disinfection byproducts, chromium(VI), strontium, and PFOA/PFOS. Life-cycle models of electricity and chemical consumption for individual drinking water unit processes are used to estimate embedded NO x , SO 2 , PM 2.5 , and CO 2 emissions on a cubic meter basis. We estimate air emission damages from currently installed treatment processes at U.S. drinking water facilities to be on the order of $500 million USD annually. Fully complying with six promulgated and proposed rules would increase baseline air emission damages by approximately 50%, with three-quarters of these damages originating from chemical manufacturing. Despite the magnitude of these air emission damages, the net benefit of currently implemented rules remains positive. For some proposed rules, however, the promise of net benefits remains contingent on technology choice.

  12. The Canadian Association of Radiologists national standards for technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hynes, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Unlike any other technological development before it, teleradiology is revolutionizing the diagnostic medical imaging field by enabling broad access to radiological images. Images can today be transmitted between departments or between hospitals. Doctors in remote areas can share images with specialists in larger centres for consultation. Physicians can access hospital records from their office or home computer. Teleradiology also offers valuable educational opportunities. Like other technologies, however, the implementation and continuing development of teleradiology requires careful consideration of issues related to image quality, patient care, security of patient records, and other important matters. The following standard was prepared by the CAR Expert Advisory Panel on Teleradiology Standards in collaboration with the Ontario Association of Radiologists Teleradiology Committee to provide a model for teleradiology applications. The standard is based upon U.S. standards prepared by the American College of Radiology. (author). 21 refs

  13. Updated national emission of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Ok; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Yu-Mi; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    A nationwide emission estimate of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is required to understand the source-receptor relationship of PFASs and to manage major types of WWTPs. In this study, the concentrations of 13 PFASs (8 perfluorocarboxylic acids, 3 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, and 2 intermediates) in wastewater and sludge from 81 WWTPs in South Korea were collected. The emission pathways of PFASs were redefined, and then the national emission of PFASs from WWTPs was rigorously updated. In addition to the direct calculations, Monte Carlo simulations were also used to calculate the likely range of PFAS emissions. The total (Σ 13 PFAS) emission (wastewater + sludge) calculated from the direct calculation with mean concentrations was 4.03 ton/y. The emissions of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.19 ton/y) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 1.01 ton/y) were dominant. The Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the realistic national emission of Σ 13 PFASs is between 2 ton/y and 20 ton/y. Combined WWTPs treating municipal wastewater from residential and commercial areas were identified as a major emission source, contributing 65% to the total PFAS emissions. The Han and Nakdong Rivers were the primary contaminated rivers, receiving 89% of the total PFAS discharge from WWTPs. The results and methodologies in this study can be useful to establish a management policy for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The development of national competency standards for the midwife in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Caroline S E; Passant, Lyn; Kildea, Sue; Pincombe, Jan; Thorogood, Carol; Leap, Nicky; Brodie, Pat M

    2007-12-01

    to develop and validate national competency standards for midwives in Australia. This study was part of a commissioned national research project to articulate the scope of practice of Australian midwives and to develop national competency standards to assist midwives to deliver safe and competent midwifery care. a multi-method, staged approach was used to collect data through a literature review, workshop consultations, interviews, surveys and written submissions in order to develop national competency standards for Australian midwives. Subsequently, direct observation of practice in a range of settings ensured validation of the competencies. maternity-care settings in each state and territory in Australia. midwives, other health professionals and consumers of midwifery care. The national competency standards for the midwife were developed through research and consultation before being validated in practice. the national competency standards are currently being implemented into education, regulation and practice in Australia. These will be minimum competency standards required of all midwives who seek authority to practise as a midwife in Australia. It is expected that all midwives will demonstrate that they are able to meet the competency standards relevant to the position they hold. the competency standards establish a national standard for midwives and reinforce responsibility and accountability in the provision of quality midwifery care through safe and effective practice. In addition, individual midwives may use the competency standards as the basis of their ongoing professional development plans.

  15. Energy and environmental impact of domestic heating in Italy: Evaluation of national NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aste, Niccolò; Adhikari, R.S.; Compostella, Junia; Pero, Claudio Del

    2013-01-01

    The domestic heating sector has a high potential in terms of energy savings and environmental impact. In the present study, an analysis has been carried out on the effect of domestic heating on natural gas (NG) consumption and pollutants emissions. In particular, among various emission pollutants, the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions at national level were analyzed in detail. The work was carried out under a collaborative research project between the Italian Ministry of the Environment and Politecnico di Milano. For the assessment of the national NO x emissions due to residential heating, an inventory of the domestic boilers stock operating in Italy from 1999 to 2010 was made. As from a technological point of view, the precise data about the real composition of national domestic boilers stock were incomplete and not updated, a methodological procedure was developed in order to reconstruct the national domestic boilers stock based on the available technologies and thermal power. According to this scenario, the technological improvement of national boilers stock in the last decade was evaluated in terms of natural gas saving and reduced NO x emissions. Further some discussion has been made on the energy policies for the diffusion of more efficient boilers. - Highlights: ► First-of-its-kind study on the effect of domestic heating on NO x emissions. ► Inventory of national gas boiler population for domestic heating. ► Estimation of the main boilers typologies distribution on a national level. ► Technological improvement of thermal appliances and NO x emissions reduction.

  16. 77 FR 39459 - Fisheries of the United States; National Standard 1 Guidelines; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    .... 120425420-2420-01] RIN 0648-BB92 Fisheries of the United States; National Standard 1 Guidelines; Extension... adjustments to the National Standard 1 Guidelines, one of 10 national standards for fishery conservation and... National Standard 1 Guidelines. The ANPR provides the public with a formal opportunity to comment on the...

  17. Updating OSHA standards based on national consensus standards. Direct final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    In this direct final rule, the Agency is removing several references to consensus standards that have requirements that duplicate, or are comparable to, other OSHA rules; this action includes correcting a paragraph citation in one of these OSHA rules. The Agency also is removing a reference to American Welding Society standard A3.0-1969 ("Terms and Definitions") in its general-industry welding standards. This rulemaking is a continuation of OSHA's ongoing effort to update references to consensus and industry standards used throughout its rules.

  18. National screening program vs. standardized neurodevelopmental follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maschke, Cornelia; Ellenrieder, Birte; Hecher, Kurt; Bartmann, Peter

    Background: Long-term follow-up is urgently needed to decide on the consequences of new therapies. Objective: This study assesses the use of a national child development screening program for a follow-up examination of a defined patient group. Patients and methods: Neurodevelopmental outcome of 139

  19. 50 CFR 600.310 - National Standard 1-Optimum Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Nation, the values that should be weighed and receive serious attention when considering the economic... research, and all fishing activities. (D) The OY specification should be translatable into an annual... that serves as the basis for invoking AMs. ACL cannot exceed the ABC, but may be divided into sector...

  20. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  1. 77 FR 67340 - National Fire Codes: Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Water Mist Fire P Protection Systems. NFPA 921 Guide for Fire and Explosion P Investigations. NFPA 1005 Standard for Professional P Qualifications for Marine Fire Fighting for Land-Based Fire Fighters. NFPA 1192... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Codes: Request...

  2. Establishment of national emission measurement activity in neighbouring areas of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunela, L.; Larjava, K.; Jormanainen, P. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Muurinen, M. [Enemi Ltd, Lahti (Finland); Hietamaeki, M. [Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (the Baltic countries) and the Republic State of Carelia, Russia belong to the so-called nearby areas of Finland. All being part of the former Soviet Union, they are now undergoing the establishment of their own environment- managing systems. Finland has shown a great amount of interest in supporting the efforts of these areas to solve their environmental problems. In 1993 VTT started, at the request of the East European Project of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, a four year project aiming at the establishment of national atmospheric emission measurement systems in the Baltic countries and the Republic state of Carelia (later: the counterpart countries). Proper national emission measurement systems were regarded important in order to provide reliable data on the emission situation for national and international use. The main target of the work is to raise the level of the emission measurements in the counterpart countries to the international level. Two aspects were considered to be required to achieve this goal; (1) delivery of proper emission measurement equipment, (2) training of the emission measurement personnel. It was estimated that within three to four years these counterpart countries could join the Finnish quality assurance system in emission measurements if desired. (author)

  3. Establishment of national emission measurement activity in neighbouring areas of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunela, L; Larjava, K; Jormanainen, P [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Muurinen, M [Enemi Ltd, Lahti (Finland); Hietamaeki, M [Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (the Baltic countries) and the Republic State of Carelia, Russia belong to the so-called nearby areas of Finland. All being part of the former Soviet Union, they are now undergoing the establishment of their own environment- managing systems. Finland has shown a great amount of interest in supporting the efforts of these areas to solve their environmental problems. In 1993 VTT started, at the request of the East European Project of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, a four year project aiming at the establishment of national atmospheric emission measurement systems in the Baltic countries and the Republic state of Carelia (later: the counterpart countries). Proper national emission measurement systems were regarded important in order to provide reliable data on the emission situation for national and international use. The main target of the work is to raise the level of the emission measurements in the counterpart countries to the international level. Two aspects were considered to be required to achieve this goal; (1) delivery of proper emission measurement equipment, (2) training of the emission measurement personnel. It was estimated that within three to four years these counterpart countries could join the Finnish quality assurance system in emission measurements if desired. (author)

  4. Closing the GAAP Gap--The National Accounting Standards Struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, C. William

    1994-01-01

    By 1992, all states had adopted the Governmental Accounting Standards Board's (GASB) Generally Accepted Accounting Practices (GAAP). However, not all governments had implemented them by that date. Points out the advantages and weaknesses of GAAP. Concludes that the uniformity in accounting rules give greater assurance that the information…

  5. The Czech national long distances measuring standard Koštice - State of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Červinka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives information about new Czech national long distances measuring standard, which has been preparedat the distance base near the Koštice village. Submitter of the project is the Czech Office for Standards, Metrology and Testing.Research and document preparation for creation of the measuring standard were ensured by the Research Institute of Geodesy,Topography and Cartography. Interlaboratory comparisons were made by staff of the Bundeswehr University in Munich. The paperreports about works, which will be carried out on national standard in the second half of this year. Purpose of this works is to improvecharacteristics of accuracy of national etalon.

