WorldWideScience

Sample records for national basic livelihood

  1. Flooding Hope and Livelihoods: Lake St. Martin First Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrle Ballard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake St. Martin First Nation, a community situated in the Interlake Region of Manitoba, was permanently displaced in 2011. After they were flooded out of their ancestral lands and left homeless, the Province of Manitoba further disempowered the members of the community by refusing to listen to their preference for a new site. That a nearby Cold War radar base was selected by the Province as an interim location, against the wishes of the community, further victimized the members and left them in limbo. This article, incorporating both Indigenous and Western methodologies, examines the consequences of community displacement on sustainable livelihoods, homes, health, and sociocultural integrity in the Lake St. Martin First Nation.RÉSUMÉLa Première Nation de Lac St-Martin, une communauté autochtone de la région Entre-les-Lacs au Manitoba, a été déplacée en permanence en 2011. Une inondation a couvert ses terres ancestrales et a laissé ses membres sans domicile. Le gouvernement manitobain a diminué encore plus le pouvoir de ceux-ci en refusant de tenir compte de leurs préférences pour un nouveau site. Il a exacerbé leur statut de victime en choisissant un emplacement intérimaire contre leur gré – une ancienne base radar à proximité utilisée pendant la Guerre froide – les laissant ainsi dans une situation incertaine. Cet article, recourant à des méthodologies autochtones et occidentales, examine les conséquences du déplacement de cette communauté sur le travail, le logement, la santé et l’intégrité socioculturelle de ses membres.

  2. Linking Livelihoods and Conservation: An Examination of Local Residents' Perceived Linkages Between Conservation and Livelihood Benefits Around Nepal's Chitwan National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Sanjay; Spiteri, Arian

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates local recognition of the link between incentive-based program (IBP) benefits and conservation, and how perceptions of benefits and linkage influence attitudes in communities surrounding Chitwan National Park, Nepal. A survey of 189 households conducted between October and December 2004 examined local residents' perceived benefits, their attitudes toward park management, and perception of linkages between conservation and livelihoods. Linkage perceptions were measured by a scale compared with a respondent's recognition of benefits to determine whether IBPs establish a connection between benefits and livelihoods. An attitude scale was also created to compare attitudes toward park management with perceptions of benefits and linkage to determine if IBPs led to positive attitudes, and if the recognition of a direct tie between livelihoods and natural resources made attitudes more favorable. Research results indicate that as acknowledgement of benefit increases, so does the perception of linkage between the resource and livelihoods. Similarly, when perceived benefit increases, so too does attitude towards management. Positive attitude towards park management is influenced more by perception of livelihood dependence on resources than on benefits received from the park. However, overwhelming positive support voiced for conservation did not coincide with conduct. In spite of the positive attitudes and high perception of linkage, people did not necessarily behave in a way compatible with conservation. This suggests that while benefits alone can lead to positive attitudes, without clear linkages to conservation, the IBP may lose persuasion when alternative options—conflicting with conservation objectives—arise promising to provide greater economic benefit.

  3. Disability, poverty, and role of the basic livelihood security system on health services utilization among the elderly in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Boyoung; Noguchi, Haruko; Kwon, Soonman; Ito, Tomoko; Tamiya, Nanako

    2017-04-01

    With rapid aging, many of the elderly suffer from poverty and high healthcare needs. In Korea, there is a means-tested and non-contributory public assistance, the National Basic Livelihood Security System (NBLSS). The purpose of this study is to show older population's condition of disability and poverty, to evaluate the impact of NBLSS on health services utilization, and to examine the differential effect of the NBLSS by disability status among the elderly. This study used the Korea Welfare Panel Study data 2005-2014 with the final sample of 40,365, who were 65 years and older. The participants were divided into people with mild disability, severe disability, and without disability according to the Korean disability registration system. The income-level was defined to the low-income with NBLSS, the low-income without NBLSS, and the middle and high income, using the relative poverty line as a proxy of the low-income. The dependent variables were the number of outpatient visits and inpatient days, experience of home care services, total healthcare expenditure, and financial burden of healthcare expenditure. We performed Generalized Estimating Equations population-averaged model using the ten years of panel data. The result showed that within the same disability status, the low-income without NBLSS group used the least amount of inpatient care, but their financial burden of health expenditure was the highest among the three income groups. The regression model showed that if the elderly with severe disability were in the low-income without NBLSS, they reduced the outpatient and inpatient days; but their financial burden of healthcare became intensified. This study shows that the low-income elderly with disability but without adequate social protection are the most disadvantaged group. Policy is called for to mitigate the difficulties of this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Livelihood Capital and Livelihood Diversification for Different Farmers in Yuanjiang Dry- Hot River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjuan ZHAO; Shilong YANG; Xiao WANG

    2016-01-01

    Under the analytical framework of sustainable livelihoods,we establish the evaluation indicator system for farmers’ livelihood capital,to evaluate the current livelihood capital and livelihood diversification for different farmers in the Dai nationality region of Xinping County in the Yuanjiang dry-hot river valley area,and discuss the relationship between livelihood capital and livelihood diversification. Studies have shown that the mode dominated by agriculture,supplemented by non-agricultural activities,combined with breeding,is the commonly used livelihood strategy for farmers in this region. As farmers change from pure agriculture to non-agriculture,their total livelihood capital and nonagricultural livelihood diversification index will increase,while agricultural livelihood diversification index will decrease. In the meantime,their livelihood activities gradually shift from agricultural to non-agricultural ones,which is mainly reflected in the combination of both agricultural and non-agricultural activities. Regression analysis on livelihood capital and livelihood diversification shows that natural and physical capital is the basis of realizing agricultural livelihood diversification. Farmers with rich natural and physical capital will prefer agricultural livelihood strategies. While financial and human capital is the driving force for farmers’ transition from pure agriculture to non-agriculture.

  5. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI

  6. Mainstreaming livelihoods support: the Refugee Livelihoods Project

    OpenAIRE

    Carrie Conway

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003 UNHCR’s Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit (EPAU) launched the Refugee Livelihoods Project to improve understanding of how refugees construct their livelihoods, to assess the nature and extent of UNHCR’s involvement in supporting refugee livelihoods and to facilitate wider information exchange.

  7. Making the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA More Responsive to the Livelihood Needs of Tree Planting Farmers, Drawing on Previous Experience in Dryland Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Kanninen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, tree planting has become popular under NAPA. For decades, many tree planting projects were implemented to reduce the vulnerability of ecosystems and societies. Despite all of these, tree-dependent livelihoods remain vulnerable, which leaves doubt on the benefit of tree planting to enhance the resilience of livelihoods to climatic shocks. This suggests that much can be learned from the past to improve future tree planting adaptation projects. This paper draws on the experience of farmers involved in gum arabic agroforestry in Sudan in order to understand the needs of tree-related adaptation projects that should be addressed. Surveyed farmers appreciated the different environmental services rendered by trees. Their priority areas for an adaptation project however, remain issues tied to gum producer price, rainfall pattern, and locust attacks as well as extension services and to a lesser extent access to micro credits. Moreover, Sudan’s Gum Arabic Company (GAC and Forests National Corporation play key roles in governance but are not yet considered as key adaptation players particularly the unsupportive role of the monopoly of gum exportation by GAC to tree planting as an adaptation activity. By focusing the design and implementation on tree related livelihood obstacles, adaptation projects are likely to be more responsive to the needs of vulnerable groups.

  8. On the Basic Features of CPC's Concept of People's Livelihood%论中国共产党民生观的基本特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺方彬

    2011-01-01

    90-years' history of the Chinese Communist Party is a history of liberating and improving people's livelihood constantly. In the process of the livelihood of the liberation and construction, by the means of answering "What is livelihood? How to protect and improve people's livelihood?" Systematically, it has formed and developed a distinctive concept of the people's livelihood with the basic characteristics showing a unity of theory and practice, unity of class and the people, unity of science and value, unity of reality and ideal, unity of continuity and innovation, the unity of integrity and plate, unity of universality and particularity, unity of comprehensiveness and focus. It is greatly significant to systematically grasp these features of CPC's people's livelihood while the party implements its general principle to protect and improve the people's livelihood in the new historical starting point.%中国共产党90年的历史,就是一部不断解放和改善民生的历史。党在领导民生解放和民生建设的过程中,通过系统地解答“什么是民生,怎么样保障和改善民生”这一民生观的基本问题,形成并发展了具有鲜明特色的民生观,呈现出“理论性与实践性的统一。阶级性与人民性的统一,科学性与价值性的统一,现实性与理想性的统一,继承性与创新性的统一,板块性与整体性的统一,普遍性与特殊性的统一”等基本特点,系统地把握党民生观的这些基本特点,对于我们党在新的历史起点上继续践行党的根本宗旨,着力保障和改善民生,具有重要的启示意义。

  9. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2008-01-01

    food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...... as it enables us to maintain important elements of the sustainability vision, yet emphasises that a number of assets influence farmers' livelihoods and it maintains the focus on salience, legitimacy, and credibility in the research....

  10. Proposal for a United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, W R

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Programme on Space Applications, implemented by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, promotes the benefits of space-based solutions for sustainable economic and social development. The Programme assists Member States of the United Nations to establish indigenous capacities for the use of space technology and its applications. In the past the Programme has primarily been focusing on the use of space applications and on basic space science activities. However, in recent years there has been a strong interest in a growing number of space-using countries to build space technology capacities, for example, the ability to develop and operate small satellites. In reaction to this development, the United Nations in cooperation with the International Academy of Astronautics has been organizing annual workshops on small satellites in the service of developing countries. Space technology related issues have also been addressed as part of various other activities of the Programme on Space ...

  11. Tourism, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation : an assessment of tourism related policy interventions at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahebwa, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the developing world has focused on attempting to reconcile conservation and development with nature-based tourism as one of the main mechanisms. To address the twin challenge of achieving conservation and development at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, in 1993 t

  12. Tourism, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation : an assessment of tourism related policy interventions at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahebwa, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the developing world has focused on attempting to reconcile conservation and development with nature-based tourism as one of the main mechanisms. To address the twin challenge of achieving conservation and development at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, in 1993

  13. Tourism, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation : an assessment of tourism related policy interventions at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahebwa, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the developing world has focused on attempting to reconcile conservation and development with nature-based tourism as one of the main mechanisms. To address the twin challenge of achieving conservation and development at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, in 1993 t

  14. Quantification of rural livelihood dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    of both forest and non-forest environmental resources towards poverty reduction, (ii) to reduce poverty faster, policies should enable households in low remunerative livelihood strategies to move to medium remunerative livelihood strategies/high remunerative livelihood strategies, while protecting......Improved understanding of rural livelihoods is required to reduce rural poverty faster. To that end, this PhD study quantified rural livelihood dynamics emphasizing (i) the role of environmental resources use in helping rural households to escape poverty, (ii) development of a new approach...... for livelihood strategy clustering, (iii) assessment dynamics in rural livelihood strategies, and (iv) the effect of attrition on rural livelihood dynamics assessments. A wide range of quantitative methods were employed using a unique environmentally augmented panel dataset combined with tracking attrite...

  15. Quantification of rural livelihood dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    for livelihood strategy clustering, (iii) assessment dynamics in rural livelihood strategies, and (iv) the effect of attrition on rural livelihood dynamics assessments. A wide range of quantitative methods were employed using a unique environmentally augmented panel dataset combined with tracking attrite...... role in lifting poor out poverty which could be due to restricted access to more remunerative environmental resources, (ii) the developed approach for livelihood clustering (combining household income and asset variables using regression models) outperform both existing income and asset approaches (iii...

  16. 当代中国民生伦理的基本内涵及其价值诉求%The Basic Connotation and Value Claims of Contemporary Chinese People's Livelihood Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永军

    2014-01-01

    To study people’ s livelihood from the perspective of ethics and construct people’ s livelihood ethics are brand-new in people’ s livelihood research. People's livelihood ethics refers to the ethical spirits and moral orientation in government-made policies and decisions in solving problems of people's livelihood, and the moral attitudes, moral evaluation and moral standards people have when in face of people’ s livelihood state and government’ s concerning policies. People’ s livelihood ethics in contemporary China should be based on the value of fairness and justice, adhere to the core value of being people-oriented and take the happiness of the people's livelihood as its ultimate goal.%从伦理学角度研究民生问题并提出建构民生伦理的任务,是研究民生问题的一个全新视野。民生伦理就是指政府在解决民生问题过程中提出的政策或主张及其内蕴的伦理精神和道德取向,民众对社会的民生状态和政府的民生政策所持的道德态度、所作的道德评价及其道德标准。当代中国民生伦理应坚持以公平正义为价值基础;以以人为本为价值核心;以民生幸福为价值目标。

  17. An empty sufuria : the effects of a marine national park on the livelihood strategies and income diversification of fisherman households at the Kenya coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versleijen, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out in the districts Kilifi and Malindi. It focuses on the activities of artisanal fishermen and their households: the livelihood strategies they have, their attitude towards conservation, their indigeneous environmental conservation practices and the effects of the Watamu

  18. An empty sufuria : the effects of a marine national park on the livelihood strategies and income diversification of fisherman households at the Kenya coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versleijen, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out in the districts Kilifi and Malindi. It focuses on the activities of artisanal fishermen and their households: the livelihood strategies they have, their attitude towards conservation, their indigeneous environmental conservation practices and the effects of the Watamu Mar

  19. National policy implications of the basic needs model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedjatmoko

    1979-07-01

    The basic needs approach to development posits that once the basic needs of all the members of a society for food, health, education, housing, and employment are fulfilled, internal development of the country will be automatically generated. The goals of this approach have been widely discussed, but little serious attention has been given to determining the national policy needed to implement this approach. To meet the nutritional and employment needs, land reform and the democratization of rural areas must be achieved. At the same time rural residents must be encouraged to become self-reliant. Labor intensive public works projects must be emphasized and small business enterprises encouraged. Self-help housing efforts should be promoted. Medical education must be reoriented toward the needs of the poor. At the same time, the graduates of the medical schools must be able to function in the urban environment and keep abreast of recent medical developments. Similarly, if the educational goals of functional literacy for all citizens and universal primary education of all children are to be met, the educational institutions must commit themselves to the poor while continuing to meet urban demands for improved education. Rural development will necessitate the allocation of increased energy resources to rural areas. Information on developmental assistance must be made available to all segments of the population, cultural values must be integrated into development plans, and evaluation must be built into all development programs. In conclusion, the implementation of this approach requires contradictory structural changes such as the reallocation of resources. On the other hand, local community and individual participation, decision making, and innovation are posited as necessary ingredients for successful project outcome.

  20. Amaranth... rural sustainable livelihood of the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    2007-01-01

    This study is an in-depth analysis of amaranth as an alternative livelihood for small-scale farmers. It addresses the amaranth production and its impact on the welfare conditions of poor and marginalized farmers in Mexico. It takes into consideration the multi-contextual settings for both amaranth producers and the production of amaranth. It analyses the current Mexican rural development strategy to grow amaranth and the national, regional and global market possibilities. The theoretical anal...

  1. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed.

  2. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Livelihood resilience is defined as the capacity of all people across generations to sustain and improve their livelihood opportunities and well-being despite environmental, economic, social and political disturbances. Livelihood resilience has become a popular research and policy concept in the context of climate change. In this paper, we employ the structural dynamics method to describe livelihood resilience of Sichuan rural residents based on four components of livelihood quality, livelihood promotion, livelihood provision, and natural disasters pressure. Results indicate that: (i) The livelihood resilience of rural residents was significantly positively correlated with livelihood quality, livelihood promotion and livelihood provision, but there was a strong negative correlation with the natural disaster pressure. In the past 30 years, both livelihood promotion and livelihood provision declined, and the increase in disasters pressure offset the significant increase in the quality of livelihoods in Sichuan Province. The change curve of the livelihood resilience of rural residents showed the characteristics of first rising and then descending. (ii) The impact of different natural disasters on the resilience of livelihood is different. The contribution rates of earthquake, drought and flood disaster to the resilience of livelihood were -0.9 percent, -0.8 percent, and -0.3percent respectively. Due to the fact that the research area is not divided into earthquake-stricken area, non-earthquake-stricken area, heavy stricken area and light stricken area, to a certain extent, this has weakened the negative effect of earthquake disaster on the livelihood resilience of rural residents. (iii) From central government perspective, the reform of income distribution, tax system, and to change the reality of the income growth of rural residents behind national economic development are shown to be associated with highly significant and positive impact on livelihood resilience of

  3. Livelihoods and natural resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotta, Jamie Nicole

    This dissertation research contributes to the emerging body of knowledge on the economic contributions of natural resources to rural livelihoods, including their role in household shock coping, in the humid tropics. Data from one of the first comprehensive household income quantifications...... high degree of natural resource reliance compared to other forested regions (an average 42% of household income derived from forest and agroforestry products, plus 14% derived from fishing). Results from household shock coping surveys highlight the safety net functions of forest and fishery products......, particularly following a widespread flood, when crops and livestock are lost and mutual assistance is compromised. Furthermore, ethnicity, market distance, resource type/proximity, and household wealth, among other variables, are all significant determinants of natural resource harvest for household income...

  4. The Introspection of Relationship between People’ s Livelihood and Enterprises Social Responsibility Based on the National Management Level%基于国家治理层面的民生与企业社会责任的关系反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红亮; 曹元

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring and improving people’ s livelihood is important objective of our country’ s current national governance, The solution of the problem of the people’s livelihood is associated with the modern enterprise bear the social responsibility of the people's livelihood,Reflection on the relationship between the two.In this essay, The so-cial and historical background of the corporate social responsibility is the livelihood of the people’ s livelihood im-portant task of national governance;Enterprise bearing the social responsibility of the people’ s livelihood is an na-tional governance requires of a harmonious and healthy relationship with the people ’ s livelihood; The people ’ s livelihood nature of national governance is embedded in the ethical moral of corporate social responsibility;The con-struction mechanism of the people’ s livelihood of national governance contains the enterprise of the development o-rientation for the sustainable development of enterprises in the future.%当前国家治理的重要目标是保障和改善民生,而民生问题的解决与现代企业承担的民生社会责任密切相关。反思两者之间的深层关系,我们认为:国家治理的民生重任构成了企业承担社会责任的社会历史背景;企业承担民生社会责任是国家治理社会期待的企业与人民生计的和谐健康关系;国家治理的民生本质嵌入了企业社会责任的伦理道义;国家治理的民生建设机制内蕴了未来企业可持续发展的指向。

  5. The Approaches of Islamic and Conventional Microfinancing for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Livelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Bashar Bhuiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the main illness for sustainable livelihood because it destroyed human basic rights for surviving with minimum opportunities especially political, social stability and economic processes, literature and environment. The aims of this study are to discuss about existing approaches of poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihood. The study found throughout the discussion of the theoretical sources i.e., participatory approaches have determined as a good way of poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihood especially zakat based Islamic mode of financing and Qard-al-Hasan on the basis of spiritual values as an alternative model for poverty alleviation and ensuring sustainable livelihood."

  6. Locating and extending livelihoods research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...

  7. The Basic Course in Organizational Communication: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Donald; Applbaum, Ronald L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the current status and characteristics of the basic organizational communication course taught in colleges and universities in North America. Compares results of the survey with the 1988 survey. Discusses faculty and course information, course objectives and content, text, instructional methods, assignments, and common instructional…

  8. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) 1991-2012 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, A M; Balogh, W R

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains an overview and summary on the achievements of the United Nations basic space science initiative in terms of donated and provided planetariums, astronomical telescopes, and space weather instruments, particularly operating in developing nations. This scientific equipment has been made available to respective host countries, particularly developing nations, through the series of twenty basic space science workshops, organized through the United Nations Programme on Space Applications since 1991. Organized by the United Nations, the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the basic space science workshops were organized as a series of workshops that focused on basic space science (1991-2004), the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (2005-2009), and the International Space Weather Initiative (2010-2012) proposed by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Spac...

  9. Poverty, livelihoods and the conservation of nature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bouma, JA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the linkages between poverty, livelihoods and nature in four biodiversity hotspots in South Africa. To involve communities in protected area management, biodiversity conservation can be improved and negative livelihood impacts...

  10. Basic Communications Strategy : Bison Round Up 2013 [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Using Decision Tree Analysis, this Basic Communications Strategy for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge's (NWR) 2013 Bison Round Up outlines actions...

  11. Basic Communications Strategy : Bison Round Up 2014 [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Using Decision Tree Analysis, this Basic Communications Strategy for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge's (NWR) 2013 Bison Round Up outlines actions...

  12. Peasant Livelihoods and Land Degradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. A. Yaro

    people to invest in more children as a source of economic and social security. A Malthusian ... The effects of land-based livelihood activities, macro level forces and institutional ..... second ring farms are transferred to garden beds, which are often overdosed to ensure maximum ... Goats, on the other hand, will eat anything.

  13. Science Serving the Nation: The Impact of Basic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-01-01

    Impacts: The BES program supports basic research that underpins a broad range of energy technologies. Research in materials sciences and engineering leads to the development of materials that improve the efficiency, economy, environmental acceptability, and safety of energy generation, conversion, transmission, storage, and use. For example, advances in superconductivity have been introduced commercially in a number of demonstration projects around the country. Improvements in alloy design for high temperature applications are used in commercial furnaces and in green technologies such as lead-free solder. Research in chemistry has led to advances such as efficient combustion systems with reduced emissions of pollutants; new solar photoconversion processes; improved catalysts for the production of fuels and chemicals; and better separations and analytical methods for applications in energy processes, environmental remediation, and waste management. Research in geosciences results in advanced monitoring and measurement techniques for reservoir definition and an understanding of the fluid dynamics of complex fluids through porous and fractured subsurface rock. Research in the molecular and biochemical nature of photosynthesis aids the development of solar photo-energy conversion. The BES program also plays a major role in enabling the nanoscale revolution. The importance of nanoscience to future energy technologies is clearly reflected by the fact that all of the elementary steps of energy conversion (e.g., charge transfer, molecular rearrangement, and chemical reactions) take place on the nanoscale. The development of new nanoscale materials, as well as the methods to characterize, manipulate, and assemble them, create an entirely new paradigm for developing new and revolutionary energy technologies.

  14. Four-Fold Dimensionality in the Theoretical System of Cultural Construction of People’s Livelihood-- Some Thoughts Based on Cultural Construction of People’s Livelihood in Socialism With Chinese Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a means of livelihood at the cultural level, people’s livelihood in terms of culture mainly refers to a kind of demand at the spiritual and cultural level after the problem of food and clothing is solved, such as, spiritual belief, ideological condition, cultural rights and quality of life, etc. With the cultural theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics being the guiding thought of cultural construction of people’s livelihood, China has adhered to the path of cultural development of socialism with Chinese characteristics and has cultivated the high cultural self-consciousness and cultural self-confidence of the people. Cultural construction of people’s livelihood needs to adhere to the three basic principles of humanism, advancement and public welfare, ultimately realize the four basic goals, namely, cultural education to people, cultural intimacy to people, cultural benefaction to people and cultural enrichment to people, strength the cultural soft power of the country and construct a powerful socialist cultural nation. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  15. Livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and rural poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between rural households’ environmental dependency, poverty and livelihood strategies. Households’ income from each livelihood activities formed the basis for categorizing households according to livelihood strategies. The principal component analysis......, agglomerative hierarchical and the k-means cluster analysis were employed to determine the four livelihood clusters and to assign households to the identified livelihood strategies. Households’ environmental dependency, poverty and asset holding were compared across the strategies, and the determinants...... of livelihood choice were analyzed using multinomial logit model. The results indicate the existence of marked differences in environmental dependency, rural poverty and asset endowments across the livelihood groups. Household’s total saving, access to credit, production implements, business cost, exposure...

  16. How Can Social Safeguards of REDD+ Function Effectively Conserve Forests and Improve Local Livelihoods? A Case from Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Harada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The National REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation-Plus Strategy in Indonesia highlights the importance of local participation and the reform of land tenure in the success of forest conservation. National parks are a main target area for REDD+. National parks in Indonesia have been suffering from forest destruction and conflicts between governments and local communities. This study investigated: (1 the historical process of developing the REDD+ project in collaboration with multiple stakeholders including government authorities, local NGOs, and local people; (2 the social and economic impacts of the REDD+ project on local people; and (3 the local awareness of and motivations to participate in the REDD+ project in Meru Betiri National Park in Indonesia. Interviews of stakeholders including village leaders, NGO staff, and park staff were conducted to obtain an overview of the REDD+ project in the national park. Interviews with a questionnaire were also conducted among randomly selected heads of households who participated or did not participate in the REDD+ project and lived adjacent to the national park. Our analysis revealed that participants in the project obtained the right to use illegally harvested bared lands for intercropping while planting trees to recover forest ecosystems inside the national park. This opportunity could have contributed to a drastic increase in income, particularly for economically disadvantaged people, and to the recovery of forest ecosystems. Although local people did not fully recognize the meaning of REDD+ or carbon credits, they were enthusiastic to join in managing and patrolling forests because of their satisfaction with the income generated by the national park. However, the challenge is how both the recovery of forests and income generation from the project can be maintained in a situation of insufficient funding from donors and unsettled arguments about the benefit of sharing

  17. Integrating Reflexivity in Livelihoods Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions.......Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods research...

  18. Integrating Reflexivity in Livelihoods Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  19. Locating and extending livelihoods research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  20. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  1. A novel approach to dynamic livelihood clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Pouliot, Mariéve; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    Rural households are heterogeneous: different socio-economic characteristics and asset endowments dictate their engagement with different livelihood activities resulting in different livelihood outcomes. Poverty reduction policies should consider this. Using a unique environmentally augmented three...... households accumulated assets and capital through farming, petty trading and migratory work. The applied approach of combining income and assets better distinguishes the identified livelihood strategies compared to both the income and the asset approach and allows targeting of interventions towards specific...

  2. Reframing the concept of alternative livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Juliet H; Hill, Nicholas A O; Roe, Dilys; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Kümpel, Noëlle F; Day, Mike; Booker, Francesca; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2016-02-01

    Alternative livelihood project (ALP) is a widely used term for interventions that aim to reduce the prevalence of activities deemed to be environmentally damaging by substituting them with lower impact livelihood activities that provide at least equivalent benefits. ALPs are widely implemented in conservation, but in 2012, an International Union for Conservation of Nature resolution called for a critical review of such projects based on concern that their effectiveness was unproven. We focused on the conceptual design of ALPs by considering their underlying assumptions. We placed ALPs within a broad category of livelihood-focused interventions to better understand their role in conservation and their intended impacts. We dissected 3 flawed assumptions about ALPs based on the notions of substitution, the homogenous community, and impact scalability. Interventions based on flawed assumptions about people's needs, aspirations, and the factors that influence livelihood choice are unlikely to achieve conservation objectives. We therefore recommend use of a sustainable livelihoods approach to understand the role and function of environmentally damaging behaviors within livelihood strategies; differentiate between households in a community that have the greatest environmental impact and those most vulnerable to resource access restrictions to improve intervention targeting; and learn more about the social-ecological system within which household livelihood strategies are embedded. Rather than using livelihood-focused interventions as a direct behavior-change tool, it may be more appropriate to focus on either enhancing the existing livelihood strategies of those most vulnerable to conservation-imposed resource access restrictions or on use of livelihood-focused interventions that establish a clear link to conservation as a means of building good community relations. However, we recommend that the term ALP be replaced by the broader term livelihood-focused intervention

  3. A novel approach to dynamic livelihood clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Pouliot, Mariéve; Larsen, Helle Overgaard;

    Rural households are heterogeneous: different socio-economic characteristics and asset endowments dictate their engagement with different livelihood activities resulting in different livelihood outcomes. Poverty reduction policies should consider this. Using a unique environmentally augmented three...... strategies through time. Most sampled households changed their livelihood strategy at least once between 2006 and 2012, and very few households transited directly from the least to the most remunerative strategy. A common pathway out of poverty appears to have involved an intermediate step during which...

  4. Dynamics of rural livelihoods and environmental reliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Jiao, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Using environmentally augmented panel dataset of 2009 and 2012 from four districts in Nepal, we assess environmental reliance of households in different livelihood strategies and dynamic transition groups. We employ a latent class cluster analysis to determine the optimal number of livelihood....... It is also found that households with upward transition are likely to have reduced environmental dependency. Hence, enhancement of poverty reduction strategies in supporting poorer household in asset accumulation and undertake alternative higher remunerative livelihood strategies will eventually reduce...

  5. Development of the Basic Core Test Items of National Nurse's License Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Ja Kim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a classification framework for the test elements of the National Registered Nurse's License Examination and to divide the test items into standard and basic core on the basis of the RN's job descriptions. And the adequa to proportion of the basic core test items is going to be identified. Method and results: In order to develop the classification framework of the National Registered Nurse's License Examination, RN's job descriptions, nursing standards, and the specific learning objectives of nursing courses were reviewed. And a survey was used to identify which entity would be appropriate for a reference to the basic core test items. 146 of professors from schools of nursing and members of each division of Korean Academic Society of Nursing(KASN were participated in the survey. The study showed the 98% of respondents agreed to use RN's job descriptions in selecting the basic core test items and 30% for the basic core test would be appropriate. And the contents, the selection criteria, and the proportion of the basic core test items were developed by the members of this research, the members of the National RN's License Examination subcommittee, and the presidents of each division of KASN. The total of 1990 standard test items were selected among 3524 items, that 3 out of 7 members in the research team agreed to choose. Duplicated items in the standard items were deleted. 205 items out of the 1990 standard items were selected as the basic core test items. And 14 items were added in Medical Laws and Ethics which leads the total of 219 basic core test items. ln conclusion, the 99 items, 30% of total current examination items were chosen as the final basic core test items using the delphimethod. Further studies are needed to validate the current National License Examination for RN on the basis of the 99 basic core test items.

  6. CAS Scientists Play an Important Role in National Basic Research Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Of the 39 research projects that kicked off in 2005 with the support from the NationalBasic Research Program (dubbed the 973 Program) across the country, 12 are hosted byCAS scientists (including two under the joint leadership with other departments).

  7. Land access and livelihoods in post-conflict Timor-Leste: no magic bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P.J. Batterbury

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Timor-Leste, customary institutions contribute to sustainable and equitable rural development and the establishment of improved access to and management of land, water and other natural resources. Drawing on multi-sited empirical research, we argue that the recognition and valorization of custom and common property management is a prerequisite for sustainable and equitable land tenure reform in Timor-Leste. In a four-community study of the relationship between land access and the practice of rural livelihoods in eastern and western districts of Timor-Leste, where customary management systems are dominant, we found different types of traditional dispute resolution, with deep roots in traditional forms of land management and with varying levels of conflict. The article shows how customary land tenure systems have already managed to create viable moral economies. Interviewees expressed a desire for the government to formalize its recognition and support for customary systems and to provide them with basic livelihood support and services. This was more important than instituting private landholding or state appropriation of community lands, which is perceived to be the focus of national draft land laws and an internationally supported project. We suggest ways in which diverse customary institutions can co-exist and work with state institutions to build collective political legitimacy in the rural hinterlands, within the context of upgrading the quality of rural life, promoting social and ecological harmony, and conflict management.

  8. Livelihoods and farm efficiency in rural Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D; Balcombe, K; Davis, J; Fraser, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature on the role of livelihood strategies in rural growth and poverty reduction. It distinguishes between livelihood diversity strategies that contribute to sustainable growth in household incomes, and those that mainly have a 'coping' function. It suggests that t

  9. Local Perception of Risk to Livelihoods in the Semi-Arid Landscape of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Bunting

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deem many regions of southern Africa as vulnerable landscapes due to changing climatic regimes, ecological conditions, and low adaptive capacity. Typically in highly vulnerable regions, multiple livelihood strategies are employed to enable sustainable development. In Botswana, livelihood strategies have diversified over time to include tourism and other non-agricultural activities. While such diversification and development have been studied, little is known about how locals perceive livelihood risks. This article analyzes perceptions of risk through a risk hazards framework. During the summer of 2010, 330 surveys were completed within seven villages in northern Botswana and the Caprivi Strip of Namibia. During the survey respondents were asked to list the biggest threats/challenges to their livelihoods. Responses were grouped into categories of risk according to the capital assets on which livelihoods depend: natural, physical, financial, human, and social. A risk mapping procedure was utilized, for which indices of severity, incidence, and risk were calculated. It is hypothesized that people’s perception of risk is directly dependent on environmental conditions and employment status of the household. Results indicate that problems related to natural and financial assets are the greatest source of risk to livelihoods. Furthermore, flood, drought, and other measures of climate variability are perceived as influential, typically negatively, to livelihood strategies.

  10. National Assessment Meets Teacher Autonomy: National Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Music in Finnish Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Marja-Leena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, teachers' have extensive autonomy, that is freedom from control by others over their professional actions in the classroom, and it is considered a strength of Finnish education. At the same time, national assessment of learning outcomes has been constructed to examine the learner's progress and achievements in relation to the criteria…

  11. Livelihoods and Welfare Impacts of Forest Comanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Chinangwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comanagement programmes are gaining popularity among governments as one way of improving rural livelihoods. However, evidence of their effects on the livelihoods and welfare remains unclear. We used the sustainable livelihoods framework and stated preference techniques to assess the livelihoods and welfare impacts of forest comanagement on 213 households in Zomba and Ntchisi districts. The results show that approximately 63% of respondents perceive that, overall, comanagement has had no impact on their livelihoods. However, the programme is enhancing financial capital by introducing externally subsidised income generating activities and human and social capital among some community members through training programmes. A majority of households (80% are willing to pay annual membership fees to participate in the programme (mean = 812 Malawi Kwacha, because of perceived potential future benefits. Education, gender of the household head, a positive perception of current livelihoods benefits, and a position on the committee increase household willingness to pay membership fees. However, the positive willingness to pay despite the negative perception of overall livelihoods impacts may also demonstrate the weaknesses of relying on stated preference surveys alone in estimating welfare effects.

  12. Effective Livelihood Strategies in Distressed Environments: The Case of Mudzi District of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutami Cephas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at rural livelihoods in semi-arid and arid rural areas in post-2000 Zimbabwe. The decade-long socio-economic recession coupled with recurrent droughts presented a myriad of challenges to rural households in Zimbabwe. Taking Mudzi, a rural district in Zimbabwe, as a case study, the study explores the livelihood conditions and how households have managed to organize and cluster their assets to foster a living. Coping and adapting a cocktail of political, economic, climatic and social vulnerabilities in severely low economic potential communal areas of Zimbabwe requires elaborate skills in clustering, sequencing and reorientation skills in a broad range of activities. Using three basic livelihoods research methodologies namely retrospective, circumspective and prospective approaches, the research revealed that livelihood diversification in few effective strategies allows coping and even accumulation in distressed environments. Petty business, livestock rearing and networking are the core strategies being employed while crop farming and taking relief food are intermediate strategies. The study demonstrated that given appropriate rural development policy, households are capable of constructing their own robust sustainable livelihoods. Government policy constraints and inconsistencies in social and economic spheres and political violence are the greatest impediments to resilient livelihoods. There should be wide reforms on the political, economic and social sectors in the rural areas if poverty is to be reduced and household coping and adapting strategies are to be enhanced.

  13. The nexus between sustainable livelihoods and ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The communities that live within and around these World Heritage Sites depend on ... development which ensures sustainable livelihoods for local communities that ... at integrating social, economic and environmental issues of the study area.

  14. Status Report on the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI)

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, H J

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, the UN Programme on Space Applications leads the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative by contributing to the international and regional development of astronomy and space science through annual UN/ESA/NASA/JAXA workshops on basic space science, International Heliophysical Year 2007, and the International Space Weather Initiative. Space weather is the conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life or health. The programme also coordinates the development of IHY/ISWI low-cost, ground-based, world-wide instrument arrays. To date, 14 world-wide instrument arrays comprising approximately 1000 instruments (GPS receivers, magnetometers, spectrometers, particle detectors) are operating in more than 71 countries. The most recent workshop was hosted by the Republic of Korea in 2009 for Asia and the Pacific. Annual workshops on ...

  15. Making a living: gender and sustainable livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A

    2000-07-01

    Humans are vulnerable to poverty in many ways, especially women. Poor people do not necessarily benefit from the way markets are managed, and women are experiencing particular barriers in making their independent living, such as low salary and access to fewer assets. In view of the above, Oxfam recognizes that in order for poor men and women to achieve sustainable livelihood they need equal access to assets and opportunities to make a living; markets need to be regulated to benefit the poor as well as the rich; and commitments need to be made to welfare services that will protect them if things go wrong. Oxfam believes that achieving sustainable development depends on creating a mix of assets, to give poor people power over markets. It will press for the effective development and regulation of markets at local, national, and global levels, to create equal opportunities for poor men and women, and to enable them to compete in markets on a fair basis. Finally, Oxfam shall lobby for recognition on the true economic and social value of household, care, and community work, and encourage producers and consumers to develop coalitions to achieve a more just and gender-equitable global economy.

  16. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica andColombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

  17. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.

    1995-02-01

    In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica and Colombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

  18. Tariff Basic Calculation. A program for the calculation of the National Basic Tariff. Tarief Basis Calculatie. Een programma voor de berekening van het LBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, L.

    1988-12-01

    Within the framework of the project 'Tariff systems and price forming of electric power', a spread-sheet program has been developed to calculate the costs of the electric power supply. The name of this program, written in Symphony 2.0 (English), is Tariff Basic Calculation (TBC). Based on the production data of the public power supply this program calculates the costs of the supply and derivative National Basic Tariffs elements. The program fits in with the Chronological Simulation Model (CSM) of the Energy Study Centre of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN. All necessary data can be calculated with CSM. 8 figs.

  19. Mexican Secondary School Teachers’ Linguistic Expression of Attitude towards the National English Program in Basic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Mendoza Valladares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ attitudes play an important role in the implementation of educational reforms and innovations (Avramidis & Norwich, 2002; Fullan, 2001; Rogers, 2003; Waters, 2009; Wedell, 2009. Desired changes can successfully go through only if teachers respond positively to putting into effect those changes. Mexico is at present facing the challenge of an educational reform in basic education that involves adopting a new English as a second language program. Information about teachers’ attitudes towards the change is crucial to anticipate possible ways in which the process could unfold. This study explores the use of Appraisal Theory (Martin & White, 2005 to examine the linguistic expressions of attitude toward the Mexican National English Program for Basic Education. Data came from 12 focus group discussions conducted as part of a state-wide project with 86 secondary school teachers and supervisors in the northeastern corner of the country. Findings indicate that teachers’ negative attitudes towards the program were associated to their negative evaluation of the procedures to disseminate information about the program, and the quantity and quality of teacher training. Findings also shed light on the conventions related to the roles that teachers and administrators play in the reform implementation process. Implications of the findings are briefly discussed.

  20. Relation between hepatitis B virus genotypes and gene mutation of basic core promoter in Li nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juntao Zeng; Zhengwen Liu; Shiping Zeng; Jing Chen

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relation between hepatitis B virus(HBV) genotypes and the double mutation of A-to-T nucleotide(nt) 1762 and G-to-A nt 1764 in basic core promotev(BCP T1762/A1764) in patients of the Li nationality. Methods:Subjects were 125 HBV DNA positive patients that belong to the Li nationality on Hainan Island. HBV DNA genotype was determined by real time fluorimetrypolymerase chain reaction. BCP T1762/A1764 mutation was performed using the direct sequencing method. Results:The prevalence rates of genotype B, genotype C, genotype D, genotype C and D mixed infection(genotype C+D) and genotype B and D mixed infection (genotype B+C) were 31.20%, 53.60%, 12.00%, 2.40% and 0.80% respectively. Mutation frequencies in patients infected with HBV genotype C(58.21%) were significantly higher than in those infected with other genotypes (P <0.01). The serum viral load of the patients with genotype C(5.74±1.21) was also higher than that of those with genotype B(P <0.01). Conclusion:The major genotypes in the Li nationality were genotype C and genotype B. The infection of genotype D and mixed infection also occurred in the Li nationality. Genotype C HBV has a higher replication rate, and the different degrees of pathogenecity among HBV genotypes may be related to BCP T1762/ A1764 mutation frequency.

