WorldWideScience

Sample records for nation framework convention

  1. Denmark's forth national communication on climate change. Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Kingdom of Denmark comprises Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change has been ratified on behalf of all three parts. This report is Denmark's Fourth Climate Communication under the Climate Convention. Since Denmark's ratification covers the entire Realm, the report includes information on Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. The report is organised in accordance with the guidelines for national communications adopted by the parties to the Climate Convention. (BA)

  2. Denmark's National Inventory Reports. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.; Rasmussen, E.

    2000-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2000. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 1998 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , CO, NMVOC, SO 2 , HFCs, PFCs and SF. (au)

  3. 4. national communication to the United Nation framework convention on the climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    France, as the other involved participants, has to periodically present its actions in favor of the climatic change fight. This fourth national communication follows a plan defined by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nation Framework Convention on the Climatic Change. This report follows the third national convention published on 2001. It presents in nine chapters the actions realized to reduce and stop the greenhouse effect gases emissions and limit the impacts on the environment and public health: an analytical abstract, the conditions specific to the country, the inventory, the policies and measures, the projections and global effects of the policies and measures, the evaluation of the vulnerability and the climatic changes consequences and the adapted measures, the financial resources and the technology transfer, the research programs, the education formation and awareness of the public. (A.L.B.)

  4. France 2001. Third national communication under the UN framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In line with obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, France, like all the signatories of the convention, is required periodically to provide a National Communication following a plan established by the Conference of Parties to the Convention. This document provides information on national actions related to climate change. It also aims to help our country respect its commitments and encourage the release of information so as to enable an examination and in-depth evaluation of the implementation of the commitments made under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the 1998 European agreement on burden-sharing within the European Union. (author)

  5. Denmark's forth national communication on climate change. Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Kingdom of Denmark comprises Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change has been ratified on behalf of all three parts. This report is Denmark's Fourth Climate Communication under the Climate Convention. Since Denmark's ratification covers the entire Realm, the report includes information on Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. The report is organised in accordance with the guidelines for national communications adopted by the parties to the Climate Convention. (BA)

  6. Denmark's National Inventory Report - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1990-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's in-ventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO2, CH4, N2O......, CO, NMVOC, SO2 , HFCs, PFCs and SF6....

  7. Denmark's national inventory report 2006 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2004. Emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 , CO, NMVOC, SO 2 . (au)

  8. Denmark's national inventory report. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2001. Emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due bye 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, CO, NMVOC, SO 2 , HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 . (au)

  9. Coding conventions and principles for a National Land-Change Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2017-07-14

    This report establishes specific rules for writing computer source code for use with the National Land-Change Modeling Framework (NLCMF). These specific rules consist of conventions and principles for writing code primarily in the C and C++ programming languages. Collectively, these coding conventions and coding principles create an NLCMF programming style. In addition to detailed naming conventions, this report provides general coding conventions and principles intended to facilitate the development of high-performance software implemented with code that is extensible, flexible, and interoperable. Conventions for developing modular code are explained in general terms and also enabled and demonstrated through the appended templates for C++ base source-code and header files. The NLCMF limited-extern approach to module structure, code inclusion, and cross-module access to data is both explained in the text and then illustrated through the module templates. Advice on the use of global variables is provided.

  10. 4. national communication to the United Nation framework convention on the climatic change; 4. communication nationale a la convention cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    France, as the other involved participants, has to periodically present its actions in favor of the climatic change fight. This fourth national communication follows a plan defined by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nation Framework Convention on the Climatic Change. This report follows the third national convention published on 2001. It presents in nine chapters the actions realized to reduce and stop the greenhouse effect gases emissions and limit the impacts on the environment and public health: an analytical abstract, the conditions specific to the country, the inventory, the policies and measures, the projections and global effects of the policies and measures, the evaluation of the vulnerability and the climatic changes consequences and the adapted measures, the financial resources and the technology transfer, the research programs, the education formation and awareness of the public. (A.L.B.)

  11. Should the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognize climate migrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Christine; Ford, James

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to increase migration flows, especially from socially and environmentally vulnerable populations. These ‘climate migrants’ do not have any official protection under international law, which has implications for the human security of migrants. This work argues that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) can and should recognize climate migrants, and is the most relevant international framework for doing so. While not legally binding, the acknowledgment of climate displacement, migration and planned relocation issues in the UNFCCC’s Cancun Adaptation Framework indicates a willingness to address the issue through an adaptation lens. Herein, the paper proposes a framework for setting the institutional groundwork for recognizing climate migrants, focusing on the most vulnerable, promoting targeted research and policy agendas, and situating policies within a comprehensive strategy.