  6. Positron emission tomography in a national research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinreich, R.

    1989-01-01

    The example of the Paul Scherrer Institute shows that positron emission tomography can be implanted successfully as spin-off into an appropriate environment. The adaption to the existing irradiation facilities of the technique of production of the short-lived positron emitters is complex. However, the basic necessities of a tomography programme can be covered. Moreover, the relatively high energy of the institute's injector cyclotron allows additional production of rare-used longer-lived positron emitters. The scanner exceeded the guaranteed specifications. With respect to the somewhat lower availability of beam time compared to a usual baby cyclotron, the research programme must not be very patient-intense. A strong participation of the pharmaceutical industry has directed research priorities into the pharmacological area. (orig.) [de

  7. Standardization of proton-induced x-ray emission technique for analysis of thick samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shad; Zeb, Johar; Ahad, Abdul; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Haneef, M.; Akbar, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the standardization of the proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique for finding the elemental composition of thick samples. For the standardization, three different samples of standard reference materials (SRMs) were analyzed using this technique and the data were compared with the already known data of these certified SRMs. These samples were selected in order to cover the maximum range of elements in the periodic table. Each sample was irradiated for three different values of collected beam charges at three different times. A proton beam of 2.57 MeV obtained using 5UDH-II Pelletron accelerator was used for excitation of x-rays from the sample. The acquired experimental data were analyzed using the GUPIXWIN software. The results show that the SRM data and the data obtained using the PIXE technique are in good agreement.

  8. 77 FR 959 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries; National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... the cooling water to cool the water. Heat exchangers occasionally develop leaks which result in... action levels for direct water sampling. For existing sources, the proposed leak action level is 80 parts... refiners to reduce monitoring frequency and burden by meeting a lower leak definition. If finalized, these...

  9. 78 FR 35585 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ...; Signage AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice... Administration (``OSHA'' or ``the Agency'') proposes to update its general industry and construction signage... standards, ANSI Z53.1-1967, Z35.1-1968, and Z35.2-1968, in its signage standards, thereby providing...

  10. 78 FR 66642 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...; Signage AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Final... (78 FR 35559) a direct final rule that revised its signage standards for general industry and... revised its signage standards for general industry at 29 CFR 1910.97, 1910.145, and 1910.261, and...

  11. The true extent of agriculture's contribution to national greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.J.; Cloy, J.M.; Rees, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantification of agricultural GHG emissions is required under legislation. • Alternative approaches to calculating agricultural GHG inventories were compared. • The Scottish Government and IPCC attribute different emissions to the agricultural sector. • High emissions from agriculture are calculated when land-use change is included. • Agriculture is a greater source of emissions using the Scottish Government approach. - Abstract: The agricultural sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and a growing global population means that agricultural production will remain high if food demands are to be met. Mitigation methods to reduce emissions from this sector are thus required, along with identification and quantification of emission sources, so that the agricultural community can act and measure its progress. International legislation requires the submission of annual reports quantifying GHG emissions from agriculture. The importance of attributing the correct sources of emissions to the agricultural sector is clear; however the current approach taken by the IPCC, and reported to the UNFCCC, omits emissions from soils during agricultural land-use change from its agricultural inventory. This paper questions the IPCC approach, and the attribution of agricultural land-use change emissions to a separate category: ‘Land-use, Land-use change and Forestry’. Here a new approach adopted by the Scottish Government is examined, and compared to IPCC guidelines and national communications submitted to the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and the UNFCCC. The new Scottish Government approach attributes emissions from both land-use conversion and agricultural land under continuous use to the agricultural sector, in addition to those emissions from livestock and energy use on farms. The extent of emissions attributed to the agricultural sector using the Scottish Government approach is much greater than that using

  12. The United Nations' endeavour to standardize mineral resource classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanz, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The United Nations' Economic and Social Council passed a resolution in July 1975 calling for the development of a mineral resources classification system to be used in reporting data to the United Nations. Following preparation of background papers and an agenda by the UN Centre for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport, a panel of experts recommended a classification system to the Council's Committee on Natural Resources. The Committee met in Turkey in June 1979 and has reported favourably to the Council on the proposed system. The classification system is designed to provide maximum capability for requesting and receiving data from the resources data systems already used internally by major mineral producing nations. In addition, the system provides for flexibility in adjusting to the particular needs of individual mineral commodities. The proposed system involves three basic categories of in-situ resources: R-1, reliable estimates of known deposits; R-2, preliminary estimates of the extensions of known deposits; and, R-3, tentative estimates of quantities to be found in undiscovered deposits. As an option for given countries and commodities, the R-1 category can be further sub-divided into: R-1-E, economic; R-1-M, marginal; and R-1-S, sub-economic. Finally, the classification scheme provides for all categories to have a parallel set of estimates of recoverable mineral quantities. (author)

  13. Unified programs nationally? Strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Polo Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of measurable learning standards as an element of the curriculum has definitely opened the door to the connection between the curriculum and external assessments. Since its origin, the potential impact of that element in improving our educational system has been defended and criticized. The truth is that in our country, though all regions are based on the same Royal Decree of core curriculum, and therefore the same reference for the evaluation, curriculum that ultimately applies to students ( teaching-learning- assessment from the different regions can have significant differences . This article proposes, from the analysis of various research , training programs, the plan of action for inspection and the author's own experience in processes of curriculum specifications , assess the potential strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards.

  14. The impact of national culture on the ethical standards of the German restaurant market

    OpenAIRE

    Crocamo, Filomena Clara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the ethical standards of the restaurant business in Germany. A further objective was to understand the national cultural impact on these ethical standards and how potential distinctions in the ethical decision-making process can be explained by the different national cultural background. The theoretical framework of this thesis was based on the theories of national cultural dimensions by the researcher Hofstede (1980) and the concepts of busi...

  15. New international and national standards concerning quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrick, K.; Reihlen, H.

    1987-01-01

    The history and contents of the latest standards DIN ISO 9000 through DIN ISO 9004 concerning quality systems are outlined. Information is given referring to the establishment of an in-house quality system, and to quality assurance requirements put down in a three-step quality assurance system for contractual purposes. The services available for certification of quality systems by the 'DQS' and legal aspects are mentioned. (HP)

  16. American National Standard: nuclear data sets for reactor design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This standard identifies and describes the specifications for developing, preparing, and documenting nuclear data sets to be used in reactor design calculations. The specifications include criteria for acceptance of evaluated nuclear data sets, criteria for processing evaluated data and preparation of processed continuous data and averaged data sets, and identification of specific evaluated, processed continuous, and averaged data sets which meet these criteria for specific reactor types

  17. American National Standard nuclear data sets for reactor design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A standard is presented which identifies and describes the specifications for developing, preparing, and documenting nuclear data sets to be used in reactor design calculations. The specifications include (a) criteria for acceptance of evaluated nuclear data sets, (b) criteria for processing evaluated data and preparation of processed continuous data and averaged data sets, and (c) identification of specific evaluated, processed continuous, and averaged data sets which meet these criteria for specific reactor types

  18. Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

  19. A Deeper Glimpse into the National Core Arts Standards for General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffini, Erin Dineen

    2018-01-01

    The National Core Arts Standards in general music provide some exciting possibilities for music growth and understanding among our students. For those of us who are still unsure of how to read the standards or implement them in our classrooms, the standards also present some challenges for music educators. This article provides a deeper look into…

  20. Beyond the Rhetoric: An Historian's View of the "National" Standards for United States History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Sheldon M.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests there are flaws in the National Standards for United States History that could be detrimental to students. According to the author, in their pervasive present-mindedness and self-censorship, the standard's framers underestimate and ill-serve the students because the standards help develop a smug, superior, and self-righteous attitude…

  1. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Transfer Racks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Transfer Racks 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Limits and Work Practice Standards for Transfer Racks As required in § 63.2475, you must meet each emission limit and work practice standard in the following table that applies to your transfer racks: For...

  2. 75 FR 62739 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent AGENCIES: Environmental... fuel economy (CAFE) standards in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as... FR 49454, 49460 (September 28, 2009). The NHTSA CAFE standards are only based on technologies that...

  3. X-ray emission from National Ignition Facility indirect drive targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.T.; Managan, R.A.; Tobin, M.T.; Peterson, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    We have performed a series of 1-D numerical simulations of the x-ray emission from National Ignition Facility (NIF) targets. Results are presented in terms of total x-ray energy, pulse length, and spectrum. Scaling of x-ray emissions is presented for variations in both target yield and hohlraum thickness. Experiments conducted on the Nova facility provide some validation of the computational tools and methods

  4. Mass and emission spectrometry in the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.H. (ed.)

    1978-11-01

    The capabilities of the Mass and Emission Spectrometry Section of the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described. Many different areas of mass spectrometric expertise are represented in the section: gas analysis, high abundance sensitivity measurements, high- and low-resolution organic analyses, spark source trace constituent analysis, and ion microprobe analysis of surfaces. These capabilities are complemented by emission spectrometry. The instruments are described along with a few applications, some of which are unique.