  1. Oxfam Great Britain and Sustainable Livelihoods in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Gina

    2003-01-01

    Oxfam is using a sustainable livelihoods framework in its antipoverty programs. Identifying assets and asset gaps illuminated gender difference in asset bases and survival strategies as well as the huge impact of the state on livelihood choices. (SK)

  2. Impact assessment in the Sustainable Livelihood Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van F.C.; Burger, C.P.J.; Belder, den E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of impact assessment can be characterised on a scale with ‘proving impact’ on one side and ‘improving practices’ on the other. Even though this is not an either/or scale, the two often do not combine automatically. In this article an adjusted Sustainable Livelihood Framework for impact asses

  3. Schooling, Generation, and Transformations in Livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    learning and laboring. Through an analysis of the livelihood activities and narratives of young men involved in the sand economy, it is argued that school ideas and practices regarding labor and environment come to play a central part in generational negotiations and that these negotiations reflect young...

  4. Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2009-10-20

    Forests provide multiple benefits at local to global scales. These include the global public good of carbon sequestration and local and national level contributions to livelihoods for more than half a billion users. Forest commons are a particularly important class of forests generating these multiple benefits. Institutional arrangements to govern forest commons are believed to substantially influence carbon storage and livelihood contributions, especially when they incorporate local knowledge and decentralized decision making. However, hypothesized relationships between institutional factors and multiple benefits have never been tested on data from multiple countries. By using original data on 80 forest commons in 10 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America, we show that larger forest size and greater rule-making autonomy at the local level are associated with high carbon storage and livelihood benefits; differences in ownership of forest commons are associated with trade-offs between livelihood benefits and carbon storage. We argue that local communities restrict their consumption of forest products when they own forest commons, thereby increasing carbon storage. In showing rule-making autonomy and ownership as distinct and important institutional influences on forest outcomes, our results are directly relevant to international climate change mitigation initiatives such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and avoided deforestation. Transfer of ownership over larger forest commons patches to local communities, coupled with payments for improved carbon storage can contribute to climate change mitigation without adversely affecting local livelihoods.

  5. An integrated water-energy-food-livelihoods approach for assessing environmental livelihood security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Boruff, B.; Bruce, E.; Neef, A.; McNeill, K.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Haworth, B.; Duce, S.; Horsley, J.; Pauli, N.; Curnow, J.; Imanari, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental livelihood security refers to the challenges of maintaining global food security and universal access to freshwater and energy to sustain livelihoods and promote inclusive economic growth, whilst sustaining key environmental systems' functionality, particularly under variable climatic regimes. Environmental security is a concept complementary to sustainable development, and considers the increased vulnerability people have to certain environmental stresses, such as climatic change. Bridging links between the core component concepts of environmental security is integral to future human security, and in an attempt to create this bridge, the nexus approach to human protection has been created, where water resource availability underpins food, water and energy security. The water-energy-food nexus has an influential role in attaining human security, yet little research has made the link between the nexus and livelihoods. In this research we provide a critical appraisal of the synergies between water-energy-food nexus framings and sustainable livelihoods approaches, both of which aim to promote sustainable development. In regions where livelihoods are dependent on environmental conditions, the concept of sustainable development is critical for ensuring future environmental and human security. Given our appraisal we go on to develop an integrated framework for assessing environmental livelihood security of multiscale and multi-level systems. This framework provides a tangible approach for assessing changes in the water-energy-food-livelihood indicators of a system. Examples of where system applications may occur are discussed for the Southeast Asia and Oceania region. Our approach will be particularly useful for policy-makers to inform evidence-based decision-making, especially in localities where climate change increases the vulnerability of impoverished communities and extenuates environmental livelihood insecurity.

  6. Ecosystem services and livelihoods in deltaic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Rahman, M. M.; Salehin, M.; Hutton, C.

    2015-12-01

    While overall, deltas account for only 1% of global land area, they are home to more than a half billion people or ca. 7% of the world's population. In many deltas, livelihoods and food security are strongly dependent on ecosystem services, which in turn are affected by various environmental change factors, including climate variability and change, modifications to upstream river, sediment and nutrient fluxes, evolving nearshore ecosystems, and delta-level change factors such as subsidence, changing land use and management interventions such as polders. Key limits include scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and the impacts of extreme events (e.g. river floods, cyclones and storm surges), which constrain land use choices and livelihood opportunities for the deltaic populations. The ESPA Deltas project takes a systemic perspective of the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of rural delta residents. The methods emphasise poverty reduction and use coastal Bangladesh as an example. This includes a set of consistent biophysical analyses of the delta and the upstream catchments and the downstream Bay of Bengal, as well as governance and policy analysis and socio-demographic analysis, including an innovative household survey on ecosystem utilization. These results are encapsulated in an integrated model that analyses ecosystem services and livelihood implications. This integrated approach is designed to support delta-level policy formulation. It allows the exploration of contrasting development trajectories, including issues such as robustness of different governance options on ecosystem services and livelihoods. The method is strongly participatory including an ongoing series of stakeholder workshops addressing issue identification, scenario development and consideration of policy responses. The methods presented are generic and transferable to other deltas. The paper will consider the overall ESPA Deltas project and

  7. Analysing the relationship between urban livelihoods and water infrastructure in three settlements in Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Catherine; Bell, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by water infrastructure in urban livelihoods. It is based on a study of three settlements in Cusco, Peru, and shows that different modes of organising infrastructure co-exist within the same city, despite national policy prescriptions for urban water provision. Further, unequal access of households to these services exists within the same settlements and amplifies household vulnerability which, in turn, feeds back to undermine local, autonomous governance of water. This paper draws on the work of van Vliet et al. and Marvin and Graham to develop a framework that considers infrastructure organisation alongside household livelihoods in order to analyse the features of governance and vulnerability that affect urban livelihoods by privileging some groups and bypassing others.

  8. Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the implementation and outcomes of national development programs in a mountainous commune in Vietnam. The article traces the history of State intervention and the capacity of households and the community to adapt to change. The assessment reveals unintended consequences of t...

  9. Climate impacts on human livelihoods: where uncertainty matters in projections of water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Lissner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will have adverse impacts on many different sectors of society, with manifold consequences for human livelihoods and well-being. However, a systematic method to quantify human well-being and livelihoods across sectors is so far unavailable, making it difficult to determine the extent of such impacts. Climate impact analyses are often limited to individual sectors (e.g. food or water and employ sector-specific target-measures, while systematic linkages to general livelihood conditions remain unexplored. Further, recent multi-model assessments have shown that uncertainties in projections of climate impacts deriving from climate and impact models as well as greenhouse gas scenarios are substantial, posing an additional challenge in linking climate impacts with livelihood conditions. This article first presents a methodology to consistently measure Adequate Human livelihood conditions for wEll-being And Development (AHEAD. Based on a transdisciplinary sample of influential concepts addressing human well-being, the approach measures the adequacy of conditions of 16 elements. We implement the method at global scale, using results from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP to show how changes in water availability affect the fulfilment of AHEAD at national resolution. In addition, AHEAD allows identifying and differentiating uncertainty of climate and impact model projections. We show how the approach can help to put the substantial inter-model spread into the context of country-specific livelihood conditions by differentiating where the uncertainty about water scarcity is relevant with regard to livelihood conditions – and where it is not. The results indicate that in many countries today, livelihood conditions are compromised by water scarcity. However, more often, AHEAD fulfilment is limited through other elements. Moreover, the analysis shows that for 44 out of 111 countries, the water

  10. The role of education in mobile livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Shedding light on the relationship between processes of migration and educational practices as aspects of wider livelihood strategies among young Nepalese migrants in India, this article focuses on the role of education in different phases of a migrant career. It explores firstly how education wo...... works as a driving force in the interrelated processes of social and physical mobility; secondly how formal and informal forms of learning are weaved together in individual life courses of migrants....

  11. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  12. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources.

  13. Progress of basic research in Parkinson's disease in China: data mini-review from the National Natural Science Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heqi; Chen, Gang; Dong, Erdan

    2013-08-30

    This review is to analyze the role of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) on the development of basic research of Parkinson's disease from 1990 to 2012. Data on the total number of projects and funding of NSFC allocated to Parkinson's disease, as well as hotspots in western countries, papers published, awards, personnel training, subject construction were collected, and the role of NSFC on other sources of funding was evaluated. Over the past 23 years, a full range of continuous funding from NSFC has led to fruitful results and a strong impetus to the progress of basic research of Parkinson's disease.

  14. Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science in the Iranian second national Olympiad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarpira Negar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the scientific reasoning in basic science among undergraduate medical students, we established the National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran. In this Olympiad, the drawing of a concept map was used to evaluate a student's knowledge framework; students' ability in hypothesis generation and testing were also evaluated in four different steps. All medical students were invited to participate in this program. Finally, 133 undergraduate medical students with average grades ≥ 16/20 from 45 different medical schools in Iran were selected. The program took the form of four exams: drawing a concept map (Exam I, hypothesis generation (Exam II, choosing variables based on the hypothesis (Exam III, measuring scientific thought (Exam IV. The examinees were asked to complete all examination items in their own time without using textbooks, websites, or personal consultations. Data were presented as mean ± SE of each parameter. The correlation coefficient between students' scores in each exam with the total final score and average grade was calculated using the Spearman test. Results Out of a possible score of 200, the mean ± SE of each exam were as follows: 183.88 ± 5.590 for Exam I; 78.68 ± 9.168 for Exam II; 92.04 ± 2.503 for exam III; 106.13 ± 2.345 for Exam IV. The correlation of each exam score with the total final score was calculated, and there was a significant correlation between them (p The average grade was significantly correlated with the total final score (R = 0.770, (p p R = 0.7708 and the average grade. This means students with higher average grades had better grades in each exam, especially in drawing the concept map. Conclusions We hope that this competition will encourage medical schools to integrate theory and practice, analyze data, and read research articles. Our findings relate to a selected population, and our data may not be applicable to all medical students. Therefore, further studies are

  15. Scenario design and basic analysis of the National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ole; Ceranna, Lars; Hartmann, Gernot; Gestermann, Nicolai; Bönneman, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits all kinds of nuclear explosions. For the detection of treaty violations the International Monitoring System (IMS) operates stations observing seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound signals as well as radioisotopes in the atmosphere. While the IMS data is collected, processed and technically analyzed in the International Data Center (IDC) of the CTBT-Organization, National Data Centers (NDC) provide interpretation and advice to their government concerning suspicious detections occurring in IMS data. NDC Preparedness Exercises (NPE) are regularly performed dealing with fictitious treaty violations to practice the combined analysis of CTBT verification technologies and for the mutual exchange of information between NDC and also with the IDC. The NPE2010 and NPE2012 trigger scenarios were based on selected seismic events from the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) serving as starting point for fictitious Radionuclide dispersion. The main task was the identification of the original REB event and the discrimination between earthquakes and explosions as source. The scenario design of NPE2013 differs from those of previous NPEs. The waveform event selection is not constrained to events in the REB. The exercise trigger is a combination of a tempo-spatial indication pointing to a certain waveform event and simulated radionuclide concentrations generated by forward Atmospheric Transport Modelling based on a fictitious release. For the waveform event the date (4 Sept. 2013) is given and the region is communicated in a map showing the fictitious state of "Frisia" at the Coast of the North Sea in Central Europe. The synthetic radionuclide detections start in Vienna (8 Sept, I-131) and Schauinsland (11 Sept, Xe-133) with rather low activity concentrations and are most prominent in Stockholm and Spitsbergen mid of September 2013. Smaller concentrations in Asia follow later on. The potential connection between the waveform and

  16. Sustainable livelihood development in the Andes: local institutions and regional resource use in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, A

    1993-03-01

    Poverty alleviation has not been achieved through rural development efforts in the Andean region of South America. The social and environmental crisis can be addressed by engaging the rural poor with their considerable skills in resource management in the development effort. Efforts need to be coordinated both within and outside the immediate peasant situation. For example, the origins of the biased spatial organization of resource use, (the best lands are dominated by large farmers and more fragile lands are in the hands of small farmers) need to be addressed in any viable strategy of sustainable development. Obstacles need to be overcome at the field, farm, community, region, and national level in technological, institutional, political, and economic ways. This article focuses on the regional and institutional level and technology as instrumental to change at the local level. The structure of the discussion centered on the main ideas of "sustainable thinking," the application of this thinking within a case study in Chimborazo conducted from 1988 to the present in the Ecuadoran Andes, and a description of how resource use has changed over time within the context of regional economic, social, and demographic change. There is an analysis of how peasants have struggled to sustain their social systems through changes in resource and labor use systems. Future efforts might be better coordinated based on the unsuccessful experiences exposed in the case study. The article further develops the ideas proposed by Gow on sustainable use of the land and the need for political commitment, institutional strengthening, improved local organization, environmental education, and economic development. Peasants constructed their own ideas about desirable livelihoods. This thinking led to the attacks on the hacienda as a way of coping with integration into the national economy. The peasant federations were not changing the basic structures underlying this incorporation. The local

  17. Cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2017-01-01

    , their peers and institutions play in insect farming as a livelihood strategy are even less well understood. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand. Fortynine cricket farmers participated in in-depth interviews designed to gain insight into how...... capital. As such, further empirical data and case study analyses are needed in order to advance our understanding of this particular livelihood strategy....

  18. Application of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping in Livelihood Vulnerability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. A. Smaling; Andersson, Jens A.; Van Wijk, Mark T.; Chrispen Murungweni; Giller, Ken E.

    2011-01-01

    Feedback mechanisms are important in the analysis of vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems, as well as in the analysis of livelihoods, but how to evaluate systems with direct feedbacks has been a great challenge. We applied fuzzy cognitive mapping, a tool that allows analysis of both direct and indirect feedbacks and can be used to explore the vulnerabilities of livelihoods to identified hazards. We studied characteristics and drivers of rural livelihoods in the Great Limp...

  19. Livelihoods and Fisheries Governance in a Contemporary Pacific Island Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulu, Reuben J; Eriksson, Hampus; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Andrew, Neil L; Orirana, Grace; Sukulu, Meshach; Oeta, Janet; Harohau, Daykin; Sibiti, Stephen; Toritela, Andrew; Beare, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Inshore marine resources play an important role in the livelihoods of Pacific Island coastal communities. However, such reliance can be detrimental to inshore marine ecosystems. Understanding the livelihoods of coastal communities is important for devising relevant and effective fisheries management strategies. Semi-structured household interviews were conducted with householders in Langalanga Lagoon, Solomon Islands, to understand household livelihoods and resource governance in fishing-dependent communities. Households were engaged in a diverse range of livelihoods. Fishing, shell money production and gardening were the most important livelihoods. Proximity to an urban centre influenced how households accessed some livelihoods. Perceptions of management rules varied and different reasons were cited for why rules were broken, the most common reason being to meet livelihood needs. Current models of inshore small-scale fisheries management that are based on the notion of community-based resource management may not work in locations where customary management systems are weak and livelihoods are heavily reliant on marine resources. An important step for fisheries management in such locations should include elucidating community priorities through participatory development planning, taking into consideration livelihoods as well as governance and development aspirations.

  20. Pay More Attention to the Economy and People's Livelihood, Stress the Responsibilities of All Levels-The Explanation of Russia's President National Off i cial Communication in 2013%重视经济民生强调各阶层责任感--2013年俄罗斯总统国情咨文解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2014-01-01

    On December 12th, 2013, Russian President Vladimir Putin published nation address in both houses of federal parliament. This day was the 20th anniversary of the Russian federation constitution. This official communication involved people's livelihood, political democracy institutional reform, national economic development and innovation, foreign relations and national security, and other important content."Responsibility"is an important word appeared in it. Putin stressed that the responsibility of the country is the theme of the constitution; it is also a demand for everyone. So, in the development target and planning of national official communication, it emphasized national, social and personal responsibility and obligation in the above areas.%2013年12月12日俄罗斯总统普京在俄联邦宪法通过20周年纪念日向联邦议会两院发表年度国情咨文。此次咨文具体涉及民生、政治民主制度改革、国家经济发展及创新、对外关系和国防安全等重要内容。“责任感”是咨文中出现和重复次数较多的一个词,普京强调,对国家的责任感是宪法的主题,这也是对每一个人的要求,因此咨文在上述各领域的发展目标和规划中处处强调国家、社会及个人的责任感和义务。

  1. Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheona Shackleton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that livelihoods in the rural Eastern Cape are on new trajectories. Agricultural production has declined markedly, at a time when the need for diversification of livelihoods and food security seems to be at a premium. This decline is driven by a suite of drivers that interact with, and are influenced by, other changes and stresses affecting local livelihoods. We distil out the factors, ranging from historical processes to national policies and local dynamics, that hamper peoples’ motivation and ability to respond to locally identified vulnerabilities and, which, when taken together, could drive households into a trap. We end by considering the transformations required to help local people evade traps and progress towards a more promising future in a context of increasing uncertainty.

  2. Climate change impacts on the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem services and dependent livelihoods in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shams Uddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh provides ecosystem services having great importance for local livelihoods, national economy and global environment. Nevertheless, the Sundarbans is threatened by various natural and anthropogenic pressures including climate change. This paper presents the potential impacts of climate change on the ecosystem services of the Sundarbans and the forest dependent livelihoods. Both secondary information on climate change impacts and primary data on forest dependent livelihoods were used for the analysis. Recent study revealed that the suitable area of two dominant tree species ofthe Sundarbans - Sundri (Heritiera fomes and Gewa (Excoecaria agallocha may be decreased significantly by the year 2100 due to sea level rise (88 cm in the Sundarbans compared to the year 2001, which may be reduce the timber stock of those trees. This indicates the potential loss of economic value of the key provisioning services of Sundarbans. Similarly, the other ecosystem services (e.g. fisheries, tourism, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, etc. maybe affected by climate change. Consequently, the forest dependent livelihoods would be affected by the degraded ecosystem services of the forest. Further studies should quantify the impacts of climate change on all the ecosystem services and explore the potential loss and opportunities in future. A new paradigm of management should look forward considering climate change, ecological integrity, sustainable harvesting and ensuring continuity of the ecosystem services of the Sundarbans.

  3. Assessment of the level of development of younger students basic national values ​​as a socio-pedagogical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Myss

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of development of pupils is updated primary level of basic national values ​​in the context of the concept of spiritual and moral development and education of a citizen of Russia, offers original position on the selection criteria and indicators of assimilation younger students basic national values​​.

  4. Livelihood diversification in tropical coastal communities: a network-based approach to analyzing 'livelihood landscapes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E; Bodin, Orjan

    2010-08-11

    Diverse livelihood portfolios are frequently viewed as a critical component of household economies in developing countries. Within the context of natural resources governance in particular, the capacity of individual households to engage in multiple occupations has been shown to influence important issues such as whether fishers would exit a declining fishery, how people react to policy, the types of resource management systems that may be applicable, and other decisions about natural resource use. This paper uses network analysis to provide a novel methodological framework for detailed systemic analysis of household livelihood portfolios. Paying particular attention to the role of natural resource-based occupations such as fisheries, we use network analyses to map occupations and their interrelationships- what we refer to as 'livelihood landscapes'. This network approach allows for the visualization of complex information about dependence on natural resources that can be aggregated at different scales. We then examine how the role of natural resource-based occupations changes along spectra of socioeconomic development and population density in 27 communities in 5 western Indian Ocean countries. Network statistics, including in- and out-degree centrality, the density of the network, and the level of network centralization are compared along a multivariate index of community-level socioeconomic development and a gradient of human population density. The combination of network analyses suggests an increase in household-level specialization with development for most occupational sectors, including fishing and farming, but that at the community-level, economies remained diversified. The novel modeling approach introduced here provides for various types of livelihood portfolio analyses at different scales of social aggregation. Our livelihood landscapes approach provides insights into communities' dependencies and usages of natural resources, and shows how patterns of

  5. National Survey of Genetics Content in Basic Nursing Preparatory Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetteberg, Carol G.; Prows, Cynthia A.; Deets, Carol; Monsen, Rita B.; Kenner, Carole A.

    1999-01-01

    A sample of 879 basic nursing programs was used to identify the type and amount of genetics content in curricula. Recommendations were made for increasing genetics content as a result of the synthesis of the survey data with previously collected data. (25 references) (Author/JOW)

  6. Land Use, Livelihoods, Vulnerabilities, and Resilience in Coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    The densely populated, low-lying coast of Bangladesh is famously associated with vulnerability to sea-level rise, storms, and flooding. Simultaneously, land-use change has significantly altered local sediment transport, causing elevation loss and degradation of drainage. The rapid growth of shrimp aquaculture has also affected soil chemistry in former agricultural areas and the stock of riverine fisheries through intense larval harvesting. To understand the net impact of these environmental changes on the region's communities, it is necessary to examine interactions across scale - from externally driven large scale environmental change to smaller scale, but often more intense, local change - and also between the physical environment and social, political, and economic conditions. We report on a study of interactions between changing communities and changing environment in coastal Bangladesh, exploring the role of societal and physical factors in shaping the different outcomes and their effects on people's lives. Land reclamation projects in the 1960s surrounded intertidal islands with embankments. This allowed rice farming to expand, but also produced significant elevation loss, which rendered many islands vulnerable to waterlogging and flooding from storm surges. The advent of large-scale shrimp aquaculture added environmental, economic, social, and political stresses, but also brought much export revenue to a developing nation. Locally, attempts to remedy environmental stresses have produced mixed results, with similar measures succeeding in some communities and failing in others. In this context, we find that people are continually adapting to changing opportunities and constraints for food, housing, and income. Niches that support different livelihood activities emerge and dwindle, and their occupants' desires affect the political context. Understanding and successfully responding to the impacts of environmental change requires understanding not only the

  7. Development geography at the crossroads of livelihood and globalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); A. Zoomers (Annelies)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores new insights generated by livelihood research with respect to poverty problems in the world and how people deal with global challenges. Through the examination of the changing outlines of livelihood in the present era of globalisation, we unravel the fuzzy relation

  8. Development Geography at the Crossroads of Livelihood and Globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, L.J. de; Zoomers, E.B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores new insights generated by livelihood research with respect to poverty problems in the world and how people deal with global challenges. Through the examination of the changing outlines of livelihood in the present era of globalisation, the authors unravel the fuzzy relationship

  9. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local people ... The social and economic circumstances prevailing in Tanzania today have made ... sociocultural and livelihood factors that influence community participation in ... Increased capacity for conservation skills was the most important driver of community ...

  10. Sustainability of Artisanal Fishers Livelihoods in the Jebba Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In Nigeria, fisheries do not merely supply an essential ... and Okon, 2009) including use of unsustainable fisheries management practices adopted by the ... benefits for continued sustenance of fishers whose livelihoods depend on it. The ..... to fishing livelihood implies exploitation of fish mongers in the chain of distribution.

  11. Forest degradation and livelihood: a case study of government forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest degradation and livelihood: a case study of government forest ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2017) > ... This study examined the effect of forest degradation on livelihood returns in ... Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep.

  12. Development Geography at the Crossroads of Livelihood and Globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, L.J. de; Zoomers, E.B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores new insights generated by livelihood research with respect to poverty problems in the world and how people deal with global challenges. Through the examination of the changing outlines of livelihood in the present era of globalisation, the authors unravel the fuzzy relationship b

  13. The significance of diversification for rural livelihood systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, A.

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that diversification plays a strategic role in rural livelihood systems. The principal question to be addressed in this paper pertains to the conditions and the ways in which rural households diversify their livelihood activities and strategies. To answer this questi

  14. Livelihood assessment in district 1 of Medellin – Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza Ciro Alfonso Serna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The livelihood approach aims at the analysis, understanding and restrictions that the poorest people have to face in order to recover from difficult situations. The Department for International Development model is applied to an urban zone with the purpose of making an assessment of the livelihood of the district ’la Comuna 1’ in Medellin, Colombia, which has been recognised as the poorest and one of the most dangerous districts of the city. The case study presents both a quantitative analysis (macro and qualitative (micro analysis, as a mixed method that allows a more complete analysis and understanding of livelihood, and providing a deeper understanding of the district from the livelihood approach. The results indicate a stable growth of livelihood during the period of analysis.

  15. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  16. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-25

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  17. Effects of Government Grassland Conservation Policy on Household Livelihoods and Dependence on Local Grasslands: Evidence from Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingzhen Du

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grassland degradation intensifies human-environment conflicts and adversely affects local residents’ livelihoods. To reduce grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia, China, the government has enforced (since 1998 a series of grassland conservation and management policies that restrict the use of grasslands. To ease the impact on the residents’ livelihoods, the national and regional governments have offered a series of top-down arrangements to stimulate sustainable use of the grasslands. Simultaneously, local households spontaneously developed bottom-up countermeasures. To determine the effects of these processes, we interviewed members of 135 households using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods. We analyzed the effects on household dependence on local grasslands and on perceptions of the future of grassland use. Our findings show that the implementation of the grassland conservation policies significantly affected household livelihoods, which in turn affected household use of natural assets (primarily the land, their agricultural assets (farming and grazing activities and their financial assets (income and consumption, resulting in fundamental transformation of their lifestyles. The households developed adaptation measures to account for the dependence of their livelihood on local ecosystems by initializing strategies, such as seeking off-farm work, leasing pasture land, increasing purchases of fodder for stall-fed animals and altering their diet and fuel consumption to compensate for their changing livelihoods.

  18. Dryland resources, livelihoods and institutions : diversity and dynamics in use and management of gum and resin trees in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshale Woldeamanuel Habebo, Teshale

    2011-01-01

    Dry woodlands comprise the largest forest resources in Ethiopia. An important feature of these forests is their richness in Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora (ABC) species that produce gum and resin. Gums/resins significantly contribute to rural livelihoods, the national economy, and ecosystem sta

  19. Dryland resources, livelihoods and institutions : diversity and dynamics in use and management of gum and resin trees in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshale Woldeamanuel Habebo, Teshale

    2011-01-01

    Dry woodlands comprise the largest forest resources in Ethiopia. An important feature of these forests is their richness in Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora (ABC) species that produce gum and resin. Gums/resins significantly contribute to rural livelihoods, the national economy, and ecosystem

  20. Shifting livelihood strategies in northern Nigeria - extensified production and livelihood diversification amongst Fulani pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majekodunmi, Ayodele O; Dongkum, Charles; Langs, Tok; Shaw, Alexandra P M; Welburn, Susan C

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth investigation of the livelihood strategies of Fulani pastoralists in north central Nigeria. Results show a diversified crop-livestock system aimed at spreading risk and reducing cattle offtake, adapted to natural resource competition and insecurity by extensification, with further diversification into off-farm activities to spread risk, increase livelihood security and capture opportunities. However, significant costs were associated with extensification, and integration of crop and livestock enterprises was limited. Mean total income per capita in the study area was $554 or $1.52/person/day with 42% of households earning less than 1.25/person/day. Income levels were positively correlated with income diversity and price received per animal sold, rather than herd size. The outcomes of this livelihood strategy were favourable across the whole community, but when individual households are considered, there was evidence of moderate economic inequality in total income, cash income and herd size (Gini coefficient 0.32, 0.35 and 0.43 respectively). The poorest households were quite vulnerable, with low assets, income and income diversity. Implications for sustainability are discussed given the likelihood that the negative trends of reduced access to natural resources and insecurity will continue.

  1. Impacts of Forest Changes on Indigenous People Livelihood in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosta Harun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest cover change in the region due to timber extraction and change of land use pattern in the region have brought certain impacts on the livelihood of indigenous people. These people who once highly depended on the forest resources are the most affected. This study was done with the purpose to reveal the importance of forest as a source of their basic need and income for indigenous people and their future generation through the lens of history and place. A qualitative study had been done on the indigenous people that live in three villages in Pekan District, Pahang. Qualitative approach using face-to-face interview was applied to gather the oral history on the impacts of forest change at their place. It shown that forest change has much more impacts on the forest depended communities in the fringe of forests. A small tabletop recorder was used to record the interview session. This study could provide valuable inputs to government and other stakeholders on managing issues related to indigenous people, environment and their culture.

  2. Livelihood diversification in tropical coastal communities: a network-based approach to analyzing 'livelihood landscapes'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Cinner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diverse livelihood portfolios are frequently viewed as a critical component of household economies in developing countries. Within the context of natural resources governance in particular, the capacity of individual households to engage in multiple occupations has been shown to influence important issues such as whether fishers would exit a declining fishery, how people react to policy, the types of resource management systems that may be applicable, and other decisions about natural resource use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper uses network analysis to provide a novel methodological framework for detailed systemic analysis of household livelihood portfolios. Paying particular attention to the role of natural resource-based occupations such as fisheries, we use network analyses to map occupations and their interrelationships- what we refer to as 'livelihood landscapes'. This network approach allows for the visualization of complex information about dependence on natural resources that can be aggregated at different scales. We then examine how the role of natural resource-based occupations changes along spectra of socioeconomic development and population density in 27 communities in 5 western Indian Ocean countries. Network statistics, including in- and out-degree centrality, the density of the network, and the level of network centralization are compared along a multivariate index of community-level socioeconomic development and a gradient of human population density. The combination of network analyses suggests an increase in household-level specialization with development for most occupational sectors, including fishing and farming, but that at the community-level, economies remained diversified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The novel modeling approach introduced here provides for various types of livelihood portfolio analyses at different scales of social aggregation. Our livelihood landscapes approach provides insights

  3. Livelihood vulnerability index analysis: An approach to study vulnerability in the context of Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri .

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability is the capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of natural disasters. Floods add to the distressed conditions of the poor and vulnerable people in Bihar. Floods have a different impact on households depending on differences in their livelihood choices. Therefore, in order to identify the variability in vulnerability of affected households, the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI of Hahn, Riederer and Foster was modified according to the context of the study area. The LVI aims to identify sources and forms of vulnerability that are specific to the context in order to design context-specific resilience measures. However, vulnerability and resilience are not interdependent but discrete entities. The study was conducted in the seven blocks of Bhagalpur district in the state of Bihar. Naugachia was found to be the least vulnerable because of better access to basic amenities and livelihood strategies, whilst Kharik was found to be highly vulnerable in respect to other blocks because of high sensitivity and less adaptive strategy. The study also revealed that better access to resources does not necessarily mean that households are adopting resilience measures because of apathetic or indifferent attitudes.

  4. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: 2011 Status Report on the International Space Weather Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Gadimova, S; Danov, D; Georgieva, K; Maeda, G; Yumoto, K; Davila, J M; Gopalswami, N

    2011-01-01

    The UNBSSI is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis. A series of workshops on BSS was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://www.seas.columbia.edu/~ah297/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. One major recommendation that emanated from these workshops was the establishment of astronomical facilities in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level. Such workshops on BSS emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a worldwide basis. Pursuant to resolutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful ...

  5. Surgical Site Infection (SSI) Rates in the United States, 1992-1998: The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System Basic SSI Risk Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert P. Gaynes; David H. Culver; Teresa C. Horan; Jonathan R. Edwards; Chesley Richards; James S. Tolson; The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

    2001-01-01

    By use of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System's surgical patient surveillance component protocol, the NNIS basic risk index was examined to predict the risk of a surgical site infection (SSI...

  6. SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOOD AND ECOLOGICAL SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN UPPER REACHES OF CHANGJIANG RIVER--Case Study of Zhaotong of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable livelihood theory provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the interactions between livelihoods of peasant households and regional environment change in low-income areas. Based on field survey and 946 questionnaires from peasant household conducted in the case study area of Zhaotong, Yunnan Province, the paper has analyzed the basic characteristics of the rural livelihoods, including the asset base status, the income-generating activities, the energy consumption pattern, and the fertility behavior, in the upper reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze)River. The micro-level findings show the conflicts among extensive agricultural development models, rural energy consumption structures heavily relying on biomass and the environment protection. The conversion of cropland to forest and grass program (CCFGP) has exerted an important influence on the livelihoods of the peasant households, but its design has given little considerations to their long-term livelihood sources, which will affect its sustainability to a great extent. From the perspective of sustainable livelihoods framework, the objectives that must be addressed in the ecological shelter construction in the upper reaches of the Changjiang River should include, first, facilitating access of peasant households to credit, technology and public services, second, encouraging the peasant households to adopt agricultural technology with environmental benefits and strengthen resources-conserving investments, and third, paying close attention to the rural energy problems and the long-term livelihood sources of the households with CCFGP. Given the weak asset base and difficulties of livelihood strategies shift, ecological shelter construction in the upper reaches of the Changjiang River will take a long time.

  7. User Facilities of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences: A National Resource for Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.

  8. Adaption of the LUCI framework to account for detailed farm management: a case study exploring potential for achieving locally and nationally significant greenhouse gas, flooding and nutrient mitigation without compromising livelihoods on New Zealand farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bethanna; Trodahl, Martha; Maxwell, Deborah; Easton, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    This talk discusses recent progress in adapting the Land Utilisation and Capability Indicator (LUCI) framework to take account of the impact of detailed farm management on greenhouse gas emissions and on water, sediment and nutrient delivery to waterways. LUCI is a land management decision support framework which examines the impact of current and potential interventions on a variety of outcomes, including flood mitigation, water supply, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, erosion, sediment and nutrient delivery to waterways, and agricultural production. The potential of the landscape to provide benefits is a function of both the biophysical properties of individual landscape elements and their configuration. Both are respected in LUCI where possible. For example, the hydrology, sediment and chemical routing algorithms are based on physical principles of hillslope flow, taking information on the storage and permeability capacity of elements within the landscape from soil and land use data and honoring physical thresholds, mass and energy balance constraints. LUCI discretizes hydrological response units within the landscape according to similarity of their hydraulic properties and preserves spatially explicit topographical routing. Implications of keeping the "status quo" or potential scenarios of land management change can then be evaluated under different meteorological or climatic events (e.g. flood return periods, rainfall events, droughts), cascading water through the hydrological response units using a "fill and spill" approach. These and other component algorithms are designed to be fast-running while maintaining physical consistency and fine spatial detail. This allows it to operate from subfield level scale to catchment, or even national scale, simultaneously. It analyses and communicates the spatial pattern of individual provision and tradeoffs/synergies between desired outcomes at detailed resolutions and provides suggestions on where management

  9. Livelihood Strategies in African Cities: The Case of Residents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    This paper analyses the livelihood strategies of residents in the city of Bamenda ... research work on social economy at the International Labour Organisation. ..... off all shipping containers in the city as part of his “keep Bamenda clean” project.

  10. Role of forest income in rural household livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misbahuzzaman, Khaled; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    managed extensive forest commons to support their livelihood needs, population explosion triggered fragmentation of common land leading to a gradual decline in livelihood opportunities. However, ethnic communities still manage the remnants of those once extensive common resources that are locally known...... as Village Common Forests (VCFs), which provide valuable resources for community use. An investigation was made of the role of forest income in livelihoods of selected VCF communities in Bandarban and Rangamati districts of the CHTs. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were employed to examine.......02 %) in average total household income. However, VCFs provide bamboos, which are the largest source of household forest income. Moreover, they harbour rich native tree diversity which is vital for maintaining perennial water sources upon which most household livelihood activities depend. Therefore, it seems...

  11. Impact of Cut-Flower Industries on Sustainable Livelihood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Cut-Flower Industries on Sustainable Livelihood and Poverty Reduction in ... Annals of Humanities and Development Studies ... A sample of 200 respondents were obtained from five cut-flower companies, including Kiliflora, Tanzania ...

  12. Effects of Child Participation in Livelihood Activities on Children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Child Participation in Livelihood Activities on Children's Welfare among ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... still face many challenges as a result of participating in the activities prohibited by the legislations.

  13. Rural Development in Central America : Markets, Livelihoods and Local Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Bastiaensen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rural development is now considered almost synonymous with involvement in market exchange. When market and institutional failures prevail, however, rural communities increasingly rely on local institutional or contractual arrangements to guarantee their livelihoods. This book offers a comprehensive

  14. Livelihood resilience and adaptive capacity: A critical conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admire M. Nyamwanza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts resilience and adaptive capacity have gained currency in ecology, climate change, disaster risk reduction and related development discourse; yet there has been almost an absence of clarity in the understanding, substance, definition as well as applicability of these concepts in livelihoods theory and practice – where they can potentially contribute far-reaching insights vis-à-vis long-term response to livelihoods adversity in different communities. Drawing upon literature from several disciplines utilising these concepts, this article traces the roots and evolvement of the resilience and adaptive capacity concepts and suggests indicators and pillar processes towards their integration into livelihoods thinking. This article therefore mainly contributes towards the conceptualisation and understanding of a focused ‘resilience and adaptive capacity’ construct in livelihoods analysis.

  15. women's involvement in forestry practices as livelihood options in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Department of Forestry and Wild Life Management, Faculty of Agriculture & Agricultural. Technology ... The study evaluates the involvement of women in forestry practices as a means of livelihood in ..... principles and practice, Oxford and IBH.

  16. Editorial Changing Livelihoods in the Coastal Zone of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    change, as these affect coastal and marine ecosystems and the ... tranquil social, economic and cultural fabric of the WIO-East Africa ... include fish and seaweed, as well as tourism, provide new ... examples of current local livelihoods and.

  17. Contribution of "Women's Gold" to West African livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariéve

    2012-01-01

    Contribution of ``Women's Gold'' to West African Livelihoods: The Case of Shea ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) in Burkina Faso. This paper (i) quantifies the contribution that Vitellaria paradoxa makes to the total income of rural households belonging to different economic groups in two areas of Burkina ...... not be considered as a remedy to poverty but instead as a way for households to diversify their livelihood strategy and decrease their vulnerability to food insecurity and climate variability....

  18. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: 2010 Status Report on the International Space Weather Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadimova, S.; Haubold, H. J.; Danov, D.; Georgieva, K.; Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Davila, J. M.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2011-11-01

    The UNBSSI is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis. A series of workshops on BSS was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004) Pursuant to resolutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, Ro Korea 2009) Starting in 2010, the workshops focus on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as recommended in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of UNCOPUOS (www.iswi-secretariat.org/). Workshops on the ISWI have been scheduled to be hosted by Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. Currently, fourteen IHY/ISWI instrument arrays with more than five hundred instruments are operational in ninety countries.

  19. Livelihood Sustainability and Community Based Co-Management of Forest Resources in China: Changes and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyun; Shivakoti, Ganesh; Zhu, Ting; Maddox, David

    2012-01-01

    Community-based co-management (CBCM) has been applied in some communities near natural reserves in China. This paper uses Gansu Baishuijiang National Natural Reserve in China as a case study for livelihood improvements under CBCM projects. We demonstrate change from 2006 to 2010 in five classes of livelihood capital (social, human, natural, physical and financial capitals), illustrating the effectiveness of CBCM projects. Specifically, there are increases in mean family income and improvements in forest conservation. However, some problems in the design and implementation of CBCM projects remain, including the complicated social and political relationship between government and community, social exclusion and uneven application of benefits within communities, and the lack of integration of indigenous cultures and traditional beliefs. Attention for special groups in community and improving the design of CBCM Projects. Study shows that under the cooperation of government, CBCM projects and local community residents, the harmonious development of sustainable livelihood improvement and forest resources conservation will be an important trend in the future.

  20. Zero net livelihood degradation - the quest for a multidimensional protocol to combat desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easdale, Marcos H.

    2016-04-01

    The concept of Zero Net Land Degradation was recently proposed as the basis for a future protocol for the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification to reduce global dryland degradation. It aims at reducing the rate of land degradation and increasing the rate of restoration of already degraded land. Whereas there is recognition of the socio-economic contexts that underlie degradation processes, there is a narrow focus on land and soil as the end core that needs to be protected. In particular, there is an essential human dimension to the sustainability of drylands that should be adequately tackled. In order to provide a wider perspective of the zero net degradation in drylands, I suggest considering the different livelihoods of rural households as a framework that encompasses the multidimensional perspective of desertification as a complex social-ecological problem. The scientific community must develop and apply the zero net livelihood degradation as an enhanced protocol to combat desertification that should foster sustainable livelihood outcomes rather than only sustainable land practices or soil management.

  1. LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION AND INCOME: A CASE STUDY OF COMMUNITIES RESIDENT ALONG THE KIRI DAM, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Amurtiya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analysed livelihood diversifi cation and income in resident communities along the Kiri Dam, Adamawa state, Nigeria. The specifi c objectives of the study were: to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, assess the level of livelihood diversifi cation of the respondents, analyse income of the respondents, identify factors associated with varying levels of income, and identify constraints to livelihood diversifi cation in the area. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect primary data from 120 respondents from the study area. The data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The results showed that the majority of the respondents were male (78%, married (76%, educated (70%, below 60 years of age (93% and employed in agricultural activities (83%. The Simpson index of diversifi cation shows that 43% of the respondents diversify at an average level. The majority (60% of the respondents’ annual income is over ₦ 200,000. The ordinary least square estimation shows that age, marital status, education, irrigation activities, fi shing, farm size and level of diversifi cation aff ect income level in the area. The main constraints to diversifi ed livelihood in the area were a lack of basic social infrastructure, a hippopotamus menace and fl ooding. The study recommended the provision of social infrastructure and the control of hippopotamuses. 