  12. Should the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognize climate migrants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, Christine; Ford, James

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase migration flows, especially from socially and environmentally vulnerable populations. These ‘climate migrants’ do not have any official protection under international law, which has implications for the human security of migrants. This work argues that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) can and should recognize climate migrants, and is the most relevant international framework for doing so. While not legally binding, the acknowledgment of climate displacement, migration and planned relocation issues in the UNFCCC’s Cancun Adaptation Framework indicates a willingness to address the issue through an adaptation lens. Herein, the paper proposes a framework for setting the institutional groundwork for recognizing climate migrants, focusing on the most vulnerable, promoting targeted research and policy agendas, and situating policies within a comprehensive strategy. (letter)

  13. Sweden's third national communication on climate change. Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Sweden's national communication to the UN Convention on Climate Change describes everything about the emission and absorption of greenhouse gases, the motives and forces behind emissions, and official Swedish climate policies. Every five years, Sweden submits a communication on practical climate efforts in Sweden to the UN Convention on Climate Change. The Swedish Environmental Protection Board has coordinated the work of producing the basic documentation for the communication, which also describes the measures already taken and those planned for the future. In addition, scenarios have been adopted for developments in Swedish greenhouse gas emissions, Sweden's vulnerability and Swedish research into the climate and climate change

  14. Denmark's national inventory report 2008 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2006. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M [and others

    2008-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2008. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2006 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFC{sub s}, PFC{sub s} and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  15. Denmark's National Inventory Reports. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M. [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Rasmussen, E. [Energistyrelsen (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2000. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 1998 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF. (au)

  16. Denmark's second national communication on climate change. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, L.; Torp, U.; Rasmussen, E.

    1997-09-01

    At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 more than 150 countries signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. According to decisions taken under article 12 of the Convention each developed country Party shall communicate to the Convention secretariat its second national report presenting inter-alia inventories of emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse related gases. This report represents the Danish programmes and measures taken to observe the commitments under the Climate Convention. The revised 1996 IPCC guidelines have been applied to N 2 O from agriculture and the pollutants not earlier included (SO 2 , HFCs, CFCs and SF 6 ). Background material and data underlying the calculations in the report are available upon request to the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. A very comprehensive and thorough description is given of the programmes and plans for the energy sector with additional information presented in Annexes F and I. The twofold purpose is to give a detailed documentation of how Denmark will meet the ambitious target to reduce the emission of CO 2 by 20% by the year 2005 compared to 1988 and to inspire other Parties to the Convention in efforts to control their present as well as their future emissions of the most important greenhouse gases. (EG) 16 refs

  17. Canada's national report on climate change: Actions to meet commitments under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, countries must adopt measures to mitigate climate change, adapt to its possible effects, increase public awareness and scientific understanding of climate change and possible responses, and work together in all of these areas. A review is provided of action being currently taken by Canadian governments, non-governmental organizations, communities, and the private sector to meet domestic and international climate change commitments. Projections indicate that climate change could result in significant changes to many of Canada's natural ecosystems, with equally significant economic and social consequences. Canadian demand for energy is the chief cause of Canada's man-made emissions of greenhouse gases. As a first step in meeting its commitment, Canada is developing and implementing measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions, mainly in the area of energy efficiency, energy conservation, and switching to energy sources that are less carbon-intensive. Progress in limiting such emissions will be assessed via emissions inventories, examination of climatic change indicators, forecasting future energy-related emissions of the three primary greenhouse gases, and use of case studies to assess the effectiveness of emissions control measures. Other components of Canadian activities include increasing public awareness of climate change, sponsoring research on the subject, reviewing environmental policies, and international cooperation. 59 refs., 36 figs., 23 tabs

  18. Delineating managed land for reporting national greenhouse gas emissions and removals to the United Nations framework convention on climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Domke, Grant; Kurz, Werner A; Rocha, Marcelo T; Huffman, Ted; Swan, Amy; Smith, James E; Woodall, Christopher; Krug, Thelma