  5. Mass and emission spectrometry in the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.

    1978-11-01

    The capabilities of the Mass and Emission Spectrometry Section of the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described. Many different areas of mass spectrometric expertise are represented in the section: gas analysis, high abundance sensitivity measurements, high- and low-resolution organic analyses, spark source trace constituent analysis, and ion microprobe analysis of surfaces. These capabilities are complemented by emission spectrometry. The instruments are described along with a few applications, some of which are unique

  6. International and national radiation protection standards and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and their basis are discussed with particular emphasis on the extensive review of its earlier recommendations undertaken by the ICRP during the 1970s. The new recommendations issued in 1977 after this review are described. The dose limits for various organs and tissues before and after 1977 are compared. The optimization principle contained in the 1977 recommendations is assessed. The implementation of the 1977 recommendations, the subsequent changes to them and the ICRP's 1987 statement on cancer risk assessments are discussed. The National Radiological Protection Board's October 1987 radiation protection recommendations are outlined. 8 refs., 1 fig

  7. Secondary electron images obtained with a standard photoelectron emission microscope set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, Oswald; Zeppenfeld, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The first results of secondary electron images excited by 3-4.3 keV electrons are presented. The images are obtained with a standard FOCUS-PEEM set-up equipped with an imaging energy filter (IEF). The electron gun was mounted on a standard PEEM entrance flange at an angle of 25 deg. with respect to the sample surface. A low extraction voltage of 500 V was used to minimize the deflection of the electron beam by the PEEM extraction electrode. The secondary electron images are compared to photoelectron images excited by a standard 4.9 eV UV lamp. In the case of a Cu pattern on a Si substrate it is found that the lateral resolution without the IEF is about the same for electron and photon excitation but that the relative electron emission intensities are very different. The use of the IEF reduces the lateral resolution. Images for secondary electron energies between eV 1 and eV 2 were obtained by setting the IEF to -V 1 and -V 2 ∼-(V 1 +5V) potentials and taking the difference of both images. Images up to 100 eV electron energies were recorded. The material contrast obtained in these difference images is discussed in terms of a secondary electron and photoelectron emission model and secondary electron energy spectra measured with a LEED-Auger spectrometer

  8. Carbon dioxide emission standards for U.S. power plants. An efficiency analysis perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachbereich Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften; Roedseth, Kenneth Loevold [Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Economics and Logistics

    2013-07-01

    On June 25, 2013, President Obama announced his plan to introduce carbon dioxide emission standards for electricity generation. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis approach that addresses which mission rates (and standards) would be feasible if the existing generating units adopt best practices. A new efficiency measure is introduced and further decomposed to identify different sources' contributions to emission rate improvements. Estimating two Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models - the well-known joint production model and the new materials balance model - on a dataset consisting of 160 bituminous-fired generating units, we find that the average generating unit's electricity-to-carbon dioxide ratio is 15.3 percent below the corresponding best-practice ratio. Further examinations reveal that this discrepancy can largely be attributed to non-discretionary factors and not to managerial inefficiency. Moreover, even if the best practice ratios could be implemented, the generating units would not be able to comply with the EPA's recently proposed carbon dioxide standard.

  9. National Standards Laboratory biennial report, 1971--1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-02-28

    This report describes the activities of the laboratory in: length interferometry; engineering metrology; photogrammetry; mass, volume, density, and pressure measurement: force, hardness, and materials testing machines; vibration; corrosion; time and frequency; acoustics; electrical standards; power frequency; high voltage; rf and microwave measurement; temperature measurement; optical radiometry; optics; dielectrics; magnetics; thermal and elastic properties of solids; electron transport in metals; low-energy collisions in gases; physics of the fluid state and high pressures; water vapor physics; viscometry; airglow; solar physics; and theoretical astrophysics. (DLC)

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2007. National Inventory Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Brandes, L.J.; Baas, K.; Van den Born, G.J.; Geilenkirchen, G.; Te Molder, R.; Nijdam, D.S.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Peek, C.J.; Van Schijndel, M.W.; Van der Sluis, S.M.; Coenen, P.W.H.G; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, G.; Guis, B.

    2009-04-01

    This report documents the 2009 Netherlands annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data

  11. Acceptance Factors Influencing Adoption of National Institute of Standards and Technology Information Security Standards: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of a comprehensive information security governance model and security controls is the best option organizations may have to protect their information assets and comply with regulatory requirements. Understanding acceptance factors of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF) comprehensive…

  12. National inventory of anhyd ric carbonic emissions providing of fuels consumption as energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention of the United Nations about Climatic Change, carried out in 1992, and whose ratification this being considerate d at level Parliament in the Republica Oriental del Uruguay, it has as objective to achieve the stabilization of the concentrations of gases of effect hot house in the atmosphere at a level that impedes interferences dangerous antropogenias. The National Direction of environment has carried out and Inventory of the Emissions of gas carbonic anhydride in the execution of the arisen commitments of the mentioned Convention. It being this the first step for the realization of a national inventory, which will not include the rest of the gases of effect hothouse controlled by the Protocols of Montreal. The inventory of the emissions carried out by the Division of Global and Regional Matters, it has been carried out for each one of the years understood in the period from 1987 to 1992 being studied the contribution of each sector of the national activity in the Emissions of carbonic anhydride.The results show that the total emissions estimated for Uruguay reach only the 6655 gigagrames of annual for the year 1992, being a light increase of the emission values among the years 1989 at 1992

  13. Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units (CISWI): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) for Existing Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for commercial and industrial solid waste incineration (CISWI) units including emission guidelines and compliance times for the rule. Read the rule history and summary, and find supporting documents

  14. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA adopted emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and... are incorporated by reference (see § 86.1). (v) Hybrid electric vehicle requirements. Deterioration factors for hybrid electric vehicles shall be based on the emissions and mileage accumulation of the...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall be not.... Both the projected emissions and the Highway Fuel Economy Test standard shall be rounded to the nearest... effectiveness. A/C-on specific “open-loop” or “commanded enrichment” air-fuel enrichment strategies (as defined...

  17. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-line engines fails to meet emission standards? 1045.320 Section 1045.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.320 What happens if one of my...

  18. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-line engines fails to meet emission standards? 1048.320 Section 1048.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production...

  19. 76 FR 52350 - Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Standard provide protection for workers from the adverse health effects associated with exposure to coke...' exposure to coke oven emissions, monitor worker health, and provide workers with information about their exposures and the health effects of exposure to coke oven emissions. II. Special Issues for Comment OSHA has...

  20. 40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE... are designed to operate, except for engines certified under § 1039.615. For engines certified under... must meet the numerical emission standards for NMHC in this section based on the following types of...

  1. National- to port-level inventories of shipping emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingliang; Liu, Huan; Jin, Xinxin; He, Kebin

    2017-11-01

    Shipping in China plays a global role, and has led worldwide maritime transportation for the last decade. However, without taking national or local port boundaries into account, it is impossible to determine the responsibility that each local authority has on emission controls, nor compare them with land-based emissions to determine the priority for controlling these emissions. In this study, we provide national- to port-level inventories for China. The results show that in 2013, the total emissions of CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter (PM), SO2 and CO2 were 0.0741 ± 0.0004 Tg•yr-1, 0.0691 ± 0.0004 Tg•yr-1, 1.91 ± 0.01 Tg•yr-1, 0.164 ± 0.001 Tg•yr-1, 1.30 ± 0.01 Tg•yr-1 and 86.3 ± 0.3 Tg•yr-1 in China, respectively. By providing high-resolution spatial distribution maps of these emissions, we identify three hotspots, centered on the Bohai Rim Area, the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. These three hotspots account for 8% of the ocean area evaluated in this study, but contribute around 37% of total shipping emissions. Compared with on-road mobile source emissions, NO x and PM emissions from ships are equivalent to about 34% and 29% of the total mobile vehicle emissions in China. Moreover, this study provides detailed emission inventories for 24 ports in the country, which also greatly contributes to our understanding of global shipping emissions, given that eight of these ports rank within the top twenty of the port league table. Several ports in China suffer emissions 12-147 times higher than those at Los Angeles port. The ports of Ningbo-Zhou Shan, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Dalian dominate the port-level inventories, with individual emissions accounting for 28%-31%, 10%-14%, 10%-12% and 8%-14% of total emissions, respectively.

  2. Standard audit procedure for continuous emission monitors and ambient air monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The instruments were published in an operational policy manual in 2009. This policy aims to introduce standard audit criteria that can be used to determine if continuous emission monitors and ambient air monitoring devices are operating within acceptable parameters. Before delivering upscale points of the instrument to be audited, each one of the audit equipment used in the field is required to be at normal operating conditions. Before the beginning of the audit, each one of the meteorological and flow measurement equipment is required to be conditioned to current conditions. If the audit fails, the instrument will have to be audited quarterly. The establishment of specific procedures based on instrument manufacturer or certifying body operational standards is required in the case of non-continuous monitoring instruments presenting operational principles outside of the audit procedures listed in the document.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2006. National Inventory Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Ruyssenaars, P.G.; Van den Born, G.J.; Brandes, L.J.; Hoen, A.; Te Molder, R.; Nijdam, D.S.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Peek, C.J.; Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Vreuls, H.H.J.; Van den Berghe, G.; Baas, K.; Guis, B.

    2008-01-01

    This report represents the 2008 Netherlands' annual inventory submission under the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), as well as the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. It has been prepared following the relevant guidelines, which also refer to Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines and IPCC Good Practice guidance and Uncertainty Management reports, provide a format for the definition of source categories and for calculation, documentation and reporting of emissions. The guidelines aim at facilitating verification, technical assessment and expert review of the inventory information by independent Expert Review Teams of the UNFCCC. Therefore, the inventories should be transparent, consistent, comparable, complete and accurate as elaborated in the UNFCCC Guidelines for reporting and be prepared using good practice as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance. This National Inventory Report (NIR) 2008 therefore provides explanations of the trends in greenhouse gas emissions, activity data and (implied) emission factors for the period 1990-2006. It also summarises descriptions of methods and data sources of Tier 1 assessments of the uncertainty in annual emissions and in emission trends; it presents an assessment of key sources following the Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC Good Practice Guidance; and describes Quality Assurance and Quality Control activities. This report provides no specific information on the effectiveness of government policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This information can be found in the annual Environmental Balance (in Dutch: 'Milieubalans') prepared by the Netherlands' Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the 4th National Communication (NC4) prepared by the government of the Netherlands. So-called Common Reporting Format (CRF) spreadsheet files, containing data on emissions, activity data and implied emission factors, accompany this report. The complete set

  4. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Environmental Stewardship Group

    2010-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2009. LANL's 2009 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  5. Emissions inventory report summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for calendar year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory’s potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2008. LANL’s 2008 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2009. National Inventory Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K W; Te Molder, R; Droege, R [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C W.M.; Zijlema, P J; Van den Berghe, A C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J D; Brandt, A T [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J A; Peek, C J; Vonk, J; Van den Wyngaert, I [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2011. National Inventory Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P. W.H.G.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Zijlema, P. J. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Arets, E. J.M.M. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Van den Berghe, A. C.W.M. [Rijkswaterstaat, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Brandt, A. T. [Dutch Emissions Authority NEa, P.O. Box 91503, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C. W.M.; Te Biesebeek, J. D.; Van der Hoek, K. W.; Te Molder, R.; Montfoort, J. A.; Peek, C. J.; Vonk, J. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Total greenhouse gas emissions from The Netherlands in 2011 decreased by approximately 7 per cent compared with 2010 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (less electricity production) and in the petrochemical industry. Fuel use for space heating decreased due to the mild winter compared with the very cold 2010 winter. In 2011, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry) in The Netherlands amounted to 194.4 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 9 per cent below the emissions in the base year 2 (213.2 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the Netherlands' 2012 annual submission of its greenhouse gas emissions inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2010. National Inventory Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P. W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K. W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C. W.M.; Zijlema, P. J.; Van den Berghe, A. C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J. D.; Brandt, A. T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J. A.; Peek, C. J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2009. National Inventory Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, G.; Baas, K.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T.; Geilenkirchen, G.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I.