  2. Uniting forest and livelihood outcomes? Analyzing external actor interventions in sustainable livelihoods in a community forest management context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Clare; Claus, Rachel; Driessen, Peter; Dos Santos, Maria Joao Ferreira; George, Mary Ann; Van Laerhoven, Frank

    2017-01-01

    External actor interventions in community forest management (CFM) attempt to support communities with developing forest institutions and/ or improving their livelihoods portfolio. Common pool resource (CPR) scholars argue that forest institutions are required to prevent overharvesting of the forest

  3. THEORETIC AND METHODOLOGIC BASICS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL LOGISTICS SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study, the aim of which is the formation of the theoretical and methodological foundations in the framework of scientific maintenance for the further development processes of the national logistics system in the Republic of Belarus. The relevance of the study relates to the fact that at present the introduction of the concept of logistics and the formation of the optimal infrastructure for its implementation are the key factors for economic development of Belarus as a transit country. At the same time the pace of development of the logistic activities in the country is currently slightly lower in comparison with the neighboring countries, as evidenced by the dynamics of the country’s position in international rankings (in particular, according to the LPI index. Overcoming these gaps requires improved competitiveness of the logistics infrastructure in the international market. This, in turn, is possible due to the clear formulation and adherence of the effective functioning principles for macro logistics system of Belarus, as well as by increasing the quality of logistics design by means of applying econometric models and methods presented in the article. The proposed auctorial approach is the differentiation of the general principles of logistics specific to the logistics systems of all levels, and the specific principles of development of the macro level logistics system related to improving its transit attractiveness for international freight carriers. The study also systematizes the model for determining the optimal location of logistics facilities. Particular attention is paid to the methodological basis of the analysis of transport terminals functioning as part of the logistics centers both in the stages of design and operation. The developed theoretical and methodological recommendations are universal and can be used in the design of the logistics infrastructure for various purposes and functions

  4. Ten Years After the National Accord for the Modernization of Basic Education in Mexico: Challenges, Tensions and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zorrilla Fierro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By means of the National Accord for the Modernization of Basic Education (1992, the Mexican Educational System (MES entered into a complex reform. Unlike the previous reforms, this one decentralized the system, renewed the curriculum, produced new materials and introduced compensation programs and new methods of financing and evaluation. Junior high school was made obligatory, and the school calendar was amplified. This reform has revealed the MES’s accumulated deficiencies and fatigue, so that it seems impossible to achieve the goals of quality and equity. This essay presents a critical analysis of some elements that characterize the MES at the end of the twentieth century. It focuses on the reasons for the decentralization and the educational reform; on the challenges and tensions facing the system, and especially, it approaches the theme of institutional management and delineates a proposal for its transformation.

  5. Elderly health and implementation of the Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons on the performed actions in basic healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMINSKI VIEIRA, Roseli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons (PNSPI – in Portuguese was formulated by the Ministry of Health through Ordinance No. 2.528/2006 in line with the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The study investigated whether municipalities from the South region of the State of Santa Catarina had knowledge and applied the PNSPI, on the performed actions in basic healthcare, especially on the Units of Family Healthcare Services based on what the Constitution and the Statute of the Elderly comprise. A deductive method with a qualitative approach and a descriptive research were used. As a result, some difficulties experienced by the research subjects related to two important points of policies and strategies of PNSPI were identified: the lack of a planned policy and of a continuous health education for the elderly; and the lack of a stimulating exercise of social control, whether in the health sector, or in the Municipal Council of Elderly People.

  6. Thinking of Several Basic Theoretical Questions with Regard to Nationality Statistics in China%关于我国民族统计几个基本理论问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏性

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses the importance to conduct nationality statistical research in China. He raises the definition, task and basic framework of nationality statistical work, as well as the status of nationality statistics in the national statistical system in China. He also indicates the main factors affecting nationality statistical work at present in China and the key things to be reformed, explores the several basic problems regarding establishing national nationality statistics in China.

  7. Application of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping in Livelihood Vulnerability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. A. Smaling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feedback mechanisms are important in the analysis of vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems, as well as in the analysis of livelihoods, but how to evaluate systems with direct feedbacks has been a great challenge. We applied fuzzy cognitive mapping, a tool that allows analysis of both direct and indirect feedbacks and can be used to explore the vulnerabilities of livelihoods to identified hazards. We studied characteristics and drivers of rural livelihoods in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in southern Africa to assess the vulnerability of inhabitants to the different hazards they face. The process involved four steps: (1 surveys and interviews to identify the major livelihood types; (2 description of specific livelihood types in a system format using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs, a semi-quantitative tool that models systems based on people's knowledge; (3 linking variables and drivers in FCMs by attaching weights; and (4 defining and applying scenarios to visualize the effects of drought and changing park boundaries on cash and household food security. FCMs successfully gave information concerning the nature (increase or decrease and magnitude by which a livelihood system changed under different scenarios. However, they did not explain the recovery path in relation to time and pattern (e.g., how long it takes for cattle to return to desired numbers after a drought. Using FCMs revealed that issues of policy, such as changing situations at borders, can strongly aggravate effects of climate change such as drought. FCMs revealed hidden knowledge and gave insights that improved the understanding of the complexity of livelihood systems in a way that is better appreciated by stakeholders.

  8. The Effect of Payments for Ecosystem Services Programs on the Relationship of Livelihood Capital and Livelihood Strategy among Rural Communities in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The security and quality of livelihoods for peasant households is the core issue for rural areas in China. A stable livelihood contributes to the harmonious development of related polices, poverty eradication and sustainable use of resources. In Qinghe County, located in the extremely arid zone of Northwest China, 238 validated surveys were conducted. The analysis focuses on the importance of livelihood capitals for the selection of on- or off-farm livelihood strategies among beneficiaries of different kinds of ecological compensation packages. The goal is to see if different groups of beneficiaries are better able to pursue off-farm livelihoods activity, which reduces pressure on the resource base, and whether specific capitals are especially effective in helping households pursue off-farm livelihoods, which benefits their well-being. The findings show that proportionally more herdsmen (who participated in a pastureland rehabilitation program were able to pursue off-farm livelihoods than farmers (who participated in the cultivated land reforestation program, and especially agro-pastoralists (who participated in both programs. Further, models of livelihood strategy show that human and financial capitals facilitate off-farm livelihoods, while productive capital tends to lead to on-farm livelihoods. These findings indicate that there is no single determinant of livelihood strategy, and future policies must consciously differentiate among beneficiaries to reach the desired result.

  9. Exploring Strategies that Build Livelihood Resilience: a Case from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Berkes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods in Cambodian fishing communities are complex and dynamic. Fluctuations in resource abundance, seasonal cycles of resource use, and changes in access create conditions that bring challenges for rural households, as do economic and policy drivers. Nonetheless, people are continuously “doing something” in response to these stresses and shocks. This paper sets out to explore how households and community members attempt to mitigate against such challenges. The analysis of livelihood stresses and shocks in two Cambodian fishing villages shows that diversification is a commonly used strategy for coping and adapting. Analyzing responses at multiple scales, with emphasis on resilience-building strategies at household and community levels, illuminates aspects of livelihoods. To study local-level perspectives of resilience, well-being was used as the surrogate of resilience, producing three clusters of responses related to economic conditions, resources, and relationships.

  10. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  11. The Role of Governance in Connecting Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods: Lessons from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Andrew; Lim, Michelle; Islam, Nabiul; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Munsur Rahman, Md.

    2015-04-01

    National legal, policy and decision-making frameworks often undervalue or ignore ecosystem services (ES) and the ways in which they can affect livelihoods, and research projects may under-estimate the role of governance in translating research effectively into practice. Better coordination of ES and livelihoods can be fatally undermined by existing institutional frameworks and through poor implementation and follow-up of policy decisions. This can have drastic impacts on resilience as the reality may be very different from the policy intentions. The ESPA Deltas project integrates physical modelling, a multi-season social survey, scenario development and stakeholder engagement, and a governance analysis component has been incorporated into each. The project has comprehensively assessed the legal, policy and institutional context in Bangladesh, identifying barriers to legal and policy implementation through intensive stakeholder engagement and desk study at local, national and international levels. There has been a high degree of agreement in the findings from each of these independent processes and across the districts assessed. This presentation illustrates how the governance research has been incorporated into the development of qualitative scenarios. It also demonstrates the extent to which policy implementation considerations have been factored into the biophysical modelling and social survey work. It identifies the challenges for adaptation strategies in Bangladesh, and draws on successful examples of policy implementation there (e.g. disaster management) to propose governance interventions that might enhance the resilience of delta inhabitants, especially in the light of the informal governance context. This research facilitates implementation of targeted governance interventions and supports the development of tools that can aid policy-makers in evaluating the impact of policy decisions on ecosystem services and livelihoods.

  12. Tourism-Induced Livelihood Changes at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Xu, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Although tourism has the potential to improve the wellbeing of residents, it may also disrupt livelihood systems, social processes, and cultural traditions. The livelihood changes at three rural villages at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China, are assessed to determine the extent to which tourism strategies are contributing to local livelihoods. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. The three villages exhibit different development patterns due to institutional, organizational, and location factors. New strategies involving tourism were constructed and incorporated into the traditional livelihood systems and they resulted in different outcomes for residents of different villages. Village location, including the relationship to the site tourism plan, affected the implications for rural livelihoods. High dependence on tourism as the single livelihood option can reduce sustainability. Practical implications are suggested to enhance livelihood sustainability at such rural heritage tourism sites.

  13. Combining analytiacal frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptiation option

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, M.S.; Podesta, G.; Fazey, I.; Geeson, N.; Hessel, R.; Hubacek, K.; Letson, D.; Nainggolan, D.; Prell, C.; Rickenbach, M.G.; Ritsema, C.J.; Schwilch, G.; Springer, L.C.; Thomas, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerabili

  14. People's practices: Exploring contestation, counter-development, and rural livelihoods. Cases from Muktinagar, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, H.

    2000-01-01

    People's Practices: Exploring contestation, Counter - development, and rural livelihoodsThe central problems explored in the thesis concern the vulnerability of disadvantaged local people, especially women, and their agency; development discourses and counter-development processes; livelihood strate

  15. Tourism-Induced Livelihood Changes at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Xu, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Although tourism has the potential to improve the wellbeing of residents, it may also disrupt livelihood systems, social processes, and cultural traditions. The livelihood changes at three rural villages at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China, are assessed to determine the extent to which tourism strategies are contributing to local livelihoods. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. The three villages exhibit different development patterns due to institutional, organizational, and location factors. New strategies involving tourism were constructed and incorporated into the traditional livelihood systems and they resulted in different outcomes for residents of different villages. Village location, including the relationship to the site tourism plan, affected the implications for rural livelihoods. High dependence on tourism as the single livelihood option can reduce sustainability. Practical implications are suggested to enhance livelihood sustainability at such rural heritage tourism sites.

  16. The sustainability of urban water supply in low income countries: a livelihoods model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipuro, W.; Wiering, M.A.; Naerssen, A.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Urban water supply can be managed by public institutions, private companies, communities, or by combinations thereof. Controversy continues over which system can most effectively improve livelihoods. Responding to this discussion, an extended model of sustainable livelihoods analysis is proposed tha

  17. The sustainability of urban water supply in low income countries: a livelihoods model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipuro, W.; Wiering, M.A.; Naerssen, A.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Urban water supply can be managed by public institutions, private companies, communities, or by combinations thereof. Controversy continues over which system can most effectively improve livelihoods. Responding to this discussion, an extended model of sustainable livelihoods analysis is proposed tha

  18. [Development mechanism of concentrated poverty areas under the sustainable livelihood: The example of the development-restricted ecological district of Ningxia, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun-tao; Mi, Wen-bao; Fan, Xin-gang; Yang, Mei-ling

    2015-09-01

    Livelihood capital has a close relationship with the income and expenditure of farmers' households. For example, the survival strategies of farmers' households are determined by it and it also influences regional development mechanisms and models. Under the analysis framework of sustainable livelihoods, this study evaluated farmers' livelihood capital, income, and expenditure, based on a participatory rural appraisal and a statistical method, in the development-restricted ecological district of Ningxia, decomposed into the nationality, terrain, and type of farmers' household. Further, by using an index of non-farm business households, the correlations between the livelihood capital and income with the expenditure of farmers' households and the index of non-farm business households were quantified to understand the mechanism of regional development. The results showed that livelihood capital was generally low in the study area. In particular, the livelihood capital of Hui nationality households was slightly higher than that of Han nationality households, that of river valley households was higher than that of mountain households, and that of combined occupation households and non-farm business households was significantly higher than that of agricultural households. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the net annual income of farmers' households and the non-agricultural index, human capital, physical capital, and financial capital, while a significant negative correlation existed between net annual income and natural capital. These findings suggested that efforts were required to enhance the capacity of the non-agricultural index and the human, material, and other capital in the study area. They also served as a guideline for the circulation of peasants' means of production in order to accelerate the polarization of natural capital.

  19. Essays on Responding to Climate Change, Social Protection, and Livelihood Diversification in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Weldegebriel , Zerihun Berhane

    2015-01-01

    The nexus between the environment and development is often analysed through the sustainable livelihoods framework and within this framework, livelihood diversification has dominated much of the literature on sustainable livelihoods in the late 1990s and early 2000s (see Tacoli, 1998; De Haan, 1999; Ellis, 2005). This literature shows that agriculture is not the only source of livelihood for rural people in developing countries and diversifying into non-farm activities is increasingly adopted ...

  20. Relationship between Social Capital and Livelihood Enhancing Capitals among Smallholder Farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Abenakyo, Annet; Sanginga, Pascal; Njuki, Jemimah M.; Kaaria, Susan; Delve, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is an important characteristic of a community and is one of the components of the asset pentagon of the sustainable livelihood framework. The study aimed at assessing the levels and dimensions of social capital and how social capital influences other livelihood capitals. A Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 208 households was conducted in Masindi and Hoima Districts in Uganda to assess the current livelihood conditions and strategies for improving rural livelihoods. A...

  1. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  2. Effective Livelihood Policies In The Assessment Of Poverty Reduction: Protecting The Vulnerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last several decades Poverty reduction has been one of the main objectives of development programs in many developing countries of the world. Rural poverty is central in Africa as it concerns more than three quarters of the poor Africans. Yet over a long period of time this basic fact has often been ignored and too little investment made in rural development in terms of infrastructure and services. The livelihood approach starts with the identification of who is vulnerable and adds, to what and to what extent? Hence, there are two broad approaches to defining livelihoods, one has a narrower economic focus, the other involves view which unites economic, social and environmental concepts, while building on the strengths of the urban and rural poor. Theory behind these two approaches is based on the same underling concept that incorporates issues around vulnerability. The purpose of this study is to take stock of all these approaches and to reconsider the relationship between poverty and exposure to risk.

  3. The Constitutional Right to Enhanced Livelihoods in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elias N. Stebek

    of Ethiopia's statistical claims of double-digit economic growth, there are .... communities with a view to obtaining insights into actual living conditions at .... 20 Ian Scoones (1998), 'Sustainable Rural Livelihoods, A framework for Analysis', IDS ..... strengthen and revitalize Global Partnership for Sustainable Development. The.

  4. Contribution of wetland agriculture to farmers' livelihood in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabahungu, N.L.; Visser, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes factors that contribute to the livelihood of smallholder farmers living in the vicinity of the Cyabayaga and Rugeramigozi wetlands. Three tools were used: 1) focus group discussion 2) formal surveys and 3) Monitoring for Quality Improvement (MONQI). Farming systems in wetlands an

  5. Global change, urban livelihoods and food security; presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Food security research and policy have focused more on the rural poor where the incidence and depth of poverty is more pronounced. Urban livelihoods are based on cash income and many people in urban areas are employed in the informal sector which...

  6. Agriculture, livelihoods and climate change in the West African Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissoko, K.; Keulen, van H.; Verhagen, A.; Tekken, V.; Battaglini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The West African Sahel is a harsh environment stressed by a fast-growing population and increasing pressure on the scarce natural resources. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood of the majority of the people living in the area. Increases in temperature and/or modifications in rainfall quanti

  7. Studies in African Livelihoods: Current Issues and Future Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In the 1990s, the analysis of poverty in Africa became susceptible to a livelihood approach, with an actor-oriented perspective of putting people at the centre and pointing out their agency in order to explore opportunities and to cope with constraints. It was opposed to ea

  8. Application of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping in Livelihood Vulnerability Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Andersson, J.A.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Feedback mechanisms are important in the analysis of vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems, as well as in the analysis of livelihoods, but how to evaluate systems with direct feedbacks has been a great challenge. We applied fuzzy cognitive mapping, a tool that allows analysis of

  9. Credit-based livelihood interventions in a Zambian refugee camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Travis

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing community credit facilities has become an important developmental tool for building livelihood strategies. In the refugee camps where the British NGO Christian Outreach Relief andDevelopment (CORD has worked, programmes have provided credit in the form of cash, agricultural inputs or livestock.

  10. Improving livelihoods, training para-ecologists, enthralling children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management in Andasibe, we highlight the challenges and successes of a ... improved livelihoods for rural communities (Salafsky and. Wollenberg 2000). ... Madagascar Conservation & Development is the journal of Indian ... Indian Ocean e-Ink ..... collaboration with Andasibe's local radio, Radio Vahiniala, to reach a wider ...

  11. Microfinance, rural livelihoods, and women's empowerment in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakwo, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines in what ways and to what extent microfinance services facilitate the empowerment of married rural women in Nebbi district, northwestern Uganda. In particular, it examines the gender relations inherent in the livelihood practices of the community, the changes in well-being (if any

  12. livelihoods and environmental challenges in coastal communities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... governments have established environmental protection agencies, environmental ... Concerns about environmental challenges such as acid rain, .... From a water balance perspective, the country experiences large spatial and ... The livelihood framework in Figure 1 focuses on resource base and people's.

  13. Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

  14. Studies in African Livelihoods: Current Issues and Future Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In the 1990s, the analysis of poverty in Africa became susceptible to a livelihood approach, with an actor-oriented perspective of putting people at the centre and pointing out their agency in order to explore opportunities and to cope with constraints. It was opposed

  15. 158 economic importance of farmed parkland products to livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    2Department of Crop Science College of Agriculture Jalingo, Taraba State. ... it sustains the farmers livelihood in Lau Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria.A total of 80 ... agroforestry systems in the tropics that were over looked for a long time .... English Name .... Government a journal research in forestry, wild life ...

  16. Protection versus promotion of IDP livelihoods in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hill

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The widespread trend in the past decade towards abroader model of humanitarian relief has included‘livelihoods protection’ as a preventive strategy tosave lives. In Colombia, Oxfam GB and manyother humanitarian agencies have pursued thisstrategy over the past five years in the form ofproductive packages – income-generation schemes –for displaced people.

  17. The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Leroy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context of local poultry keeping in two rural and one suburban districts of Northern Vietnam. It aimed at understanding households’ willingness, constraints and opportunities for practice improvement, including breeds’ management. As the Ri chicken constitutes the large majority of backyard flocks, two particular objectives of this study are the morpho-biometric characterisation of phenotypic diversity among individuals classified as Ri by farmers and an assessment of their productive potential. Chicken was found to hold a different place in livelihoods of the three districts with consequences on the management of genetic resources. The most favourable conditions for improvement of the Ri breed was found in the rural district of Luong-Son, due to market integration. In the more remote district of Ky-Son, living standards were lower and much would be gained from Ri conservation. Ri breed was the most threatened in the suburban Gia-Lam district, where poultry was a minor side-activity, lacking incentive for genetic management. From motives and constraints, tracks about breeding goals are suggested. Further considerations about conservation, improvement, market integration and livelihoods are proposed.

  18. Fire, Livelihoods, and Environmental Change in the Middle Mahakam Peatlands, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayat Ruchiat

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale, recurrent fires in Indonesia in recent decades have caused widespread deforestation and transformation of peatlands, and have contributed to substantial smoke haze and greenhouse-gas pollution. In some areas, local community use of fire for livelihood needs could be a major factor behind the widespread fires. We assessed fire patterns and their causes from the 1980s to the present in the Middle Mahakam peatlands of East Kalimantan. This was achieved through satellite image and GIS analysis, biological and social field surveys, and rapid rural appraisals in the villages. People living in or using the swamps employ fire annually along the waterways and adjacent open floodplains and forests, in conjunction with fishing, agriculture, and other livelihood activities. Local communities perceive that uncontrolled burning does not affect the fish, which is their economic mainstay. Dry and windy conditions, failure of regular livelihoods, new markets for turtles and tree bark, and easing of government quotas for these resources led to more widespread fires in the El Niño periods of 1982–1983 and 1997–1998. Repeated burning ultimately transforms larger and larger areas of peat forest into open floodplains and shallow lakes. Local communities promote the transformation, believing it enhances fishing conditions. Even if the interior forests were kept fire free for a lengthy period, they would likely not fully recover, but these areas were rendered highly fire prone during the last El Niño event in 1997–1998. Another long drought in the near future, coupled with widespread community burning, could cause more severe, long-lasting damage to the peat forests and contribute substantially to regional smoke haze and greenhouse-gas pollution. This paper discusses the scope for resolving the trade-offs between the communities’ perceived benefits of fire use, and national and global environmental concerns arising from peatland burning.

  19. Household Livelihood Strategy Choices, Impact Factors, and Environmental Consequences in Miyun Reservoir Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Household livelihood strategies are embedded in the natural and socioeconomic contexts in which people live. Analyzing the factors that influence household livelihood choice and defining their consequences can be beneficial for informing rural household policies. In turn, this has great significance for fostering sustainable livelihood strategies. We grouped household livelihood strategies based on the income distribution of 756 households and analyzed their influencing factors and possible livelihood consequences in the watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the only source of surface water currently available for domestic use in Beijing, China. Local farmers’ livelihood strategies can be grouped into three types: farming, local off-farm, and labor-migrant. Farming households have the lowest livelihood capitals, other than natural capital, compared with labor-migrant households and off-farm households, the latter having better livelihood capital status. Geographical location, natural capital, household structure, labor quality, and ecological policies are the main factors affecting farmers’ choice of livelihood strategy. Local off-farm households have a significantly lower dependency on firewood, land resources, and investment than that of farming and labor-migrant households, and have the highest reliance on fossil fuel. This household classification can help us understand the livelihood characteristics, impact factors, and consequences of different types of household strategies, which also suggest tailored policy and management options to promote sustainable livelihoods based on different household types.

  20. Environmental goods & services and rural livelihoods in the Congo and Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    Environmental goods and services are increasingly valued for their contributions of food, resources and incomes to rural livelihoods of the poor in the developing world. Resources from tropical forests not only support current consumption but also provide valuable safety nets where limited...... alleviation. Paper 3 analyses the income and incentive effects of conservation transfers and other transfers under various land use regulated settings in the Brazilian Amazon. It looks at the welfare implications of payments and potential spillover effects on land use above land use conditionalities attached...... households in the Brazilian Amazon, and compares this to actual current measures of agricultural income. It uncovers some basic household characteristics that can predictably determine levels of compensation required. Paper 5 is a theoretical piece using a case study from the Brazilian Amazon, on how full...

  1. Exploration and Practice of Basic Livelihood Improvement Project:Taking Shenyang Yulong Food Market Layout Planning as an Example%基本民生改善工程的探索与实践--以沈阳市于洪区菜市场布局规划为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓楠; 盛晓雪; 周慧

    2016-01-01

    首先,基于菜市场基本属性研究和居民购菜习惯调查,理清政府与市场的职能边界,进而界定本规划对象;其次,对现状菜市场进行全面摸底,并针对问题展开特性与标准研究,明确于洪区菜市场的发展方向;最后,以问题为导向,提出于洪区菜市场的指标体系、改造计划、布局对策及落地路径等控制内容。%Firstly, based on the basic attributes of the food market research and residents purchase habits survey, this paper clarifies the functions of the government and the market, and then defines the planning object; secondly, on the status of the food market, this paper studies the characteristics and standards to solve the problem, and makes a clear development direction of Yulong Food Market; finally, this paper puts forward the index system, transformation plan, layout strategy and landing path of Yulong Food Market.

  2. Conserving agrobiodiversity amid global change, migration, and nontraditional livelihood networks: the dynamic uses of cultural landscape knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl S. Zimmerer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I examined agrobiodiversity in smallholder cultural landscapes with the goal of offering new insights into management and policy options for the resilience-based in situ conservation and social-ecological sustainability of local, food-producing crop types, i.e., landraces. I built a general, integrative approach to focus on both land use and livelihood functions of crop landraces in the context of nontraditional, migration-related livelihoods amid global change. The research involved a multimethod, case-study design focused on a cultural landscape of maize, i.e., corn, growing in the Andes of central Bolivia, which is a global hot spot for this crop’s agrobiodiversity. Central questions included the following: (1 What are major agroecological functions and food-related services of the agrobiodiversity of Andean maize landraces, and how are they related to cultural landscapes and associated knowledge systems? (2 What are new migration-related livelihood groups, and how are their dynamic livelihoods propelled through global change, in particular international and national migration, linked to the use and cultural landscapes of agrobiodiversity? (3 What are management and policy options derived from the previous questions? Combined social-ecological services as both cultivation and food resources are found to function in relation to the cultural landscape. Results demonstrated major variations of maturation-based, phenologic traits and food-use properties that are cornerstones of the landrace-level agrobiodiversity of Andean maize. Knowledge of these parameters is widespread. Linkage of these production and consumption functions yields a major insight into dynamics of Andean maize agrobiodiversity. Concurrently, this smallholder cultural landscape has become increasingly dependent on new rural conditions, especially increased livelihood diversification and migration amid growing peri-urban influences. Viability of landrace-level maize

  3. 农民工民生权利的层级保障%The Level Security for Migrant Workers' Livelihood Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宏伟

    2012-01-01

    The livelihood rights is the corresponding expression of legal security of livelihood. To realize the migrant workers' livelihood rights is the juristic thinking of migrant workers' livelihood security. Combining with our national conditions and the characteristics of the migrant workers, it is a realistic and rational attitude to divide the livelihood rights into different levels and protect different level's rights. According to relevant researches, the migrant workers' livelihood rights can be divided into two levels. As for the level security, we can search for the protecting measures of the livelihood rights, viewing from the national obligation's perspective. This specific includes the all-sided fulfillment of respect and protect obligations, regardless of different levels, and the distinguishing fulfillment of offer obligations, so as to make the best protection of migrant workers' livelihood rights.%民生权利是民生问题法治保障的相应表达,实现农民工民生权利是农民工民生保障的法学思路。结合我国国情与农民工的自身特点,对农民工民生权利予以层级划分并由此作出层级保障是一种符合现实的理性态度。在层级划分上,农民工民生权利可分为生存与发展两个层级;而在层级保障上,可立足国家义务视角来探索农民工民生权利的保障措施,具体包括尊重与保护义务不分层级全面履行,而给付义务需区分层级差别履行,以实现对农民工民生权利的最优保障。

  4. Livelihood implications of biofuel crop production: Implications for governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunsberger, Carol; Bolwig, Simon; Corbera, Esteve;

    2014-01-01

    While much attention has focused on the climate change mitigation potential of biofuels, research from the social sciences increasingly highlights the social and livelihood impacts of their expanded production. Policy and governance measures aimed at improving the social effects of biofuels have...... proliferated but questions remain about their effectiveness across the value chain. This paper performs three tasks building on emerging insights from social science research on the deployment of biofuel crops. First, we identify livelihood dimensions that are particularly likely to be affected...... by their cultivation in the global South – income, food security, access to land-based resources, and social assets – revealing that distributional effects are crucial to evaluating the outcomes of biofuel production across these dimensions. Second, we ask how well selected biofuel governance mechanisms address...

  5. Rural livelihood and food poverty in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of livelihood activities on food security status of rural households in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 150 households through a multi-stage sampling procedure. The majority of the rural residents were in their economic active years, had diversified their livelihood activities so as to increase their income stream and also mitigate against shocks. The highest food poverty headcount was observed among female crop farming non-farming households with one to six members while all households with more than 12 members were food poor. Severity of food poverty decreased with years of farming experience, educational status and farm size of crop farmers and those engaged in non-farm activities. The probability of a rural household being food poor reduced with household head’s attainment of primary education and land ownership but increases with being headed by a woman and having high dependency ratio.

  6. Gender Equality:Now a Basic State Strategy——On the Salient Features of the National Program on the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI MINGSHUN

    2012-01-01

    The National Program on the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020),hereinafter referred to as the "New Program," was published in August 2011.This is an important document designed to ensure implementation of the basic state strategy of gender equality and the all-round development of Chinese women.The New Program is a part of China's policy program for the protection of human rights.It sets 57 major targets to be attained over the decade.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL STANDARD «SAFE LIFE OF THE POPULATION ON RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES. SAFE USE OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS. THE BASIC FRAMEWORK»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the implementation of the Federal target program «Managing the consequences of radiation accidents for the period till 2015» the National Standard «Safe life of the population on radioactive contaminated territories. Safe use of agricultural lands. The basic framework» has been developed. Its aim is to ensure safe use of agricultural lands in the areas affected by radiation incidents, accidents and disasters.

  8. Livelihood dynamics: Rural Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    IDS

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on research carried out by the Sustainable Livelihoods in Southern Africa (SLSA) programme, this article gives a brief overview of some of the diverse ways people make a living in harsh physical and economic environments in Zambézia province, Mozambique, Chiredzi district Zimbabwe, and South Africa's Wild Coast. It describes the contexts of increasing vulnerability, including the impact of economic reform programmes, the spread of HIV/AIDS and the incidence of extreme climatic events....

  9. Contribution of fuelwood marketing to sustainable livelihood in Oyo state

    OpenAIRE

    OLUGBIRE O.O.; AREMU F.J.; OPUTE O.H.; OJEDOKUN C.A.; AYOMIDE A.A.; OGUNTOYE T.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fuel wood is an important source of income and domestic energy for both rural and urban households in Nigeria. The marketing of fuel wood in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria was investigated with a view to assess the profitability and contribution of fuelwood marketing to sustainable livelihood in Oyo state. Data for the study were obtained from a total of 50 randomly selected respondents through interview schedules, structured questionnaires applications and personal observation. Descriptive stati...

  10. Amaranth farming: Rural sustainable livelihood of the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Though amaranth has been studied intensively for its exceptional nutritional properties, little has been reported about its capacity for fighting poverty, securing food supplies, turning migrations, or its impact on the environment and the prospect for improvement of living conditions of those farmers cultivating amaranth. This paper addresses possibilities and limitations that Mexican small-scale farmers are facing to enhance sustainable livelihoods in the amaranth value chain. The study rev...

  11. Discussion on Basic Elements of National Geographic Condition Survey%浅谈地理国情普查基本要素内容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董冬; 龚伟

    2013-01-01

    Geographic condition is an important part of the basic national conditions.Through the development of the major geographic conditions,natural geographic information and national census survey,national geographic condition can be fully captured to grasp the basic elements of China geographic conditions,natural land cover,ecological,and human activities.The paper analyses the spatial distribution,basic features and their relationship,and lays the foundation for the normalization of the geographic condition monitoring.%地理国情是基本国情的重要组成部分,通过开展这项重大的地理国情普查、自然地理信息与国力调查,可以全面获取地理国情信息,掌握我国地理国情基本要素、自然地表覆盖、生态及人类活动基本情况,分析空间分布、基本特征及其相互关系,为开展常态化地理国情监测奠定基础.

  12. The Livelihood Analysis in Merapi Prone Area After 2010 Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Nofrita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As stated in Regent Regulation No. 20 Year 2011 about Merapi Volcano Disaster-Prone Area, Merapi eruption in 2010 affected larger area than before included Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen hamlet which was now categorized as prone area zone III or the most dangerous area related to Merapi volcano hazard and was forbidden to live at. But its local people agreed to oppose the regulation and this area had been 100% reoccupied. This research examined about the existing livelihood condition in Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen that had been changed and degraded after 2010 great eruption. The grounded based information found that 80% of households sample were at the middle level of welfare status, meanwhile the high and low were at 13% and 7% respectively. Each status represented different livelihood strategy in facing the life in prone area with no one considered the Merapi hazard, but more economic motivation and assets preservation. The diversity in strategy was found in diversification of livelihood resources which were dominated by sand mining, farming and dairy farming.

  13. Droughts and debts: The domestic tea value chain and vulnerable livelihoods in Girimukti village, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Sumadio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the linkages between the livelihoods of tea smallholders and domestic value chains in Indonesia. Theoretically, our empirical inquiry is informed by an integration of the sustainable livelihoods approach and value chain analyses. This enables a better investigation of micro (livelihoods — meso (industry — macro (national and international trends and political economy interdependencies and interactions. In addition to value chains and socioeconomic challenges, tea smallholders in Indonesia are also confronted with droughts due to climate change and the 2015–2016 El Niño. The empirical work consisted of 36 semi-structured interviews in Girimukti village in West Java; a remote village relatively far from urban markets. Overall, our analysis demonstrates that tea smallholders are not poor, but are in a vulnerable position and remain far below the level of a stable lower-middle class. The smallholders lack human and financial capital and growing tea is not supported by horizontal coordination/social capital. In contrast, a few wealthy tea agripreneurs have established themselves as providers of inputs, intermediaries, tea drying factories, informal rural banks and village philanthropists. In other words, Girimukti is host to a process of increasing rural inequality driven by endogenous actors who are able to accumulate and concentrate tea assets and position themselves as essential nodes within the domestic tea value chain. The adaptive strategy of rural-urban migration from Girimukti to escape rural marginalisation is unattractive because of relatively low human capital levels.

  14. Beyond the decade of policy and community euphoria: The state of livelihoods under new local rights to forest in rural Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil René Oyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the state of livelihoods under the exercise of new community rights to forest in rural Cameroon. The assessment makes use of a set of livelihoods indicators. The granting and exercise of new community rights, namely, management rights and market rights, are not synonymous with improved livelihoods, despite initial predictions and expectations. The resource base has not changed; it is more and more threatened by poor local level institutional arrangements and social and bio-physical management strategies, in addition to the weak central level regulation and monitoring actions. Similarly, the rights-based reform and community forestry are not improving basic assets and means at the household level. Nevertheless, this paper suggests that this experiment should not be judged hastily, since fifteen years are not enough to judge social and institutional processes like those in progress in Cameroon. The authors draw policy options likely to improve the livelihoods dimension of the reform and launch a debate on the real contribution of community income derived from community forests towards poverty alleviation at the household level.

  15. Reduction of livelihood risk for river bank erosion affected villagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, S. Sen; Fox, D. M.; Chakrabari, S.; Bhandari, G.

    2014-12-01

    Bank erosion process of the Ganga River created a serious livelihood risk for the villagers situated on left bank of the river in Malda district of the State of West Bengal, India since last four decades. Due to the erosion of agriculture land by the river, most of the villagers having agriculture as their only means of livelihood became jobless suddenly. Presently they are living in a miserable condition. One of the main objectives of this paper is to find out an alternative means of livelihood for the victims to improve their miserable socio-economic condition. It has been found from field survey that some erosion affected villagers have started to live and practice agriculture temporarily on the riverine islands (large and stable since thirteen years) as these islands have very fertile soil. If the re-emerged land plots can again be demarcated on the newly formed islands and distributed among the landless people to practice agriculture over there, then it will be a useful alternative livelihood strategy for the victims. The demarcation of re-emerged plots can be achieved by georeferencing the cadastral maps and then overlaying the plots on the present river course. In the present study area geo-referencing process of the cadastral maps became a serious issue as the study area has been very dynamic in terms of land cover and land use. Most of the villages were lost into the river course. Thus the common permanent features, required for geo-referencing, shown in the cadastral maps (surveyed during 1954-1962) were not found in the present satellite images. The second important objective of the present study is to develop a proper methodology for geo-referencing the cadastral maps of this area. The Spatial Adjustment Transformation and Automatic Digitization tools of Arc GIS were used to prepare geo-referenced plot maps. In Projective Transformation method the geometrically corrected block maps having village boundaries were used as source file. Then the

  16. Civil Affairs Authorities Bent on Protecting People s Basic Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In response to the global financial crisis,China's civil affairs au-thorities redoubled their effort in 2009 to improve the livelihood of the Chinese people and protect their basic rights and interests under the constitutional principle of respectingand protecting human rights.

  17. Livelihood Diversification in Tropical Coastal Communities: A Network-Based Approach to Analyzing ‘Livelihood Landscapes’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E.; Bodin, Örjan

    2010-01-01

    Background Diverse livelihood portfolios are frequently viewed as a critical component of household economies in developing countries. Within the context of natural resources governance in particular, the capacity of individual households to engage in multiple occupations has been shown to influence important issues such as whether fishers would exit a declining fishery, how people react to policy, the types of resource management systems that may be applicable, and other decisions about natural resource use. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper uses network analysis to provide a novel methodological framework for detailed systemic analysis of household livelihood portfolios. Paying particular attention to the role of natural resource-based occupations such as fisheries, we use network analyses to map occupations and their interrelationships- what we refer to as ‘livelihood landscapes’. This network approach allows for the visualization of complex information about dependence on natural resources that can be aggregated at different scales. We then examine how the role of natural resource-based occupations changes along spectra of socioeconomic development and population density in 27 communities in 5 western Indian Ocean countries. Network statistics, including in- and out-degree centrality, the density of the network, and the level of network centralization are compared along a multivariate index of community-level socioeconomic development and a gradient of human population density. The combination of network analyses suggests an increase in household-level specialization with development for most occupational sectors, including fishing and farming, but that at the community-level, economies remained diversified. Conclusions/Significance The novel modeling approach introduced here provides for various types of livelihood portfolio analyses at different scales of social aggregation. Our livelihood landscapes approach provides insights into communities

  18. Supporting the Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia with EO Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Nuno; Patinha, Carla; Sainkhuu, Tserendash; Bataa, Mendbayar; Doljinsuren, Nyamdorj

    2016-08-01

    The work presented here shows the results from the project "Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia", included in the EOTAP (Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia Pacific) initiative, a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), developed in cooperation with the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia.The EO services developed within this EOTAP project primarily aimed at enriching the existing environmental database maintained by the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) in Mongolia and sustaining the collaborative pasture management practices introduced by the teams within the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia. The geographic area covered by the EOTAP services is Bayankhongor province, in western Mongolia region, with two main services: drought monitoring at the provincial level for the year 2014 and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) and changes mapping for three districts of this province (Buutsagaan, Dzag and Khureemaral) for the years 2013, 2014.

  19. The role of personal values and basic traits in perceptions of the consequences of immigration: a three-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gianvittorio; Schoen, Harald; Castro, Josè Luis Gonzàlez; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2012-08-01

    Using data from Italy, Spain, and Germany (N= 1,569), this study investigated the role of basic values (universalism and security) and basic traits (openness and agreeableness) in predicting perceptions of the consequences of immigration. In line with Schwartz's (1992) theory, we conceptualized security as having two distinct components, one concerned with safety of the self (personal security) and the other with harmony and stability of larger groups and of society (group security). Structural equation modelling revealed that universalism values underlie perceptions that immigration has positive consequences and group security values underlie perceptions that it has negative consequences. Personal security makes no unique, additional contribution. Multi-group analyses revealed that these associations are invariant across the three countries except for a stronger link between universalism and perceptions of the consequences of immigration in Spain. To examine whether values mediate relations of traits to perceptions of immigration, we used the five-factor model. Findings supported a full mediation model. Individuals' traits of openness and agreeableness explained significant variance in security and universalism values. Basic values, in turn, explained perceptions of the consequences of immigration.

  20. Quantifying rural livelihood strategies in developing countries using an activity choice approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Øystein Juul; Rayamajhi, Santosh; Uberhuaga de Arratia, Patricia D C

    2013-01-01

    This article uses a quantitative activity choice approach, based on identification of activity variables and application of latent class cluster analysis, to identify five major rural livelihood strategies pursued by households (n= 576) in Bolivia, Nepal, and Mozambique. Income sources and welfare...... remunerative livelihood strategies is determined by land ownership, education, and ethnic affiliation. Finally, the article also highlights that additional work is required to determine the most suitable methods for livelihood strategy identification....