    2018-05-29

    Land use and management activities have a substantial impact on carbon stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions and removals. However, it is challenging to discriminate between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources and sinks from land. To address this problem, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change developed a managed land proxy to determine which lands are contributing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Governments report all emissions and removals from managed land to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change based on this proxy, and policy interventions to reduce emissions from land use are expected to focus on managed lands. Our objective was to review the use of the managed land proxy, and summarize the criteria that governments have applied to classify land as managed and unmanaged. We found that the large majority of governments are not reporting on their application of the managed land proxy. Among the governments that do provide information, most have assigned all area in specific land uses as managed, while designating all remaining lands as unmanaged. This designation as managed land is intuitive for croplands and settlements, which would not exist without management interventions, but a portion of forest land, grassland, and wetlands may not be managed in a country. Consequently, Brazil, Canada and the United States have taken the concept further and delineated managed and unmanaged forest land, grassland and wetlands, using additional criteria such as functional use of the land and accessibility of the land to anthropogenic activity. The managed land proxy is imperfect because reported emissions from any area can include non-anthropogenic sources, such as natural disturbances. However, the managed land proxy does make reporting of GHG emissions and removals from land use more tractable and comparable by excluding fluxes from areas that are not directly influenced by anthropogenic activity. Moreover

  19. France 2001. Third national communication under the UN framework convention on climate change; France 2001. Troisieme communication nationale a la convention cadre des nations unies sur les changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In line with obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, France, like all the signatories of the convention, is required periodically to provide a National Communication following a plan established by the Conference of Parties to the Convention. This document provides information on national actions related to climate change. It also aims to help our country respect its commitments and encourage the release of information so as to enable an examination and in-depth evaluation of the implementation of the commitments made under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the 1998 European agreement on burden-sharing within the European Union. (author)

  20. International law, national policies and youth smoking: an examination of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Emmanuel Guindon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC addresses a wide range of issues including protection from exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The FCTC represents a minimum set of tobacco control policies, although the treaty explicitly encourages countries to go above and beyond these measures. Despite its lack of mandatory provisions. FCTC ratification and its timing may be good proxy for a country's commitment to tobacco control. Our first objective is to assess the impact of the FCTC on global youth tobacco use. Our second objective is to explore two areas that are amenable to policy change: secondhand smoke and advertising. Methods We used pooled repeated-cross-sectional data from youth surveys conducted between 1999 and 2015 in more than 150 low- and middle-income countries and multilevel analyses to account for the nesting of students in schools and schools in countries. First, we examined the association between three outcome variables (smoking susceptibility, defined as the absence of a firm decision not to smoke, current smoking defined as 30-day smoking prevalence and a five-point scale of smoking uptake and various indicators of the FCTC implementation. Second, we examined the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising and indicators of the FCTC implementation. Results We found considerable heterogeneity in the association between different measures of youth smoking and indicators of the FCTC implementation. On the whole, we found clearer associations between exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising and indicators of the FCTC implementation. Conclusions A number of studies have examined changes in the implementation of tobacco control measures since the ratification of the FCTC but few studies have examined the effect of the FCTC on tobacco use; fewer still have used pre- and post-FCTC data. More research that use such data is needed.

  1. RINGOs. Research and Independent Non-governmental Organisations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    RINGOs are organizations engaged in independent research and analysis aimed at developing sound strategies to address both the causes and consequences of global climate change. They form a constituency in their own right to contribute to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in a parallel way to ENGOs (Environment), BINGOs (Business and Industry), LGMAs (Local governments and municipal authorities) and the IPOs (Indigenous peoples organizations). During the COP and SB meetings of the UNFCCC the RINGOs organize meetings to discuss the developments of the negotiations. RINGOs have also been represented at workshops organized by the UNFCCC Secretariat. RINGO activities are co-ordinated by a steering committee

  2. Denmark's national inventory report 2006 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2004. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth (and others)

    2006-08-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  3. Denmark's national inventory report. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2001. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-04-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due bye 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. (au)

  4. Denmark's national inventory report 2007 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2005. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth (and others)

    2007-10-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2007. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2005 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  5. International cooperative initiatives and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key ...... efforts under the UNFCCC is uncertain, but believed to be quite large. •The UNFCCC is arguably ill suited to coordinate and strengthen the accountability of international cooperative initiatives.......International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key...... transparent performance monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The article concludes with two considerations. Firstly, it advocates for the United Nations Environment Programme as one entity that could bring much-needed coordination among ICIs, and between ICIs and national government-led efforts to mitigate...