    2011-04-01

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2009 decreased by approximately 3% compared to the emission in 2008. This decrease is a result of the economic crisis, especially due to the decrease in the industrial production. In 2009, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amount to 198.9Tg CO2 eq. This is nearly 7 % below the emissions in the base year 1990 (213.2 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2011 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2010. National Inventory Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2009. National Inventory Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  12. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2007-09-28

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. Modification Number 1 to this Title V Operating Permit was issued on June 15, 2006 (Permit No P-100M1) and includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2006. LANL's 2006 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2011. National Inventory Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Zijlema, P.J. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Arets, E.J.M.M. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [Rijkswaterstaat, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emissions Authority NEa, P.O. Box 91503, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Total greenhouse gas emissions from The Netherlands in 2011 decreased by approximately 7 per cent compared with 2010 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (less electricity production) and in the petrochemical industry. Fuel use for space heating decreased due to the mild winter compared with the very cold 2010 winter. In 2011, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry) in The Netherlands amounted to 194.4 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 9 per cent below the emissions in the base year 2 (213.2 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the Netherlands' 2012 annual submission of its greenhouse gas emissions inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  14. 78 FR 65932 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...; Signage AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION... accompanied its direct final rule revising its signage standards for general industry and construction. DATES... proposed rule (NPRM) along with the direct final rule (DFR) (see 78 FR 35585) updating its signage...

  15. 40 CFR 63.746 - Standards: Depainting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities § 63.746 Standards... to an aerospace manufacturing or rework facility that depaints six or less completed aerospace...

  16. Certification and accreditation performed by national standardization organizations : Does it reinforce or damage the traditional work of NSOs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    1999-01-01

    markdownabstractMany national standards organizations (NSOs) have become involved in metrology, product testing, certification and/or accreditation in addition to their core activites of standars development, selling standards, providing information on standards and standardization, and maintaining

  17. Forest carbon accounting methods and the consequences of forest bioenergy for national greenhouse gas emissions inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; MacLean, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Forest carbon accounting influences the national GHG inventory impacts of bioenergy. • Current accounting rules may overlook forest carbon trade-offs of bioenergy. • Wood pellet trade risks creating an emissions burden for exporting countries. - Abstract: While bioenergy plays a key role in strategies for increasing renewable energy deployment, studies assessing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest bioenergy systems have identified a potential trade-off of the system with forest carbon stocks. Of particular importance to national GHG inventories is how trade-offs between forest carbon stocks and bioenergy production are accounted for within the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector under current and future international climate change mitigation agreements. Through a case study of electricity produced using wood pellets from harvested forest stands in Ontario, Canada, this study assesses the implications of forest carbon accounting approaches on net emissions attributable to pellets produced for domestic use or export. Particular emphasis is placed on the forest management reference level (FMRL) method, as it will be employed by most Annex I nations in the next Kyoto Protocol Commitment Period. While bioenergy production is found to reduce forest carbon sequestration, under the FMRL approach this trade-off may not be accounted for and thus not incur an accountable AFOLU-related emission, provided that total forest harvest remains at or below that defined under the FMRL baseline. In contrast, accounting for forest carbon trade-offs associated with harvest for bioenergy results in an increase in net GHG emissions (AFOLU and life cycle emissions) lasting 37 or 90 years (if displacing coal or natural gas combined cycle generation, respectively). AFOLU emissions calculated using the Gross-Net approach are dominated by legacy effects of past management and natural disturbance, indicating near-term net forest carbon increase but

  18. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Noel, J.P.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1992-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser-cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air, and by laser beam in air. The same team was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick, grade 304 stainless-steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and in some cases 20 mm thick, grade 304, stainless-steel plates were cut by laser beam in five different facilities: CEA-CEN Fontenay, CEA-CEN Saclay, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and ENEA/Frascati. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, and the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the involved facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory) and by some particularities in the cutting parameters (an additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Universitaet Hannover, for example)

  19. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Noel, M.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma-arc and laser cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air and laser beam in air. The same team, CEA/DPT/SPIN, was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and sometimes 20 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by laser beam in four different facilities: CEA/CEN Fontenay, CEA/CEN Saclay, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and ENEA/FRASCATI. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory scale) and by some particularity in the cutting parameters (additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Hannover for example). Some supplementary experiments show the importance of some cutting parameters. (author)

  20. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4203 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by...

  1. Biogenic emissions of greenhouse gases caused by arable and animal agriculture. Task 3. Overall biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. National Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensen, A.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of the concerted action 'Biogenic Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Caused by Arable and Animal Agriculture' is to obtain an overview of the current knowledge on the emissions of greenhouse gases related to agricultural activities. This task 3 report summarises the activities that take place in the Netherlands with respect to agriculture emission inventories. This 'national' report was compiled using information from a number of Dutch groups. Therefore, from a national point of view the compilation does not contain new information. The paper can however be useful for other European partners to get an overview of how emission estimates are obtained in the Netherlands. 14 p

  2. Review of ANSI [American National Standards Institute] N13.11: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) issued the dosimetry standard titled ''Personnel Dosimetry Performance -- Criteria for Testing'' as ANSI N13.11. This standard forms the basis for the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) which has become familiar to dosimeter processors in recent years. This standard is particularly important because the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires that all licensees have personnel dosimetry devices processed by processors that are NVLAP accredited. This standard is currently undergoing review and modifications are going to be made. This paper contains a brief history of the events leading to the development of ANSI N13.11 - 1983, information concerning the present standard and associated performance test results, and the selection of the review group. Following that, the status of the review is presented and statements regarding the future outlook for the standard are made. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  3. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.67... hours, but in no case in excess of 72 hours of sample collection. Vinyl chloride emissions are to be... request, for inspection by the Administrator, for a minimum of 3 years, records of emission test results...

  4. ICC 700-2012: 2012 National Green Building Standard (ICC 700)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of the ICC 700-2012: 2012 National Green Building Standard, a rating and certification system that aims to encourage increased environmental and health performance in residences and residential portions of buildings.

  5. Activities of the data centers on atomic spectroscopy at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    The activities concerning Atomic Energy Levels and Wavelengths, Atomic Transition Probabilities and Spectral Line Shapes and Shifts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Gaithersburg, USA) are listed together with the corresponding lists of publications

  6. 75 FR 32472 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of committee recommendations and invitation for public input... Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). Name of Committee: HIT Standards Committee. General...

  7. Developing the (ASTM) voluntary consensus standards required to help implement the National Energy Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The recommended guide is the first American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) matrix in a family of such documents that combined, will help manage the development of the ASTM standards considered necessary to implement the current National Plan for Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration. It is expected that the guide will provide a framework for standards development to complement the nation's research and development in support of critical energy needs. The recommended guide identifies the energy-critical areas that are to be developed, the master ASTM recommended guide for developing the standards required to help the National Plan, the section in which each energy-critical area is covered, and the suggested ASTM lead committee responsible for each area (fossil, solar, geothermal, conservation, fusion, and fission reactor development). A comprehensive matrix to identify the areas of need for which ASTM standards will be required to help implement the National Energy Plan is also presented

  8. 76 FR 18148 - Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Secretary to establish an organic certification program for producers and handlers of agricultural products... such factors as: Demonstrated experience and interest in organic production; organic certification...] Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...

  9. National plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki Dong Song

    1996-01-01

    The present and future Korean emission of greenhouse gases are discussed in view of the current status of and projections of the national energy consumption under fast economic growth. Present dependence on energy import is very high (94.7%) and will only marginally decrease after a maximum of 97.1% in 2010 to 95.1% in 2030 due to increased use of renewables. The annual CO 2 emissions will be three times higher in 2030 and amount to almost 200 Mtonnes. The national CO 2 /energy intensity will decrease from 0.75 in 1990 to 0.69 in 2030. Coal combustion will remain the main source of CO 2 , whereas give the largest contribution to lowering the CO 2 intensity. The strategy and the bodies created to implement the commitments made by Korea to lower greenhouse gas emissions are described. (author). 14 tabs

  10. The decrease of CO2 emission intensity is decarbonization at national and global levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This viewpoint proposes the definition: 'Decarbonization refers to a decrease of CO 2 emission intensity in a trend'. This viewpoint then argues that an analysis of decarbonization at national and global levels based on that definition would lead to the correct calculation of decarbonization

  11. The 2014 National Emission Inventory for Rangeland Fires and Crop Residue Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions I...

  12. Principles and foundation: national standards on quantities and units in nuclear science field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-11-01

    The main contents of National Standards on Quantities and units of atomic and nuclear physics (GB 3102.9) and Quantities and Units of nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations (GB 310.10) are presented in which most important quantities with their symbols and definitions in the nuclear scientific field are given. The principles and foundation, including the International System of Units (SI) and its application to the nuclear scientific field, in the setting of the National Standards are explained

  13. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86 provides annual estimates of anthropogenic...