  1. Development of Livelihood Index for Different Agro-Climatic Zones of India

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Anil; Sharma, S D; Sahoo, Prachi Misra; Malhotra, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    A livelihood index has been developed for different agro-climatic zones of India, based on the secondary data for TE 2003. Six different sub-indices obtained are indicators of Infrastructure Status, Agricultural Status, Nutritional Status, Economic Status, Health and Sanitation Status and Food Availability Status in respective zones. A total of 57 variables have been considered for this study. Finally, a composite integrated livelihood index has been developed which indicates the livelihood s...

  2. Structured Mental Model Approach for Analyzing Perception of Risks to Rural Livelihood in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Binder

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Structural Mental Model Approach aimed at understanding differences in perception between experts and farmers regarding the various livelihood risks farmers are confronted with. The SMMA combines the Sustainable Livelihood Framework with the Mental Model Approach and consists of three steps: (i definition and weighting of different livelihood capitals; (ii analysis of livelihood dynamics, and (iii definition of the social capital by means of agent networks. The results provide a sound basis for the design of sustainable policy interventions such as communication and educational programs which consider farmers’ priorities and viewpoints.

  3. Livelihood strategies under the constraints of climate change vulnerability in Quang Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines how vulnerability can be measured in quantitative terms. Households whose livelihoods are based on economic activities like acacia production and shrimp farming suffered the most....

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ...

  5. Understanding the relationship between livelihood strategy and soil management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumer, Ali Mohammed; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    in access to institutional capital that determined the degree of agronomic orientation, rather than household assets, such as age, education level of the head, and family labour. Orienting lower income households toward input and output markets through improving their access to institutional capital may...... in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The approach can be applied to different geographical regions with similar livelihood circumstances. Development actors need to take into account the specific contexts of their regions and resources needed to develop a typology when designing pathways for any targeted...

  6. Basic research and data analysis for the National Geodetic Satellite program and for the Earth Surveys program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Current research is reported on precise and accurate descriptions of the earth's surface and gravitational field and on time variations of geophysical parameters. A new computer program was written in connection with the adjustment of the BC-4 worldwide geometric satellite triangulation net. The possibility that an increment to accuracy could be transferred from a super-control net to the basic geodetic (first-order triangulation) was investigated. Coordinates of the NA9 solution were computed and were transformed to the NAD datum, based on GEOS 1 observations. Normal equations from observational data of several different systems and constraint equations were added and a single solution was obtained for the combined systems. Transformation parameters with constraints were determined, and the impact of computers on surveying and mapping is discussed.

  7. Non-timber forest products and livelihoods in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marla R. Emery

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are increasingly looked to as potential income sources for forest communities. Yet little is known about the existing livelihood uses of NTFPs. Drawing on a case study in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, this paper describes the contemporary contributions of NTFPs to the livelihoods of people who gather them. First-hand use of...

  8. 75 FR 61519 - Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Educational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... of the Secretary Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Educational Opportunities for Children in Egypt AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department... Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Educational Opportunities for Children in Egypt...

  9. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has

  10. Gender and sustainable livelihoods: linking gendered experiences of environment, community and self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Harcourt (Wendy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this essay I explore the economic, social, environmental and cultural changes taking place in Bolsena, Italy, where agricultural livelihoods have rapidly diminished in the last two decades. I examine how gender dynamics have shifted with the changing values and livelihoods of Bolsena

  11. Livelihoods and landscapes : the people of Guquka and Koloni and their resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebinck, Paul; Lent, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    This book analyses changes in the use of the landscape and the nature of rural livelihoods in two South African villages - Guquka and Koloni in the former Ciskei homeland. Taking an interdisciplinary approach on how livelihoods and landscapes in the Eastern Cape link the book provides a study of the

  12. Livelihood Cycle and Vulnerability of Rural Households to Climate Change and Hazards in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, G. M. Monirul

    2017-05-01

    Rural riverine households in Bangladesh are confronted with many climate-driven hazards, including riverbank erosion, which results in loss of productive land and other natural resources of the riverine households, and thus threatens their livelihoods and food security. This study assesses the main drivers of vulnerability and livelihood cycle of vulnerable riparian households in Bangladesh. The study utilises the IPCC framework of vulnerability and develops a weighted approach by employing the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index. The results reveal that the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index differ across locations, however, a high index value for both measures indicates the households' high livelihood vulnerability to climate change and hazards. The main drivers that influence the vulnerability dimensions are livelihood strategies and access to food, water and health facilities. These hazard-prone households are also vulnerable due to their existing low livelihood status that leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. The findings of this study are crucial for policymakers to formulate and implement effective strategies and programs to minimise vulnerability and to enhance the local adaptation processes in order to improve such households' livelihood across Bangladesh.

  13. Livelihood strategies under the constraints of climate change vulnerability in Quang Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines how vulnerability can be measured in quantitative terms. Households whose livelihoods are based on economic activities like acacia production and shrimp farming suffered the most.......This chapter examines how vulnerability can be measured in quantitative terms. Households whose livelihoods are based on economic activities like acacia production and shrimp farming suffered the most....

  14. Public Financial Expenditure——A Reflection of the Livelihood Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Yi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In recent years.China's public finance put social construction high on the agenda and attaches more importance on livelihood insurance and improvement.The 2003-2007 public financial expenditure reflects a fact that the government isputting more emphasis on livelihood andissues concerning the people.

  15. Emerging Forest Regimes and Livelihoods in the Tano Offin Forest Reserve, Ghana: Implications for Social Safeguards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Derkyi; M.A.F. Ros-Tonen; B. Kyereh; T. Dietz

    2013-01-01

    Greater attention for law enforcement resulting from new forest governance initiatives may make livelihoods of people living in or near protected areas in the tropics more vulnerable due to restricted access and competing claims. This paper aims to provide a deeper insight into the livelihoods of in

  16. Livelihood Cycle and Vulnerability of Rural Households to Climate Change and Hazards in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, G M Monirul

    2017-05-01

    Rural riverine households in Bangladesh are confronted with many climate-driven hazards, including riverbank erosion, which results in loss of productive land and other natural resources of the riverine households, and thus threatens their livelihoods and food security. This study assesses the main drivers of vulnerability and livelihood cycle of vulnerable riparian households in Bangladesh. The study utilises the IPCC framework of vulnerability and develops a weighted approach by employing the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index. The results reveal that the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index differ across locations, however, a high index value for both measures indicates the households' high livelihood vulnerability to climate change and hazards. The main drivers that influence the vulnerability dimensions are livelihood strategies and access to food, water and health facilities. These hazard-prone households are also vulnerable due to their existing low livelihood status that leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. The findings of this study are crucial for policymakers to formulate and implement effective strategies and programs to minimise vulnerability and to enhance the local adaptation processes in order to improve such households' livelihood across Bangladesh.

  17. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has

  18. Household Income Strategies and Natural Disasters: Dynamic Livelihoods in Rural Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of hurricane Mitch on livelihood strategies of rural households in Nicaragua. Through destruction or distress sales of productive assets, a hurricane or another natural hazard could induce people with relatively remunerative livelihoods to choose more defensive strateg

  19. Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment Of Farmers and Nomads in Eastern Ecotone of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Livelihood vulnerability assessment provides a scientific basis for anti-poverty of people and regional sustainable development in vulnerable area. Although there are massive discussions on concept of vulnerability, it is still difficult to make it quantitative and to carry out comprehensive appraise. Vulnerability assessments based on sustainable livelihood frame are widely accepted in case studies for attentions to vulnerable groups. However, these case studies are always on regional scale and never reflect how climate change affects people's livelihood and adaptive capability of people. It is necessary to seek vulnerable assessment index system and means based on livelihood process of local people. This paper develops a livelihood vulnerability assessment index system on the basis of sustainable livelihood framework and appraises livelihood vulnerability values of 11 townships, using data of 879 sample households. Livelihood vulnerability assessment index system reflects main risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies of local people and government. The results show that livelihood vulnerability level of plateau region is higher than that of mountain to plateau region and mountain gorge region. Manzhang Township in plateau region is the most vulnerable township and nomads there cannot cope with risks of climate change, meadow degeneration and herbs degradation. Upper part of mountain to plateau region and the whole plateau region have high livelihood vulnerability values and local nomads would not cope with risks if no measures are taken by government. The driving forces of livelihood vulnerability include strikes of risks and deficiency of livelihood assets and adaptive capability. Farmers and nomads in high mountain gorge region and lower part of mountain to plateau region can cope with these risks, meanwhile, there are more employment opportunities in second and tertiary industries are needed to help them realize livelihood diversification. Therefore

  20. Livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience: a historical analysis of Chibuene, southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom, Anneli

    2012-07-01

    A sustainable livelihood framework is used to analyse livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience in the village of Chibuene, Vilanculos, southern Mozambique from a historical and contemporary perspective. Interviews, assessments, archaeology, palaeoecology and written sources are used to address tangible and intangible aspects of livelihood security. The analysis shows that livelihood strategies for building resilience, diversification of resource use, social networks and trade, have long historical continuities. Vulnerability is contingent on historical processes as long-term socio-environmental insecurity and resultant biodiversity loss. These contingencies affect the social capacity to cope with vulnerability in the present. The study concludes that contingency and the extent and strength of social networks should be added as a factor in livelihood assessments. Furthermore, policies for mitigating vulnerability must build on the reality of environmental insecurity, and strengthen local structures that diversify and spread risk.

  1. Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science questions in the Iranian Fourth National Olympiad for medical sciences students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the importance of students Olympiads, and the need for evaluation of quality of questions, the aim of this study was to analyze questions (indices of difficulty coefficient and discrimination coefficient of Fourth Olympiad examination among Iranian medical sciences students in the area of scientific thinking in basic science. Methods: This study was descriptive-analytical study and was conducted in 2013 in the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran. The individual phase of this period, comprised from four phase and six parts included: designing conceptual map (CM (three part designing CM, summarizing CM, and designing three questions, hypothesis generating, selecting variables, and analyzing the findings. Data analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical tests in SPSS for Windows. Results: According to difficulty coefficient of selecting variable (82% and making hypothesis was the easiest part (46%. And according to discriminate coefficient, analyzing the findings had the highest discriminate coefficient (83%, and selecting materials had the lowest discriminate coefficient (34%. Difficulty coefficient of the test was estimated about 63%, and discriminate coefficient was 66%. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient test showed that the correlation between scores related to designing CM with generating hypothesis equals to 85%, with selecting variable was 36% and with analyzing the results equals to 71%. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, it is necessary for a designer of test to focus on selecting variable part of the test for improvement of quality and validity of the test. Furthermore, regarding to effectiveness of CM, it seems logical to pay more attention to their use.

  2. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  3. The pursuit of sustainable livelihoods in Vietnam's Northern uplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    Despite remarkable achievements in economic growth and poverty reduction, disparities between upland & lowland areas in Vietnam still exist. Numerous development programs have been implemented in upland areas but have frequently failed to achieve their objectives. The top-down approach of the gov......Despite remarkable achievements in economic growth and poverty reduction, disparities between upland & lowland areas in Vietnam still exist. Numerous development programs have been implemented in upland areas but have frequently failed to achieve their objectives. The top-down approach...... capital & are able to strategically negotiate with external actors & incorporate elements of intervention in existing livelihood strategies. Other actors are constrained by intervention as a result of dependency on inputs, technology for intensive farming, as well as by inequality & debt....

  4. Smallholder tree farming systems for livelihood enhancement and carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshetko, James Michael

    Smallholder agroforestry (tree farming) systems are prominent components of ‘trees outside the forest’. The hypothesis of this thesis is that smallholder tree-farming systems are viable agricultural and natural resources management systems that contribute significantly to global environmental goa...... development of smallholder systems, how genetic diversity of smallholder systems supports adaptation to climate change, and the capacity of smallholder systems to simultaneously produce marketable timber and agricultural crops.......Smallholder agroforestry (tree farming) systems are prominent components of ‘trees outside the forest’. The hypothesis of this thesis is that smallholder tree-farming systems are viable agricultural and natural resources management systems that contribute significantly to global environmental goals...... and services, and contribute to local livelihoods for rural communities is discussed. Strategies to transform traditional smallholders’ systems into market-oriented systems to better serve environmental and economic goals are also discussed. Most of the research presented in this thesis was conducted...

  5. Economic development, rural livelihoods, and ecological restoration: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengchao; Yang, Yusheng; Zhang, Yaoqi

    2011-02-01

    This article uses a case study in Southeast China to demonstrate how the substantial changes in rural livelihoods have been driven by a combination of "pull" forces from external economic development, and "push" forces from local areas, leading to a shift in rural household economic activities: household outmigration and de-population of the countryside, changes in energy consumption, and most importantly, changes in land uses and eventually, ecological restoration. Such dramatic changes are becoming common across the Chinese countryside. It is pointed out that economic development has generally caused a deterioration of the environment at least at the early period of economic growth, but the positive impacts, especially in some ecosystem in rural areas, have become more apparent.

  6. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  8. Regional disparity of drug availability for Basic Emergency Obstetrict and Neonatal Care (BEONC: an Indonesian national study in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Suwandono

    2013-05-01

    implementation of the Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONCthe drugs should be available in the district/city pharmacy (IFK in entire region in Indonesia. However, availability disparity occurred. Therefore, it is necessary to describe the disparity on the availability drugs in Indonesia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-October 2011, which covered all IFK districts / municipalities in 33 provinces of Indonesia. The location comprised regional: Sumatra, Java and Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Papua. BEONC essential medicines were divided into two classifications: (1 very very important, and (2 very important.Results: In January 2012, out of 497 districts / cities 316 (64% were available for this analysis. There were disparities on availability BEONC classified as very very important as well as very important drugs. Among the very important BEONC essential drugs, Dextrose infusion and Ergomterin / methiler-gometrin maleate injection, and injection Oxytosin available in all regions except in the Maluku. Anti-tetanus serum (ATS, furosemide injection, furosemide injection, Magnesium sulfate, and Procaine Penicillin were available in all regions. The important BEONC essential drugs, except Bicarbonas in Papua, all essential drugs BEONC less available in all regions. The most available was A2 infusion fluid, Cedilanide injection, sodium bicarbonate injection, and pethidine injection. It seemed that Nusa Tenggara region had relatively better BEONC drug stock as compared to other regions.Conclusion:There was significantly disparity on availability of very important essential BEONC drugs in all regions in Indonesia. Therefore it is necessary to solve the disparity problems of BEONC drugs. (Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xxKey words:BEONC drug, availability, disparity, pharmaceutical installation, Indonesia

  9. Impact pathways of trade liberalization on rural livelihoods: A case study of smallholder maize farmers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROENEWALD, Sytske

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research assessing the impacts of trade liberalization on poor rural populations can be divided intotwo categories: more quantitative research, assessing relationships between specific, measurable variables(such as changes in the macroeconomic environment and their impact on farmers’ income levels;and more qualitative research, which takes trade policy as a context and provides broad, descriptive dataabout dynamic livelihood strategies. In this paper, we outline a framework that could be used to integratethese two approaches by unravelling the macro-micro linkages between national policies and responses ata household level. Using the Mexican maize sector as an illustration, we trace the pathways through whichtrade liberalization (including the North American Free Trade Agreement has interacted with changes in governmentinstitutions, and thereby impacted on farmers’ livelihood strategies. We identify three pathwaysthrough which trade policy affects households and individuals: via enterprises, distribution channels, andgovernment, and we link these to a five-category typology of smallholders’ strategies for escaping rural poverty:intensification, diversification, expansion, increased off-farm income and exit from agriculture. Basedon a case-study from Chiapas, Mexico, we report on farmers’ responses to post-liberalization agriculturalpolicies. Data suggest that farmers have intensified maize production, sought more off-farm employment orhave exited agriculture altogether. The potential for smallholders to escape poverty by diversifying farms orexpanding their land-holdings or herd-size has been largely unrealized. We provide a conceptual frameworkfor linking the impacts of liberalization to farmers’ livelihood strategies and suggest that this framework isuseful in the context of agricultural modernisation initiatives that seek to increase agricultural productionand productivity.

  10. [Analysis of nursing-related content portrayed in middle and high school textbooks under the national common basic curriculum in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myun Sook; Choi, Hyeong Wook; Li, Dong Mei

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze nursing-related content in middle, and high school textbooks under the National Common Basic Curriculum in Korea. Nursing-related content from 43 middle school textbooks and 13 high school textbooks was analyzed. There were 28 items of nursing-related content in the selected textbooks. Among them, 13 items were in the 'nursing activity' area, 6 items were in the 'nurse as an occupation' area, 2 items were in the 'major and career choice' area, 6 items were 'just one word' and 1 item in 'others'. The main nursing related content which portrayed in the middle and high school textbooks were caring for patients (7 items accounting for 46.5%), nurses working in hospitals (6 items accounting for 21.4%). In terms of gender perspective, female nurses (15 items accounting for 53.6%) were most prevalent.

  11. Basic research championed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

  12. The Path of the Achievement of Culture of the People's Livelihood%文化民生及实现路径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍

    2012-01-01

    文化民生即人民群众基本的精神文化需求,主要包括文化记忆、文化消费、文化发展三个层次的内容。其功能主要体现在对人全面自由发展的促进、社会关系的规范调控、社会发展生态的改善以及中华民族共有精神家园建设上。本文旨在分析当前制约文化民生的主要因素,探讨文化民生中的政府责任以及实现路径。%Culture,the basic livelihood of the people's spiritual and cultural needs should include the cultural memory,cultural consumption and cultural development of three levels of content.Its function is mainly reflected in the full and free development of human promotion,regulation of social relations,norms and social development and ecological improvement of the Chinese total spiritual home construction.Analysis of the current constraints of culture and livelihood of the main factors,Culture and livelihood of government responsibility.

  13. Legal Protection of Sami Traditional Livelihoods from the Adverse Impacts of Mining: A Comparison of the Level of Protection Enjoyed by Sami in Their Four Home States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Koivurova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the growing global need for minerals, extractive industries are continuously expanding. In the North, together with several environmental problems such as climate change, this poses a real threat to the traditional livelihoods of Sami people. The article examines how the rights of Sami indigenous people are protected against adverse impacts of mining activities. The relevant national legislation is analyzed in all the four countries where Sami are present. It is specifically examined how the main mining act in each country protects the right of Sami people to their traditional livelihoods. Finally, the article sheds light on the actual effectiveness of the legal regulation. This is done by analyzing the results of interviews conducted with relevant actors and stakeholders in the mining industry.

  14. 国家基础研究数据资源中心建设规划研究%CONSTRUCTION PLANNING OF NATIONAL BASIC RESEARCH DATA RESOURCE CENTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳; 闫术卓; 邵正隆; 俞春; 宋树仁

    2013-01-01

    Basic research has become the strategic focus of science and technology development all around the world. It is the fundamental guarantee for a country to have great powers among the world. This project research is to build an integrated framework of national basic scientific data resource center. It can also establish a normative and efficient data resource management system and plan an open and shared data resource application service system that could offer an organising support for the basic demand of research innovation and basic scientific development.%基础研究已经成为当今世界各国科学技术发展的战略重点,利用当代科学技术,充分共享和分析基础研究管理数据,是推进基础研究的前沿性、国际化和持续发展的关键支撑.本文提出了拟建立国家基础研究数据资源中心的设想和总体框架,设计集成、整合的国家基础研究数据资源库,实现规范、高效的数据资源管理,规划开放、共享的数据资源应用服务平台,从而构建“布局合理、功能完善、体系健全、共享高效”的基础研究数据资源中心,为实现基础研究“科学技术人才发现与培养、基础学科研究与创新能力的提高以及国家科技整体发展提升”的战略目标提供体系化支撑.

  15. Livelihood Change and Livelihood Sustainability in the Uplands of Lembang Subwatershed, West Sumatra, Indonesia, in a Changing Natural Resource Management Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes livelihood change and livelihood sustainability of households in the upland part of the Lembang subwatershed, West Sumatra, in response to changes in the natural resource management context during the last decade. Using the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF), we measured livelihood changes at two separate points in time, 1996 and 2006, and assessed their environmental, economic, social, and institutional sustainability. We found that people with a low income had less access to capital assets than people from middle- and high-income groups. Our analysis revealed, however, that access to capital assets increased over time, and that poor households experienced economic improvement, indicating an overall increase in economic sustainability. Environmental sustainability, however, is threatened by intensive agricultural practices such as high agrochemical input and intensive soil tillage on steep slopes, leading to pollution and soil erosion. Social sustainability is also a matter of concern: while social exclusion has been reduced, income inequity has increased. Institutional sustainability is likely to remain uncertain, as local institutions for natural resource management are still weak, despite the fact that decentralization has been implemented during the last 8 years. External facilitation is needed to improve the livelihood of upland people while, at the same time, enhancing the sustainability of watershed management. Strengthening local institutions, conserving natural resources, and promoting environmentally sound agricultural practices are the three most important policies to be promoted within the watershed.

  16. Trans-Boundary Infrastructure and Changes in Rural Livelihood Diversity in the Southwestern Amazon: Resilience and Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Perz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure has long been a priority in development policy, but there is debate over infrastructure impacts. Whereas economic studies show reductions in poverty, social research has documented growing income inequality. We suggest that a focus on livelihoods permits a bridge between the two literatures by highlighting decisions by households that may capture economic benefits but also yield social inequalities. We therefore take up two questions. First is whether new infrastructure allows households to diversify their livelihoods, where diversity begets resilience and thus affords livelihood sustainability. Second is whether households with more diverse livelihoods exhibit greater increases in livelihood diversity, which would widen livelihood inequalities. We take up the case of the Inter-Oceanic Highway, a trans-boundary infrastructure project in the southwestern Amazon. Findings from a rural household survey for the first question show a strong effect of accessibility on increasing livelihood diversity in areas receiving infrastructure upgrades, an indication that infrastructure fosters household resilience. However, results regarding the second question indicate that households with more diversified livelihoods also exhibit larger increments in diversity, which implies growing livelihood inequality. There remains a need to account for inequalities in livelihood diversity, since less diversified households benefit less from new infrastructure and remain more exposed to risks to their livelihoods.

  17. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80 % of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  18. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  19. Can Local Institutions Help Sustain Livelihoods in an Era of Fish Declines and Persistent Environmental Change? A Cambodian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Marschke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to explore fishers’ perceptions of environmental change in coastal Cambodia and to then examine the role of local institutions in working with villagers to adapt to such challenges. The analysis shows that: (1 fishers observe species decline, irregular tides and a change in weather patterns; and (2 local institutions have been working to address some of these issues through a series of resource management and livelihood projects for over a decade. We note that local institutions are well placed to deal with certain types of environmental change projects, such as protecting small patches of mangrove trees or creating fish sanctuaries, along with less controversial, tourism-related projects. It is impossible, however, for local institutions to tackle bigger issues, such as over-fishing or large-scale resource extraction. Fishing villages are dealing with multiple challenges (environmental change and beyond, which may make fishing a less viable option for coastal villagers in the medium to long term. As such, key policy responses include acknowledging and building upon the work of local institutions, enhanced support for patrolling at national and provincial levels, developing response scenarios for coastal environmental change, involving local institutions in scientific monitoring and piloting projects that consider fishing and non-fishing livelihoods.

  20. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  1. A Review of the Theoretical Comparative and the Study on the Sustainable Livelihood Analysis Frameworks%可持续生计分析框架的理论比较与研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable livelihoods analysis framework is an integrated analysis framework and con-structive tool to search for the reasons of the livelihoods vulnerability of poor families and then propose a variety of solutions to these problems .Currently , the sustainable livelihoods analysis frameworks that have been widely used is as the followings:DFID sustainable livelihoods analysis framework based on the vul-nerable population , UNDP which regards the policy , technology and investment as the driving factors , CARE that combines the basic needs and rights to make researches , Oxfam GB which starts the resear-ches of the sustainable livelihoods with the improvement of the poor condition and environment of liveli -hoods.These analysis frameworks emphasize the connection on the micro -level livelihood systems and macro-policy.On the other hand, the analysis frameworks stress people -oriented and the use of exist-ing resources rationally to expand the livelihoods channels and enhance the livelihood capabilities by the combination of the endogenous development with external assistance .%可持续生计分析框架是一种寻找贫困家庭生计脆弱性原因并给予多种解决方案的集成式分析框架和建设性工具。目前,被广泛应用的可持续生计分析框架主要有DFID以脆弱性人群为基础的可持续生计分析框架, UNDP以政策、技术和投资为驱动因子的可持续生计分析方法,CARE以基本需要和权利为基础的可持续生计分析方法和Oxfam GB以改善贫困的生计环境和条件为出发点的可持续生计分析等。这些分析框架都强调了微观层次的生计系统与宏观政策的联系。强调必须以人为本,立足现有资源,通过内生发展与外力帮扶相结合,实现生计渠道的扩展和生计能力的提升。

  2. Effect of adoption of improved cassava varieties on the livelihoods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cassava varieties on the livelihoods of the rural farmers in Nsukka local government area of Enugu state, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Data for the study were collected from 110 respondents with the aid of structured ...

  3. Combining household income and asset data to identify livelihood strategies and their dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Pouliot, Mariéve; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to identifying and describing rural livelihood strategies, and household movements between strategies over time, in developing countries are imprecise. Here we: (i) present a new statistical quantitative approach combining income and asset data to identify household activity...... choice variables, characterise livelihood strategy clusters, and analyse movements between strategies, and (ii) apply the approach using an environmentally-augmented three-wave household (n = 427) level panel dataset from Nepal. Combining income and asset data provides a better understanding...... of livelihood strategies and household movements between strategies over time than using only income or asset data. Most households changed livelihood strategy at least once over the two three-year periods. A common pathway out of poverty included an intermediate step during which households accumulate assets...

  4. Land Management Strategies and their Implications for Mazahua Farmers’ Livelihoods in the Highlands of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Fajardo Belina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study from a Mazahua indigenous community in the rural Highlands of Central Mexico. It analyses Mazahua farming livelihoods characterised by subsistence agriculture, marginality, poverty and severe land degradation. Mazahua farmers face constrained environmental, socioeconomic and cultural conditions, which influence their local decisions on natural resource management. The results describe the capital assets base used, where land, livestock and crop production are imperative assets to support farmers’ livelihood strategies. It analyses local management practices to achieve livelihood outcomes in the short/long term, and to improve or undermine land characteristics and other related assets. It also presents a farmer typology constructed by local perceptions, a controversial element to drive sustainable development strategies at the local level. Finally, it discusses how local land management practices are adopted and their importance in developing alternatives to encourage positive trade-offs between conservation and production in order to improve rural livelihoods.

  5. Sri Lankan livelihoods after the tsunami: searching for entrepreneurs, unveiling relations of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of aid-funded livelihoods recovery efforts in Sri Lanka following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, with special attention paid to the effects on the rural poor. It argues that successful livelihoods recovery was hampered by an excessive focus by aid agencies on entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, and by the lack of a politically informed understanding of the economy. Based on ethnographic and survey-based research, the study demonstrates that the category of 'entrepreneur' is misleading for large parts of the economy. Indeed, the desire to build an entrepreneurial economy actually hampered successful livelihoods recovery in Sri Lanka and, in some cases, reinforced inequitable relations of power. The paper concludes that for livelihoods recovery programmes to be effective, they must be founded on an understanding of the relations of power that constitute the economy; these relations operate across scales, and are historically and geographically specific.

  6. 环境移民可持续生计研究进展%Research Progress in the Construction of Sustainable Livelihood of Environmental Immigrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军以; 王腊春; 苏维词

    2015-01-01

    migration livelihood construction and environmental changes, and to study the key factors of migration livelihood construction, this paper summarized domestic and foreign environmental migration research results on the basis of definition of the concept and connotation of environmental migration. It discussed from environmental changes and migration livelihood poverty, impacts of soci-economic environment on environmental migration livelihood, livelihood vulnerability, livelihood diversification, non-agricultural transition, livelihood strategies and its influencing factors. The results show that the generation of migration and livelihood construction issues need to be copied from the national and international levels, and the effective management and support of government is key to environmental migration livelihood reconstruction .In addition, on the basis of summarizing main research progress of environmental migration livelihood in recent years, this paper proposed the major trends of environmental migration livelihood study in the future: environmental migration livelihood reconstruction under multiple constraints; monitoring the resettlement of environmental migrants and environmental effects of livelihood reconstruction; pay attention to the joint development of immigrants and inhabitants in micro-level; urban migration livelihood issues in developing countries. The study is expected to provide some reference for sustainability development of environmental immigrants.

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  9. Reef fisheries and livelihoods in coastal villages of southern Tanzania : Lessons for adaptation to environmental change?

    OpenAIRE

    Katikiro, Robert Eliakim

    2014-01-01

    The crucial importance of the reef fisheries to the livelihoods of communities associated with coastal areas in developing countries cannot be overemphasised. However, these important resources are increasingly threatened by destructive human activities and continued overexploitation. Therefore, understanding how the degradation of fisheries resources increases the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coastal households, and the coping strategies employed by them, is critical for planning sust...

  10. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has a range of functions for farmers, like income, food, insurance, credit, and a reason for not having to migrate to the US. However, caprine brucellosis, a zoonosis endemic in Mexico caused by Brucel...

  11. Vulnerability and resilience of competing land-based livelihoods in south eastern Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Murungweni, C.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: vulnerability; resilience; livelihood; drought; Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area; south eastern Zimbabwe. Vulnerability and resilience have emerged as powerful analytical concepts in the study of socio-ecological systems. In this research these concepts are used to enhance our understanding of heterogeneous rural livelihoods in a semi-arid area on the western border of protected wildlife areas in Zimbabwe’s southeast lowveld. The purpose of this thesis is to deve...

  12. Rural poverty in Mexico: assets and livelihood strategies among the Mayas of Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Nigel; Gauthier, Remi; Mizrahi, Aliza

    2007-01-01

    Understanding poverty and sustainability needs livelihood studies that acknowledge heterogeneity at the community and household level. This is particularly true for Latin America where inequality and ethnicity are important aspects of poverty and sustainability. This paper is a detailed examination of the natural resources, socioeconomic assets and livelihood strategies of two Mayan communities of the Mexican State of Yucatán. There were three fundamental objectives: to elucidate the people’s...

  13. Quantifying rural livelihood strategies in developing countries using an activity choice approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Øystein Juul; Rayamajhi, Santosh; Uberhuaga de Arratia, Patricia D C

    2013-01-01

    This article uses a quantitative activity choice approach, based on identification of activity variables and application of latent class cluster analysis, to identify five major rural livelihood strategies pursued by households (n= 576) in Bolivia, Nepal, and Mozambique. Income sources and welfare...... outcomes are compared across strategies and household differences in asset holdings are analyzed using multinomial logit regression. Findings reveal that income diversification is the norm, that a higher degree of specialization does not characterize more remunerative livelihood strategies, that nonfarm...

  14. Evaluating economic costs and benefits of climate resilient livelihood strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for international development is to assist the poorest regions to achieve development targets while taking climate change into account. Such ‘climate resilient development’ (CRD must identify and implement adaptation strategies for improving livelihoods while also being cost-effective. While the idea that climate resilience and development goals should be compatible is often discussed, empirical evaluations of the economic impacts of actual CRD investments are practically non-existent. This paper outlines a framework to evaluate economic returns to CRD and applies it in two adaptation strategies trialed in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, eastern Indonesia. The evaluation framework is composed of three models: a household benefit cost model, a diffusion model, and a regional benefit cost model. The models draw upon the impact evaluation, technology diffusion, and risk assessment literatures, respectively. The analyzes are based on expert opinion and locally-derived information, and hence can be applied in data-poor situations typical of developing countries. Our results explore economic costs and benefits at the household and regional scale, and we identify key input variables that greatly influence the economic returns of the strategies. These variables should therefore be a focus of ongoing investment. We also discuss how the framework is more generally applicable, its limitations including challenges in accounting for less tangible social and ecosystem service benefits, potentially leading to the underestimation of impacts, and how the approach should be complemented by qualitative methods.

  15. Review - Transforming Nomadic Resource Management and Livelihood Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Winkler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Andreas Gruschke. 2012. Nomadische Ressourcennutzung und Existenzsicherung im Umbruch: Die osttibetische Region Yushu (Qinghai, VR China. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. In late 2012, Andreas Gruschke published a densely packed, 450 page book based on his PhD dissertation, on the transformation of nomad livelihoods in Yushu [Yul shul] Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (TAP. It is volume fifteen of the series of 'Nomaden und Sesshafte (Nomads and Settled People' published by the Sonderforschungsbereich Differenz und Integration – Wechselwirkung zwischen nomadischen und sesshaften Lebensformen in Zivilsationen der Alten Welt (Special Collaborative Research Center, Difference and Integration: Interdependency Between Nomadic and Settled Life-forms in Old World Civilizations. The background information, rich data, dozens of detailed interviews with former and current nomads, and the findings in this publication are the result of eight years of study, including a total of sixteen months of fieldwork by Gruschke in Tibetan areas of Qinghai Province and neighboring Tibetan areas. This book contains case studies that have never been previously presented, and introduces these highland communities' current situation in a clear, detailed, and discriminating light that is rich in data.

  16. Adapting to Uncertain Futures: Glacier Recession and Livelihood Vulnerability in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, J.

    2008-12-01

    With a large portion of the world's population dependent on hydrologic resources linked to tropical glaciers, the decline of these natural "water towers" has important repercussions for the social and ecological systems that depend on these vital reservoirs of freshwater. In Peru's Cordillera Blanca (the highest and most extensively glaciated range in the tropics) glacial melt water makes up a critical percentage of the discharge of a wide array of water courses, ranging from first-order, highland streams to the Rio Santa, one of the largest and most economically important rivers on Peru's Pacific slope. Climate change-induced warming is occurring rapidly in this region and glaciers have lost a significant percentage of their mass in the past 50 years. While there have been indications that significant and temporary increases in glacial meltwater discharge flows will take place, predictions for the coming decades suggest that these flows will decrease and be more variable across seasons in even the most glaciated catchments of the range. Current population levels and patterns of water use in the Central Andes suggest that many human communities are highly vulnerable to decreasing or variable quantities of water and other changes associated with climate change. Here will be presented the first results from two years of field work assessing human vulnerability to increasing hydrological variability due to glacier-recession and evaluating how changing access to water resources is contributing to livelihood adaptation and potential conflicts over resources in the Cordillera Blanca region of Peru. The findings are drawn from stratified case-study research in two communities and are comprised of an extensive set of key interviews with national, regional and local key informants and semi-structured household surveys that were sampled utilizing stratified systematic unaligned techniques. The results provide insights into key elements of household vulnerability, how

  17. Land grabbing: a preliminary quantification of economic impacts on rural livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Global demands on agricultural land are increasing due to population growth, dietary changes and the use of biofuels. Their effect on food security is to reduce humans' ability to cope with the uncertainties of global climate change. In light of the 2008 food crisis, to secure reliable future access to sufficient agricultural land, many nations and corporations have begun purchasing large tracts of land in the global South, a phenomenon deemed "land grabbing" by popular media. Because land investors frequently export crops without providing adequate employment, this represents an effective income loss for local communities. We study 28 countries targeted by large-scale land acquisitions [comprising 87 % of reported cases and 27 million hectares (ha)] and estimate the effects of such investments on local communities' incomes. We find that this phenomenon can potentially affect the incomes of ~12 million people globally with implications for food security, poverty levels and urbanization. While it is important to note that our study incorporates a number of assumptions and limitations, it provides a much needed initial quantification of the economic impacts of large-scale land acquisitions on rural livelihoods.

  18. Perceptions on climate change and its impact on livelihoods in Hwange district, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nhemachena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated perceptions of rural communities on climate change and its impacts on livelihoods. The research was conducted in the semi-arid Hwange district in Matebelel and North province of Zimbabwe. The perceptions were compared with empirical evidence from climatic studies on trends on temperature and rainfall, and impacts on livelihoods in the country and region. The findings from the current study are generally in agreement with those of other studies that indicate changes in the climate, especially in terms of rainfall. This largely applies to short-term periods; however, for long-term periods it is difficult to accurately relate rural community perceptions to changes in rainfall over time. Despite perceived changes and impacts of climate change on local livelihood activities, mainly agriculture, there are multiple stressors that the communities face which also affect their livelihoods. Further evidence-based research is required to disentangle climate change impacts on livelihoods, including livelihood impacts arising from interactions of climate and non-climatic factors.

  19. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ... messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... harder for Sarah to recover normally from her low mood. It's important to remember that everyone gets " ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  6. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  13. SARS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Resources Related Links Clinician Registry Travelers' Health SARS Basics Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Format: ... 3 pages] SARS [3 pages] SARS [3 pages] SARS? Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain ... system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  19. Rural livelihoods and household adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsholapheko, M. R.; Kgathi, D. L.; Vanderpost, C.

    Adaptation to flooding is now widely adopted as an appropriate policy option since flood mitigation measures largely exceed the capability of most developing countries. In wetlands, such as the Okavango Delta, adaptation is more appropriate as these systems serve as natural flood control mechanisms. The Okavango Delta system is subject to annual variability in flooding with extreme floods resulting in adverse impacts on rural livelihoods. This study therefore seeks to improve the general understanding of rural household livelihood adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta. Specific objectives are: (1) to assess household access to forms of capital necessary for enhanced capacity to adapt, (2) to assess the impacts of extreme flooding on household livelihoods, and (3) to identify and assess household livelihood responses to extreme flooding. The study uses the sustainable livelihood and the socio-ecological frameworks to analyse the livelihood patterns and resilience to extreme flooding. Results from a survey of 623 households in five villages, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and review of literature, indicate that access to natural capital was generally high, but low for financial, physical, human and social capital. Households mainly relied on farm-based livelihood activities, some non-farm activities, limited rural trade and public transfers. In 2004 and 2009, extreme flooding resulted in livelihood disruptions in the study areas. The main impacts included crop damage, household displacement, destruction of household property, livestock drowning and mud-trapping, the destruction of public infrastructure and disruption of services. The main household coping strategies were labour switching to other livelihood activities, temporary relocation to less affected areas, use of canoes for early harvesting or evacuation and government assistance, particularly for the most vulnerable households. Household adaptive strategies included

  20. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  1. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  2. Irrigation-based livelihood trends in river basins: theory and policy implications for irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Bruce

    This paper examines irrigation development and policy in Tanzania utilising a livelihoods and river basin perspective. On the basis of observations, the author argues that river basins theoretically exhibit a sigmoid curve of irrigation development in three stages; proto-irrigation, irrigation-momentum and river basin management. This model arises from two governing factors. Firstly, irrigation is a complex livelihood activity that, although has benefits, also has costs, risks and alternatives that integrate across many systems; farmers implicitly understand this and enter into or keep out of irrigation accordingly. In the proto-irrigation stage, irrigators are less common, and irrigation is felt to be a relatively unattractive livelihood. In the irrigation-momentum stage, irrigators are drawn very much to irrigation in providing livelihood needs. Hence, given both of these circumstances, governments should be cautious about policies that call for the need to ‘provide irrigation’ (when farmers may not wish to irrigate) or to further increase it (when farmers already have the means and will to do so). Second, irrigation consumes water, generating externalities. Thus if irrigation momentum proceeds to the point when water consumption directly impacts on other sectors and livelihoods, (e.g. pastoralists, downstream irrigation, the environment) decision-makers should focus not necessarily on irrigation expansion, but on water management, allocation and conflict mediation. This three-stage theoretical model reminds us to take a balanced ‘livelihoods river-basin’ approach that addresses real problems in each given stage of river basin development and to develop policy accordingly. The paper contains a discussion on livelihood factors that affect entry into irrigation. It ends with a series of recommendations on policy; covering for example new large-scale systems; problems solving; and the use of an irrigation-river basin livelihoods approach. The recommendations

  3. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Podesta, G; Fazey, I; Geeson, N; Hessel, R; Hubacek, K; Letson, D; Nainggolan, D; Prell, C; Rickenbach, M G; Ritsema, C; Schwilch, G; Stringer, L C; Thomas, A D

    2013-10-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change.