  6. Promising results of the first Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Charge (FCCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkus, H.

    1995-01-01

    The first Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), held from 28 March-7 April 1995 in Berlin, Germany, resulted in a positive outcome, despite gloomy prospects at the start of the conference. After two weeks of negotiations agreement was reached to start negotiating commitments after 2000. Also a decision was taken to set up a pilot phase for Joint Implementation. Furthermore, several institutional (a.o. FCCC secretariat will settle in Bonn) and organizational (a.o. budget) topics were solved. The challenge for negotiators now is to work out a concrete draft protocol for the conference in 1997 (Japan). In Berlin, Parties were prepared to compromise in the final (early morning) hours. The question remains whether the same willingness exists when definite choices have to be made on measures, targets and timetables

  7. Denmark's national inventory report 2008 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2006. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2008-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2008. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2006 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFC{sub s}, PFC{sub s} and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  8. Canada's national report on actions to meet commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Current actions by Canadian governments, non-governmental organizations, communities, and the private sector to meet domestic and international climate change commitments are reviewed. The possible impacts of climate change on Canada are discussed and Canadian greenhouse gas emissions are assessed in terms of factors such as climate, geography, land use, economic structure, and energy production and consumption. Canada's draft National Action Strategy on Global Warming provides a framework for actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Measures already taken include those aimed at increasing energy efficiency and energy conservation or encouraging a switch to less carbon-intensive energy sources. Other measures include information and education initiatives, regulation, research and development, and economic instruments. Actions have already been taken in the transportation, electricity generation, residential/commercial, resource/manufacturing industry, and waste management sectors. Canada is also involved in international studies and agreements to limit global greenhouse gas emissions. Four tools are used to assess progress in limiting emissions: emission inventories, climate change indicators, an emissions outlook, and case studies. The emissions outlook presented shows that energy-related greenhouse gas emissions will increase 10.6% from 1990 to 2000, reaching the equivalent of 538.2 megatonnes of CO 2 . A case study shows that current and planned measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions associated with space heating requirements in new single-family homes will reduce emissions in this area 18% from what they would otherwise be in the year 2000. 58 refs., 44 figs., 21 tabs

  9. NO global warming = YES nuclear energy. The International Nuclear Forum and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Emma

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear industry sits along side the renewable energy sector in its role as a non carbon emitting technology. But persuading international political leaders of this fact presents a challenge. Generating electricity from nuclear fuel avoids at least 2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide every year through its 16% share of world wide electricity generation. Nuclear energy is essential to minimising greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation highlights the main issues resulting from the climate change negotiations that are highly relevant to the industry; explains the activities of the International Nuclear Forum and our interaction with the delegates to the process; outlines future activities. The International Nuclear Forum (INF) was formed to provide a collective voice lobbying for nuclear at the climate change negotiations. It's internationally representative of the industry and comprises of: the Uranium Institute; the Nuclear Energy Institute; the Japan Atomic Industry Forum; the Canadian Nuclear Association; the European Nuclear Society, and Foratom. All are accredited non governmental observers to the negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  10. The benefits from complying with the framework convention on tobacco control: a SimSmoke analysis of 15 European nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Huang, An-Tsun; Currie, Laura M; Clancy, Luke