  14. A Broadband Waveguide Transfer Standard for Dissemination of UK National Microwave Power Standards,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    la )PT " RT a where RT is the resistance of the thermistor when the bridge is balanced. Although the thermistor mount is temperature controlled, some...voltage difference V1 - V and Vb - V2 - V then equation la 4 ... . .. mmm mmm mmmmmmmm m m mm mm mmmm m mm A becomes 2V(V - Vb) + V 2 - 2 P a b a b (lb...Weidman, "An international intercomparison of power standards in WR-28 waveguide". Metrologia , 17, June 1981. 4 G F Engen. "A refined X-band microwave

  15. Development of Standardized Mobile Tracer Correlation Approach for Large Area Emission Measurements (DRAFT UNDER EPA REVIEW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-wittig, T. A.; Thoma, E.; Green, R.; Hater, G.; Swan, N.; Chanton, J.

    2013-12-01

    Improved understanding of air emissions from large area sources such as landfills, waste water ponds, open-source processing, and agricultural operations is a topic of increasing environmental importance. In many cases, the size of the area source, coupled with spatial-heterogeneity, make direct (on-site) emission assessment difficult; methane emissions, from landfills for example, can be particularly complex [Thoma et al, 2009]. Recently, whole-facility (remote) measurement approaches based on tracer correlation have been utilized [Scheutz et al, 2011]. The approach uses a mobile platform to simultaneously measure a metered-release of a conservative gas (the tracer) along with the target compound (methane in the case of landfills). The known-rate tracer release provides a measure of atmospheric dispersion at the downwind observing location allowing the area source emission to be determined by a ratio calculation [Green et al, 2010]. Although powerful in concept, the approach has been somewhat limited to research applications due to the complexities and cost of the high-sensitivity measurement equipment required to quantify the part-per billion levels of tracer and target gas at kilometer-scale distances. The advent of compact, robust, and easy to use near-infrared optical measurement systems (such as cavity ring down spectroscopy) allow the tracer correlation approach to be investigated for wider use. Over the last several years, Waste Management Inc., the U.S. EPA, and collaborators have conducted method evaluation activities to determine the viability of a standardized approach through execution of a large number of field measurement trials at U.S. landfills. As opposed to previous studies [Scheutz et al, 2011] conducted at night (optimal plume transport conditions), the current work evaluated realistic use-scenarios; these scenarios include execution by non-scientist personnel, daylight operation, and full range of atmospheric condition (all plume transport

  16. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust: Effects of Engine Technology, Cold Start, and Emission Certification Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Lambe, Andrew T; Saleh, Rawad; Saliba, Georges; Robinson, Allen L

    2018-02-06

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from dilute exhaust from 16 gasoline vehicles was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor during chassis dynamometer testing using the cold-start unified cycle (UC). Ten vehicles were equipped with gasoline direct injection engines (GDI vehicles) and six with port fuel injection engines (PFI vehicles) certified to a wide range of emissions standards. We measured similar SOA production from GDI and PFI vehicles certified to the same emissions standard; less SOA production from vehicles certified to stricter emissions standards; and, after accounting for differences in gas-particle partitioning, similar effective SOA yields across different engine technologies and certification standards. Therefore the ongoing, dramatic shift from PFI to GDI vehicles in the United States should not alter the contribution of gasoline vehicles to ambient SOA and the natural replacement of older vehicles with newer ones certified to stricter emissions standards should reduce atmospheric SOA levels. Compared to hot operations, cold-start exhaust had lower effective SOA yields, but still contributed more SOA overall because of substantially higher organic gas emissions. We demonstrate that the PAM reactor can be used as a screening tool for vehicle SOA production by carefully accounting for the effects of the large variations in emission rates.

  17. 75 FR 57957 - Call for Comments on the Existing National Standards for the Culturally and Linguistically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... first national standards for cultural competence in health care and offer comprehensive guidance on what... health needs and thus suffer a greater loss to their overall health and productivity.'' Findings from the.... Increasingly, national experts are looking to cultural competency training as a means to reduce disparities in...

  18. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1988. Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 88, held May 10 to 12, 1988 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersberg, Maryland. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  19. American National Standards and the DOE - A cooperative effort to promote nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothleder, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) new criticality safety order, DOE Order 420.1 (open-quotes Facility Safety,close quotes October 13, 1995), Sec. 4.3 (open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safetyclose quotes), invokes, as an integral part, 12 appropriate American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS) Series-8 standards for nuclear criticality safety, but with modifications. (The order that 420.1/4.3 replaced also invoked some ANSI/ANS Series-8 standards.) These modifications include DOE operation-specific exceptions to the standards and elaborations on some of the wording in the standards

  20. How a European network may help with estimating methane emissions on the French national scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pison, Isabelle; Berchet, Antoine; Saunois, Marielle; Bousquet, Philippe; Broquet, Grégoire; Conil, Sébastien; Delmotte, Marc; Ganesan, Anita; Laurent, Olivier; Martin, Damien; O'Doherty, Simon; Ramonet, Michel; Spain, T. Gerard; Vermeulen, Alex; Yver Kwok, Camille

    2018-03-01

    Methane emissions on the national scale in France in 2012 are inferred by assimilating continuous atmospheric mixing ratio measurements from nine stations of the European network ICOS located in France and surrounding countries. To assess the robustness of the fluxes deduced by our inversion system based on an objectified quantification of uncertainties, two complementary inversion set-ups are computed and analysed: (i) a regional run correcting for the spatial distribution of fluxes in France and (ii) a sectorial run correcting fluxes for activity sectors on the national scale. In addition, our results for the two set-ups are compared with fluxes produced in the framework of the inversion inter-comparison exercise of the InGOS project. The seasonal variability in fluxes is consistent between different set-ups, with maximum emissions in summer, likely due to agricultural activity. However, very high monthly posterior uncertainties (up to ≈ 65 to 74 % in the sectorial run in May and June) make it difficult to attribute maximum emissions to a specific sector. On the yearly and national scales, the two inversions range from 3835 to 4050 Gg CH4 and from 3570 to 4190 Gg CH4 for the regional and sectorial runs, respectively, consistently with the InGOS products. These estimates are 25 to 55 % higher than the total national emissions from bottom-up approaches (biogeochemical models from natural emissions, plus inventories for anthropogenic ones), consistently pointing at missing or underestimated sources in the inventories and/or in natural sources. More specifically, in the sectorial set-up, agricultural emissions are inferred as 66% larger than estimates reported to the UNFCCC. Uncertainties in the total annual national budget are 108 and 312 Gg CH4, i.e, 3 to 8 %, for the regional and sectorial runs respectively, smaller than uncertainties in available bottom-up products, proving the added value of top-down atmospheric inversions. Therefore, even though the surface

  1. How a European network may help with estimating methane emissions on the French national scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pison

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane emissions on the national scale in France in 2012 are inferred by assimilating continuous atmospheric mixing ratio measurements from nine stations of the European network ICOS located in France and surrounding countries. To assess the robustness of the fluxes deduced by our inversion system based on an objectified quantification of uncertainties, two complementary inversion set-ups are computed and analysed: (i a regional run correcting for the spatial distribution of fluxes in France and (ii a sectorial run correcting fluxes for activity sectors on the national scale. In addition, our results for the two set-ups are compared with fluxes produced in the framework of the inversion inter-comparison exercise of the InGOS project. The seasonal variability in fluxes is consistent between different set-ups, with maximum emissions in summer, likely due to agricultural activity. However, very high monthly posterior uncertainties (up to ≈ 65 to 74 % in the sectorial run in May and June make it difficult to attribute maximum emissions to a specific sector. On the yearly and national scales, the two inversions range from 3835 to 4050 Gg CH4 and from 3570 to 4190 Gg CH4 for the regional and sectorial runs, respectively, consistently with the InGOS products. These estimates are 25 to 55 % higher than the total national emissions from bottom-up approaches (biogeochemical models from natural emissions, plus inventories for anthropogenic ones, consistently pointing at missing or underestimated sources in the inventories and/or in natural sources. More specifically, in the sectorial set-up, agricultural emissions are inferred as 66% larger than estimates reported to the UNFCCC. Uncertainties in the total annual national budget are 108 and 312 Gg CH4, i.e, 3 to 8 %, for the regional and sectorial runs respectively, smaller than uncertainties in available bottom-up products, proving the added value of top-down atmospheric

  2. Brief Introduction of Chinese National Technical Committee for Standardization on Radio Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chinese Nationa Technical Committee for Standardization on Radio Interference(SAC/TC79),ESTABLISHED IN 1986,is the national technical organization relating to different departments for standardization,with responsibility for technical research of electromagnetic compatibility as well as the management of each subcommittee.

  3. Arts Shoved Aside: Changing Art Practices in Primary Schools since the Introduction of National Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael Ray

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on the understandings and practices of primary teachers in implementing the arts curriculum since the 2010 introduction of National Standards in Numeracy and Literacy within the New Zealand Education system. The ever-mounting pressure on schools to perform to these standards has resulted in a reduction of emphasis and time…

  4. 75 FR 65636 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards... Strategic Plan, and in accordance with policies developed by the HIT Policy Committee. Date and Time: The...

  5. 75 FR 57027 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards... Strategic Plan, and in accordance with policies developed by the HIT Policy Committee. Date and Time: The...

  6. 75 FR 42090 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards... Strategic Plan, and in accordance with policies developed by the HIT Policy Committee. Date and Time: The...

  7. 76 FR 1432 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards...

  8. 75 FR 8954 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards...

  9. 75 FR 70923 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards...

  10. 75 FR 29761 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Technology: HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards...

  11. 76 FR 4354 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards...

  12. 75 FR 56549 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, e...

  13. 75 FR 39265 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Prevention, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337, Hyattsville, MD...

  14. 78 FR 53148 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337...