  4. The impact of donkey ownership on the livelihoods of female peri-urban dwellers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Curran, M; Smith, D G

    2005-11-01

    This paper is based on an impact assessment of a donkey provision programme in Ethiopia. The work was carried out in 2001 as part of a DFID Livestock Production Programme project 'Use and management of donkeys by poor societies in peri-urban areas in Ethiopia'. In order to establish whether donkey ownership was a cause or an effect of improved livelihoods, an investigation was carried out that compared non-donkey-owning households with households that had owned no donkey until they were given one by a local NGO. Indicators that poor people use to express their well-being, wealth and health status (components of their livelihoods) were identified and used to compare communities. Guidelines were prepared for project managers for carrying out livelihood indicator identification and impact assessment. The results showed that the informants used a range of indicators to assess their livelihoods. A selection of these were investigated in depth, including number of children per household attending school, number of people per household earning an income, type and quantity of staple foods bought, and ability to save. A trend was identified that demonstrated that donkey owners' livelihoods were improved compared to non-donkey owners.

  5. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M.S.; Podesta, G.; Fazey, I.; Geeson, N.; Hessel, R.; Hubacek, K.; Letson, D.; Nainggolan, D.; Prell, C.; Rickenbach, M.G.; Ritsema, C.; Schwilch, G.; Stringer, L.C.; Thomas, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change. PMID:25844020

  6. Ecosystem Service Changes and Livelihood Impacts in the Maguri-Motapung Wetlands of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi D. Bhatta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands provide a diverse range of ecosystem services supporting livelihoods of many people. Despite their value, wetlands are continuously being degraded. There is scant information on individual wetlands, people’s dependency and their exploitation at a local scale. We therefore assessed wetland ecosystem services, the drivers of change and impacts of those drivers on ecosystem services and people’s dependency through a case study of the Maguri-Motapung Beel wetlands of Assam, India. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected through household surveys, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and community workshops. The analyses showed a total of 29 ecosystem services, and high dependency on these with five out of seven livelihood strategies sourced from ecosystem services. Over-exploitation of wetland resources and siltation were reported as the major direct drivers of change with impacts on both ecosystem services and people’s livelihoods. Drastic decreases in availability of thatch, fish stocks, fodder and tourism were observed. This suggests that there is an urgent need for a comprehensive participatory management plan. Actions are needed to maintain the Maguri-Motapung Beel wetlands and the flow of services in order to sustain people’s livelihoods in the area. With an estimated 50% global loss of wetlands in the last century and the loss of 5,000 square kilometers a year in Asia alone, the loss of ecosystem services and livelihood impacts shown in our study may be typical of what is occurring in the region and perhaps globally.

  7. Analysis of livelihood security: a case study in the Kali-Khola watershed of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, B S; Grant, M

    2007-10-01

    This paper examines household livelihoods in highland and lowland communities of the Kali-Khola agricultural watershed in western Nepal on the basis of economic, ecological and social security indicators. Significant differences were found in soil fertility status, pests and diseases management, risk and uncertainties, use of agrochemicals and access to social services. No remarkable variations were found in crop diversification, annual agricultural income and food sufficiency. However, uncertainty and risk in agricultural production is relatively low in highland communities. The findings reveal that agriculture production alone is not a viable livelihood option for agricultural watershed communities in Nepal. The households growing crops with hired labour have relatively sustainable livelihoods in Nepal's agricultural watersheds. Insufficient agricultural land, insufficient working manpower within a family, and lack of access to ecological agricultural services are prime factors in being livelihood insecure in agricultural watershed communities. Therefore, long-term policies and plans need to be developed for the empowerment of local farmers and to support rural livelihoods with adaptable and flexible income-generating strategies, resilient resource management institutions and enhancement of knowledge, skills and social capital.

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PFC are involved in using short-term or "working" memory and in retrieving long-term memories. This area ... neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous ... serotonin —A neurotransmitter that regulates many functions, including ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and Groups Strategic ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes ...

  11. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  12. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  13. Study of Basic Farmland Protection in Huainan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyuan; LU; Zhongxiang; YU

    2015-01-01

    Farmland is the primary resource for food production,related to food security and people’s livelihood.The basic farmland is the essence of farmland,and it is necessary to improve the quality of farmland and strengthen the basic farmland protection in order to enhance comprehensive agricultural production capacity.Currently,the contradiction between urban development and farmland protection has been inevitable,and Huainan City is now in the period of rapid development of urbanization.How to better solve the contradiction between urbanization and farmland protection to promote sound and rapid economic development,is an important issue currently facing Huainan City.

  14. International land deals, local people's livelihood, and environment nexus (How to create win-win land deals in Ethiopia?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam Gebremeskel, Dereje; Witlox, Frank; Azadi, Hossein; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    quantitative data analyses at different levels of focus ranging from household and farm levels to national and transnational. The study focuses on the western lowlands of Ethiopia where there are many companies engaged in large scale commercial farming, where 75% of it is below 1500 m a.s.l with average annual temperature of 20-25°C and annual rainfall of 500-1800 mm. Some preliminary exploratory findings indicate that there is massive land use conversion (deforestation) and 'voluntary' displacement of indigenous communities, which requires further triangulation. Key words: agricultural outsourcing; environmental services; land grabbing; sustainable livelihood; soil conservation

  15. Challenges Of Livelihood Diversification In Pastoral Lands Of Ethiopia Evidence From South Omo Pastoralists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileshi Mengistu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges of livelihood diversification as a means to ensure food security in the South Omo Zone pastoral groups. Data was collected through household survey questionnaire focus group discussion interview and observation. The findings indicate that though pastoralism is the main source of survival farming is found to be the dominant type of diversification. In terms of wealth group the well- off households have more opportunity to diversify income sources than the poor and average households in the study area. The challenges of diversifying livelihood include communal resource administration system lack of financial services lack of access to market lack of proper extension services. In conclusion with the right combination of market access training infrastructure services capital and fair administration the pastoralist population of the study area can undertake successful livelihood diversification.

  16. Shifting cultivation stability and change: Contrasting pathways of land use and livelihood change in Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone; Mertz, Ole; Tongmanivong, Sithong

    2014-01-01

    it is stable in the central site, where sugarcane is an important cash crop. The impacts of land use change on livelihoods are also diverse. Cash crop producers hold more agricultural land than non-cash crop producers, and rubber and sugarcane producers have fewer rice shortages than non......Rural areas in Laos are experiencing a rapid transformation from traditional rice-based shifting cultivation systems to more permanent and diversified market-oriented cultivation systems. The consequences of these changes for local livelihoods are not well known. This study analyzes the impact...... of shifting cultivation change on the livelihood of rural people in six villages in three districts of northern and central Laos. Focus group discussions and household interview questionnaires were employed for data collection. The study reveals that the shifting cultivation of rice is still important...

  17. Organising to Protect: Protecting Landscapes and Livelihoods in the Nicaraguan Hillsides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravnborg Helle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Social science literature on protected areas (PAs has hitherto focused mostly upon how PAs have been designated at the expense of the interests of people living in and around the PA and how this has often re-sulted in conflict. However, there is a growing recognition that this dichotomised perception does not al-ways adequately capture what is taking place in relation to PA establishment and management. Internal as well as external interests, viz- a -viz PA establishment and management are much more diverse and complex, and have to be understood in a wider context of interests and strategies not solely related to is-sues of conservation. This article reports a case from Nicaragua of small scale farmers struggling to have their area, Miraflor, declared a PA. Adopting a political ecology perspective, the article explores the un-derlying motives for this apparent paradox of farmers wanting to have their land recognised as a PA and thus accepting the potential restrictions on land use this entails. This article analyses how the formulation of the management plan for Miraflor as a PA, became the ′arena′ for negotiation and alliance building between different segments of competing land users in Miraflor ranging from the virtually landless poor to the landed small scale farmers to the resourceful, largely absentee landowners; and how national and international external institutions-knowingly or not-were drawn into and took part in this negotiation. Hence, this article serves to illustrate the importance of recognising that this key instrument in PA man-agement-the management plan-is much more than a technical document building on sound ecological principles. The issue at stake is not only protecting a landscape, but, perhaps more importantly, protect-ing livelihoods.

  18. HIV/AIDS, food supplementation and livelihood programs in Uganda: a way forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Yager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs to target the root causes of food insecurity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1 lack of resources (2 timing of the transition and (3 logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1 close involvement of community leaders (2 close ties with local and national government (3 diversification of IHLP activities and (4 close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care. CONCLUSION: Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so

  19. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Library of Medicine Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en ... Health and Human Services. Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape ... identify unknown pills from the National Library of Medicine Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offices and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory Boards and Groups Staff Directories Getting to NIMH National Institutes of ... electrical signals. The brain begins as a small group of cells in the outer layer of a ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Study News News Home Science News Multimedia Image Library Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us ... How to identify unknown pills from the National Library of Medicine Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Study News News Home Science News Multimedia Image Library Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us ... How to identify unknown pills from the National Library of Medicine Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... genes can be affected by the environment. In medicine, the term environment includes not only our physical ... identify unknown pills from the National Library of Medicine Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences journals NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to identify unknown pills from the National Library of Medicine ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en Español The National Institute of ... Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en Español Top

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills ... from the National Library of Medicine Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder ...

  9. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Hydrologic Information and Decision Support Tools to Improve Livelihoods in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, P.; Jost, C.; Roncoli, M. C.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2006-12-01

    Burkina Faso is part of the Sahel-Sudan climatic zone south of the Sahara Desert. The rainfall of the region is characterized by extreme seasonal and annual temporal and spatial variability. Soils are generally of low fertility. The major livelihood activity in Burkina Faso, one of the lowest ranked countries in the world in the Human Development Index where 80 percent of the population rely on subsistence farming, is rainfed cultivation of cereal crops. Cotton is the dominant export crop and is mostly grown in the southwest. Livestock management is an important complement to farm activities, especially in the Sahelian zone. There are several major rivers flowing through the region and many ephemeral streams. Surface water resources are becoming more important to Burkina Faso as it tries to improve food security and water supplies, and increase energy production. One of the major opportunities to improve livelihoods in the region has been improvements in seasonal rainfall forecasting based upon global sea surface temperatures. In the past decade, the generation and use of forecasts in Burkina Faso has evolved from the nation just receiving forecasts almost as an after thought from USA and European meteorological services to the Burkina Faso Meteorological Services generating their own forecasts with support from these services. There is now also more focused international research on improving the forecasts for this region. The use of stochastic decision support tools (DST) that combine the seasonal forecasts with hydrologic and crop models, land conditions, and information on farmer and policy maker goals could improve both rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems. Their implementation requires overcoming many technical and socio-economic challenges. Examples include forecasting the start and end of rains, dissemination and explanation of forecasts, streamflow forecasting in data scarce regions, possible different incentives for subsistence and cash crop farmers

  10. Hydrogénations catalytiques. De la recherche de base à l'application industrielle Catalytic Hydrogenation from Basic Research to Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitiaux J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les premiers travaux concernant l'hydrogénation catalytique ont montré la spécificité des différents métaux pour les différents types d'hydrogénation (acétyléniques, oléfines, aromatiques, aldéhydes, nitriles. . . . Cette observation incluait de façon encore vague la notion de l'importance du couple métal-substrat. Une contradiction avec le caractère non sensible à la structure de ces réactions apparaissait alors. Des travaux récents effectués sur des catalyseurs au palladium de dispersions variées ont clairement démontré l'influence de la taille de particule sur la vitesse d'hydrogénation des acétyléniques et dioléfines en C4. Un tel comportement a été depuis confirmé par d'autres travaux sur palladium, platine et rhodium. Le phénomène est dû à une adsorption trop forte des réactifs sur les petites particules : celles-ci sont électrodéficientes et adsorbent très fortement les composés électrodonneurs comme les hydrocarbures insaturés. L'explication est confirmée par l'effet additif que produit la pipéridine. Sa coadsorption sur le catalyseur déstabilise la liaison métal-substrat et augmente l'activité. Une étude cinétique complète a permis d'affiner cette interprétation en démontrant la constance de l'activité intrinsèque et la relation entre la sensibilité à la dispersion métallique et une complexation du site métallique du type de celle que l'on rencontre sur les catalyseurs homogènes. Ces études fondamentales ont des conséquences très importantes pour la mise au point des catalyseurs industriels : pour chaque procédé, et donc pour chaque hydrogénation, il est nécessaire de déterminer la dispersion optimale du métal pour obtenir l'activité et la sélectivité les plus élevées, c'est-à-dire la meilleure rentabilité du procédé. Par ailleurs, les concepts établis grâce à ces recherches de base permettent d'unifier l'interprétation de l'influence des solvants, des

  11. ENHANCING RURAL LIVELIHOODS THROUGH SUSTAINABLE LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehretie Belay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural livelihoods (RLs in highland Ethiopia is critically threatened by increasing degradation of land and water resources (LWRs and lack of sufficient livelihood assets. In response, farmers adapted diverse indigenous land and water management (LWM technologies and livelihood strategies. This paper describes farmers’ methods of soil erosion identification and the practices of managing LWRs to enhance RLs. It presents the results of studies focusing on assessment of soil erosion indicators, farmers’ in-built sustainable land and water management practices (LWMPs and RLs in Dangila woreda (district in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Data were gathered from May 2010 to October 2013 through participatory transect walks, field observation, formal and informal discussions with farmers, examination of office documents and from a survey of 201 rural households. Descriptive statistics and the livelihood strategy diversification index (LSDI were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that farmers employ around 13 indicators to identify soil erosion on their farmlands. Over 79% of the farmers indicated the occurrence of soil erosion on their farm fields and some 59% reported the trend was increasing for twenty years, 1991-2011. More than 174 km soil-bunds and greater than 4 km stone-bunds were constructed on farmlands and on grazing fields through farmer participatory watershed development campaigns. Some 34 gullies were stabilized using check-dams and vegetative measures. Almost 72% of the households applied cattle manure on about of their 75 ha lands to improve soil fertility. A total of 44 diversion canals and 34 water committees were established to facilitate the irrigation practice of 33% rural households. Over 20% farmers obtained results ranging from moderate to excellent by combining manure with chemical fertilizers in the same field. Nevertheless, introduced methods such as improved seeds and fertilizers were commented for

  12. 全国残疾人人口基础数据库数据分析*%Data Analysis of National Disabled People’s Basic Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钧

    2013-01-01

    This report used data from national disabled people’s basic database and China’s survey on disabled people’s rehabilitation need and a baseline survey on rural disabled in poverty. It conducted analysis based on above data and tried to find out characters of China’s disabled people. Main characteristics of holders of disabled people credentials are mostly at working age, male, medium and low disability degree and physical disabilities account for 60%respectively;agricultural households nearly 3/4;mainly finishing primary school and middle school in terms of education. 31.9%of the disabled people demand for rehabilitation care, 30.9%for function training, and 91.9% for assistant equipments. Moreover, per capita net income of 82.4% rural disabled families is lower than national poverty line;33%of them are the elderly as well;7.1%have other disabled family members; 50.3% are driven into poverty due to disease. Among them, 41.1% are already covered by subsistence allowances;33.6%receive living aids, 14.2%for medical support and 26.1%for other aspects.%本报告对数据库中的持证残疾人以及基于此库开展的全国残疾人康复需求调查和农村贫困残疾人状况摸底调查数据进行了分析。持证残疾人的主要特征为:劳动年龄人口为主,男性、中轻度、肢体残疾人各占到六成,农业户口近3/4,受教育程度以小学和初中为主体。在康复需求方面,31.9%的残疾人有康复医疗需求,30.9%有功能训练需求,91.9%的残疾人有辅助器具需求。农村贫困残疾人家庭中有82.4%人均纯收入低于国家贫困标准,33.3%为老残一体,7.1%为一户多残。50.3%的农村贫困残疾人为因病致贫。41.1%的农村贫困残疾人已纳入最低生活保障;33.6%接受到生活救助,14.2%接受到医疗救助,26.1%接受到其他方面的救助。

  13. The significance of enset culture and biodiversity for rural household food and livelihood security in southwestern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, A.; Niehof, A.

    2004-01-01

    The significance of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) for the food and livelihood security of rural households in Southwestern Ethiopia, where this crop is the main staple, raises two major questions. The first concerns the related issues of household food security and livelihood security an

  14. Multi-spatial livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa : rural farming by urban households - the case of Nakuru town, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Owuor, S.O.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Multispatial livelihoods refer to households with a livelihood foothold in both urban and rural areas. Although it is well-known that multispatial households are common in sub-Saharan Africa, the phenomenon has seldom been looked at from the urban household perspective. A review of the literature in

  15. Rebuilding women's livelihoods strategies at the city fringe: agency, spatial practices, and access to transportation from Semmencherry, Chennai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, A.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.

    2016-01-01

    Existing debates suggest that resettlement leads to exclusion of the urban poor from the city, linked to interrupted livelihoods and lack of accessibility to the city. This paper analyses the ways in which public transport mobility plays a role in the livelihood strategies of women living in a reset

  16. Impact of Grameen Bank Microcrdit Programme on Changing Livelihood Status of the Rural Women in Panchagarh District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdoushi Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural women in Bangladesh are the most deprived part of the society and majority of them are extremely poor. They have very limited access to income generating activities and consequently less opportunity to improve their livelihood status. Microcredit programme contributes to improve the livelihood status of rural women in Bangladesh. Approach: This study examines the extent of changes in livelihood status of rural women through their involvement in the microcredit programme of Bangladesh. Results: The study reveals that the rural women, after joining the microcredit programme, have been able to engage themselves in income generating activities and consequently improved significantly their livelihood status. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that microcredit programme plays a significant role in changing and improving livelihood status among the rural poor families.

  17. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  18. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  19. The Constitutional Right to Enhanced Livelihoods in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elias N. Stebek

    wealth- ..... source of finance as collateral (or through sale of landholding rights). .... the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopian and United Nations Country Team, March ..... 100. See Elias N. Stebek (2015), 'Judicial Reform Pursuits in Ethiopia, ...

  20. Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil *

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; da Silva, José Laerte Rodrigues; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health-rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months-involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment), as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: This was a descriptive s...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to identify unknown pills from the National Library of Medicine Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en Español The ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related organizations, available in both English and Spanish ( Español ) ClinicalTrials.gov : Federally and privately supported research using ... Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en Español The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is ...

  3. Mobile Livelihoods: The Sociocultural Practices of Circular Migrations between Puerto Rico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duany, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Documented livelihood practices of migrants based on a recent field study of population flows between Puerto Rico and the United States, comparing characteristics of multiple movers, onetime movers, and nonmovers residing in Puerto Rico. Results suggest that circular migration does not entail major losses in human capital for Puerto Rico, but can…

  4. 'It is windier nowadays': Coastal livelihoods and changeable weather in Qeqertarsuaq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejsner, Pelle

    2012-01-01

    -narrative about climate change which often ignores the reality of coastal livelihoods in the Arctic. In popular debates about whaling, aboriginal subsistence whalers (ASWs) are generally portrayed as ‘uncivilised’ while the climate crisis-narrative features arctic coastal dwellers as somehow more ‘exposed...

  5. Activity diversification in rural livelihoods : the role of farm supplementary income in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study assesses the contribution of farm supplementary activities to rural livelihoods in low-income regions that are characterised by economic stagnation. Through analysing the complete household portfolio of economic activities the study identifies specific aspects of individual and hou

  6. Livelihood Capabilities and Pathways of Shrimp Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Phung Ha, Ha; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Bosma, R.H.; Sinh, L.X.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a major livelihood activity in the Mekong Delta in the southernmost part of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government has promoted shrimp farming as a way to reduce poverty, provide employment opportunities and increase exports to support economic development. The shrimp farming system,

  7. Empty forests, empty stomachs? Bushmeat and livelihoods in the Congo and Amazon Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasi, R.; Taber, A.; van Vliet, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Protein from forest wildlife is crucial to rural food security and livelihoods across the tropics. The harvest of animals such as tapir, duikers, deer, pigs, peccaries, primates and larger rodents, birds and reptiles provides benefits to local people worth millions of USS annually and represents...

  8. Conflict and Livelihood Decisions in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Badiuzzaman (Muhammad); S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We analyse rural household livelihood and child school enrolment decisions in the post-conflict setting of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) region of Bangladesh. What makes this paper innovative is the use of current subjective perceptions regarding the

  9. Livelihood decisions under the shadow of conflict in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Badiuzzaman (Muhammad); J. Cameron (John); S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We analyse rural household livelihood and children’s school enrolment decisions in a postconflict setting in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region of Bangladesh. The innovation of the paper lies in the fact that we employ information about current subjective

  10. Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Short Summary Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS) Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods Community-based natural resour

  11. Human Rights as Practice: Dalit Women's Collective Action to Secure Livelihood Entitlements in rural South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangubhai, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412461277

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate how Dalit women in rural South India secure livelihood entitlements by analysing processes of social exclusion as well as collective action by these women through their perspectives. This problematic requires focus on how caste, class and gender mutually construct

  12. Tourism-conservation enterprises for community livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nthiga, R.W.; Duim, van der V.R.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Lamers, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Tourism-conservation enterprises (TCEs), such as eco-lodges, are a relatively new strategy of the African Wildlife Foundation for enhancing community livelihoods and wildlife conservation in wildlife-rich areas outside state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigates the extent

  13. Activity diversification in rural livelihoods : the role of farm supplementary income in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study assesses the contribution of farm supplementary activities to rural livelihoods in low-income regions that are characterised by economic stagnation. Through analysing the complete household portfolio of economic activities the study identifies specific aspects of individual and

  14. 75 FR 56558 - Office of the Secretary: Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... of the Secretary: Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Educational Opportunities for Children in Egypt and Jordan AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... to combat exploitative child labor by promoting educational and training opportunities for target...

  15. Putting Bread on the Table: Literacy and Livelihood in Kenya. Knowledge and Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ekundayo J. D.

    The effects of literacy and livelihood programs on female learners' participation in literacy were examined through case studies of groups of women who participated in four literacy and income-earning projects in Kenya. Data were collected through focus group discussions and a questionnaire. The four programs were started between 1968 and 1999 and…

  16. Can minor fruit cultivation change the livelihood of the marginal peasants? A case study from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon (lebu cultivation, a minor fruit production activity, is increasingly becoming popular among the marginal peasants. The present study aimed at exploring the potentials of lemon production and its impact on the changes in the livelihood pattern of the rural farmers as well as its impact on women empowerment. Based on qualitative and quantitative data collected from Mymensingh district in Bangladesh in 2015, this paper argues that life and livelihood of the citrus producer has significantly changed over the last decade. Income from the sale of lemon is the principal livelihood means and gender non-differentiated participation in the production process further enhanced the sustainability of the livelihoods. It also contributed to employment generation for those who are not directly involved in the lemon cultivation such as power tiller driver, irrigation pump driver, fertilizer & pesticide retailer, small lemon collector, lemon supplier in the study area. Moreover, increased participation of women in the citrus cultivation has changed not only their economic well-being but also social status, honor, planning and decision making power, and self-esteem. This study also shows that marginal and vulnerable poor women including landless women, female member of women headed household and widows significantly benefited from citrus cultivation. Yet, lack of cooperative society, financial support, credit facility, technical support, storage facility and marketing support are identified as the potential problems to achieve a sustainable growth of lemon production activity.

  17. The primacy of trust in the social networks and livelihoods of women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and livelihoods of rural Tanzanian women engaged in agro-entrepreneurial activity. ... and their perceptions of the characteristics of women business leaders and ... Three data collection techniques were employed: (1) a Personal Digital ... of employing this technology to create value by harnessing social capital and ...

  18. The differential impact of microcredit on rural livelihoods: Case study from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siyoum, A.D.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.; Pankhurst, A.S.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the differential impact of credit on rural Ethiopian households. Though credit is generally expected to have a positive impact on household livelihoods, this paper argues that credit affects households differently depending on wealth. Results show that credit failed to enable poo

  19. Formalisation of charcoal value chains and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.; Ingram, V.; Sakho-Jimbira, M.S.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the link between formalisation of charcoal institutions and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa. The woodfuel trade generally commenced informally, little controlled by legal or bureaucratic means. Developing formal institutions is often considered as a way of managin

  20. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by sma

  1. Mountains Under Pressure: Evaluating Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods in the Upper Himalayan Region of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhusal, Jagat K.; Chapagain, Prem Sagar; Regmi, Santosh; Gurung, Praju; Zulkafli, Zed; Karpouzoglou, T.D.; Pandeya, Bhopal; Buytaert, Wouter; Clark, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource-based livelihoods in mountainous regions are subject to new types of development as well as climate related pressures and vulnerabilities. On one hand, the integrity of the mountainous landscape is under pressure from the melting of glaciers, changes in water availability, rainfall

  2. The Role of Productive Water Use in Women’s Livelihoods: Evidence from Rural Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily van Houweling

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing livelihoods and promoting gender equity are primary goals of rural development programmes in Africa. This article explores the role of productive water use in relation to these goals based on 1860 household surveys and 15 women’s focus groups conducted in four regions of Senegal with small-scale piped water systems. The piped systems can be considered 'domestic plus' systems because they were designed primarily for domestic use, and also to accommodate small-scale productive uses including livestock-raising and community-gardening. This research focuses on the significance of productive water use in the livelihood diversification strategies of rural women. In Senegal, we find that access to water for productive purposes is a critical asset for expanding and diversifying rural livelihoods. The time savings associated with small piped systems and the increased water available allowed women to enhance existing activities and initiate new enterprises. Women’s livelihoods were found to depend on productive use activities, namely livestock-raising and gardening, and it is estimated that one half of women’s incomes is linked to productive water use. While these findings are largely positive, we find that water service and affordability constraints limit the potential benefits of productive water use for women and the poorest groups. Implications for targeting women and the poorest groups within the domestic plus approach are discussed.

  3. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349828; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069299382; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by

  4. Rural Livelihoods, Climate Change and Micro-Level Adaptive Capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi

    to the emerging body of knowledge through quantitative investigation of: (i) rural household incomes, livelihood strategies and dynamics; (ii) micro-level vulnerability to climate and land use change; and (iii) adaptation decision-making processes. This research project was primarily carried out in Cambodia...

  5. The role of non-timber forest products for livelihood diversification in Southwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chilalo, M.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) has received attention in light of their perceived potential to address both poverty reduction and tropical forest conservation. Based on a survey amongst 145 households, this paper describes the role and significance of NTFPs in the livelihoods of rural

  6. Formalisation of charcoal value chains and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.; Ingram, V.; Sakho-Jimbira, M.S.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the link between formalisation of charcoal institutions and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa. The woodfuel trade generally commenced informally, little controlled by legal or bureaucratic means. Developing formal institutions is often considered as a way of

  7. Survival strategies of people in a Sri Lankan wetland : livelihood, health and nature conservation in Muthurajawela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogvorst, A.

    2003-01-01

    Key words: Anthropology, emic, environment, etic, gender, health, livelihoods, Muthurajawela, nature-conservation, survival strategies, Sri Lanka, wetland.The objective of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of how poor people living in a sensitive wetland ecosystem maint

  8. "Like Unbroken Cream": Education and Livelihoods among the Kazakh of Western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portisch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns educational and livelihood trajectories of the Kazakh minority in western Mongolia. It outlines the trajectories of individuals over four generations of a Kazakh family and contextualizes these within social, political, and economic context. It describes the importance of family networks and considers the concept of social…

  9. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon

    2013-01-01

    -study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across...

  10. The Effects of Biofuel Feedstock Production on Farmers’ Livelihoods in Ghana: The Case of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Acheampong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The widespread acquisition of land for large-scale/commercial production of biofuel crops in Ghana has raised concerns from civil society organizations, local communities and other parties, regarding the impact of these investments on local livelihoods. This paper assessed the effect of large-scale acquisition of land for production of Jatropha curcas on farmers’ livelihoods in Ghana. The study was conducted in 11 communities spanning the major agro-ecological zones and political divisions across Ghana. Methods of data collection included questionnaire survey, interviews and focus group discussions. Results show that several households have lost their land to Jatropha plantations leading, in some cases, to violent conflicts between biofuel investors, traditional authorities and the local communities. Most people reported that, contrary to the belief that Jatropha does well on marginal lands, the lands acquired by the Jatropha Companies were productive lands. Loss of rights over land has affected households’ food production and security, as many households have resorted to reducing the area they have under cultivation, leading to shortening fallow periods and declining crop yields. In addition, although the cultivation of Jatropha led to the creation of jobs in the communities where they were started, such jobs were merely transient. The paper contends that, even though the impact of Jatropha feedstock production on local livelihoods in Ghana is largely negative, the burgeoning industry could be developed in ways that could support local livelihoods.

  11. Survival strategies of people in a Sri Lankan wetland : livelihood, health and nature conservation in Muthurajawela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogvorst, A.

    2003-01-01

    Key words: Anthropology, emic, environment, etic, gender, health, livelihoods, Muthurajawela, nature-conservation, survival strategies, Sri Lanka, wetland.The objective of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of how poor people living in a sensitive wetland ecosystem

  12. Role of Forest Resources to Local Livelihoods: The Case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Langat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%, construction material (18%, and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were significantly different among wealth classes. Poor households were more dependent on forests resources. However, in absolute terms, the rich households derived higher forest income. These results provide valuable information on the role of forest resources to livelihoods and could be applied in developing forest conservation policies for enhanced ecosystem services and livelihoods.

  13. Conflict and Livelihood Decisions in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Badiuzzaman (Muhammad); S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We analyse rural household livelihood and child school enrolment decisions in the post-conflict setting of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) region of Bangladesh. What makes this paper innovative is the use of current subjective perceptions regarding the possibility of v

  14. Vulnerability and resilience of competing land-based livelihoods in south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: vulnerability; resilience; livelihood; drought; Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area; south eastern Zimbabwe. Vulnerability and resilience have emerged as powerful analytical concepts in the study of socio-ecological systems. In this research these concepts are used to enhance o

  15. Certifications, child labour and livelihood strategies: an analysis of cocoa production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu-Amankwah, R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There have been various innovative initiatives by global and local actors in response to pressure on cocoa value-chain actors to free cocoa production from child labour (CL) and especially the worst forms of child labour (WFCL) and also to improve the livelihoods of farm fa

  16. Balancing urban and peri-urban exchange: water geography of rural livelihoods in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Caravantes, Rolando E

    2012-01-01

    The peri-urban area is the region where there is a more dynamic interaction between the urban and rural. The peri-urban area supplies natural resources, such as land for urban expansion and agricultural products to feed the urban population. In arid and semi-arid lands, such as northern Mexico, these areas may also be the source of water for the city's domestic demand. In addition, scholars argue that peri-urban residents may have a more advantageous geographical position for selling their labour and agricultural products in cities and, by doing so, sustaining their livelihoods. A considerable number of studies have examined the peri-urban to urban natural resources transfer in terms of land annexation, housing construction, and infrastructure issues; however, the study of the effects of the reallocation of peri-urban water resources to serve urban needs is critical as well because the livelihoods of peri-urban residents, such as those based on agriculture and livestock, depend on water availability. In the case of Hermosillo there is a tremendous pressure on the water resources of peri-urban small farm communities or ejidos because of urban demand. Based on interviews and structured surveys with producers and water managers, this paper examines how peri-urban livelihoods have been reshaped by the reallocation of the city's natural resources in many cases caused some ejido members or ejidatarios to lose livelihoods.

  17. Socio-Ecological and Livelihood Assessment of Selected Coastal Areas in Sorsogon, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Arthur B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the productive capacity of five villages namely Gimagaan, Sevilla, Sogoy, Milagrosa and Saclayan in Sorsogon, Philippines. Specifically, it aimed to assess the productive resource base, resource use and livelihood patterns and provide management prescriptions in the transition of farms into organic agriculture. Sustainable livelihoods analysis and participatory rapid appraisal were the analytical frameworks used in the study. Result of the study revealed that Gimagaan village had the greatest access to asset capitals compared to the other four villages in Sorsogon, Philippines. Gimagaan village highly benefited from the presence of socio-civic and government organizations, residents are more socially inclined and actively involved in the various social activities, have generally good access to their natural resource stocks and infrastructure facilities. On sustainability assessment, results revealed that Milagrosa village was more capable of sustaining management systems of its natural resources, highly resilient against perturbations and had greater chances of improving capacities for social development enterprises. Saclayan village on the other hand, had the lowest access to asset capitals and lowest score in terms of sustainability indicators. Management prescriptions include introduction of farming and fishing technologies which do not require intensive capital; conduct of an in-depth study of fishery-based livelihood project; strengthening the establishment of community-based sanctuaries and mangrove areas; introduction of crop-diversification farming system; and strengthening of the production-market linkage for fishery-based livelihood projects.  

  18. Livelihood Capabilities and Pathways of Shrimp Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Phung Ha, Ha; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Bosma, R.H.; Sinh, L.X.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a major livelihood activity in the Mekong Delta in the southernmost part of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government has promoted shrimp farming as a way to reduce poverty, provide employment opportunities and increase exports to support economic development. The shrimp farming system, h

  19. How the sustainable livelihoods framework can contribute towards sustainable social development: where are we going?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available . The SLA provides a manner in which to improve understanding of the livelihoods of poor people in terms of their assets and capabilities, as well as, the policies, institutions and processes that enhance or inhibit their access to capital whilst increasing...

  20. Merging capabilities and livelihoods: analyzing the use of biological resources to improve well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Lienert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Especially poor people in developing countries depend on biological resources to manage their livelihoods and to generate income. Because these resources are usually public goods, their use is often subjected to what is known as the tragedy of the commons, potentially leading to resource depletion, environmental degradation, and loss of biodiversity, which consequently undermines the availability and capacity of resources to contribute to residents' well-being in the long run. We suggest addressing this typical sustainability issue from a new angle. Against the backdrop of identifiable shortcomings within two popular analytic approaches, the capability approach (CA and the sustainable livelihood approach (SLA, we argue for an improved sustainability framework for analyzing the issue in question. Although we view the CA as encompassing our core ideas regarding human well-being, we propose to enrich it by merging it with the SLA to more adequately include social and environmental capital. To test the framework's usefulness, we apply it to a case study on the use of medicinal and aromatic plants in the rural livelihood context of Nepal. Thereby, we reveal not only that the creation of capabilities is strongly dependent on the set of capital assets available, particularly in the form of natural capital, but also that the framework provides new perspectives: What matters is developing livelihood strategies that increase people's opportunity spaces rather than focusing only on those that compensate for missing capabilities or enable people to cope with shocks and vulnerability.

  1. Comparing one-year recall and daily household records of livelihood activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Yonika

    2014-01-01

    activities. In this study we examine discrepancies between activities and associated incomes (cash and subsistence) reported by sample households through interviews conducted at the end of a one-year recall period and based on daily records of livelihood activities made by the same households throughout...

  2. the impact of forest reserves on livelihoods of fringe communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    and forest products at local market and for ex- ... negative impact on the livelihood of the people. This study was ..... Socio-Economic Characteristics of Fringe .... proximity to Kumasi, the cultural hub of ... It became clear that if the tourism poten-.

  3. Social Capital, Organic Agriculture, and Sustainable Livelihood Security: Rethinking Agrarian Change in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of extra local market linkages and local-level social capital to sustainable livelihood outcomes in two agrarian communities on Mexico's Baja Peninsula. Contextualized by the specificity of Mexico's transition from state-directed rural development to neoliberally-guided rural development in the 1990s, findings…

  4. Certifications, child labour and livelihood strategies: an analysis of cocoa production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu-Amankwah, R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There have been various innovative initiatives by global and local actors in response to pressure on cocoa value-chain actors to free cocoa production from child labour (CL) and especially the worst forms of child labour (WFCL) and also to improve the livelihoods of farm

  5. ‘Even fish have an ethnicity’: livelihoods and identities of men and women in war-affected coastal Trincomalee, Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokuge, Gayathri Hiroshani Hallinne

    2017-01-01

    Located within the nexus between identity and livelihoods, this thesis explores how the economic activities of fisher livelihoods are shaped by socio-cultural, political and identity dynamics, and how fisher livelihoods, in turn, shape and reproduce these dynamics in post-war Sri Lanka’s

  6. ‘Even fish have an ethnicity’: livelihoods and identities of men and women in war-affected coastal Trincomalee, Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokuge, Gayathri Hiroshani Hallinne

    2017-01-01

    Located within the nexus between identity and livelihoods, this thesis explores how the economic activities of fisher livelihoods are shaped by socio-cultural, political and identity dynamics, and how fisher livelihoods, in turn, shape and reproduce these dynamics in post-war Sri Lanka’s coast

  7. Linking hydrology, ecosystem function, and livelihood sustainability in African papyrus wetlands using a Bayesian Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, A.; Gettel, G. M.; Kipkemboi, J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Papyrus wetlands in East Africa provide ecosystem services supporting the livelihoods of millions but are rapidly degrading due to economic development. For ecosystem conservation, an integrated understanding of the natural and social processes driving ecosystem change is needed. This research focuses on integrating the causal relationships between hydrology, ecosystem function, and livelihood sustainability in Nyando wetland, western Kenya. Livelihood sustainability is based on ecosystem services that include plant and animal harvest for building material and food, conversion of wetlands to crop and grazing land, water supply, and water quality regulation. Specific objectives were: to integrate studies of hydrology, ecology, and livelihood activities using a Bayesian Network (BN) model and include stakeholder involvement in model development. The BN model (Netica 4.16) had 35 nodes with seven decision nodes describing demography, economy, papyrus market, and rainfall, and two target nodes describing ecosystem function (defined by groundwater recharge, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity) and livelihood sustainability (drinking water supply, crop production, livestock production, and papyrus yield). The conditional probability tables were populated using results of ecohydrological and socio-economic field work and consultations with stakeholders. The model was evaluated for an average year with decision node probabilities set according to data from research, expert opinion, and stakeholders' views. Then, scenarios for dry and wet seasons and for economic development (low population growth and unemployment) and policy development (more awareness of wetland value) were evaluated. In an average year, the probability for maintaining a "good" level of sediment and nutrient retention functions, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity was about 60%. ("Good" is defined by expert opinion based on ongoing field research.) In the dry season, the probability was

  8. Trends in Urbanization and Implications for Peri-Urban Livelihoods in Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Cynthia

    Urbanization is a common occurrence in both developed and developing worlds. Similar to occurrences in other developing world cities, Accra's urbanization is marked by fast, unplanned and uneven growth into mostly peripheral lands (Grant and Yankson 2002; Yeboah 2001; Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) 2002). Such trends in urbanization in places where data on the urbanization process is seriously inadequate and infrequent, (Rakodi 1997a; Ohadika 1991; Fasona and Omojola 2004) pose a major challenge to urban planning and management (Henderson 2002), and affect the livelihood base of several peri-urban households. Properly monitoring the urbanization process in the developing world and understanding its effects on people's lives depends on the availability of useful and up-to- date data (Weber and Puissant 2003; Mundia and Aniya 2006) that could be obtained using new and robust analytical techniques (Yang 2003). In addition, in the urban environment, differences in rates of urbanization, income, employment status, and gender dynamics across neighborhoods suggest that the impacts of increasing urbanization on peri-urban livelihoods are likely to vary across peoples and places. Against this backdrop, this dissertation uses Accra as a case study to, first, measures the nature and extent of urban expansion using a non-conventional technique, and then analyzes neighborhood - and gender-differentiated impacts of increasing urbanization on household livelihoods in peri-urban Accra. Study findings reveal: 1) major conversion of vegetated land to urban lands uses and support the effectiveness of the Self-Organizing Map and Landsat data to map complex and hazy urban tropical environments; 2) that the impacts of urbanization on peri-urban livelihoods are structured along the lines of neighborhood-level urbanization; changes brought by a higher rate of urbanization are more beneficial than harmful to household livelihoods; 3) that positive livelihood outcomes in high

  9. Climate change and human health: Spatial modeling of water availability, malnutrition, and livelihoods in Mali, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, M.M.; Lopez-Carr, D.; Funk, C.; Husak, G.J.; Chafe, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops a novel approach for projecting climate trends in the Sahel in relation to shifting livelihood zones and health outcomes. Focusing on Mali, we explore baseline relationships between temperature, precipitation, livelihood, and malnutrition in 407 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) clusters with a total of 14,238 children, resulting in a thorough spatial analysis of coupled climate-health dynamics. Results suggest links between livelihoods and each measure of malnutrition, as well as a link between climate and stunting. A ‘front-line’ of vulnerability, related to the transition between agricultural and pastoral livelihoods, is identified as an area where mitigation efforts might be usefully targeted. Additionally, climate is projected to 2025 for the Sahel, and demographic trends are introduced to explore how the intersection of climate and demographics may shift the vulnerability ‘front-line’, potentially exposing an additional 6 million people in Mali, up to a million of them children, to heightened risk of malnutrition from climate and livelihood changes. Results indicate that, holding constant morbidity levels, approximately one quarter of a million children will suffer stunting, nearly two hundred thousand will be malnourished, and over one hundred thousand will become anemic in this expanding arid zone by 2025. Climate and health research conducted at finer spatial scales and within shorter projected time lines can identify vulnerability hot spots that are of the highest priority for adaptation interventions; such an analysis can also identify areas with similar characteristics that may be at heightened risk. Such meso-scale coupled human-environment research may facilitate appropriate policy interventions strategically located beyond today’s vulnerability front-line.

  10. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...... sig over hele verden. Nationalisme er blevet global....

  11. COMMUNITY GARDENS AND FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL AND MARKET GARDENS IN MBERENGWA, ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Chazovachii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to assess the contribution of community gardens on food security in rural livelihoods development in Mberengwa ward 27. Despite the introduction of community gardens in ward 27, poverty persisted amongst the vulnerable groups in the district. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in collection of data through questionnaires, interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and content analysis. This study revealed that the vulnerable people of Mberengwa derived income, basic horticultural skills, enriching their garden soils and food commodities from the Imbahuru community garden. Factors like all year-round production of crops, intensiveness of the activity, monitoring and evaluation by extension workers, field days in all seasons and demand of the crop varieties grown influence food security in the district. However challenges persisted due to their seclusion of these gardeners from credit facilicities, lack of irrigation equipment, unstable power relations among leaders and the project was associated with the weak in society. The research concludes that the gardening project should be done not in isolation with the Zimbabwe's agrarian reform programme which would provide all forms of capital which capacitated the vulnerable rural dwellers.

  12. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  13. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  14. CONTRIBUTION OF URBAN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION TO FARMERS' LIVELIHOOD: A CASE OF THE KUMASI METROPOLIS OF ASHANTI REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Kodjo DARKEY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of urban poor is rapidly increasing as urban population grows. Urban vegetable production is therefore a response to the available market demand and the challenges of unemployment and food insecurity resulting from the urbanisation. The study examined the contribution of urban vegetable production to farmers’ livelihoods in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ashanti Region of Ghana. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. Based on a simple random sampling technique, 300 urban vegetable farmers were selected and interviewed. Cronbach alpha coefficient values showed high reliability and consistency of the farmers’ livelihood subscales. The study that the contribution of urban vegetable production to farmers’ livelihoods differed significantly regarding different livelihood subscales (ANOVA. Post-hoc multiple comparisons test (Dunnett’s T3 result revealed that the contribution of urban vegetable production to farmers’ mean livelihoods was generally ‘low’. However, it contributed ‘moderately high’ to their natural and physical capitals. The strength of association between farmers’ mean livelihood subscales also showed that urban vegetable production impacted differently and significantly on their livelihoods. It is recommended that Farmer Based Organisations (FBOs should be formed to help empower and protect farmers’ from the exploitation of prospective buyers. It would also help address common challenges confronting members including high input cost, lack of credit facilities and inadequate marketing avenues.

  15. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  16. Mapping future changes in livelihood security and environmental sustainability based on perceptions of small farmers in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio H. Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is a widely recognized problem in the Brazilian Amazon. Small farmers play a key role in this process in that they earn their livelihood by ranching and farming. Many studies have addressed the link between deforestation and livelihood strategies adopted by small farmers. Most have focused on advanced monitoring systems, simulation models, and GIS approaches to analyze the interaction of both dimensions, i.e., livelihoods and forest cover change. Although the current toolbox of methods has proved successful in increasing our understanding of these interactions, the models and approaches employed do not consider small farmers' perspectives. On the assumption that local small farmers are agents of land-cover change, understanding how they perceive their own situation is essential to elucidate their actions. Our objective is to explore future changes in livelihood security and environmental sustainability as envisaged by local small farmers in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous livelihood cluster analysis of small farmers located in southeast Pará was integrated with fuzzy cognitive mapping to determine present perceptions and to explore future changes, using global scenarios downscaled to the local situation. Overall, system description differs only on details; all results indicate a strong trade-off between livelihood security and environmental sustainability in all livelihood systems, as identified by the small farmers. However, fundamentally different outcomes are obtained from the future analysis, depending on the livelihood strategy cluster. Achieving win-win outcomes does not necessarily imply a positive scenario, especially if small farmers are dependent on income transfers from the government to provide their livelihood.

  17. Evaluation of Bedtime Basics for Babies: A National Crib Distribution Program to Reduce the Risk of Sleep-Related Sudden Infant Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Hauck, Fern R.; Tanabe, Kawai O.; McMurry, Timothy; Moon, Rachel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of sleep-related infant deaths have remained stagnant in recent years. Although most parents are aware of safe sleep recommendations, barriers to adherence, including lack of access to a safe crib, remain. The objective of this study was to describe parental knowledge and practices regarding infant sleep position, bedsharing, pacifier use, and feeding practices before and after receipt of a free crib and safe sleep education. Bedtime Basics for Babies (BBB) enrolled high-risk families i...

  18. Four-Fold Dimensionality in the Theoretical System of Cultural Construction of People’s Livelihood-- Some Thoughts Based on Cultural Construction of People’s Livelihood in Socialism With Chinese Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Kang; Zhaofei Li

    2013-01-01

    ... of people’s livelihood, China has adhered to the path of cultural development of socialism with Chinese characteristics and has cultivated the high cultural self-consciousness and cultural self-confidence of the people...

  19. Finding urban waste management solutions and policies: Waste-to-energy development and livelihood support system in Payatas, Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrona, Kevin Roy; Yu, Jeong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    One of the potential solutions in social and environmental sustainability in municipal solid waste management (MSW) in Metro Manila is to combine community-based recycling and sound landfill management strategies. The marriage of the two puts importance on recycling as a source of livelihood while proper landfill management aims to improve the aesthetic and environmental quality of disposal facilities in urban areas. To do this, a social mapping of wastepickers, junkshops and local recycling practices needs to be undertaken and at the same time assess strategies of the national and local governments vis-à-vis existing laws on municipal solid waste. The case of Payatas controlled disposal facility was taken as a pilot study because it represents the general condition of disposal sites in Metro Manila and the social landscape that it currently has. In addition, a waste-to-energy (WTE) project has been established in Payatas to produce electricity from methane gas. Preliminary interviews with wastepickers show that development interventions in disposal sites such as WTE pose no opposition from host communities for as long as alternative livelihood opportunities are provided. Regulating the flow of wastepickers into the landfill has advantages like improved income and security. Felt needs were also articulated like provision of financial support or capital for junkshop operation and skills training. Overall, a smooth relationship between the local government and community associations pays well in a transitioning landfill management scheme such as Payatas.

  20. Legitimacy of Government Function Outsourcing in People’ s Livelihood Construction%民生建设中政府职能外包的正当性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛先园

    2014-01-01

    国家理性是诠释民生建设中政府职能外包之正当性的有力工具。功利性的国家理性属于目的理性的范畴,它“见风使舵”,有利于维护社会公共秩序。规范主义的国家理性,在公法视域中通过把自身具化为“政府固有职能”的概念而呈现出来。我国民生建设中许多政府打算做的事情,超出了“政府固有职能”的范围,须外包给社会组织来完成。%Reason of nation is a powerful tool to explain the legitimacy of government function outsourcing in people ’ s liveli-hood construction.Utilitarian reason of state, belonging to aim reason, has proved to be flexible and is conducive to the mainte-nance of social order.Normative reason of state is manifested as “inherently governmental functions” in the scope of public laws. Many activities in people ’ s livelihood construction in China are beyond the scope of “inherently governmental functions” and should be outsourced by social organizations.

  1. Connectivity and distant drivers of land change: A case study of land use, land cover, and livelihood changes in Quang Tri, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Eric

    The urban lowland areas of Vietnam have been at the forefront of economic liberalization over the last 30 years, while the more remote mountainous areas of the country have lagged behind. Upland areas in the Northern and Central portions of Vietnam in particular remain largely impoverished and disconnected from broader national and regional markets. To address this economic inequality in the uplands, recent economic development efforts such as the East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) have aimed at expanding road infrastructure to remote areas in Central Vietnam. This study examines the impact of road expansion in the EWEC on a single village in Quang Tri, Vietnam. It draws from social economic data gathered during fieldwork and a historical land cover analysis to address how land use, land cover, and livelihoods have changed in recent decades. Moreover, the paper discusses the distal and proximate drivers of these changes. Findings show that the improved road connectivity provided by new roads has facilitated the transmission of distant market-related drivers into the study area, and that these drivers have fostered significant changes in land use, land cover, and livelihoods.

  2. Environmental change and household livelihood strategies: preliminary observations from field work in different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Preston

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework and objectives of a study of environmental change and evolving household livelihood strategies, which will include field work in Central Java, are outlined. Preliminary results of previous, related field work in Luzon (Philippines and highland Ecuador (South America are reported. Two changes that seem of importance in both areas so far studied are the increasing importance of commercial farming in central locations (near to village centres and the decreasing intensity of use of land on the periphery of rural communities. Preliminary observations in Central Java suggest that household livelihood strategies are more diversified than in either case study area in Luzon or Ecuador and that such diversification has increased through time. The relative importance of farming and the use of natural resources does not seem to have diminished.

  3. Factors Affecting Project Governance Of Arusha Archdiocesan Food Security And Livelihood Project In Monduli District Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisame Deogratious

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research project dealt with the factors affecting governance of Food security and livelihood projects a case study of the Food security and livelihood project that was implemented by AAIDRO in Monduli district and included 60 respondents all together. The specific objectives of this study intended to access the Leadership styles that are being used in project governance. The findings of the study indicated that 91.7 of the respondents were in favor of their leaders project governance styles it was portrayed that participative leadership style was being used by the leaders for project governance. Based on a sample of 60 project members this study had confirmed that a project leaders leadership roles like mentor facilitator innovator and coordinator are important in influencing project governance effectiveness which includes team mission goal achievement and empowerment open and honest communication

  4. LEVERAGING RURAL LIVELIHOODS WITH FOREST CONSERVATION IN NIGERIA: THE ROLE OF NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbe BASSEY ETOWA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times some economists view Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs extraction and marketing as a better alternative to timber exploitation as a rural livelihood strategy. Harvesting and sale of NTFPs have the potential for accomplishing the dual goals of natural forest conservation and income generation for the rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, realization of these dual goals in Nigeria, require an understanding of how NTFPs functions in the face of marketing, ecological, geographic and institutional constraints. Following a conceptualization of NTFPs, this paper provides a vivid overview of the simultaneous roles of NTFPs in rural livelihood enhancement and forest conservation in Nigeria. It highlights governmental initiatives with respect to conservation, the challenges and prospects of NTFPs as a conservation strategy. Conclusively, the paper suggests that appropriate NTFPs development policies are required to simultaneously address forest depletion and poverty in rural areas of Nigeria.

  5. Livelihoods, power, and food insecurity: adaptation of social capital portfolios in protracted crises--case study Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervisch, Thomas G A; Vlassenroot, Koen; Braeckman, Johan

    2013-04-01

    The failure of food security and livelihood interventions to adapt to conflict settings remains a key challenge in humanitarian responses to protracted crises. This paper proposes a social capital analysis to address this policy gap, adding a political economy dimension on food security and conflict to the actor-based livelihood framework. A case study of three hillsides in north Burundi provides an ethnographic basis for this hypothesis. While relying on a theoretical framework in which different combinations of social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) account for a diverse range of outcomes, the findings offer empirical insights into how social capital portfolios adapt to a protracted crisis. It is argued that these social capital adaptations have the effect of changing livelihood policies, institutions, and processes (PIPs), and clarify the impact of the distribution of power and powerlessness on food security issues. In addition, they represent a solid way of integrating political economy concerns into the livelihood framework.

  6. Conservation, livelihoods and tourism: A case study of the Buhoma-Mukono Community-based Tourism Project in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahebwa, W.M.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, communities neighboring protected areas continue to bear a disproportionate amount of the costs associated with conservation. Traditional community livelihood strategies such as hunting, logging, and plant harvesting are seen as major threats to protected areas. Therefore, p

  7. Farming Approaches for Greater Biodiversity, Livelihoods, and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, Lucas A; Gemmill-Herren, Barbara; D'Annolfo, Raffaele; Graeub, Benjamin E; Cunningham, Saul A; Breeze, Tom D

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and policy-makers globally are calling for alternative approaches to conventional intensification of agriculture that enhance ecosystem services provided by biodiversity. The evidence reviewed here suggests that alternative approaches can achieve high crop yields and profits, but the performance of other socioeconomic indicators (as well as long-term trends) is surprisingly poorly documented. Consequently, the implementation of conventional intensification and the discussion of alternative approaches are not based on quantitative evidence of their simultaneous ecological and socioeconomic impacts across the globe. To close this knowledge gap, we propose a participatory assessment framework. Given the impacts of conventional intensification on biodiversity loss and greenhouse gas emissions, such evidence is urgently needed to direct science-policy initiatives, such as the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  8. Hunting for Livelihood in Northeast Gabon: Patterns, Evolution, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We suggest an ethno-biological approach to analyze the cultural and social drivers of hunting activities and assess sustainability in villages near Makokou, northeast Gabon, based on interviews with hunters, participatory mapping of hunting territories, and daily records of offtakes for 1 yr. Hunting in villages of northeast Gabon is practiced for both local consumption and cash income to cover basic family expenses. There appears to be no clear tendency to abandon subsistence hunting for commercial hunting as in other regions of Africa. Cultural and socioeconomic factors explain the temporal and spatial variation in hunting activities. Hunting increases in the dry season during circumcision ceremonies, when it is practiced mainly at > 10 km from villages, and decreases during the rainy season because most hunters are occupied by other economic activities. Degraded forest such as secondary regrowth supplies 20% of the animals killed and the greatest diversity of species at short distances from villages. Mature forest supplies the species with the greatest commercial value, e.g., red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus, and is the preferred source of meat for traditional ceremonies. In the last 15 yr, hunting patterns have changed rapidly, mainly because of the spread of gun hunting, which had serious implications for the nature of offtakes. Our results suggest that there is potential to allow hunting for resistant species such as blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola and African brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus. Other species such as red river hog and small diurnal monkeys require more attention. Specific management systems could be discussed in participatory hunting management plans to identify possible solutions to maintain the population levels of the more critical species.

  9. Contribution of forest restoration to rural livelihoods and household income in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Theilade, Ida; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    Forest resources remain vital to the survival of many rural communities, though the level of forest reliance varies across a range of sites and socio-economic settings. This article investigates variation in forest utilization across households in three ethnic groups living near a forest restorat...... households, respectively. Our findings showed that the livelihoods of indigenous groups were still intricately linked with forest resources, despite a rapid landscape-wide transition from natural forest to oil palm and timber plantations....

  10. Climate crisis narratives and coastal livelihoods in North-west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejsner, Pelle

    2017-01-01

    North have increasingly been portrayed as somehow more ‘ exposed’ or ‘ vulnerable’ victims located on the frontline of a geographically determined global crisis narrative about climate change, which inadvertently ignores the reality of coastal livelihoods in the Arctic today. Qeqertarsuarmiut often...... environmental fluctuations are certainly observed, interactions with a familiar coastal environment, nevertheless, continue to foster a relationship predicated on an enduring patience and concomitant flexibility towards shifting ice conditions, local weather vagaries and the moods of non-human agents rather...

  11. THE SYNERGISTIC AND MULTIPLICATIVE EFFECTS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN THE LIVELIHOODS OF CITIZENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yakovlev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation of the forms and methods of public-private partnerships in the major subsystems of life and livelihood of citizens of the Russian Federation on the basis of the organization of production and social infrastructure - housing, social security and pension. Analyzes the uses of multipliers in the formation of synergistic and multiplicative eff ects in the development of production and the economy.

  12. Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the Morogoro region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Paavola, Jouni

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines livelihood responses to climate variability and other stressors in the Morogoro region in south-eastern Tanzania, with an aim to understand the implications of these responses to adapting to changing climate in the region in the future. The paper indicates how farmers have responded to draughts by expanding cultivations, reducing fallows, switching crops and engaging in wage employment or in charcoal, timber and brick production. Farmers also frequently migrate on temporar...

  13. Land Access, Livelihood Strategies and Rural Household Well-being in Mvomero District, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mwesiga Lyatuu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of specific livelihood variables on a household’s well-being provides a crucial basis for effective focus of poverty intervention, and consequently wiser resource allocation. This paper analyses the influence of land access, livelihood strategies (LS and selected demographic characteristics on household well-being status (HWBS in Mvomero District, Tanzania. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design whereby quantitative data were collected once from 267 randomly selected households in 8 villages. Data analysis was done using SPSS. Unlike the hypothesis, multinomial logistic regression results demonstrated that per capita land size and location have a positive significant influence (p < 0.05 on HWBS. Likewise, unlike the hypothesis, three more variables including exclusive farming, number of dependents and distance to farms were confirmed to have a negative significant influence (p < 0.05 on well-being. It is concluded that though per capita land size has a positive influence on HWBS, expanding farms through adding plots and distant farming hinders the attainment of well-being. Moreover, households with many dependents and those working in exclusive farming are disadvantaged in the attainment of well-being. There is therefore room to enhance progress in attainment of well-being through reducing the distance to farms and promoting diversification of livelihood strategies. The Tanzania government is advised to support distant farmers with settlements in their destinations. The government and other development agencies are also advised to enhance the capacity of the studied communities and dwellers of other rural land scarce areas in Tanzania for a meaningful diversification of livelihood strategies. This can be through supporting them to gain education and labor skills and also to engage in saving and credits projects. To be inclusive the strategies may pay special attention to households with a large number

  14. Resilient or vulnerable? : a study of the livelihoods of inshore fishers and aquaculturists in Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jiunmin

    2016-01-01

    The marine and coastal ecosystem of Penang experiences problems with water pollution and overexploitation of fish stock is not a new phenomenon. The degradation of the marine and coastal ecosystem, coupled with natural hazards such as the 2004 tsunami, have affected the livelihoods of the inshore fishers and aquaculturists who depend on marine and coastal resources for a living. This study addresses the vulnerability and the coping strategies of the inshore fishers and aquaculturists (shrimp,...

  15. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receivin...... in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for the promotion of positive forms of income diversification and the further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on autonomous adaptation strategies....

  16. Vulnerability and Risk Management for Sustainable Livelihoods of Farm Households in Northern Thailand-

    OpenAIRE

    Sricharoen, Thitiwan

    2007-01-01

    This research attempts to explain the relationship between poverty, livelihood difficulties, risk and risk management and vulnerability to poverty of farm households in Northern Thailand. Furthermore, this study proposes a health insurance concept addressing risks and poverty of farm households. In line with the objective was to analyse risk and risk management strategies of vulnerable rural households in Northern Thailand. Firstly, the result of a principal component analysis (PCA) was ut...

  17. Functional Links Between Biodiversity, Livelihoods, and Culture in a Hani Swidden Landscape in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchu Xu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of Mengsong, southwest China, was biologically diverse until recently due to historical biogeographical processes overlain by the swidden-cultivation practices of the Hani who migrated there several centuries ago. Our research sought to understand how the Hani adjusted their livelihoods to new policies, markets, and technologies, and the consequences for biodiversity conservation. We combined landscape, plot, and household surveys, interviews, and reviews of secondary documents, to reconstruct the major changes and responses to challenges in the social-ecological system over previous decades. Significant changes from closed to open canopy of secondary-forest vegetation took place between 1965-1993 and from open-canopy to closed-canopy forest between 1993-2006, mostly explainable by changes in state land-use policies and the market economy. Most remaining swidden-fallow succession had been converted into tea or rubber plantations. Swidden-fallow fields used to contain significant levels of biological diversity. Until 2000, biodiversity served several important ecological and social functions in the Hani livelihood system. Indigenous institutions were often functional, for example, linked to fire control, soil management, and watershed protection. For centuries, the Hani had detailed knowledge of the landscape, helping them to adjust rapidly to ecological disturbances and changes in production demands. The Hani understood succession processes that enabled them to carry out long-term land-management strategies. Recent government policies and market dynamics have simplified livelihoods and landscapes, seriously reducing biodiversity, but greatly increasing the area of closed-canopy forest (including plantations and undermining the usefulness of Hani knowledge and land-use institutions. Meeting both conservation and development objectives in this landscape will require new functional links between sustainable livelihoods, culture, and

  18. Livelihood adaptations to climate variability: insights from farming households in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Antwi-Agyei, P; Stringer, LC; Dougill, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Climate variability poses a significant threat to many sectors of Sub-Saharan Africa's economy. Agriculture is one of the most climate sensitive sectors because of its dependence on rain-fed cultivation. This paper identifies the main adaptation strategies used by farming households in the Sudan savannah and forest-savannah transitional agro-ecological zones of Ghana, in order to reduce the adverse impacts of climate variability on their livelihood activities. It combines questionnaire survey...

  19. An analysis of illegal mining on the Offin shelterbelt forest reserve, Ghana: Implications on community livelihood

    OpenAIRE

    Boadi, Samuel; Nsor, Collins Ayine; Antobre, Osei Owusu; Acquah, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Mining in tropical countries contributes significantly to the global minerals supplies but unregulated mining activities in reserved forests is associated with destruction, loss of habitats and loss of biodiversity. This study determined the area of the Offin shelterbelt forest reserve, Ghana, degraded through illegal mining (galamsey) and the impacts on the livelihoods of fringe communities. Thirty-two (32) coordinates were recorded around the peripheries of disturbed site in the reserve usi...

  20. Livelihood Change as Impact of Rural-Urban Transformation in Sleman Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benino Indra Ardhityatama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as one of many developing countries in the world is facing the same problem, which is about the rapidly high level of urbanization. In Indonesia, this transformation from rural to urban area will give impact to the changing of current livelihood, especially to the area that depends on the agriculture sector. Looking at more specific area, Yogyakarta is one of the big provinces in Indonesia that has rural and urban characteristic. The research question is “How does the rural community still resilient on agriculture based condition towards urbanization related to the livelihood changes?” This research focuses on the discovery on what family condition that they still resilient for their agriculture livelihood even though there are many changes caused by the urbanization. Qualitative method is used in this study because it can describe how people feel and their thoughts deeply, but it cannot tell you how many of the target population feel or think that way as quantitative method can. The study area development in Sleman and Godean Sub-District is triggered by the existence of the main access or main road. People that live alongside the main access are more likely to not become farmer again, so does to people that live in collector road. However, those who live in the remote area where the level of urbanization is low, the livelihood there is likely still as farmer considering the agriculture land still can be found easily. The general conclusion of this research is that the farmers in Sleman and Godean Sub-District have considerably high adaptability level. This is shown by the ability of the farmer that still can find a way to survive from the rapid urbanization that reduced their work field availability.

  1. Land management strategies and their implications for Mazahua farmers’ livelihoods in the Highlands of Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    García-Fajardo Belina; Orozco-Hernández María Estela; McDonagh John; Álvarez-Arteaga Gustavo; Mireles-Lezama Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study from a Mazahua indigenous community in the rural Highlands of Central Mexico. It analyses Mazahua farming livelihoods characterised by subsistence agriculture, marginality, poverty and severe land degradation. Mazahua farmers face constrained environmental, socioeconomic and cultural conditions, which influence their local decisions on natural resource management. The results describe the capital assets base used, where land, livestock and crop production are ...

  2. Toward the Integrated Framework Analysis of Linkages among Agrobiodiversity, Livelihood Diversification, Ecological Systems, and Sustainability amid Global Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl S. Zimmerer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and policy interest in the biological diversity of agriculture (agrobiodiversity is expanding amid global socioeconomic and environmental changes and sustainability interests. The majority of global agrobiodiversity is produced in smallholder food-growing. We use meta-analyses in an integrated framework to examine the interactions of smallholder agrobiodiversity with: (1 livelihood processes, especially migration, including impacts on agrobiodiversity as well as the interconnected resource systems of soil, water, and uncultivated habitats; and (2 plant-soil ecological systems. We hypothesize these interactions depend on: (1 scope of livelihood diversification and type resource system; and (2 plant residues and above-/belowground component ecological specificity. Findings show: (1 livelihood diversification is linked to varied environmental factors that range from rampant degradation to enhancing sustainability; and (2 significant ecological coupling of aboveground and soil agrobiodiversity (AGSOBIO assemblages. The environmental impacts of livelihood interactions correspond to variation of diversification (migration, on-farm diversification and resource system (i.e., agrobiodiversity per se, soil, water. Our findings also reveal mutually dependent interactions of aboveground and soil agrobiodiversity. Results identify livelihood diversification-induced reduction of environmental resource quality with lagged agrobiodiversity declines as a potentially major avenue of global change. Our contribution re-frames livelihood interactions to include both agrobiodiversity and ecological systems. We discuss this integrated social-environmental re-framing through the proposed spatial geographic schema of regional agri-food spaces with distinctive matrices of livelihood strategies and relations to biodiversity and resources. This re-framing can be used to integrate livelihood, agrobiodiversity, and ecological analysis and to guide policy and

  3. Social equity and livelihood implications of REDD+ in rural communities – a case study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Poudel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing international consensus that the use of the policy instrument REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in developing countries could be an effective way to reduce carbon emissions from the forestry sector and support bio-diversity with livelihood benefits, there are a range of unresolved issues, including potential implications for rural livelihoods. This paper presents results from recent research that examines social equity and livelihood implications of the piloting of REDD+ through Nepal’s community forestry system, within selected villages in the Gorkha district of Nepal. The research reveals the varying experiences of households, closely correlated to the socio-economic attributes of the households. Despite the ‘no harm and equitable’ policy, this research indicates that not everyone is experiencing the anticipated benefits of REDD+. Although poorer, women-headed and marginalized households are targeted in some ways (e.g. seed grants, the support is limited, and inadequately compensates the loss they have experienced in other ways (e.g. limited access to forests. Households bundling by caste may not necessarily address equity, but is likely to increase intra-caste marginalization.

  4. The differential impact of microcredit on rural livelihoods: Case study from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschale Dagnachew Siyoum

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the differential impact of credit on rural Ethiopian households. Though credit is generally expected to have a positive impact on household livelihoods, this paper argues that credit affects households differently depending on wealth. Results show that credit failed to enable poor households to move out of poverty and food insecurity, whereas better-off and labour rich households used credit to improve their livelihoods. For poor households, rather than achieving long-term livelihood improvements, access to credit only means short-term consumption smoothing with a risk of being trapped into a cycle of indebtedness. Participation in a safety net programme could, to some extent, break through this cycle, because such participation enhanced the credit-worthiness of poor households. The paper is based on ethnographic research, including a survey of 106 households,and a series of monthly in-depth interviews with a group of 15 households in the district of Ebinat, northern Ethiopia, over an 18-month period, from February 2009 to July 2010.

  5. Livelihoods, conflict and aid programming: is the evidence base good enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Richard; Slater, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    In conflict-affected situations, aid-funded livelihood interventions are often tasked with a dual imperative: to generate material welfare benefits and to contribute to peacebuilding outcomes. There may be some logic to such a transformative agenda, but does the reality square with the rhetoric? Through a review of the effectiveness of a range of livelihood promotion interventions--from job creation to microfinance--this paper finds that high quality empirical evidence is hard to come by in conflict-affected situations. Many evaluations appear to conflate outputs with impacts and numerous studies fail to include adequate information on their methodologies and datasets, making it difficult to appraise the reliability of their conclusions. Given the primary purpose of this literature--to provide policy guidance on effective ways to promote livelihoods--this silence is particularly concerning. As such, there is a strong case to be made for a restrained and nuanced handling of such interventions in conflict-affected settings. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  6. Climate adaptation, institutional change, and sustainable livelihoods of herder communities in northern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan grassland social-ecological systems are widely held to be highly vulnerable to climate change. We aim to investigate livelihood adaptation strategies of herder households and the types of local institutions that shaped those adaptation strategies. We examined the barriers and opportunities for strengthening adaptive capacity of local herder communities. We designed and implemented a household survey in the herder communities of northern Tibet. The survey results showed that migratory grazing has become less feasible. Storage, diversification, and market exchange have become the dominant adaptation strategies. The adaptation strategies of local herders have been reshaped by local institutional change. Local governmental and market institutions played the dominant roles in reshaping climate adaptation strategies. Although the present livelihood adaption strategies related to sedentary grazing have improved productivity and profitability of the herding livelihood, they have led to continuous deterioration of pastures. The local grazing system has become more and more dependent on artificial feeding and inputs from outside the grazing system. Purchasing forage has become one of the dominant adaptation strategies of local herder households. Multilevel regression modeling of this adaptation behavior showed that explanatory variables related to climate variability, household capital, and local institutional arrangements had statistically significant relationships with the adoption of this adaptation strategy. The results implies that building household capital and promoting the coordination among local governmental, market, and communal institutions are critical for strengthening adaptive capacity of the Tibetan herder communities.

  7. A democracy we can eat: a livelihoods approach to TVET policy and provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid von Kotze

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In Southern Africa, theories of adult education have remained modelled on imported paradigms. The urgency of particularly the first of the Millennium Development Goals, ‘to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger’ generally translates into policy and provision of skills training based on purely economistic considerations. In practice, lifelong education and learning occurs most commonly as part of other social practices and in the guise of community development. This article outlines the livelihood approach as a conceptual and methodological tool for a locally grounded understanding of what constitutes ‘work’ particularly in the context of poverty and high-risk environments. It argues that the principles of interconnectedness, relationality and agency are central to understanding livelihood practices and that participatory processes of data collection, dialogue and analysis should inform education and training policy. Programmes and curricula that fit in with the livelihood strategies of people have a greater chance of being supported and the process that leads to such understanding could provide a democratic model for adult education elsewhere.

  8. Carbon, biodiversity, and livelihoods in forest commons: synergies, trade-offs, and implications for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Peter; Oldekop, Johan A.; Brodnig, Gernot; Karna, Birendra K.; Agrawal, Arun

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the relationships and tradeoffs among management outcomes in forest commons has assumed new weight in the context of parallels between the objectives of community forest management and those of reduced emissions for deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) programs to reduce carbon emissions while supporting local livelihoods. We examine the association between biophysical, demographic, institutional and socio-economic variables and three distinct forest management outcomes of interest to both community forestry and REDD+ advocates—carbon storage, biodiversity conservation, and livelihood benefits—in 56 forest commons in Nepal. REDD+ programs aim foremost to increase forest carbon storage and sequestration, but also seek to improve forest biodiversity, and to contribute to local livelihood benefits. The success of REDD+ programs can therefore be defined by improvements in one or more of these dimensions, while satisfying the principle of ‘do no harm’ in the others. We find that each outcome is associated with a different set of independent variables. This suggests that there is a need for policy-makers to clearly define their desired outcomes and to target their interventions accordingly. Our research points to the complex ways in which different factors relate to forest outcomes and has implications for the large number of cases where REDD+ projects are being implemented in the context of community forestry.

  9. Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change in Dryland Livelihood Systems: Conceptual Challenges and Interdisciplinary Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan D. G. Fraser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 40% of the earth's land surface are drylands that are home to approximately 2.5 billion people. Livelihood sustainability in drylands is threatened by a complex and interrelated range of social, economic, political, and environmental changes that present significant challenges to researchers, policy makers, and, above all, rural land users. Dynamic ecological and environmental change models suggest that climate change induced drought events may push dryland systems to cross biophysical thresholds, causing a long-term drop in agricultural productivity. Therefore, research is needed to explore how development strategies and other socioeconomic changes help livelihoods become more resilient and robust at a time of growing climatic risk and uncertainty. As a result, the overarching goal of this special feature is to conduct a structured comparison of how livelihood systems in different dryland regions are affected by drought, thereby making methodological, empirical, and theoretical contributions to our understanding of how these types of social-ecological systems may be vulnerable to climate change. In introducing these issues, the purpose of this editorial is to provide an overview of the two main intellectual challenges of this work, namely: (1 how to conceptualize vulnerability to climate change in coupled social-ecological systems; and (2 the methodological challenges of anticipating trends in vulnerability in dynamic environments.

  10. Climate impacts on human livelihoods at 1.5° and 2° of warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of impacts of climate change on socio-economic systems remains challenging and especially multi-dimensional outcome measures remain scarce. Climate impacts can directly affect many dimensions of human livelihoods, which cannot be addressed by monetary assessments alone. Multi-dimensional measures are essential in order to understand the full range of consequences of climate change and to understand the costs that higher levels of warming may have, not only in economic terms, but also in terms of non-market impacts on human livelihood. The AHEAD framework aims at measuring "Adequate Human livelihood conditions for wEll-being And Development" in a multi-dimensional framework, allowing to focus on resources and conditions which are a requirement to attain well-being. In this contribution we build on previous implementations of AHEAD and focus on differences in climate impacts at 1.5° and 2° of warming in order to improve our understanding of the societal consequences of these different warming levels.

  11. RURAL HIGHWAY SERVICE CENTRES AND RURAL LIVELIHOODS DIVERSITY: A CASE OF NGUNDU HALT IN ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Chazovachii

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to assess the impact of rural high way service centres on livelihood diversity. The establishment of Ngundu rural highway service centre was an approach to assist highway travelers and local residents in accessing essential services without going off-route. Since the establishment of these highway service centers, little has been realized in terms of their utility. Data was collected using questionnaires; participatory observation and interviews and presented in the form of graphs; pie charts and tables. The rural highway service centre benefited local residents in its sphere of influence through social welfare provision; employment creation; recreation and as agricultural inputs collection centres. However the opportunity on livelihoods diversity by locals and travelers to enjoy their need has been abused .Both locals and travelers have turned the centre into risk livelihood strategies arena, crime and deviant behavior proliferated turning it into life threatening zone. Therefore need is there to reinforce overnight surveillance through the neighborhood watch for security and welfare of genuine dealers and travelers for sustainable and investment confident and promotion climate.

  12. Fluid Waters and Rigid Livelihoods in the Okavango Delta of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian King

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current and future impacts of climate change include increasing variability in a number of biophysical processes, such as temperature, precipitation, and flooding. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has suggested that Southern Africa is particularly vulnerable to the anticipated impacts from global climate change and that social and ecological systems in the region will be disrupted and likely transformed in future decades. This article engages with current research within geography and cognate disciplines on the possibilities for responsive livelihoods within socio-ecological systems experiencing biophysical change. The paper draws from an ongoing research project that is evaluating perceptions of environmental change, specifically of precipitation and flooding dynamics, in order to understand social responses. We report on the findings from qualitative interviewing conducted in 2010 and 2011 in the communities of Etsha 1, Etsha 6, and Etsha 13 within the Okavango Delta of Botswana. While flooding and precipitation patterns have been dynamic and spatially differentiated, some livelihood systems have proven rigid in their capacity to enable adaptive responses. We assert this demonstrates the need for detailed research on livelihood dynamics to support adjustments to biophysical variability within socio-ecological systems experiencing change.

  13. Resource Management under Stressed Livelihood Conditions : Changing livelihoods and management practices in the bufferzone of the Kerinci Seblat National Park, Kerinci District, Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, P.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Poverty reduction in and around tropical forests and the reduction in speed at which natural tropical forests recede or become degraded, rank highly on the global agenda of sustainable development. The potentials of farmer-developed systems of sustainable forest management and agro-ecosystems, such

  14. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.2 Basic guidelines. This part implements the Privacy Act of...

  15. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37.1240 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts... practical application of that knowledge and understanding. It typically is funded within...

  16. Use of a Bayesian Belief Network to Predict the Impacts of Commercializing Non-timber Forest Products on Livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk W. te Velde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs has been widely promoted as a means of sustainably developing tropical forest resources, in a way that promotes forest conservation while supporting rural livelihoods. However, in practice, NTFP commercialization has often failed to deliver the expected benefits. Progress in analyzing the causes of such failure has been hindered by the lack of a suitable framework for the analysis of NTFP case studies, and by the lack of predictive theory. We address these needs by developing a probabilistic model based on a livelihood framework, enabling the impact of NTFP commercialization on livelihoods to be predicted. The framework considers five types of capital asset needed to support livelihoods: natural, human, social, physical, and financial. Commercialization of NTFPs is represented in the model as the conversion of one form of capital asset into another, which is influenced by a variety of socio-economic, environmental, and political factors. Impacts on livelihoods are determined by the availability of the five types of assets following commercialization. The model, implemented as a Bayesian Belief Network, was tested using data from participatory research into 19 NTFP case studies undertaken in Mexico and Bolivia. The model provides a novel tool for diagnosing the causes of success and failure in NTFP commercialization, and can be used to explore the potential impacts of policy options and other interventions on livelihoods. The potential value of this approach for the development of NTFP theory is discussed.

  17. Managing vulnerability to drought and enhancing livelihood resilience in sub-Saharan Africa: Technological, institutional and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Shiferaw

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are highly sensitive to climatic variability. Drought, in particular, represents one of the most important natural factors contributing to malnutrition and famine in many parts of the region. The overall impact of drought on a given country/region and its ability to recover from the resulting social, economic and environmental impacts depends on several factors. The economic, social and environmental impacts of drought are huge in SSA and the national costs and losses incurred threaten to undermine the wider economic and development gains made in the last few decades in the region. There is an urgent need to reduce the vulnerability of countries to climate variability and to the threats posed by climate change. This paper attempts to highlight the challenges of drought in SSA and reviews the current drought risk management strategies, especially the promising technological and policy options for managing drought risks to protect livelihoods and reduce vulnerability. The review suggests the possibilities of several ex ante and ex post drought management strategies in SSA although their effectiveness depends on agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions. Existing technological, policy and institutional risk management measures need to be strengthened and integrated to manage drought ex ante and to minimize the ex post negative effects for vulnerable households and regions. A proactive approach that combines promising technological, institutional and policy solutions to manage the risks within vulnerable communities implemented by institutions operating at different levels (community, sub-national, and national is considered to be the way forward for managing drought and climate variability.

  18. 改善民生是保障社会和谐的重中之重%It is the most important to improve the livelihood of the people which is the guarantee of social harmony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛潜; 隗金成

    2014-01-01

    The Eighteenth National Congress of the CPC point out that Strengthening social construction should take guaranting and improving the livelihood of the people as the focus.This fully reflects that our party especially attaches great importance to people's livelihood to the social construction. Starting from a realistic goal of socialist construction China characteristics, the paper give a scientific analysis of the necessity, the importance of ensuring and improving people's wellbeing, It is pointed out that the internal consistency of ensuring and improving the Socialist People's livelihood and the construction of China characteristics, and discussed the principles and ways of guaranting and improving the livelihood of the people from the perspective of thoroughly implementing the scientific outlook on development which providing theoretical support and practical reference for the construction of the socialist harmonious society.%党的十八大提出,加强社会建设要以保障和改善民生为重点。这充分体现了我党对社会建设特别是民生问题的高度重视。从建设中国特色社会主义的现实目标出发,科学分析了保障和改善民生的重要性、必要性,指出保障和改善民生与建设中国特色社会主义的内在一致性,同时从深入贯彻落实科学发展观的视角探讨了保障和改善民生的原则和途径,为建设社会主义和谐社会提供了理论支持和实践参考。

  19. Evaluation of bedtime basics for babies: a national crib distribution program to reduce the risk of sleep-related sudden infant deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Fern R; Tanabe, Kawai O; McMurry, Timothy; Moon, Rachel Y

    2015-06-01

    Rates of sleep-related infant deaths have remained stagnant in recent years. Although most parents are aware of safe sleep recommendations, barriers to adherence, including lack of access to a safe crib, remain. The objective of this study was to describe parental knowledge and practices regarding infant sleep position, bedsharing, pacifier use, and feeding practices before and after receipt of a free crib and safe sleep education. Bedtime Basics for Babies (BBB) enrolled high-risk families in Washington, Indiana, and Washington, DC and provided them with cribs and safe sleep education. Parents completed surveys before ("prenatal" and "postnatal") and 1-3 months after crib receipt ("follow-up"). Descriptive and bivariate analyses were completed. 3,303 prenatal, 1,483 postnatal, and 1,729 follow-up surveys were collected. Parental knowledge of recommended infant sleep position improved from 76% (prenatal) and 77% (postnatal) to 94% after crib receipt (p crib after the infant's birth reported that they had bedshared the night before. This decreased to 16% after the intervention. Ninety percent reported that the baby slept in a crib after the intervention, compared with 51% postnatally (p crib for sleep. Crib distribution and safe sleep education positively influence knowledge and practices about safe sleep.