  15. Framing an Urban School Library with the "National School Library Standards"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Mary

    2018-01-01

    What is the future of urban school libraries? The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) "National School Library Standards" offer a framework for school librarians to reflect on how they can tailor their professional practice to serve their specific school communities. Through the lens of the standards, school librarians can…

  16. 40 CFR 266.107 - Standards to control hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine gas (Cl2) emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards to control hydrogen chloride... WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.107 Standards to control hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine gas (Cl2) emissions...

  17. Delineating managed land for reporting national greenhouse gas emissions and removals to the United Nations framework convention on climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Domke, Grant; Kurz, Werner A; Rocha, Marcelo T; Huffman, Ted; Swan, Amy; Smith, James E; Woodall, Christopher; Krug, Thelma

    2018-05-29

    Land use and management activities have a substantial impact on carbon stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions and removals. However, it is challenging to discriminate between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources and sinks from land. To address this problem, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change developed a managed land proxy to determine which lands are contributing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Governments report all emissions and removals from managed land to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change based on this proxy, and policy interventions to reduce emissions from land use are expected to focus on managed lands. Our objective was to review the use of the managed land proxy, and summarize the criteria that governments have applied to classify land as managed and unmanaged. We found that the large majority of governments are not reporting on their application of the managed land proxy. Among the governments that do provide information, most have assigned all area in specific land uses as managed, while designating all remaining lands as unmanaged. This designation as managed land is intuitive for croplands and settlements, which would not exist without management interventions, but a portion of forest land, grassland, and wetlands may not be managed in a country. Consequently, Brazil, Canada and the United States have taken the concept further and delineated managed and unmanaged forest land, grassland and wetlands, using additional criteria such as functional use of the land and accessibility of the land to anthropogenic activity. The managed land proxy is imperfect because reported emissions from any area can include non-anthropogenic sources, such as natural disturbances. However, the managed land proxy does make reporting of GHG emissions and removals from land use more tractable and comparable by excluding fluxes from areas that are not directly influenced by anthropogenic activity. Moreover

  18. Did Dewey Presage the 1989 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards?

    OpenAIRE

    Finken, Teresa M.

    2012-01-01

    The general theme of change in philosophy over time is due to traditional customs and beliefs failing to regulate society. This theme drove both John Dewey's Progressive Movement and the creation of the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (1989) by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). The remarkable similarity in thought between Dewey's writings and the Standards is the basis for this paper. The point of view is from the Standards looking back to find...

  19. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenskaya, Elena; Vorona-Slivinskaya, Lubov

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  20. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  1. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  2. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  3. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards

  4. [Criteria for the assessment of the noise-induced occupational hearing loss: international and national standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Denisov, É I; Adeninskaia, E E; Gorblianskiĭ, Iu Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review international and national standards for the criteria of assessment of the noise-induced occupational loss of hearing. The importance of healthy hearing for the occupational safety is emphasized which implies the necessity of the more rigorous criteria for hearing conservation in the workers engaged in the noisy technological environment compared with those for the general population. A rationale for the development of the standard program of hearing conservation in the workers engaged in the noisy technological environment is proposed including hygienic norms and rules or national state standards.

  5. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 772 - National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed A Appendix A to Part 772 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NOISE Pt. 772, App. A Appendix A to Part 772—National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a...

  6. Standard practice for examination of seamless, Gas-Filled, pressure vessels using acoustic emission

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of seamless pressure vessels (tubes) of the type used for distribution or storage of industrial gases. 1.2 This practice requires pressurization to a level greater than normal use. Pressurization medium may be gas or liquid. 1.3 This practice does not apply to vessels in cryogenic service. 1.4 The AE measurements are used to detect and locate emission sources. Other nondestructive test (NDT) methods must be used to evaluate the significance of AE sources. Procedures for other NDT techniques are beyond the scope of this practice. See Note 1. Note 1—Shear wave, angle beam ultrasonic examination is commonly used to establish circumferential position and dimensions of flaws that produce AE. Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD), ultrasonic examination is also commonly used for flaw sizing. 1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standa...

  7. 77 FR 58086 - Fisheries of the United States; National Standard 1 Guidelines; Reopening of Public Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    .... 120425420-2420-01] RIN 0648-BB92 Fisheries of the United States; National Standard 1 Guidelines; Reopening... Rulemaking (ANPR) published on May 3, 2012, on potential adjustments to the National Standard 1 Guidelines... adjustments to the National Standard 1 Guidelines. The ANPR provides the public with a formal opportunity to...

  8. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    monitoring data on different roads. Depending on the results in this research, the largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. The differences were caused by different driving conditions that we monitored via GPS. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million t and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million t, respectively, via the REIB approach in 2011. Another implication of this research is that different road infrastructure would have different impacts for NOx and PM2.5 emissions. A region with more inter-city freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with former studies, which allocate emissions according to local truck registration number and neglect inter-region long distance transport trips, the REIB approach has advantages regarding the allocation of diesel truck emissions into the provinces. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the different roads types are no longer overlooked with this approach.

  9. National BTS bronchiectasis audit 2012: is the quality standard being adhered to in adult secondary care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Adam T; Routh, Chris; Welham, Sally

    2014-03-01

    A significant step towards improving care of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis was the creation of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) national guidelines and the quality standard. A BTS bronchiectasis audit was conducted between 1 October and 30 November 2012, in adult patients with bronchiectasis attending secondary care, against the BTS quality standard. Ninety-eight institutions took part, submitting a total of 3147 patient records. The audit highlighted the variable adoption of the quality standard. It will allow the host institutions to benchmark against UK figures and drive quality improvement programmes to promote the quality standard and improve patient care.

  10. A Cancun stake: to revitalize climate cooperation while improving transparency about national greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    After having recalled the instruments which are available for the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) to ensure an as much as transparent as possible information transmission between states about greenhouse gas emissions, this article questions the way the Copenhagen agreement can be implemented while considering the discussions which took place. It draws lessons from other previous examples of international cooperation: WTO agreements, the Clean Development Mechanism. Three propositions are made in the perspective of the Cancun conference: to create a reliable world inventory of emissions, to organize cooperation with countries wishing to define statistics for their emission monitoring, and to reinforce transparency and control of measures (with the MRV criteria) which are subsidized by the international community

  11. Standardized Guidance for the Establishment of a National Hydrographic Office in Developing Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    important as nations look to the sea for increasing supplies and new sources of food for burgeoning populations. 3. Military Considerations Military factors...Operations Franch The Survey Operations Branch will be responsible for all aspects of field operations 6 and will be organi7ed in five sections. (1...supplemental expendi- tures would be decreased dramatically. There would be a dramatic decline in travel expenditures, living expenses for food and lodging

  12. Antifouling biocides in German marinas: Exposure assessment and calculation of national consumption and emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daehne, Dagmar; Fürle, Constanze; Thomsen, Anja; Watermann, Burkard; Feibicke, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The authorization of biocidal antifouling products for leisure boats is the subject of the European Union Biocides Regulation 528/2012. National specifics may be regarded by the member states in their assessment of environmental risks. The aim of this survey was to collect corresponding data and to create a database for the environmental risk assessment of antifouling active substances in German surface waters. Water concentrations of current antifouling active substances and selected breakdown products were measured in a single-sampling campaign covering 50 marinas at inland and coastal areas. Increased levels were found for Zn, Cu, and cybutryne. For the latter, the maximum allowable concentration according to Directive 2013/39/EU was exceeded at 5 marinas. For Cu, local environmental quality standards were exceeded at 10 marinas. Base data on the total boat inventory in Germany were lacking until now. For that reason, a nationwide survey of mooring berths was conducted by use of aerial photos. About 206 000 mooring berths obviously used by boats with a potential antifouling application were counted. The blind spot of very small marinas was estimated at 20 000 berths. Seventy-one percent of berths were located at freshwater sites, illustrating the importance of navigable inland waterways for leisure boat activities and underlining the need for a customized exposure assessment in these areas. Moreover, the national consumption of all antifouling products for leisure boats was calculated. The total amount of 794 tonnes/annum (t/a) consisted of 179 t/a of inorganic Cu compounds, 19 t/a of organic cobiocides, and 49.5 t/a of Zn. With regard to weight proportion, 141 t/a Cu and 40 t/a Zn were consumed. Assuming an emission ratio of 50% during service life, 70.5 t/a of Cu amounted to 15% of all external sources for Cu release to German surface waters. These figures highlight the need for mitigation measures. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:892-905. © 2017 The

  13. National greenhouse gas emissions baseline scenarios. Learning from experiences in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This report reviews national approaches to preparing baseline scenarios of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. It does so by describing and comparing in non-technical language existing practices and choices made by ten developing countries - Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam. The review focuses on a number of key elements, including model choices, transparency considerations, choices about underlying assumptions and challenges associated with data management. The aim is to improve overall understanding of baseline scenarios and facilitate their use for policy-making in developing countries more broadly. The findings are based on the results of a collaborative project involving a number of activities undertaken by the Danish Energy Agency, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the UNEP Risoe Centre (URC), including a series of workshops on the subject. The ten contributing countries account for approximately 40% of current global GHG emissions - a share that is expected to increase in the future. The breakdown of emissions by sector varies widely among these countries. In some countries, the energy sector is the leading source of emissions; for others, the land-use sector and/or agricultural sector dominate emissions. The report underscores some common technical and financial capacity gaps faced by developing countries when preparing baseline scenarios. It does not endeavour to propose guidelines for preparing baseline scenarios. Rather, it is hoped that the report will inform any future attempts at preparing such kind of guidelines. (Author)