  20. 农牧户可持续生计资产与生计策略的关系研究——以鄂尔多斯市乌审旗为例%Study on Relationship between Livelihood Capital and Livelihood Strategy of Farming and Grazing Households: A Case of Uxin Banner in Ordos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙吉军; 艾木入拉; 刘洋; 向芸芸

    2013-01-01

    ability and quality of people, so that the configuration of livelihood assets couldn't be optimized properly. Secondly, households possessing rich human, financial and social assets tend to non-agricultural activities, while those with abundant material and natural assets are more willing to agricultural activities. Thirdly, the implementation of de-farming policy leads to the changes in cultivated land amount and planting structure, mainly presenting the phenomenon of "fanning for support" and the transfer of agricultural labor forces to non-agricultural activities. And the implementation of anti-gazing policy results in the changes of husbandry management into agricultural management modes, that is a tendency to yard feeding sheep and pigs and developing large-scale and specialty fanning, leading to the issue of role-change and needs of vocational training. Fourthly, the implementation of these policies still has several problems, especially in the livelihoods guidance on immigration, protection on basic life, a reasonable determination of subsidies amount and guarantees of follow-up ones, transfer and absorption of surplus labors. Given the above aspects, suggestions on how to improve the local livelihoods strategies while promote the de-farming and anti-grazing policies at the same time have been put forward from the perspective of sustainable livelihood.

  1. 文化民生的内涵及意义%On the Defination and Functions in Cultural Livelihood of the People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖翔

    2012-01-01

    Cultural livelihood of the people is the milestone ideology of our Party and the focus and positive functions ,such as to increase the comprehensive national strength, enhance the people's happiness index, deepen the reform and opening,promote the development of the transformation and strengthen the party's ability to govern.%“文化民生”指的是在人们温饱问题解决后更高层次的精神需要,它是中国共产党具有里程碑意义的认识,成为当前社会发展的重要内容,具有增强综合国力、提升人民幸福指数、深化改革开放、推动发展方式转型、提升党的执政能力等积极意义。

  2. Socio-personal correlates of participation in livelihood activities among rural youth in Jabalpur district of Madhya pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Umunnakwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing realization of the negative political, social and economic consequences stemming from the precariousness of youth’s livelihoods, underscores the need to understand their livelihood activities, which is a requisite for curbing social ills and reducing rural poverty. The paper examined the participation of rural youth in livelihood activities, their socio-personal characteristics, the relationship between their socio-personal characteristics and their participation in livelihood activities as well as the interrelationships among their socio-personal characteristics. Multi-stage random sampling was used to collect data from 247 respondents through interview schedule. Frequency counts and percentages were used to present data while Pearson product moment correction (PPMC was used to test relationships. The results revealed that majority of the respondents were from other backward caste (66%, married (72.10%, belonged to joint (57.90% and medium (50.60% size families as well as families that were self-employed in agriculture (59.50%. Higher percentages of the respondents and their fathers were educated up to higher school and above. Huge majority (75.71% of the respondents participated in cereal production while more than half of the respondents were involved in pulse production (56.28% and petty trading (53.44%. Marital status; fathers’ educational attainment; family type and family size had significant relationship with participation in livelihood activities. Inter-correlations among socio-personal characteristics showed that caste was related to marital status and educational attainment. It is concluded that socio-personal attributes of rural youth are related to their participation in livelihood activities. The study recommends that socio-personal variables of present study be considered by rural development policy makers when undertaking programmes aimed at enhancing rural youth’s livelihoods.

  3. Perception-based analysis of climate change effect on forest-based livelihood: The case of Vhembe District in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chidiebere Ofoegbu; Paxie W. Chirwa; Joseph Francis; Folarannmi D. Babalola

    2016-01-01

    Forests are vulnerable to climate change and are also major sources of livelihood for many rural households in Africa. This study examines rural people’s perceptions of climate change impacts on forest-based livelihoods using rural communities of Vhembe District in South Africa as a case study. The study was based on the principles of perceived impact-based assessment, and sustainable livelihoods framework. Using the stratified proportionate random sampling procedure in combination with weigh...

  4. Re-Linking Governance of Energy with Livelihoods and Irrigation in Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Buechler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower is often termed “green energy” and proffered as an alternative to polluting coal-generated electricity for burgeoning cities and energy-insecure rural areas. India is the third largest coal producer in the world; it is projected to be the largest coal consumer by 2050. In the Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, India, over 450 hydroelectric power schemes are proposed or are under development. Hydropower projects ranging from micro hydro (run-of-the-river systems with generating capacity up to 100 kW to large reservoirs (storage systems up to 2000 MW such as the Tehri Dam are in various stages of planning, construction or implementation. Run-of-the-river hydropower projects are being developed in Uttarakhand in order to avoid some of the costs to local communities created by large dams. Stakeholders in this rapid hydropower expansion include multiple actors with often diverging sets of interests. The resulting governance challenges are centered on tradeoffs between local electricity and revenue from the sale of hydropower, on the one hand, and the impacts on small-scale irrigation systems, riparian-corridor ecosystem services, and other natural resource-based livelihoods, on the other. We focus on the Bhilangana river basin, where water dependent livelihoods differentiated by gender include farming, fishing, livestock rearing and fodder collection. We examine the contradictions inherent in hydropower governance based on the interests of local residents and other stakeholders including hydropower developers, urban and other regional electricity users, and state-level policymakers. We use a social justice approach applied to hydropower projects to examine some of the negative impacts, especially by location and gender, of these projects on local communities and then identify strategies that can safeguard or enhance livelihoods of women, youth, and men in areas with hydropower projects, while also maintaining critical ecosystem services

  5. Livelihood Strategies as Responses to Water Availability in Pusur Subwatershed, Bengawan Solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathna Wijayanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water availability has a significant role on human life, particularly for the rural, agrarian communities. This study aimed to investigate the diverse conditions of water availability in Pusur sub-watershed, Bengawan Solo watershed, and the livelihood strategies of the local community in responding to the water availability. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis, and the data was collected through questionnaire, in-depth interview, and observation. On the water availability, the study used the following variables: (1 quality, (2 quantity, (3 spatial and temporal distribution, (4 access, (5 social-economy, and (5 institutional aspect. On the livelihood strategies, it uses: (1 reaction and (2 anticipation for water deficit. In term of sampling methods, the study used area and purposive sampling, by splitting the study site into the upper, middle, and lower area. The analysis of this study indicates that the level of water availability in the upper area is considered low. The community living in the upper area depends upon rainwater for its agricultural sector, and upon the water supply distributed by pipelines and tanker trucks for its household. The study also indicates that the middle area has abundant water supply, but the quality has been declined due to pollution, poor sanitation system, and potential conflict among the community members. Meanwhile, in the lower area, particularly in the dry season, irrigation water has been inadequate. Responding to the diverse water availability, the community has applied the following livelihood strategies: (1 leaving the agricultural land uncultivated in the upper area, and (2 pumping wells and rivers in the middle and lower areas. In addition, as part of its precautions actions, the community has applied: (1 agroforestry system at the upper area, (2 improved the irrigation system of the middle area, and (3 creating wells and using water pumps in the lower area.

  6. KARAKTERISTIK SOSIAL EKONOMI MASYARAKAT PETANI KECAMATAN BANDAR DALAM SISTEM LIVELIHOOD PEDESAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rosyid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic position in terms of development generally  to see how big the level of well-being of an area where it can be seen from the potential and the resources therein. Bandar distrit is rural areas with geographical condition of the mountains and a good watering with is dominated by the agricultural sector (35% of the total areadistricts can be found that most of the people working with depends on the utilization of natural resources. Not only that the quality of human resources became milestones in the progress of development.The purpose of this research is to identify the characteristics of the social and economic conditions of society rural farmers in rural Livelihood systems associated with education, income and the type of activities to the resources in Bandar. By using a quantitative approach supported by spatial analysis has focused on the potential, problems, and the amount of ownership of community resources. In the system of Livelihood, is divided into five socio-economic livelihood assets where power access owned by Bandar Sub-district has a maximum value of human resources, subsequently followed by physical capital and natural resources capital.While the condition of two other assets that financial and social capital only has a value that is less than maximum/lower. It is characterized by a low level ofeducation, low-income family per capita income amounting to Rp. 5.399.345 per year or were under the standard earnings Batang are mostly subsistence farmers patterned or does not make the commercial fields as agriculture and lacking the proper functioning of social groups in both averaging – align the farming community are below the poverty line. Later research is expected to provide a source of information and knowledge about the patterns of resource utilization and socio economic characteristics in Bandar describing existing condition so that the country can be used as a reference and referral information to further

  7. Transboundary water resources management and livelihoods: interactions in the Senegal river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Laurent; Beltrando, Gérard

    2016-04-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 90 % of wetlands provide ecosystem services to societies, especially for agriculture and fishing. However, tropical rivers are increasingly regulated to provide hydroelectricity and irrigated agriculture. Modifications of flows create new hydrological conditions that affect floodplains ecology and peoples' livelihoods. In the Senegal river valley, large dams were built during the 1980's to secure water resources after a decade of water scarcity in the 1970's: Manantali in the upper basin with a reservoir of 12km3 and Diama close to estuary to avoid saltwater intrusion during dry season. Senegal river water resources are known under the supervision of Senegal River Basin Development Organization (OMVS), which defines water allocation between different goals (electricity, irrigation, traditional activities). This study, based on the concept of socio-hydrology, analyses socio-ecological changes following thirty years of dam management. The work enlightens adaptation mechanisms of livelihoods from people living along the river floodplain and feedback on water ressources. The study uses a mixed method approach, combining hydrological analyses, literature review and data collection from surveys on stakeholders and key informants level in the middle Senegal valley. Our results suggest that in all the Senegal river valley, socio-ecological changes are driven by new hydrological conditions. If dam management benefit for peoples with electrification and development of an irrigated agriculture, it has also emphasized the floodplain degradation. Flooded area has decline and are more irregular, causing an erosion of floodplain supporting services (traditional activities as fishing, grazing and flood-recession agriculture). These conditions reduce peoples' livelihood possibilities and irrigation is the only regular activity. As a feedback, irrigated agriculture increases withdrawals in the river and, recently, in aquifers posing a new uncertainty on water

  8. Rural livelihood diversification and income inequality in local government area Akinyele, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepoju Abimbola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of income distribution has been a major concern in the developing world. This is because high levels of income inequality are likely to create a hostile atmosphere for economic growth and development. This study examined rural livelihood strategies and their contribution to the overall income inequality of households in Akinyele local government area of Oyo state. Primary data employed in the study were obtained from 105 respondents selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multinomial logit and the generalized entropy inequality indices as a measure of inequality. The distribution of respondents by type of livelihood strategy adopted revealed that almost half of the respondents adopted the combination of farm and non-farm strategy while 14.3% and 40.0% adopted only farm and non-farm strategy respectively. Income inequality was the highest among non-farming households and the lowest among farming households, implying that income from non-farm activities contributed most to income inequality in the study area. The study revealed that the major factor which negatively influenced the choice of farming as a livelihood strategy was household size while factors such as age and land ownership had positive and negative effects on the adoption of the non-farm strategy respectively. The study recommends that policies targeted at rural dwellers should centre on improved access to productive assets such as land for the landless farmers as well as the provision of improved technology, which could encourage the ageing farming population to engage in farming activities.

  9. Traditional use and management of NTFPs in Kangchenjunga Landscape: implications for conservation and livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Yadav; Poudel, Ram C; Gurung, Janita; Chettri, Nakul; Chaudhary, Ram P

    2016-05-03

    Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs), an important provisioning ecosystem services, are recognized for their contribution in rural livelihoods and forest conservation. Effective management through sustainable harvesting and market driven commercialization are two contrasting aspects that are bringing challenges in development of NTFPs sector. Identifying potential species having market value, conducting value chain analyses, and sustainable management of NTFPs need analysis of their use patterns by communities and trends at a regional scale. We analyzed use patterns, trends, and challenges in traditional use and management of NTFPs in the southern slope of Kangchenjunga Landscape, Eastern Himalaya and discussed potential implications for conservation and livelihoods. A total of 739 species of NTFPs used by the local people of Kangchenjunga Landscape were reported in the reviewed literature. Of these, the highest number of NTFPs was documented from India (377 species), followed by Nepal (363) and Bhutan (245). Though the reported species were used for 24 different purposes, medicinal and edible plants were the most frequently used NTFP categories in the landscape. Medicinal plants were used in 27 major ailment categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders. Though the Kangchenjunga Landscape harbors many potential NTFPs, trade of NTFPs was found to be nominal indicating lack of commercialization due to limited market information. We found that the unsustainable harvesting and lack of marketing were the major constraints for sustainable management of NTFPs sector in the landscape despite of promising policy provisions. We suggest sustainable harvesting practices, value addition at local level, and marketing for promotion of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape for income generation and livelihood improvement that subsequently contributes to conservation.

  10. Linking rural community livelihoods to resilience building in flood risk reduction in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gwimbi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of disastrous flooding events and the mounting losses in both life and property values in Zimbabwe have drawn attention to the flooding situation in the country, especially the rural areas. This article explores the resilience of vulnerable rural communities to flood risks associated within increasingly frequent and severe events linked to climate change. Starting by reviewing the current literature on rural livelihoods, resilience and vulnerability research, the paper argues for a coordinated teamwork approach in flood risk mitigation in rural areas. The paper concludes with several recommendations for enhanced resilience to flood hazards.

  11. Agricultural livelihoods in coastal Bangladesh under climate and environmental change--a model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, Attila N; Clarke, Derek; Adams, Helen; Akanda, Abdur Razzaque; Szabo, Sylvia; Nicholls, Robert J; Matthews, Zoe; Begum, Dilruba; Saleh, Abul Fazal M; Abedin, Md Anwarul; Payo, Andres; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Hutton, Craig; Mondal, M Shahjahan; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md

    2015-06-01

    Coastal Bangladesh experiences significant poverty and hazards today and is highly vulnerable to climate and environmental change over the coming decades. Coastal stakeholders are demanding information to assist in the decision making processes, including simulation models to explore how different interventions, under different plausible future socio-economic and environmental scenarios, could alleviate environmental risks and promote development. Many existing simulation models neglect the complex interdependencies between the socio-economic and environmental system of coastal Bangladesh. Here an integrated approach has been proposed to develop a simulation model to support agriculture and poverty-based analysis and decision-making in coastal Bangladesh. In particular, we show how a simulation model of farmer's livelihoods at the household level can be achieved. An extended version of the FAO's CROPWAT agriculture model has been integrated with a downscaled regional demography model to simulate net agriculture profit. This is used together with a household income-expenses balance and a loans logical tree to simulate the evolution of food security indicators and poverty levels. Modelling identifies salinity and temperature stress as limiting factors to crop productivity and fertilisation due to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as a reinforcing factor. The crop simulation results compare well with expected outcomes but also reveal some unexpected behaviours. For example, under current model assumptions, temperature is more important than salinity for crop production. The agriculture-based livelihood and poverty simulations highlight the critical significance of debt through informal and formal loans set at such levels as to persistently undermine the well-being of agriculture-dependent households. Simulations also indicate that progressive approaches to agriculture (i.e. diversification) might not provide the clear economic benefit from the perspective of

  12. Forest Transitions and Rural Livelihoods: Multiple Pathways of Smallholder Teak Expansion in Northern Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Newby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder teak (Tectona grandis plantations have been identified as a potentially valuable component of upland farming systems in northern Laos that can contribute to a “livelihood transition” from subsistence-oriented swidden agriculture to a more commercially-oriented farming system, thereby bringing about a “forest transition” at the landscape scale. In recent years, teak smallholdings have become increasingly prominent in the province of Luang Prabang, especially in villages close to Luang Prabang City. In this paper, we draw on a household survey conducted in five teak-growing villages and case studies of different household types to explore the role that small-scale forestry has played in both livelihood and land-use transitions. Drawing on a classification of forest transitions, we identify three transition pathways that apply in the study villages—the “economic development” pathway, the “smallholder, tree-based, land-use intensification” pathway, and the “state forest policy” pathway. The ability of households to integrate teak into their farming system, manage the woodlots effectively, and maintain ownership until the plantation reaches maturity varies significantly between these pathways. Households with adequate land resources but scarce labor due to the effects of local economic development are better able to establish and hold onto teak woodlots, but less able to adopt beneficial management techniques. Households that are land-constrained are motivated to follow a path of land-used intensification, but need more productive agroforestry systems to sustain incomes over time. Households that are induced to plant teak mainly by land-use policies that threaten to deprive them of their land, struggle to efficiently manage or hold on to their woodlots in the long term. Thus, even when it is smallholders driving the process of forest transition via piecemeal land-use changes, there is potential for resource

  13. Integrated Poultry-Fish Farming Systems for Sustainable Rural Livelihood Security in Kumaon Hills of Uttarakhand

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The study has analyzed socio-economic impact of poultry based farming system on farmers for their livelihood security and women empowerment. The analysis is based on the data collected from 95 poultry farmers selected from three hill districts of Kumaon region for two production years, 2011-12 and 2012- 13. It has been observed that the farmers’ access to day-old chicks (DOCs)/fish seed/fingerlings plays the key role in popularization of integrated poultry-fish farming. The economics of pre...

  14. Solid waste, the ‘Throw-Away’ culture and livelihoods: Problems and prospects in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Chirisa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to demonstrate the dynamics of the solid waste management in Harare amid the growing problem of waste generation in the city. It is pinned on the concept of the throw-away as put across by Alvin Toffler in his semianal of the 1970 entitled ‘Future Shock’. Evidence in Harare shows that, indeed, this is now a lived reality. To deal with the problem, there are a number of solution suggested which include embracing it as a fact but creating livelihoods through solid waste management.

  15. Reduction in the Water Level of Lake Victoria and Its Implications on Livelihoods in Rwanjaba Lakeshore Community, Uganda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Semakula Henry Musoke; Boon E K

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the livelihood challenges expe- rienced in Rwanjaba Lakeshore Community during the period of low water level in Lake Victoria between 2004 and 2007 and identifies the livelihood coping strategies that were adopted to ad- dress them. A total of 55 households were randomly sampled and the data collection methods included household questionnaires and participant observations. The data were analyzed using the Statis- tical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and the results presented with the help of descriptive statistics. The livelihood challenges experienced during the low lake water level included fish shortage (34.5%), household food scarcity (23.6%), sex for fish (18.2%), family breakdown (12.7%), increased theft (7.2%) and accidents due to the exposed rocks in the lake (3.6%). The livelihood coping strategies adopted to redress the challenges included causal labour (32.7%), maize roasting (23.6%), sand mining (18.2%), selling of snacks (12.7%), selling household property (9.1%) and resorting shop and market credits (3.6%). The paper proposes a number of recommendations for improving the livelihood of the community ranging from policy reforms to the diversification of activities.

  16. Community-based livelihood management in relations to natural disaster - A study on Teknaf (coastal) area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, R.

    2017-06-01

    Teknaf is an Upazila under Cox’s Bazar District of Bangladesh, it’s a coastal area with strong influenced by the Naaf river estuary of the Bay of Bengal. The study outlines the major livelihood groups or community in the area. It was observed that the livelihoods are severely affected by climatic and non-climatic changes. For example, the increased salinity of both soil and water has seriously affected all livelihood resources, in particular agriculture, fishery, livestock and forestry. The increase in frequency and intensity of natural disasters - floods and cyclones, has made it difficult for the local people to secure their livelihood. In addition to natural factors, several anthropogenic factors remain the major form of vulnerability for the farmers, fishers and other livelihood sections of the society. This study was an exploratory research with questionnaire survey by random sampling, focus group discussion, and review secondary data. The study observed that the local people have evolved many local adaptive practices to deal with the difficult climatic conditions. Outcome of the study is capacity building of the community with in their available resource; combined crop and fish culture need to encourage; control excessive collection of Natural resources like marine fish, forest tree, alternative income generating activities for farmers & fisherman at lean season and disaster situation need to start.

  17. Impacts of Public-Private Partnership on Local Livelihoods and Natural Resource Dynamics: Perceptions from Eastern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muleba Nshimbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term implications of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP on livelihoods and natural resource (NR dynamics under a market-oriented approach to conservation. Drawing examples from the Luangwa Valley in eastern Zambia, the study sought to answer questions on two closely interrelated aspects. These included the contribution of PPP to sustainable livelihoods in and around Protected Areas (PAs and its impacts on natural resources in Game Management Areas (GMAs. Quantitative data were collected from PPP participating and non-PPP households using standardized structured interviews, while qualitative data were obtained from three chiefdoms using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Taking the case of Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO in eastern Zambia, results of this study showed that PPP contributed to sustainable livelihoods and overall natural resources management through varied ways. These include promotion of conservation farming, agroforestry, poacher transformation (individuals who have given up poaching due to PPP interventions and provision of markets for the produce of participating households. Further, impacts of PPP on soil fertility, crop, and honey yields were statistically significant (p ˂ 0.05. A combination of increased crop productivity and household incomes has seen a 40-fold increase in poacher transformation. The results of this study suggest that PPPs, if well-structured, have the potential to address both livelihoods and enterprise needs with an ultimate benefit of promoting both sustainable livelihoods and natural resources management around PAs in tropical Africa.

  18. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ...

  19. Literacy/Numeracy and Vocational Training among Rural Women in Nigeria for a Good Livelihood and Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuks, Okeke Ben

    2004-01-01

    Women play a very vital role in national development. The role relates to a complete range of socio-economic activities. Rural women are not only users of basic services, bearers and socialisers of children and keepers of the home, they also represent a product potential, which is not being fully tapped. Records have shown that women form more…

  20. Comparative Analysis on Observation Data of the Transfer Station in Anqing National Basic Weather Station%安庆国家基本气象观测站迁站对比观测资料差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳小群; 顾卫; 郑皖生; 周宏健; 吴福正

    2016-01-01

    利用2013年安庆国家基本气象观测站新旧站的气温、相对湿度、风、深层地温等资料,对安庆气象站迁站观测资料进行统计对比分析,总结了新、旧站址各气象要素差值的形成原因,认为新旧站址周围环境不同、下垫面性质不同、观测场海拔高度不同是造成观测数据有一定差异的主要原因,为国家基本气象站的资料序列延续和订正提供参考,为有关气象科技服务提供新、旧站址气象资料差异性订正依据。%Based on observation data of temperature, relative humidity, wind, deep soil temperature from the old and new Anqing national basic weather sta-tion in 2013, difference of each meteoro-logical factor was contrasted, and main reason for difference of each meteorologi-cal factor was analyzed. Main reasons for obvious difference of the meteorological factor were that observation environment, underlaying surface property, altitude at new and old stations were different. The research provided basis for continuity and homogeneity correction of the data sequence at Anqing national basic weather station.

  1. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  2. Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Isis; Lehdonvirta, Vili

    2017-01-01

    As ever more policy-makers, governments and organisations turn to the gig economy and digital labour as an economic development strategy to bring jobs to places that need them, it becomes important to understand better how this might influence the livelihoods of workers. Drawing on a multi-year study with digital workers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-east Asia, this article highlights four key concerns for workers: bargaining power, economic inclusion, intermediated value chains, and upgrading. The article shows that although there are important and tangible benefits for a range of workers, there are also a range of risks and costs that unduly affect the livelihoods of digital workers. Building on those concerns, it then concludes with a reflection on four broad strategies – certification schemes, organising digital workers, regulatory strategies and democratic control of online labour platforms – that could be employed to improve conditions and livelihoods for digital workers. PMID:28781494

  3. Assessment Of Current State And Impact Of REDD On Livelihood Of Local People In Rungwe District Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ojija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A climate change mitigation mechanism Reducing Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation REDD is anticipated to affect livelihoods of forest dependent communities. This study was conducted to establish this impact on livelihoods of local people in Rungwe District Tanzania. Data were collected through questionnaires group discussions and interviews from three villages Syukula Ilolo and Kibisi. Results showed that households annual income and crop production are higher after REDD implementation. The older respondents 40 years old considered REDD to be important for forest management compared to younger generation 40 years old p0.05. Similarly the older respondents considered wood forest products such as fuelwood charcoal timber and poles to be reduced. There was a widespread awareness about REDDs objectives among household respondents. Therefore REDD proponents should implement alternative sources of livelihoods to help local people improve their income and reduce dependence on the forest resources and eventually decrease deforestation and forest degradation.

  4. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management.

  5. Systematic Assessment of Carbon Emissions from Renewable Energy Access to Improve Rural Livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Cherni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One way of increasing access to electricity for impoverished unconnected areas without adding significant amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere is by promoting renewable energy technologies. However, decision-makers rarely, if ever, take into account the level of in-built energy requirements and consequential CO2 emissions found in renewable energy, particularly photovoltaic cells and related equipment, which have been widely disseminated in developing countries. The deployment of solar panels worldwide has mostly relied on silicon crystalline cell modules, despite the fact that less polluting material—in particular, thin film and organic cells—offers comparatively distinct technical, environmental and cost advantages characteristics. A major scientific challenge has thus been the design of a single decision-making approach to assess local and global climate change-related impacts as well as the socio-economic effects of low-carbon technology. The article focuses on the functions of the multi-criteria-based tool SURE-DSS and environmental impact analysis focused on greenhouse gases (GHG emissions balance to inform the selection of technologies in terms of their impact on livelihoods and CO2eq. emissions. An application in a remote rural community in Cuba is discussed. The results of this study show that while PV silicon (c-Si, thin film (CdTe and organic solar cells may each equally meet the demands of the community and enhance people’s livelihoods, their effect on the global environment varies.

  6. Do Smallholder, Mixed Crop-Livestock Livelihoods Encourage Sustainable Agricultural Practices? A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Rudel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As calls for bolstering ecosystem services from croplands have grown more insistent during the past two decades, the search for ways to foster these agriculture-sustaining services has become more urgent. In this context we examine by means of a meta-analysis the argument, proposed by Robert McC. Netting, that small-scale, mixed crop-livestock farming, a common livelihood among poor rural peoples, leads to environmentally sustainable agricultural practices. As predicted, mixed crop-livestock farms exhibit more sustainable practices, but, contrary to predictions, a small scale of operation does not predict sustainability. Many smallholders on mixed crop-livestock farms use sustainable practices, but other smallholders practice a degrading, input-scarce agriculture. Some large farm operators use soil-conserving, minimum-tillage techniques while other large operators ignore soil-conserving techniques and practice an industrialized, high chemical input agriculture. The strength and pervasiveness of the link in the data between mixed crop-livestock farming and sustainable agricultural practices argues for agricultural policies that promote mixed crop-livestock livelihoods.

  7. Farmer-managed natural regeneration enhances rural livelihoods in dryland west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Peter; Hong, Reaksmey; Kaboré, Carolyn; Kull, Christian A

    2015-06-01

    Declining agricultural productivity, land clearance and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of already marginal rural populations in West Africa. 'Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration' (FMNR) is an approach to arable land restoration and reforestation that seeks to reconcile sustained food production, conservation of soils, and protection of biodiversity. It involves selecting and protecting the most vigorous stems regrowing from live stumps of felled trees, pruning off all other stems, and pollarding the chosen stems to grow into straight trunks. Despite widespread enthusiasm and application of FMNR by environmental management and development projects, to date, no research has provided a measure of the aggregate livelihood impact of community adoption of FMNR. This paper places FMNR in the context of other agroforestry initiatives, then seeks to quantify the value of livelihood outcomes of FMNR. We review published and unpublished evidence about the impacts of FMNR, and present a new case study that addresses gaps in the evidence-base. The case study focuses on a FMNR project in the district of Talensi in the semi-arid Upper East Region in Ghana. The case study employs a social return on investment analysis, which identifies proxy financial values for non-economic as well as economic benefits. The results demonstrate income and agricultural benefits, but also show that asset creation, increased consumption of wild resources, health improvements, and psycho-social benefits created more value in FMNR-adopting households during the period of the study than increases in income and agricultural yields.

  8. Adopting Cultivation to Remain Pastoralists: The Diversification of Maasai Livelihoods in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J Terrence; Leslie, Paul W; Deluca, Laura

    2010-06-01

    Over the past four decades, Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania have adopted agriculture, integrating it with their traditional pastoralism. This livelihood diversification has complex origins and profound implications for Maasai social organization, culture, and demography, and ultimately for their health and well being and for the local and regional environment. In this paper, we examine the process by which this engagement with, and increasing dependence upon, agriculture came about in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania. The process there was more complex and influenced by a wider variety of factors than has been reported by previous descriptions of Maasai livelihood diversification. It generally involved two stages: planting a garden first, and later expanding the garden to a farm. We found that some households adopted cultivation out of necessity, but far more did so by choice. Among the latter, some adopted cultivation to reduce risk, while for others it was a reflection of changing cultural and social norms. Motivations for adopting cultivation differed among people of different wealth categories. Diversification was part of wider cultural changes, and was also influenced by power differentials among Maasai age sets and by government policies.

  9. A typology of natural resource use for livelihood impact assessments in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne A. Rochester

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of less developed regions is exacerbated by a lack of information to inform appropriate adaptation planning. We addressed this challenge in the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa (Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Indonesia by combining multiple sources of knowledge to develop a typology of natural resource use by communities of the province. This enabled an assessment of future impacts of drivers of change such as population growth and climate change. The typology was developed by cluster analysis of an inventory of the use of ecosystem goods and services (EGS by the 105 rural subdistricts in the province. The data were largely elicited from expert knowledge, augmented by a rapid rural appraisal of communities’ marine resource use in Sumbawa. Exploratory analysis of existing secondary data on livelihoods and land use provided context and skeleton data, which were developed further by experts. Overall, 82 EGS were identified from nine terrestrial, coastal, marine and freshwater habitats. EGS included livestock, cropping, forestry, wildlife hunting, fishing, aquaculture, mining, water (for drinking and agriculture and tourism. The typology comprised seven types that captured 42% of the variation in the data matrix. The types were moderately spatially aggregated and showed some congruence with administrative (district boundaries. We discuss the implications of the results for planning livelihood adaptation strategies, and out-scaling these among subdistricts of matching types.

  10. Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration Enhances Rural Livelihoods in Dryland West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Peter; Hong, Reaksmey; Kaboré, Carolyn; Kull, Christian A.

    2015-06-01

    Declining agricultural productivity, land clearance and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of already marginal rural populations in West Africa. `Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration' (FMNR) is an approach to arable land restoration and reforestation that seeks to reconcile sustained food production, conservation of soils, and protection of biodiversity. It involves selecting and protecting the most vigorous stems regrowing from live stumps of felled trees, pruning off all other stems, and pollarding the chosen stems to grow into straight trunks. Despite widespread enthusiasm and application of FMNR by environmental management and development projects, to date, no research has provided a measure of the aggregate livelihood impact of community adoption of FMNR. This paper places FMNR in the context of other agroforestry initiatives, then seeks to quantify the value of livelihood outcomes of FMNR. We review published and unpublished evidence about the impacts of FMNR, and present a new case study that addresses gaps in the evidence-base. The case study focuses on a FMNR project in the district of Talensi in the semi-arid Upper East Region in Ghana. The case study employs a social return on investment analysis, which identifies proxy financial values for non-economic as well as economic benefits. The results demonstrate income and agricultural benefits, but also show that asset creation, increased consumption of wild resources, health improvements, and psycho-social benefits created more value in FMNR-adopting households during the period of the study than increases in income and agricultural yields.

  11. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receivin...... in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for the promotion of positive forms of income diversification and the further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on autonomous adaptation strategies.......Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receiving...... transfers from the PSNP, on average, did not increase farm or non-farm income but significantly increases natural-resource extraction (one component of off-farm income). While these results should be treated with caution, they suggest that the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources...

  12. Migrant Remittances, Livelihoods and Investment: Evidence from Tsholotsho District in the Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane Nzima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the developmental contribution of migrant remittances sent from South Africa to the Tsholotsho district of Matabeleland North province of Zimbabwe. Since the discovery of gold in South Africa, Zimbabweans from this region have been migrating to South Africa to seek employment. In recent times, the culture of migration in Tsholotsho continues to strengthen, as women have also joined this previously male dominated livelihood strategy. Debates on migration and development have often centered on the role of remittances as a key instrument for development in migrant sending countries. Governments and multilateral institutions have also taken up remittances as a policy priority with a keen interest. This study was conducted using a mixed methods approach. A total of 159 participants completed self-administered quantitative questionnaires. In addition, 5 in-depth qualitative interviews with key informants were conducted in Tsholotsho, while 10 in-depth interviews with migrants were conducted in Johannesburg, South Africa. The results of this study show that the majority of migrant remittances are largely used for unproductive consumption. However, there also exists a measure of investment owing to the need to satisfy the surging consumer demands within the local economy. In this paper, results have shown that migrant remittances are a key livelihood factor without which many poor people would be severely vulnerable to poverty and hunger.

  13. Evaluating Successful Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasca Twyman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the success of small-scale farming livelihoods in adapting to climate variability and change. We represent adaptation actions as choices within a response space that includes coping but also longer-term adaptation actions, and define success as those actions which promote system resilience, promote legitimate institutional change, and hence generate and sustain collective action. We explore data on social responses from four regions across South Africa and Mozambique facing a variety of climate risks. The analysis suggests that some collective adaptation actions enhance livelihood resilience to climate change and variability but others have negative spillover effects to other scales. Any assessment of successful adaptation is, however, constrained by the scale of analysis in terms of the temporal and spatial boundaries on the system being investigated. In addition, the diversity of mechanisms by which rural communities in southern Africa adapt to risks suggests that external interventions to assist adaptation will need to be sensitive to the location-specific nature of adaptation.

  14. Tropical forest monitoring, combining satellite and social data, to inform management and livelihood implications: Case studies from Indonesian West Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rohan

    2012-06-01

    Deforestation in the world's tropics is an urgent international issue. One response has been the development of satellite based monitoring initiatives largely focused on the carbon rich forests of western Indonesia. In contrast this study focuses on one eastern Indonesian district, Kabupaten Kupang, which has some of the largest and least studied tracts of remaining forest in West Timor. A combination of remote sensing, GIS and social science methods were used to describe the state of forests in Kabupaten Kupang, how and why they are changing. Using satellite imagery, case studies and on-ground interviews, this study explores the proposition that transdisciplinary local social, cultural and biophysical knowledge is important for effectively using remotely sensed data as a tool to inform local management policies. When compared to some other parts of Indonesia, the rate and extent of deforestation in West Timor was found to be relatively small and a satellite based assessment alone could conclude that it is not a critical issue. However this study showed that when on-ground social data are coupled with (such) satellite-based data a more complex picture emerges, related to key livelihood issues. The causes of forest cover change were found to be multivariate and location specific, requiring management approaches tailored to local social issues. This study suggests that integrative research can maximise the utility of satellite data for understanding causation and thus informing management strategies. In addition, the satellite based assessment found that at the time of the study less than 4% of forested land was within national parks and nature reserves and less than a third of the protected catchment forest zone was forested. These data suggest considerable scope for upland re-forestation activities or the redrawing of protected forest boundaries.

  15. The economics of irrigated paddy in Usangu Basin in Tanzania: water utilization, productivity, income and livelihood implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Kashaigili, Japhet J.; Mdoe, Ntengua S.

    Globally, there is a general lack of consensus on how the available water resources can be allocated efficiently and equitably among its competing uses. In irrigated agriculture, this decodes to the central question of how this sector can be balanced in the manner that it produces more ‘crops per drop’ using less water and releasing adequate water for use by other sectors while concurrently enhancing rural income and livelihoods. This requires that the values and costs of irrigated agriculture, at all levels, are well understood and appropriate interventions made. Based on this ground, this paper presents an economic analysis of the value of irrigated paddy in Usangu basin. It attempts to answer the question of what will be the effects if farmers in Usangu stop producing irrigated paddy. The analysis shows that: (a) about 576 mm 3 of water--currently consumed in paddy irrigation, or 345.6 mm 3--traded inter-regionally as “virtual water” would be utilized in alternative ways, either as evaporation from seasonal swamps within the basin or made available for other intersectoral uses, (b) there will be a shrinkage in the annual paddy supply (both at the local and national levels) of about 105,000 t of paddy (66,000 t of rice)-equivalent to 14.4% of the total annual paddy production in Tanzania, (c) an opportunity cost of about US15.9 million will be incurred annually (equivalent to US530.95 per annum per household practicing irrigated paddy in Usangu), and d) the country’s current account of the balance of payments will be affected by an average of US$15.9 million per annum. The effect will either be in form of annual decline in rice exports or increase in imports depending on the country’s supply and demand for rice.

  16. Climate change, livelihoods and the multiple determinants of water adequacy: two approaches at regional to global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Inadequate access to water is already a problem in many regions of the world and processes of global change are expected to further exacerbate the situation. Many aspects determine the adequacy of water resources: beside actual physical water stress, where the resource itself is limited, economic and social water stress can be experienced if access to resource is limited by inadequate infrastructure, political or financial constraints. To assess the adequacy of water availability for human use, integrated approaches are needed that allow to view the multiple determinants in conjunction and provide sound results as a basis for informed decisions. This contribution proposes two parts of an integrated approach to look at the multiple dimensions of water scarcity at regional to global scale. These were developed in a joint project with the German Development Agency (GIZ). It first outlines the AHEAD approach to measure Adequate Human livelihood conditions for wEll-being And Development, implemented at global scale and at national resolution. This first approach allows viewing impacts of climate change, e.g. changes in water availability, within the wider context of AHEAD conditions. A specific focus lies on the uncertainties in projections of climate change and future water availability. As adequate water access is not determined by water availability alone, in a second step we develop an approach to assess the water requirements for different sectors in more detail, including aspects of quantity, quality as well as access, in an integrated way. This more detailed approach is exemplified at region-scale in Indonesia and South Africa. Our results show that in many regions of the world, water scarcity is a limitation to AHEAD conditions in many countries, regardless of differing modelling output. The more detailed assessments highlight the relevance of additional aspects to assess the adequacy of water for human use, showing that in many regions, quality and

  17. Assessing the effects of rural livelihood transition on non-point source pollution: a coupled ABM-IECM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengcheng; Liu, Liming; Ye, Jinwei; Ren, Guoping; Zhuo, Dong; Qi, Xiaoxing

    2017-04-02

    Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution. The coupled model was tested in a small catchment in the Dongting Lake region, China. The simulated results reveal that the transition of household livelihood strategies occurred with the changes in the prices of rice, pig, and labor. Thus, the cropping system, land-use intensity, resident population, and number of pigs changed in the small catchment from 2000 to 2014. As a result of these changes, the total nitrogen load discharged into the river initially increased from 6841.0 kg in 2000 to 8446.3 kg in 2004 and then decreased to 6063.9 kg in 2014. Results also suggest that rural living, livestock, paddy field, and precipitation alternately became the main causes of NPS pollution in the small catchment, and the midstream region of the small catchment was the primary area for NPS pollution from 2000 to 2014. Despite some limitations, the coupled model provides an innovative way to simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on NPS pollution with the change of socioeconomic factors, and thereby identify the key factors influencing water pollution to provide valuable suggestions on how agricultural environmental risks can be reduced through the regulation of the behaviors of farming households in the future.

  18. Balancing development and conservation? An assessment of livelihood and environmental outcomes of nontimber forest product trade in Asia, Africa, and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, K.; Achdiawan, R.; Belcher, B.; Ruiz Pérez, M.; Hussain, A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter addresses the question, to what extent and under which conditions nontimber forest product (NTFP) trade leads to both livelihood improvement and forest conservation. We based the analysis on a standardized expert-judgment assessment of the livelihood and environmental outcomes of 55

  19. Army Basic Skills Provision: Whole Organisation Approach/Lessons Learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic Skills Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Army began working in partnership with the Basic Skills Agency in 2000. This was formalised with the establishment of the Basic Skills Agency's National Support Project for the Army (2001) that contributes to the raising of basic skills standards in the Army by advising on, and assisting with, the development of the Army's basic skills policy…

  20. Research on Standardization of Basic Meteorological Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chunhu

    2011-01-01

    Current Development of National Meteorological Information Network The national meteorological information network (NMIN) is one of the most important information systems in China's basic meteorological business.Through the construction and development for more than 60 years,the national meteorological information network is beginning to take shape now.The core network in national level has been basically formed,which combines ground wideband network with aerospace satellite communications network all over the country,and the local networks of meteorological departments in different levels have also been developed.

  1. 析建立公平统一的全民基本医疗保障制度的必要性%On the Necessity of Establishing a Fair and Unified National Basic Medical Insurance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅达成; 周瑶

    2014-01-01

    -existing split between urban and rural areas, uneven regional economic development, limit national financial re-sources, the difficulties in establishing a unified national basic medical insurance system, it is still very necessary to establish a government-led fair and unified social medical insurance system in current high-speed urbanized and industrialized China which advocates sharing reform and opening up achievements, which conforms to spirit of the recently held 3rd plenary session of the 18th communist party of China.

  2. Changes in Agricultural Biodiversity: Implications for Sustainable Livelihood in the Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.G. Saxena; R.K. Maikhuri; K.S. Rao

    2005-01-01

    Himalayan mountain system is distinguished globally for a rich biodiversity and for its role in regulating the climate of the South Asia.Traditional crop-livestock mixed farming in the Himalaya is highly dependent on forests for fodder and manure prepared from forest leaf litter and livestock excreta. Apart from sustaining farm production, forests provide a variety of other tangible and intangible benefits, which are critical for sustainable livelihood of not only 115 million mountain people, but also many more people living in the adjoining plains. Extension of agricultural landuse coupled with replacement of traditional staple food crops by cash crops and of multipurpose agroforestry trees by fruit trees are widespread changes. Cultivation of Fagopyrum esculentum,Fagopyrum tataricum, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica and Pisum arvense has been almost abandoned. Increasing stress on cash crops is driven by a socio-cultural change from subsistence to market economy facilitated by improvement in accessibility and supply of staple food grains at subsidized price by the government. Farmers have gained substantial economic benefits from cash crops. However, loss of agrobiodiversity implies more risks to local livelihood in the events of downfall in market price/demand of cash crops, termination of supply of staple food grains at subsidized price, pest outbreaks in a cash crop dominated homogeneous landscape and abnormal climate years. Indigenous innovations enabling improvement in farm economy by conserving and/enhancing agrobiodiversity do exist, but are highly localized. The changes in agrobiodiversity are such that soil loss and run-off from the croplands have dramatically increased together with increase in local pressure on forests. As farm productivity is maintained with forest-based inputs, continued depletion of forest resources will result in poor economic returns from agriculture to local people,apart from loss of global benefits from Himalayan forests

  3. Climate Change and its Impacts on Tourism and Livelihood in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    K C, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Hindukush Himalayan region including Nepal, a country reliant on tourism, is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, there are considerable gaps in research regarding tourism, livelihood and climate change in Nepal. The present research assesses the impact of climate change on tourism and livelihood in the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) of Nepal. Seventy-six households were interviewed followed by three focus group discussions and five key informant interviews. The empirical data collected at the site are complemented by secondary scientific data on climate and tourism. Correlation, regression, descriptive and graphical analysis was carried out for the presentation and analysis of data. Local people perceived that temperature and rainfall have been increasing in the study site as a result of climate change. It was also verified by the observed scientific data of temperature and precipitation. Socioeconomic variables such as marital status, size of household, education and landholding status had positive effect on tourism participation while livestock-holding status and occupation of the household had negative effect on tourism participation. Number of visitors is increasing in MCA in recent years, and tourism participation is helping local people to earn more money and improve their living standard. Till the date, there is positive impact of climate change on tourism sector in the study area. But, unfavorable weather change phenomena, intense rainfall and snowfall, melting of snow, occurrence of hydrological and climatic hazards and increase in temperature may have adverse impact on the tourism and livelihood in the mountainous area. Such type of adverse impact of climate change and tourism is already experienced in the case of Annapurna region and Mt. Everest region as tourist were trapped and affected by unfavorable weather change phenomena. In response to gradually warming temperature and decreasing snowfall, there seems an urgent need for

  4. On the Thought of the People's Livelihood of the Core of Three Generations of the Communist Party Leadership%党的三代领导集体核心的民生思想述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常素芳

    2011-01-01

    Thought of Livelihood of the Communist Party of China is a valuable spiritual wealth of CPC and its constant improvement and enhancement remains forever a subject for the the socialist revolution, construction and reform. The three generations of leaders have always concerned about the livelihood of the people, paid attention to it, ensured it and improved it. They have not only reached stone consensus and gained some basic experience, but also developed and improved it with the advancement of the time.%民生的不断改善和提高是中国共产党进行社会主义革命、建设和改革的永恒主题。党的三代领导集体的核心始终关注民生、重视民生,致力于保障民生、改善民生。其民生思想与时俱进,在继承和创新的实践中不断得到发展和完善。党的三代领导集体核心的民生思想是我党宝贵的精神财富。

  5. Connotations of Subject Thought in Socialist People's Livelihood Construction with Chinese Characteristics%中国特色社会主义民生建设主体思想意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏献启; 窦孟朔

    2011-01-01

    人民主体思想是马克思历史唯物主义的最基本原则,中国特色社会主义民生建设主体思想是这一原则的时代化体现。在当下中国特色社会主义民生建设的实践中,人民不仅是民生建设的认知主体,而且是民生建设实践的主体,人民不仅是民生建设成果共享主体而且是民生建设的监督主体。这些民生建设主体思想,对于推动以建设民生型服务型政府为核心的政治体制改革,努力构建公平与正义为标志的和谐社会具有重要时代价值。%People subject thought is the most basic principle of Marxist historical materialism and also the reflection of socialist livelihood construction with Chinese characteristics.In the current practice,people are not only the cognitive subject of livelihood

  6. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  7. Evaluating cotton integrated pest management (IPM) farmer field school outcomes using the sustainable livelihoods approach in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, F.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Jiggins, J.L.S.

    2007-01-01

    Farmer field schools (FFSs) were conducted in southern India to reduce pesticide input and enhance sustainability of cotton production systems. This study was carried out to determine the additional benefits of FFSs in the social and economic arena, using the sustainable livelihoods (SL) concept to

  8. Integrated analysis of land use changes and their impacts on agrarian livelihoods in the western highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutoko, M.C.; Hein, L.G.; Bartholomeus, H.

    2014-01-01

    Land degradation is affecting rural livelihoods across sub-Saharan Africa. Promoting sustainable land management requires a thorough understanding of land use change drivers, processes and effects. However, in most African countries reliable data for such investigations are missing. We therefore tes

  9. Tranquilidad and hardship in the forest : livelihoods and perceptions of Camba forest dwellers in the northern Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkemans, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable management of tropical forests relies largely on the interest of forest dwelling people in long-term forest extraction and their capacity to prevent forest degradation by other forest users. This study discusses the role of the forest in the livelihoods and perceptions of Camba (multi-e

  10. Home-Based Economic Activities and Caribbean Urban Livelihoods : Vulnerability, Ambition and Impact in Paramaribo and Port of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, Hebe

    2007-01-01

    Poor urban households in the economic 'south' deploy various livelihood activities. One of these is a Home-Based Economic Activity (HBEA), e.g. sales of home-made snacks or car maintenance. This study examines the prevalence, organisation and relevance of HBEAs in four neighbourhoods in the Caribbea

  11. The role of livelihood, social capital, and market organization in shaping rural-urban interactions (post-print)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de L.J.; Quarles van Ufford, P.; Baud, I.; Post, J.; Haan, de L.J.; Dietz, T.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter starts from the premise that economic actions can only be understood if looked upon as embedded in social structure. Therefore, it elaborates the concept of (sustainable) livelihood, which is taken to emanate from the interactions of actors with vital capitals. It argues that, in the co

  12. Access to livelihood assets among youth with and without disabilities in South Africa: Implications for health professional education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Lorenzo (Theresa); J.M. Cramm (Jane)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. This study compared access to 5 livelihood assets among disabled and non-disabled youth, to inform health professionals on inequities related to disability and to monitor the transformation agenda aimed at creating an inclusive society. Methods. Fieldworkers interviewed 989 yout

  13. Potential for Commercialization and Value Chain Improvement of Wild Food and Medicinal Plants for Livelihood Enhancement in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akankwasah Barirega

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Uganda is endowed with a wide diversity of wild plant species that can be commercialized for livelihood enhancement and poverty reduction. These wild plants are increasingly becoming a valuable source of livelihoods for many people through household use as well as trading as medicine, food and craft materials. However existing literature on commercialization of wild food and medicinal plants in Uganda is largely anecdotal and disjointed. In this review, we analyze available literature on importance of wild plants in sustaining people’s livelihoods, value chains as production and marketing approaches in commercialization of wild plants, the demand and supply for wild plants products and its implication for commercialization of wild food and medicinal plants, ecological implications for commercializing wild plants and the potential for wild plant commercialization to contribute to household income. The literature points to gaps in literature, which necessitate further studies to assess the importance of wild plants in the daily life of households, market potential of the wild plants and their contribution to the local people’s livelihoods.

  14. Evaluating cotton integrated pest management (IPM) farmer field school outcomes using the sustainable livelihoods approach in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, F.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Jiggins, J.L.S.

    2007-01-01

    Farmer field schools (FFSs) were conducted in southern India to reduce pesticide input and enhance sustainability of cotton production systems. This study was carried out to determine the additional benefits of FFSs in the social and economic arena, using the sustainable livelihoods (SL) concept to

  15. Household Livelihood Strategies and Dependence on Agriculture in the Mountainous Settlements in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingde Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which farmers in the Three Gorges Reservoir area remain highly dependent on agriculture despite rapid urbanization and industrialization. The study focuses on the factors that determine a household’s choice of livelihood strategy, with a particular focus on the production of and dependence on agricultural products. Using a sustainable livelihoods approach and survey data from farmers in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China, the study provides a descriptive statistical analysis and ordinal logistic regression model that shows that close to 56% of households exhibit a low dependence on agriculture. The following variables had a significant influence on livelihood strategy: the maximum years of education of any household member; the age of the household head; the number of laborers in a household; household location; and formal and informal social networks. Regardless of whether the household had children, house value and fixed assets had no significant influence on livelihood strategy. According to the analysis results, we put forward the suggestions that government departments increase investment in infrastructure and make loan policies more favorable for farmers so as to encourage rural able-person to use their social networks to actively establish businesses at migrant destinations.

  16. Home-Based Economic Activities and Caribbean Urban Livelihoods : Vulnerability, Ambition and Impact in Paramaribo and Port of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, Hebe

    2007-01-01

    Poor urban households in the economic 'south' deploy various livelihood activities. One of these is a Home-Based Economic Activity (HBEA), e.g. sales of home-made snacks or car maintenance. This study examines the prevalence, organisation and relevance of HBEAs in four neighbourhoods in the

  17. Climate variability and change or multiple stressors? Farmer perceptions regarding threats to livelihoods in Zimbabwe and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubaya, Chipo Plaxedes; Njuki, Jemimah; Mutsvangwa, Eness Paidamoyo; Mugabe, Francis Temba; Nanja, Durton

    2012-07-15

    Climate variability is set to increase, characterised by extreme conditions in Africa. Southern Africa will likely get drier and experience more extreme weather conditions, particularly droughts and floods. However, while climate risks are acknowledged to be a serious threat to smallholder farmers' livelihoods, these risks do not exist in isolation, but rather, compound a multiplicity of stressors. It was important for this study to understand farmer perceptions regarding the role of climate risks within a complex and multifarious set of risks to farmers' livelihoods. This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate farmers' perceptions regarding threats to livelihoods in southern Zambia and south-western Zimbabwe. While farmers report changes in local climatic conditions consistent with climate variability, there is a problem in assigning contribution of climate variability and other factors to observed negative impacts on the agricultural and socio-economic system. Furthermore, while there is a multiplicity of stressors that confront farmers, climate variability remains the most critical and exacerbate livelihood insecurity for those farmers with higher levels of vulnerability to these stressors.

  18. Adaptive livelihood strategies employed by farmers to close the food gap in semi-arid south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Andersson, J.A.; Smaling, E.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Rural households in semi-arid areas of southern Africa are confronted with numerous hazards that threaten the household food base. The new wildlife policy of establishing transfrontier conservation areas aims to increase conservation of wildlife resources while improving local livelihoods. This poli

  19. The Role of Education in Mobile Livelihoods: Social and Geographical Routes of Young Nepalese Migrants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between migration and education as aspects of wider livelihood strategies among Nepalese migrants in India. It argues that physical and social mobility are inextricably linked and looks at education (both formal and informal) as a driving force in migration. Combining a broad notion of education with a…

  20. The livelihood strategies of women fish traders in adapting to cultural and institutional constraints in Ibaka, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udong, E.; Niehof, Anke; Tilburg, van A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of women fish traders in Ibaka,
    Nigeria, which investigated their livelihood strategies, assets and resources, and
    how institutions and culture mediate their choices. Case studies were conducted
    on eleven fish traders purposively selected in 2008

  1. Understanding Deng Xiaoping’s View on People’s Livelihood from the“Three Close Combinations”%从“三个密切结合”看邓小平的民生观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永在

    2014-01-01

    Comrade Deng Xiaoping is not only the general designer of socialist reform and opening-up and mod-ernization construction of China and the creator of the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics,but also the founder of the people’s livelihood theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Encountering the situation of universal poverty in Chinese people after the“Cultural Revolution”,Comrade Deng Xiaoping,centering on the basic questions of why,how and for what purpose to improve people’s livelihood,closely combined the improve-ment of people’s livelihood with the essence of socialism,the reform and opening-up,and the well-off socie-ty,and formed a complete theoretical system regarding people’s livelihood,which has guided Chinese people to thoroughly break away from poverty and actualize a comparatively well-off society in general. On the 110th an-niversary of Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s birth,learning and studying his view on people’s livelihood has an im-portant directive meaning for learning and carrying through the spirit of President Xi Jinping’s series speeches, further assuring and improving people’s livelihood,and continuously increasing people’s welfare.%邓小平不仅是中国社会主义改革开放和现代化建设的总设计师、中国特色社会主义道路的开创者,而且也是中国特色社会主义民生理论的奠基者。面对“文革“后中国民生普遍贫困的落后局面,邓小平紧紧围绕为什么要改善民生、如何改善民生以及改善民生的目标是什么等基本问题,把改善民生与社会主义本质、改革开放和小康社会的奋斗目标密切结合起来,形成了一个完整的民生思想体系,指导着中国人民不仅彻底摆脱了贫困而且实现了总体小康。在邓小平诞辰110周年之际,学习研究邓小平的民生观,对于我们当前学习贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神、更好保障和改善民生、不断增

  2. Environmental goods & services and rural livelihoods in the Congo and Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    goods provided by a Biosphere Reserve. Paper 2 examines the exploitation of two high value non-timber forest products (NTFPs), bushmeat and eru (Gnetum africanum), in the same Biosphere Reserve and their determinants of collection as well as contribution to asset accumulation and thereby poverty......Environmental goods and services are increasingly valued for their contributions of food, resources and incomes to rural livelihoods of the poor in the developing world. Resources from tropical forests not only support current consumption but also provide valuable safety nets where limited...... approaches have shifted from command-and-control interventions, to integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs), and are now increasingly focusing on more direct conservation approaches such as Payments for Environmental Services (PES) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest...

  3. The Role of Fire in Changing Land Use and Livelihoods in Riau-Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suyanto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Results from remote sensing analysis, participatory mapping, socio-economic interviews, and hotspot information that were analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS show how fire has changed the landscape through its use in land preparation for oil palm and timber plantations and in the development of transmigration settlements. These timber and oil palm plantations have greatly altered the livelihood options of the communities, and have created conflict between communities and companies over land-use allocation and tenure. In many cases, conflict over tenure has been the motive for forest and land fires during the annual dry season. The study suggests that, where partnerships between communities and companies were established to develop oil palm and timber plantations that included a greater sharing of benefits and use of land, the incidence of fires designed to damage the planted resource was greatly reduced.

  4. Contribution of forest restoration to rural livelihoods and household income in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Theilade, Ida; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    Forest resources remain vital to the survival of many rural communities, though the level of forest reliance varies across a range of sites and socio-economic settings. This article investigates variation in forest utilization across households in three ethnic groups living near a forest restorat...... households, respectively. Our findings showed that the livelihoods of indigenous groups were still intricately linked with forest resources, despite a rapid landscape-wide transition from natural forest to oil palm and timber plantations....... restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous) semi-nomadic groups...

  5. The Impact of Cricket Farming on Rural Livelihoods, Nutrition and the Environment in Thailand and Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz

    published life cycle assessments that have been conducted on insects for food and feed. Empirical data collected in Thailand and Kenya in 2014 and 2015 are presented in Papers III, IV and V. Paper III uses life cycle assessment technique to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with current......, agriculture, food safety, and conservation. In Paper II, a total of six life cycle assessment (LCA) studies were found to have been carried out in Europe. Each LCA had unique goals and scope, functional units, and impact categories. Future LCAs are recommended to address existing gaps in knowledge...... of feed that contains maize meal and soy meal. In Thailand, results from a study (Paper IV) of 49 cricket farms in three provinces found that farmers took up cricket farming to diversify their existing agricultural livelihood strategies and provide significant income to rural households. Social and human...

  6. The impact of HIV on agricultural livelihoods in southern Uganda and the challenges of attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ben; Bukenya, Dominic; van Asten, Piet; Agol, Dorice; Pain, Adam; Seeley, Janet

    2011-03-01

    Changes in agriculture and rural livelihoods in Africa are often attributed to the HIV epidemic. While acknowledging that the epidemic has devastated many families and communities because of excess morbidity and mortality, this review explores other causes of change in agriculture practices and production in southern Uganda. Over the past 20 years labour shortages, because of labour migration and changing aspirations (as well as HIV), crop and livestock pests and diseases, declining soil fertility, changes in commodity markets and a growing off-farm sector have contributed to the changes seen in rural southern Uganda. Policy interventions outside agriculture and health have also had an impact on households. The HIV epidemic has not happened in isolation. The perceived impacts of the epidemic cannot be addressed in isolation from these other drivers of change.

  7. 民生福祉评价模型及增进策略——基于信度、结构效度分析和结构方程模型%A Study on Evaluation Model and Improvement Strategies of People' s Livelihood and Well-being --.Based on Reliability, Construct Validity Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范如国; 张宏娟

    2012-01-01

    the gap among regions and improve the level of people's livelihood and well-being. Secondly, Besides the income and expense is a significant index to measure people's livelihood and well-be- ing, environment and social security become increasingly crucial for the measurement currently. Thirdly, Statistics and construction of IPLW should meet the requirement of improvement and high level of people's livelihood and well-being, which provide the guidance of the improvement of it in the higher level. Fourthly, The statistics and design of IPLW should highlight the cultural and psychologically adaptive charac- teristics based on China's current situation. At the same time, IPLW should take into account people's feelings to- wards adaptions, and government should focus on the basic and strategic aspects associated with people's livelihood and well-being, which is close the real life of people. Finally, Social security is the foundation of improving the people's livelihood and well-being. Government should allocate more financial budget to the areas of social welfare, such as education, health care and so on in the future's work of improving people's livelihood.

  8. Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Alla A; Henderson, Benjamin B; Hertel, Thomas W; Gerber, Pierre J; Rose, Steven K; Sohngen, Brent

    2013-12-24

    Recent research has shed light on the cost-effective contribution that agriculture can make to global greenhouse gas abatement; however, the resulting impacts on agricultural production, producer livelihoods, and food security remain largely unexplored. This paper provides an integrated assessment of the linkages between land-based climate policies, development, and food security, with a particular emphasis on abatement opportunities and impacts in the livestock sector. Targeting Annex I countries and exempting non-Annex I countries from land-based carbon policies on equity or food security grounds may result in significant leakage rates for livestock production and agriculture as a whole. We find that such leakage can be eliminated by supplying forest carbon sequestration incentives to non-Annex I countries. Furthermore, substantial additional global agricultural abatement can be attained by extending a greenhouse gas emissions tax to non-Annex I agricultural producers, while compensating them for their additional tax expenses. Because of their relatively large emissions intensities and limited abatement possibilities, ruminant meat producers face the greatest market adjustments to land-based climate policies. We also evaluate the impacts of climate policies on livelihoods and food consumption in developing countries. In the absence of non-Annex I abatement policies, these impacts are modest. However, strong income and food consumption impacts surface because of higher food costs after forest carbon sequestration is promoted at a global scale. Food consumption among unskilled labor households falls but rises for the representative farm households, because global agricultural supplies are restricted and farm prices rise sharply in the face of inelastic food demands.

  9. Hunting, Livelihoods and Declining Wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents ( n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting ( n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  10. Assessing adaptation – Climate change and indigenous livelihood in the Andes of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marolyn Vidaurre de la Riva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case study of Charazani – Bolivia, this article outlines the understanding of adaptive strategies to cope with climate change and its impact on environmental and socioeconomic conditions that are affecting rural livelihoods. Mainly qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze data following the framework for vulnerability assessments of a socio-ecological system. Climate data reveals an increase of precipitation and temperature during the last decades. Furthermore the occurrence of extreme weather events, particularly drought, frost, hailstorms and consequently landslides and fire are increasing. Local testimonies highlight these events as the principle reasons for agricultural losses. This climatic variability and simultaneous social changes were identified as the drivers of vulnerability. Yet, several adaptive measures were identified at household, community and external levels in order to cope with such vulnerability; e.g. traditional techniques in agriculture and risk management. Gradually, farmers complement these activities with contemporary practices in agriculture, like intensification of land use, diversification of irrigation system and use of artificial fertilizers. As part of a recent trend community members are forced to search for new off-farm alternatives beyond agriculture for subsistence. Despite there is a correspondingly large array of possible adaptation measures that families are implementing, local testimonies point out, that farmers often do not have the capacity and neither the economical resources to mitigate the risk in agricultural production. Although several actions are already considered to promote further adaptive capacity, the current target is to improve existing livelihood strategies by reducing vulnerability to hazards induced by climate change.

  11. Adaptive livelihood strategies for coping with water scarcity in the drylands of central Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwenga, Emma T.

    In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing

  12. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  13. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  14. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  15. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sport for You Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  16. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  17. 药用植物与中国古代民生民俗%Medicinal Plants and People's Livelihood together with Folklore of Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游元元; 李羿; 钟世红; 李晨

    2011-01-01

    中国人的日常生活及传统文化与药用植物密切相关.对当前应试教育框架下缺乏文史知识营养的学生,在药用植物学课堂教学中着意掺入与日常生活相关的民生民俗、诗词歌赋及文史掌故等内容,不但能活跃课堂气氛、增强师生互动、增加记忆兴奋点,还能在潜移默化中提升学生人文素养,丰富精神世界.%Chinese daily life and traditional culture are closely relevant to medicinal plants. The people's livelihood, folklore, archaic poetry, idiom and literary quotation related to basic necessities of lives are affiliated with teaching process of Pharmaceutical Botany, which would make the class lively and interesting, enhance the teacher-student interaction and increase memory. The teaching method also promotes the students' humanity accomplishment in subtle influence that is lack of literature and history knowledge in exam-oriented education system.

  18. Beginning Visual Basic 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Thearon

    2010-01-01

    A focused, step-by-step approach to Visual Basic for new programmers. What better way to get started with Visual Basic than with this essential Wrox beginner's guide? Beginning Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 not only shows you how to write Windows applications, Web applications with ASP.NET, and Windows mobile and embedded CE apps with Visual Basic 2010, but you'll also get a thorough grounding in the basic nuts-and-bolts of writing good code. You'll be exposed to the very latest VB tools and techniques with coverage of both the Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4 releases. Plus, the book walks you ste

  19. Study on the energy accumulation zone resource dividend and the livelihood of the people---T aking Shanxi,Shaanxi and Inner M ongolia as examples%能源富集区资源红利与民生问题--以晋、陕、蒙为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保忠; 何炼成; 王进富

    2016-01-01

    Abstracts:Through comparative analysis of financial livelihood expenditure about three re‐source areas including Shanxi ,Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia ,the result shows there are different degrees of imbalance between resource development and improvement of people′s livelihood in the three provinces .During the study period ,the livelihood of the people spending develop‐ment of three provinces also has an obvious difference :financial livelihood expenditure propor‐tion of Shanxi is the highest ,Shaanxi is the second and Inner Mongolia is the lowest .In recent years ,Inner Mongolia achieves remarkable economic growth with the obvious ascension of re‐sources development strength ,but this does not improve the people's livelihood .It shows a"resource curse"risk of people′s livelihood significance in Inner Mongolia .In conclusion ,the governments of resource provinces should take more responsibility in the basic education ,basic medical care ,social security and other public services to improve the livelihood of the people and correct the imbalance between resource economic grow th and improving people′s liveli‐hood .The governments should modestly increase financial livelihood expenditure to improve manpower capital accumulating ,forming a good basis for long -term economic grow th ,to a‐void“resource curse”effect .%资源开发的根本目的是为了改善民生,但资源开发形成的财富增长并不会自动转化为民生成果。通过对晋、陕、蒙三大资源型省区2000~2011年间财政民生支出状况的比较分析,表明三省区资源开发强度变化及经济增长与民生改善存在着不同程度的失衡。研究期间,三省区财政民生支出总体上偏低,且各省之间也有明显差异,山西省民生支出占财政支出百分比最高,其次是陕西省,再次是内蒙古自治区(以下简称内蒙古)。内蒙古近几年资源开发强度提高并且取得显著的经济增长,但其

  20. Transition of shifting cultivation and its impact on people’s livelihoods in the Miombo Woodlands of Northern Zambia and South-Western Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Kenneth Joseph; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lyimo, James

    2013-01-01

    population, government policies, and an increasing commercialization/market integration. Questionnaires, focus group meetings, and in-depth interviews reveal that despite the breakdown of the traditional shifting cultivation practices, a general improvement of livelihoods has taken place. This has happened...... through adaptation and diversification in both agricultural practices and livelihood activities. However, it is also seen that because of the often rapidly changing external factors (market conditions and policies), life in the shifting cultivation communities involves a continual shift of emphasis among...... a variety of livelihood strategies....

  1. Assistência Farmacêutica no Sistema Único de Saúde: da Política Nacional de Medicamentos à Atenção Básica à Saúde Pharmaceutical Assistance in the Basic Units of Health: from the National Drug Policy to the Basic Attention to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cristina Feltrin de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é um estudo de revisão teórica que discute a Assistência Farmacêutica no Sistema Único de Saúde, resgatando-se brevemente a história da Política Nacional de Medicamentos, os mecanismos de financiamento no processo de descentralização da saúde e a Assistência Farmacêutica na Atenção Básica à Saúde. A ampliação do acesso da população ao sistema de saúde exigiu mudanças na distribuição de medicamentos, de maneira a aumentar a cobertura e ao mesmo tempo minimizar custos. Identificam-se avanços no arcabouço jurídico e institucional: descentralização da gestão das ações da assistência farmacêutica; ampliação do acesso da população aos medicamentos essenciais; e estruturação da assistência farmacêutica nos municípios. No entanto, persistem ações prioritárias em relação ao financiamento e cobertura populacional, em detrimento da qualidade dos processos. Conclui-se que em muitos municípios brasileiros ocorrem baixa disponibilidade e descontinuidade da oferta de medicamentos essenciais; dispensação por trabalhadores sem qualificação; condições inadequadas de armazenamento que comprometem a qualidade dos medicamentos; prescrição de medicamentos que não pertencem à Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais; e problemas relacionados ao acesso dos usuários à farmacoterapia.This study of theoretical revision discuss the Pharmaceutical Assistance in the Basic Units of Health, rescuing briefly the history of the National Drug Policy, the mechanisms of financing in the process of health decentralization and Pharmaceutical Assistance on the Basic Attention to Health. The expansion of the population access to the health system has demanded changes on drug distribution in order to increase the coverage and at the same time to reduce costs. It was identified advances in legal and institutional structures: the management decentralization of actions on pharmaceutical assistance; the

  2. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons....... The theory is illustrated by specific models and examples....

  3. Preoptometry and optometry school grade point average and optometry admissions test scores as predictors of performance on the national board of examiners in optometry part I (basic science) examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J E; Yackle, K A; Yuen, M T; Voorhees, L I

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate preoptometry and optometry school grade point averages and Optometry Admission Test (OAT) scores as predictors of performance on the National Board of Examiners in Optometry NBEO Part I (Basic Science) (NBEOPI) examination. Simple and multiple correlation coefficients were computed from data obtained from a sample of three consecutive classes of optometry students (1995-1997; n = 278) at Southern California College of Optometry. The GPA after year two of optometry school was the highest correlation (r = 0.75) among all predictor variables; the average of all scores on the OAT was the highest correlation among preoptometry predictor variables (r = 0.46). Stepwise regression analysis indicated a combination of the optometry GPA, the OAT Academic Average, and the GPA in certain optometry curricular tracks resulted in an improved correlation (multiple r = 0.81). Predicted NBEOPI scores were computed from the regression equation and then analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (roc) and statistic of agreement (kappa) methods. From this analysis, we identified the predicted score that maximized identification of true and false NBEOPI failures (71% and 10%, respectively). Cross validation of this result on a separate class of optometry students resulted in a slightly lower correlation between actual and predicted NBEOPI scores (r = 0.77) but showed the criterion-predicted score to be somewhat lax. The optometry school GPA after 2 years is a reasonably good predictor of performance on the full NBEOPI examination, but the prediction is enhanced by adding the Academic Average OAT score. However, predicting performance in certain subject areas of the NBEOPI examination, for example Psychology and Ocular/Visual Biology, was rather insubstantial. Nevertheless, predicting NBEOPI performance from the best combination of year two optometry GPAs and preoptometry variables is better than has been shown in previous studies predicting optometry GPA from the best

  4. Joint venture schemes in Limpopo Province and their outcomes on smallholder farmers livelihoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapedza, Everisto; van Koppen, Barbara; Sithole, Pinimidzai; Bourblanc, Magalie

    2016-04-01

    Joint Venture schemes based on the floppy irrigation technology are being promoted in the post-Apartheid South Africa's Limpopo Province. Access to land and water resources in South Africa are largely viewed as a mechanism for re-dressing the Apartheid injustices. This research was part of a broader applied research to help inform irrigation practise in the Limpopo Province. The research used literature review, key informant interviews and a questionnaire survey. The overall research question sought to understand how the Joint Venture Schemes had benefited the smallholder farmers. This paper argues that the joint venture partnership created a new injustice. Firstly, the Joint Venture Scheme design is fundamentally a bad idea which disempower farmers not only to water access but also land as well. The choice of the 'efficient' floppy irrigation technology was made by the state and entailed that land had to be managed as a single unit. In order to make more effective use of this highly sophisticated new technology, the smallholder farmers also needed to go into a joint venture partnership with a white commercial farmer. By virtue of signing the Joint Venture agreement the farmers were also forfeiting their land and water rights to be used for crop production. The smallholder farmers lost access to their water and land resources and were largely relegated to sharing profits - when they exist - with hardly any skills development despite what was initially envisaged in the Joint Venture partnership. Secondly, the implementation of the JVS has been skewed from the start which explains the bad results. This paper further shows how the negative outcomes affected women in particular. As the smallholder farmers argue the technological options chosen by the state have excluded both male and female farmers from accessing and utilising their land and water resources in order to improve their livelihoods; it has entrenched the role of the state and the private interests at the

  5. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  6. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  7. Basic algebraic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, Anant R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Basic Problem Fundamental Group Function Spaces and Quotient Spaces Relative Homotopy Some Typical Constructions Cofibrations Fibrations Categories and Functors Cell Complexes and Simplicial Complexes Basics of Convex Polytopes Cell Complexes Product of Cell Complexes Homotopical Aspects Cellular Maps Abstract Simplicial Complexes Geometric Realization of Simplicial Complexes Barycentric Subdivision Simplicial Approximation Links and Stars Covering Spaces and Fundamental Group Basic Definitions Lifting Properties Relation with the Fundamental Group Classification of Covering P

  8. Towards Food Security and Livelihoods of Low-income Women in central Uganda: Policy Implications based on action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom; Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2015-01-01

    Uganda is burdened with rising poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity. While most Ugandans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, it is important to recognize that access to and control over resources by women and climate factors are central to the question of food security in Uganda...... that the agricultural and livelihood choices women make are subject to the constraints they face and the policy alternatives available to them. As such it highlights certain policy considerations affecting food insecurity for low-income women in urban and peri-urban Kampala and makes certain key recommendations....... However, a review of the literature demonstrates that policy options have poorly understood these interlinkages or tended to undermine them, especially the extent that these policies and programs put the necessary attention on the role of women farmers in food security. This paper presents part of a work...

  9. A livelihood intervention to improve economic and psychosocial well-being in rural Uganda: Longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Kakuhikire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV and poverty are inextricably intertwined in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic and livelihood intervention strategies have been suggested to help mitigate the adverse economic effects of HIV, but few intervention studies have focused specifically on HIV-positive persons. We conducted three pilot studies to assess a livelihood intervention consisting of an initial orientation and loan package of chickens and associated implements to create poultry microenterprises. We enrolled 15 HIV-positive and 22 HIV-negative participants and followed them for up to 18 months. Over the course of follow-up, participants achieved high chicken survival and loan repayment rates. Median monthly income increased, and severe food insecurity declined, although these changes were not statistically significant (P-values ranged from 0.11 to 0.68. In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of three HIV-positive participants identified a constellation of economic and psychosocial benefits, including improved social integration and reduced stigma.

  10. EU-Mercosur Trade Agreement: Potential Impacts on Rural Livelihoods and Gender (with Focus on Bio-fuels Feedstock Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonith Hinojosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The trade-sustainable impact assessment of the European Union-Mercosur trade agreement found that the economic impact of the trade liberalisation scenario could be positive in the agricultural sectors of Mercosur countries. However, it also found that the social and environmental impacts would be mixed and potentially detrimental. This paper addresses the likely effects on the livelihoods of vulnerable rural populations. It argues that the potential impacts can be analysed within a diversified livelihood strategies framework, which is expanded to include institutional and policy factors. It concludes that the negative expected impact responds to the highly uneven access to capital assets. On the other hand, the effects are not generalised to all Mercosur countries, nor to all regions in each of the member countries. Enhancing or mitigating measures refer to the importance of sequencing and regulation to improve disadvantaged groups‘ abilities to participate in trade-led agricultural intensification or industrialisation processes.

  11. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  12. European Union’s LiveDiverse project – interplay between livelihoods and biodiversity in the South African case study area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The interconnectedness of biodiversity and sustainable livelihoods for many societies around the world is constructed by the complexities of vulnerability and resilience. Society is faced by a plethora of challenges that include poverty reduction...

  13. COMMUNITY GARDENS AND FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL AND MARKET GARDENS IN MBERENGWA, ZIMBABWE

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Chazovachii; Cephas Mutami; John Bowora

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to assess the contribution of community gardens on food security in rural livelihoods development in Mberengwa ward 27. Despite the introduction of community gardens in ward 27, poverty persisted amongst the vulnerable groups in the district. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in collection of data through questionnaires, interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs). Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and content analysis. This study revealed t...

  14. Regional Approach for Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies Under Climate Change of Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Galvin, K.; Togtohyn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral systems in Mongolia. Recently, market forces and development strategies are affecting land and water resources of the pastoral communities which are being further stressed due to climatic changes. Evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the social-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information about the social-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia. Our research indicate that sustainability of pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate integrated analysis of landscape management and livelihood strategies provides a framework which links ecosystem services to critical resource assets. Analysis of the available livelihood assets provides insights to the adaptive capacity of various agents in a region or in a community. Sustainable development pathways which enable the development of these adaptive capacity elements will lead to more effective adaptive management strategies for pastoral land use and herder's living standards. Pastoralists will have the

  15. Cement Production and Sustainable Rural Farming Livelihood in Nigeria: Striking a Sensible Balance Through Environmental Legislation and Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke O. Okojie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertook the damage valuation of cement production induced air pollution on rural farming livelihood, assessed the impact on farmers’ profitability as well as investigating the corporate social responsibility investment of the cement companies in the producing host communities in Nigeria. It then examined how legislation and enforcement can be made to strike a sensible balance between the environmental damage enabled by cement pollution and ensuring a sustainable farming livelihood. A two stage simple random sampling procedure was adopted for the paper to select a total of 120 respondentsin the target and control areas. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Dichotomous–Choice Contingent Valuation Method (DC- CVM that terminated into the logit model and the budgetary analysis. The total Willingness-To-Pay (WTP/annum to avert the negative externalities on the host communities’ farming livelihood was N3.21 billion. The profitability in farming in the target cement producing area with respect to thenet farm income and the rate of return to capital investment were lower in the target as compared to the control area. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR investments ofthe cement producing companies were small compared to the profits realized by them. The proportions of the CSR investments with respect to the company’s profits were between 0.4% and 1.6% for the five years considered in the paper. Efforts have been made by the government to enact laws, regulations and standards to ensureenvironmentally sound and sustainable environment though the institution initially put in place to implement them was not given legal powers of enforcement. Things are however changing with the establishment of another with such powers. It is only by such proper implementation, a sensible balance can be struck between uncontrolled cement dust pollution associated with excess profits to the cement producers and sustainable

  16. Socioeconomic and livelihood impact of invasive species on marginal homesteads: the case of aceria guerreronis on coconut palms in India

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindakshan, Sreejith

    2011-01-01

    Alien invasive species are non-native organisms that occur outside their natural adapted habitat and dispersal potential. They are seen as a threat not only to biodiversity and ecosystems, but also to socioeconomic development, livelihood and human well-being. In India, the bioinvasion of coconut palms by an alien invasive mite species Aceria guerreronis, popularly known as ‘Coconut mite’ accounting for enormous economic loss was first noticed just before the start of the new m...

  17. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Patterns and Drivers of Mobile Telephony for Sustainable Livelihood among Rural Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jubril Olayinka Animashaun; Segun Bamidele Fakayode; Kazeem Adebayo Idris; Khairat F Adedokun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is acknowledged that mobile phones, as an asset, exhibits multiple functionalities and diverse applications that cut across all forms of capital accumulation necessary for sustainable livelihood. However, empirical result is sparse in Nigeria as to the impact of mobile phones on asset accumulation. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of mobile phone use and intensity of use for sustainable capital formation in among farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. Spec...

  19. Livelihood of Street Children and the Role of Social Intervention: Insights from Literature Using Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Wandimu Alem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As studies done by different scholars indicate that the present status of street children is remarkably insightful, this invites us to systematically review the existing literature by using meta-analysis. In this paper 31 studies were reviewed by applying a predetermined set of inclusion and exclusion criteria as part of meta-analysis. These studies were compiled mainly from three continents (Africa, Asia, and Latin America, which are often observed to be diversified economically, politically, socially, and environmentally. Empirical evidences based on data generated from reviewed studies provide a holistic picture on the predominance of male street children among a total sample size of 68014 street children. Working as a daily labourer is considered as the most predominant informal occupation for street children. Empirical evidences suggest that majority of street dwellers were categorized into children working on the street in Africa, while in Asia a sizable proportion of them were abandoned from their house. Interestingly, it suggests that children coming to a street may be due to push factors like coercion by family, lack of access to education, and the existence of displeasing life in Africa, while in Asia children were pushed by family to beg and act as a day labourer and street vendor to assure the livelihood of their abandoned families. Statistical evidence based on odds ratio suggested no association between location of the study region and the characteristics of street children. Analysis of variance results showed that there exists a significant variation within a continent for all four variables (living condition, education, gender, and livelihood strategies. In fact, daily labour was the most acceptable means of livelihood earning and it is followed by street vendor and others. The present condition of street children necessitates social intervention to address the present problems of street dwellers by ensuring sustainable

  20. An integrated framework to assess plausible future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.; Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C.; Adams, H.; Salehin, M.; Haque, A.; Clarke, D.; Bricheno, L.; Fernandes, J. A.; Rahman, M.; Ahmed, A.; Streatfield, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas represent one of the most densely populated areas in the world. This is especially true for the coastal zone of Bangladesh where more than a thousand people live in each square kilometre of land. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in Bangladesh are strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential; thus severely affect land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish, rice), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on natural resource conservation and poverty levels. This presentation describes the model framework and aims to illustrate the cause-effect relationship in-between changes of the hydro-environment and the livelihoods and