  14. The effect of trade between China and the UK on national and global carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, You; Hewitt, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the amount of carbon dioxide embodied in bi-lateral trade between the UK and China in 2004. Developing and applying the method of Shui and Harriss [2006. The role of CO 2 embodiment in US-China trade. Energy Policy 34, 4063-4068], the most recently available data on trade and CO 2 emissions have been updated and adjusted to calculate the CO 2 emissions embodied in the commodities traded between China and the UK. It was found that through trade with China, the UK reduced its CO 2 emissions by approximately 11% in 2004, compared with a non-trade scenario in which the same type and volume of goods are produced in the UK. In addition, due to the greater carbon-intensity and relatively less efficient production processes of Chinese industry, China-UK trade resulted in an additional 117 Mt of CO 2 to global CO 2 emissions in the same one year period, compared with a non-trade scenario in which the same type and volume of goods are produced in the UK. This represents an additional 19% to the reported national CO 2 emissions of the UK (555 Mt/y in 2004) and 0.4% of global emissions. These findings suggest that, through international trade, very significant environmental impacts can be shifted from one country to another, and that international trade can (but does not necessarily) result in globally increased greenhouse gas emissions. These results are additional to the environmental consequences of transporting goods, which are not robustly quantified here. (author)

  15. A national day with near zero emissions and its effect on primary and secondary pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Traffic related air pollution is a major health concern in many countries. The potential costs and benefits of different abatement policies are usually estimated by either models, case studies or previously implemented intervention measures. Such estimations have, however, limited ability to predict the effect of a reduction in primary pollutants' emissions on secondary pollutants such as ozone, because of the nonlinear nature of the photochemical reactions. This study examines the short term effects of a drastic change in emissions on a national scale during the Jewish holiday of Day of Atonement (DA) in Israel. During the holiday nearly all anthropogenic emission sources are ceased for a period of 25 h, including all vehicles, commercial, industrial and recreational activities. DAs during the 15 years period of 1998-2012 are analyzed at three sites with respect to primary and secondary air pollutants, and in greater details for 2001. A dramatic decrease in primary pollutants emissions (83-98% in NO) causes an 8 ppbv increase in ozone at the urban core. Downwind (27 km), ozone decreases by only 5 ppbv. Nighttime O3 is shown to increase to 20 ppbv at the urban sites and 30 ppbv downwind. In spite of the striking reduction in emissions, changes in ozone are not greater than what is reported in the literature about less significant events like the ozone weekend effect. Changes in ambient pollution levels observed during DA provide some indication to the possible outcomes of a major change in anthropogenic emissions. These may be considered as the best case scenario for emissions reduction intervention measures and thus aid policy makers in evaluating potential benefits of such measures.

  16. Measuring temporal stability of positron emission tomography standardized uptake value bias using long-lived sources in a multicenter network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Darrin; Christopfel, Rebecca; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Karp, Joel; Lodge, Martin A; Laymon, Charles; Moros, Eduardo G; Budzevich, Mikalai; Nehmeh, Sadek; Scheuermann, Joshua; Sunderland, John; Zhang, Jun; Kinahan, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a quantitative imaging modality, but the computation of standardized uptake values (SUVs) requires several instruments to be correctly calibrated. Variability in the calibration process may lead to unreliable quantitation. Sealed source kits containing traceable amounts of [Formula: see text] were used to measure signal stability for 19 PET scanners at nine hospitals in the National Cancer Institute's Quantitative Imaging Network. Repeated measurements of the sources were performed on PET scanners and in dose calibrators. The measured scanner and dose calibrator signal biases were used to compute the bias in SUVs at multiple time points for each site over a 14-month period. Estimation of absolute SUV accuracy was confounded by bias from the solid phantoms' physical properties. On average, the intrascanner coefficient of variation for SUV measurements was 3.5%. Over the entire length of the study, single-scanner SUV values varied over a range of 11%. Dose calibrator bias was not correlated with scanner bias. Calibration factors from the image metadata were nearly as variable as scanner signal, and were correlated with signal for many scanners. SUVs often showed low intrascanner variability between successive measurements but were also prone to shifts in apparent bias, possibly in part due to scanner recalibrations that are part of regular scanner quality control. Biases of key factors in the computation of SUVs were not correlated and their temporal variations did not cancel out of the computation. Long-lived sources and image metadata may provide a check on the recalibration process.

  17. Implementation of ISO 10110 optics drawing standards for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, D. M.; English, R. E.; Wang, D. Y.

    1999-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project elected to implement ISO 10110 standard for the specifications of NIF optics drawings in 1996. More than 7,000 NIF large optics and 20,000 NIF small optics will be manufactured based on ISO 10110 indications. ISO 10110 standard meets many of the needs of the NIF optics specifications. It allows the optical engineer to quantify and clearly communicate the desired optical specifications. While no single drawing standard specifies all the requirements of high energy laser system, a combination of ISO 10110 standard with detailed notes make it possible to apply international drawing standards to the NIF laser system. This paper will briefly describe LLNL's interpretation and implementation of the ISO 10110 drawing standard, present some examples of NIF optics drawings, and discuss pros and cons of the indications from the perspective of this application. Emphasis will be given to the surface imperfection specifications, known as 5/, for the NIF optics

  18. Implementation of ISO 10110 optics drawing standards for the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Y.; English, R. Edward, Jr.; Aikens, David M.

    1999-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project elected to implement ISO 10110 standard for the specifications of NIF optics drawings in 1996. More than 7,000 NIF large optics and 20,000 NIF small optics will be manufactured based on ISO 10110 indications. ISO 10110 standard meets many of the needs of the NIF optics specifications. It allows the optical engineer to quantify and clearly communicate the desired optical specifications. While no single drawing standard specifies all the requirements of high energy laser system, a combination of ISO 10110 standard with detailed notes make it possible to apply international drawing standards to the NIF laser system. This paper will briefly describe LLNL's interpretation and implementation of the ISO 10110 drawing standard, present some examples of NIF optics drawings, and discuss pros and cons of the indications from the perspective of this application. Emphasis will be given to the surface imperfection specifications, known as 5/, for the NIF optics.

  19. Secondary standards laboratories for ionizing radiation calibrations: the national laboratory interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Campbell, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    The national laboratories are probable candidates to serve as secondary standards laboratories for the federal sector. Representatives of the major Department of Energy laboratories were polled concerning attitudes toward a secondary laboratory structure. Generally, the need for secondary laboratories was recognized and the development of such a program was encouraged. The secondary laboratories should be reviewed and inspected by the National Bureau of Standards. They should offer all of the essential, and preferably additional, calibration services in the field of radiological health protection. The selection of secondary laboratories should be based on economic and geographic criteria and/or be voluntary. 1 ref., 2 tabs

  20. National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities: Summary of Requirements for Implementing the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This summary of implementation requirements document for the Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework facilties NESHAP was originally prepared in August 1997, but it was updated in January 2001 with a new amendments update.

  1. Adherence of pain assessment to the German national standard for pain management in 12 nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Osterbrink, Jürgen; Bauer, Zsuzsa; Mitterlehner, Barbara; Gnass, Irmela; Kutschar, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain is very common among nursing home residents. The assessment of pain is a prerequisite for effective multiprofessional pain management. Within the framework of the German health services research project, ‘Action Alliance Pain-Free City Muenster’, the authors investigated pain assessment adherence according to the German national Expert Standard for Pain Management in Nursing, which is a general standard applicable to all chronic/acute pain-affected persons and highly recommen...

  2. Adherence of Pain Assessment to the German National Standard for Pain Management in 12 Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Osterbrink

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is very common among nursing home residents. The assessment of pain is a prerequisite for effective multiprofessional pain management. Within the framework of the German health services research project, ‘Action Alliance Pain-Free City Muenster’, the authors investigated pain assessment adherence according to the German national Expert Standard for Pain Management in Nursing, which is a general standard applicable to all chronic/acute pain-affected persons and highly recommended for practice.

  3. American National Standard administrative practices for nuclear criticality safety, ANSI/ANS-8.19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Carson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    American National Standard Administrative Practices for Nuclear Criticality Safety, ANSI/ANS-8.19, provides guidance for the administration of an effective program to control the risk of nuclear criticality in operations with fissile material outside reactors. The several sections of the standard address the responsibilities of management, supervisory personnel, and the criticality safety staff, as well as requirements and suggestions for the content of operating procedures, process evaluations, material control procedures, and emergency procedures

  4. Development of standards, codes of practice and guidelines at the national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    Standards, codes of practice and guidelines are defined and their different roles in radiation protection specified. The work of the major bodies that develop such documents in Australia - the National Health and Medical Research Council and the Standards Association of Australia - is discussed. The codes of practice prepared under the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act, 1978, an act of the Australian Federal Parliament, are described and the guidelines associated with them outlined. 5 refs

  5. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W

    2017-12-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname) the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations have not directly benefited from providing this global scale

  6. Methane and nitrous oxide: Methods in national emissions inventories and options for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Amstel, A.R. (ed.)

    1993-07-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, calls for the return of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000 in industrialized countries. It also calls for a monitoring of the emissions of greenhouse gases. It is important that reliable and scientifically credible national inventories are available for the international negotiations. Therefore a consistent methodology and a transparent reporting format is needed. The title workshop had two main objectives: (1) to support the development a methodology and format for national emissions inventories of greenhouse gases by mid 1993, as coordinated by the Science Working Group of the IPCC and the OECD; and (2) the development of technical options for reduction of greenhouse gases and the assessment of the socio-economic feasibility of these options. The workshop consisted of key note overview presentations, and two rounds of working group sessions, each covering five parallel sessions on selected sources. In the first round of each working group session the literature, existing methods for methane and nitrous oxide inventories, and the OECD/IPCC guidelines have been addressed. Then, in the second round, options for emission reductions have been discussed, as well as their socio-economic implications. The methane sources discussed concern oil and gas, coal mining, ruminants, animal waste, landfills and sewage treatment, combustion and industry, rice production and wetlands, biomass burning. The nitrous oxide sources discussed are agricultural soils and combustion and industry. The proceedings on methane comprise 16 introductory papers and 7 papers on the results of the working groups, while in part two four introductory papers and two papers on the results of working groups on nitrous oxide are presented. In part three future emission reduction policy options are discussed. Finally, 16 poster contributions are included

  7. National Incident Management System (NIMS) Standards Review Panel Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Kirk, Jennifer L.; Stanton, James R.; Shebell, Peter; Schwartz, Deborah S.; Judd, Kathleen S.; Gelston, Gariann M.

    2006-02-07

    The importance and need for full compliant implementation of NIMS nationwide was clearly demonstrated during the Hurricane Katrina event, which was clearly expressed in Secretary Chertoff's October 4, 2005 letter addressed to the State's governors. It states, ''Hurricane Katrina was a stark reminder of how critical it is for our nation to approach incident management in a coordinated, consistent, and efficient manner. We must be able to come together, at all levels of government, to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from any emergency or disaster. Our operations must be seamless and based on common incident management doctrine, because the challenges we face as a nation are far greater than capabilities of any one jurisdiction.'' The NIMS is a system/architecture for organizing response on a ''national'' level. It incorporations ICS as a main component of that structure (i.e., it institutionalizes ICS in NIMS). In a paper published on the NIMS Website, the following statements were made: ''NIMS represents a core set of doctrine, principles, terminology, and organizational processes to enable effective, efficient and collaborative incident management at all levels. To provide the framework for interoperability and compatibility, the NIMS is based on a balance between flexibility and standardization.'' Thus the NIC is challenged with the need to adopt quality SDO generated standards to support NIMS compliance, but in doing so maintain the flexibility necessary so that response operations can be tailored for the specific jurisdictional and geographical needs across the nation. In support of this large and complex challenge facing the NIC, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was asked to provide technical support to the NIC, through their DHS Science and Technology ? Standards Portfolio Contract, to help identify, review, and develop key standards for NIMS compliance. Upon

  8. Big is beautiful: the case for Federal leadership on a national renewable portfolio standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Cooper, Christopher

    2007-05-15

    State-based renewable portfolio standards (RPS) create regulatory uncertainty for investors and inherent inequities among ratepayers. Ultimately, federal legislation can help create a more just, diverse and predictable national market for renewable resources without significantly increasing aggregate electricity prices. (author)

  9. National tax regulation, voluntary international standards and the GATS : Argentina – financial services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis; Hoekman, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Can a WTO Member discriminate against foreign suppliers of services located in jurisdictions that refuse to share information with a government to permit it to determine if its nationals engage in tax evasion? Does it matter if the Member uses standards developed by an international body as the

  10. Media Representations of National and International Standardized Testing in the Israeli Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Gordon, Noa

    2017-01-01

    This study applies discourse analysis to Israeli media coverage of national and international standardized examinations within Israel's public education system. Through systematic analysis of the topic in the two main Israeli financial publications between the years 2000 and 2013, we explore the nature and narrative of the media and compare the…

  11. Comparing Black, Hispanic, and White Mothers with a National Standard of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Paris S.; Beckert, Troy E.

    2008-01-01

    Black, Hispanic, and White mothers (N = 739) and adolescents (N = 806) completed a Parent Success Indicator to assess maternal behavior related to Communication, Use of Time, Teaching, Frustration, Satisfaction, and Information Needs. Comparisons between each ethnic group and a previously established national parenting standard revealed that both…

  12. 75 FR 51818 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  13. 75 FR 65486 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  14. 75 FR 57025 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  15. 75 FR 8079 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  16. 76 FR 4353 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  17. 75 FR 12753 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  18. 75 FR 36657 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  19. 76 FR 1433 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Technology HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  20. 75 FR 70925 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT; Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Technology; HIT; Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  1. 75 FR 29761 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  2. 75 FR 368 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  3. 75 FR 3905 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces... for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to the public via dial-in access...

  4. 75 FR 16126 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards... and Coordination, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. [FR Doc. 2010...

  5. 75 FR 151 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards... Programs and Coordination Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. [FR Doc. E9...

  6. Nanotechnology Laboratory Continues Partnership with FDA and National Institute of Standards and Technology | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI-funded Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL)—a leader in evaluating promising nanomedicines to fight cancer—recently renewed its collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to continue its groundbreaking work on characterizing nanomedicines and moving them toward the clinic. In

  7. 42 CFR 403.812 - HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data standards, and national identifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data... Prescription Drug Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.812 HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data standards, and national identifiers. (a) HIPAA covered entities. An endorsed sponsor is a...

  8. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0443; FRL-9492-3] RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of Tuesday, November 22, 2011...

  9. Agreement and Diagnostic Performance of FITNESSGRAM®, International Obesity Task Force, and Hungarian National BMI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Marton, Orsolya; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined agreement between all 3 standards (as well as relative diagnostic associations with metabolic syndrome) using a representative sample of youth from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study. Method: Body mass index (BMI) was assessed in a field sample of 2,352 adolescents (ages 10-18.5 years) and metabolic syndrome…

  10. 75 FR 13484 - Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... seq.), requires the Secretary to establish an organic certification program for producers and handlers... experience and interest in organic production; organic certification; support of consumer and public interest...] Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...

  11. 77 FR 37374 - Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ....), requires the Secretary to establish an organic certification program for producers and handlers of... production; organic certification; support of consumer and public interest organizations; demonstrated... Service [Doc. No. AMS-NOP-12-0020; NOP-12-08] Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards...

  12. 77 FR 36485 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... also identify waiver language needed to retain the original system feature of an extended probationary... comments to Amy K. Cubert, Supervisory Human Resources Specialist, National Institute of Standards and... period, a feature of the original demonstration project and subsequent Alternative Personnel Management...

  13. Do Auditing and Reporting Standards Affect Firms’ Ethical Behaviours? The Moderating Role of National Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zengin Karaibrahimoglu, Yasemin; Guneri Cangarli, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the impact of national cultural values on the relation between auditing and reporting standards and ethical behaviours of firms. Based on a regression analysis using data regarding 54 countries between the years 2007 and 2012, we found that the impact of the perceived

  14. 75 FR 7426 - Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... 2060-AI23; 2060-AQ12 Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline.... The rulemaking also required oil refiners to limit the sulfur content of the gasoline they produce. Sulfur in gasoline has a detrimental impact on catalyst performance and the sulfur requirements have...

  15. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as...

  16. National inventories of air emissions in France: organisation and methodology - 8. edition - OMINEA, February 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Allemand, Nadine; Andre, Jean-Marc; Bastide, Aurelie; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Druart, Ariane; Gavel, Antoine; Gueguen, Celine; Jabot, Julien; Jacquier, Guillaume; Joya, Romain; Kessouar, Sabrina; Martinet, Yann; Mathias, Etienne; Nicco, Laetitia; Prouteau, Emilie; Serveau, Laetitia; Tuddenham, Mark; Vincent, Julien

    2011-01-01

    Usually, various methods are used to estimate emissions of atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic or natural sources. These methods which are more or less specific, require large quantities of data to carry out what is commonly named 'emission inventories', 'cadastres' or 'registers' depending on characteristics of the collection in terms of spatial and sectoral resolution. The OMINEA report includes a description of the national inventory system of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere (SNIEPA) which deals with the following topics: organisation, break down of responsibilities and coverage. Technical operational arrangements are described and various elements relating to reference documents and definitions, control and quality assurance, estimation of uncertainties are provided. A description is given for each emitting source category and for several substances classified in the following topics: 'greenhouse gases', 'acidification and photochemical pollution', 'eutrophication', 'heavy metals', 'persistent organic pollutants', 'particulate matter', 'other'. The plan is based on the international reporting format defined by the United Nations within the framework of conventions on climate change and long range transboundary air pollution (sources categories listed in CRFI/NFR)

  17. National inventories of air emissions in France: organisation and methodology - 9. edition - OMINEA, February 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Andre, Jean-Marc; Bastide, Aurelie; Bort, Romain; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Druart, Ariane; Gavel, Antoine; Gueguen, Celine; Jabot, Julien; Jacquier, Guillaume; Jeannot, Coralie; Joya, Romain; Kessouar, Sabrina; Martinet, Yann; Mathias, Etienne; Nicco, Laetitia; Serveau, Laetitia; Tuddenham, Mark; Vasudeva, Divya; Vincent, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Usually, various methods are used to estimate emissions of atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic or natural sources. These methods which are more or less specific, require large quantities of data to carry out what is commonly named 'emission inventories', 'cadastres' or 'registers' depending on characteristics of the collection in terms of spatial and sectoral resolution. The OMINEA report includes a description of the national inventory system of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere (SNIEPA) which deals with the following topics: organisation, break down of responsibilities and coverage. Technical operational arrangements are described and various elements relating to reference documents and definitions, control and quality assurance, estimation of uncertainties are provided. A description is given for each emitting source category and for several substances classified in the following topics: 'greenhouse gases', 'acidification and photochemical pollution', 'eutrophication', 'heavy metals', 'persistent organic pollutants', 'particulate matter', 'other'. The plan is based on the international reporting format defined by the United Nations within the framework of conventions on climate change and long range transboundary air pollution (sources categories listed in CRFI/NFR)

  18. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2 NAAQS...

  19. Services of the CDRH X-ray calibration laboratory and their traceability to National Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerra, F.; Heaton, H.T. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) provides calibration services for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The instruments calibrated are used by FDA and contract state inspectors to verify compliance with federal x-ray performance standards and for national surveys of x-ray trends. In order to provide traceability of measurements, the CDRH XCL is accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for reference, diagnostic, and x-ray survey instrument calibrations. In addition to these accredited services, the CDRH XCL also calibrates non-invasive kVp meters in single- and three-phase x-ray beams, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips used to measure CT beam profiles. The poster illustrates these services and shows the traceability links back to the National Standards.

  20. Services of the CDRH X-ray calibration laboratory and their traceability to National Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerra, F.; Heaton, H.T.

    1993-01-01

    The X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) provides calibration services for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The instruments calibrated are used by FDA and contract state inspectors to verify compliance with federal x-ray performance standards and for national surveys of x-ray trends. In order to provide traceability of measurements, the CDRH XCL is accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for reference, diagnostic, and x-ray survey instrument calibrations. In addition to these accredited services, the CDRH XCL also calibrates non-invasive kVp meters in single- and three-phase x-ray beams, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips used to measure CT beam profiles. The poster illustrates these services and shows the traceability links back to the National Standards