    2014-12-01

    This article compares the predicted impact of tobacco tax increases alone and as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) across 15 European countries. Country-specific population, smoking prevalence and policy data with modified parameter values have been applied to the previously validated SimSmoke model for 10 high-income and 5 middle-income European nations. The impact of past and potential future policies is modelled. Models generally validated well across the 15 countries, and showed the impact of past policies. Without stronger future policies, 44 million lives would be lost due to smoking across the 15 study countries between 2011 and 2040, but effective policies could avert 7.7 million of those premature deaths. Results suggest that past policies have been effective in reducing smoking rates, but there is also a strong potential for future policies consistent with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. When specific taxes are increased to 70% of retail price, strong smoke-free air laws, youth access laws and marketing restrictions are enforced, stronger health warnings are implemented, and cessation treatment and media campaigns are supported, smoking prevalence and SADs will fall substantially in European countries. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  11. Declining Temporal Effectiveness of Carbon Sequestration. Implications for Compliance with the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, L. D.D. [Department of Geography, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3 (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Carbon sequestration is increasingly being promoted as a potential response to the risks of unrestrained emissions of CO2, either in place of or as a complement to reductions in the use of fossil fuels. However, the potential role of carbon sequestration as an (at-least partial) substitute for reductions in fossil fuel use can be properly evaluated only in the context of a long-term acceptable limit (or range of limits) to the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, taking into account the response of the entire carbon cycle to artificial sequestration. Under highly stringent emission-reduction scenarios for non-CO2 greenhouse gases, 450 ppmv CO2 is the equivalent, in terms of radiative forcing of climate, to a doubling of the pre-industrial concentration of CO2. It is argued in this paper that compliance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (henceforth, the UNFCCC) implies that atmospheric CO2 concentration should be limited, or quickly returned to, a concentration somewhere below 450 ppmv. A quasi-one-dimensional coupled climate-carbon cycle model is used to assess the response of the carbon cycle to idealized carbon sequestration scenarios. The impact on atmospheric CO2 concentration of sequestering a given amount of CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, either in deep geological formations or in the deep ocean, rapidly decreases over time. This occurs as a result of a reduction in the rate of absorption of atmospheric CO2 by the natural carbon sinks (the terrestrial biosphere and oceans) in response to the slower buildup of atmospheric CO2 resulting from carbon sequestration. For 100 years of continuous carbon sequestration, the sequestration fraction (defined as the reduction in atmospheric CO2 divided by the cumulative sequestration) decreases to 14% 1000 years after the beginning of sequestration in geological formations with no leakage, and to 6% 1000 years after the beginning of sequestration in the deep oceans

  12. Declining Temporal Effectiveness of Carbon Sequestration. Implications for Compliance with the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L. D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is increasingly being promoted as a potential response to the risks of unrestrained emissions of CO2, either in place of or as a complement to reductions in the use of fossil fuels. However, the potential role of carbon sequestration as an (at-least partial) substitute for reductions in fossil fuel use can be properly evaluated only in the context of a long-term acceptable limit (or range of limits) to the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, taking into account the response of the entire carbon cycle to artificial sequestration. Under highly stringent emission-reduction scenarios for non-CO2 greenhouse gases, 450 ppmv CO2 is the equivalent, in terms of radiative forcing of climate, to a doubling of the pre-industrial concentration of CO2. It is argued in this paper that compliance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (henceforth, the UNFCCC) implies that atmospheric CO2 concentration should be limited, or quickly returned to, a concentration somewhere below 450 ppmv. A quasi-one-dimensional coupled climate-carbon cycle model is used to assess the response of the carbon cycle to idealized carbon sequestration scenarios. The impact on atmospheric CO2 concentration of sequestering a given amount of CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, either in deep geological formations or in the deep ocean, rapidly decreases over time. This occurs as a result of a reduction in the rate of absorption of atmospheric CO2 by the natural carbon sinks (the terrestrial biosphere and oceans) in response to the slower buildup of atmospheric CO2 resulting from carbon sequestration. For 100 years of continuous carbon sequestration, the sequestration fraction (defined as the reduction in atmospheric CO2 divided by the cumulative sequestration) decreases to 14% 1000 years after the beginning of sequestration in geological formations with no leakage, and to 6% 1000 years after the beginning of sequestration in the deep oceans

  13. Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

  14. National inventory report of greenhouse gas sources and sinks in Canada 1990-2004 : submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzert, F.; Collas, P.; Matin, A.; Jaques, A. (comps.) [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Greenhouse Gas Division

    2006-04-15

    As a member of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Canada must submit an annual national inventory of anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouses gases (GHGs) not included in the Montreal Protocol. Climate change refers to changes in long-term weather patterns caused by natural phenomena and human activities that alter the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the build up of GHGs that trap heat and reflect it back to the Earth's surface. Canada has been submitting a complete inventory annually for more than a decade, continuously improving the quality of GHG inventory and updating previous estimates to provide a consistent and comparable trend in emissions and removals of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, perfluorocarbons, and hydrofluorocarbons. The changes for 2004 include studies in upstream oil and oil refining industries; updates in Statistics Canada's underlying energy data; adoption of improved, country-specific methodologies and factors for agricultural soils nitrous oxide emissions; and, major revision of the estimation model for emissions from landfills. The general impact of these changes is that emission growth over the reporting period, previously reported to be 24.2 per cent, is now estimated to be 25.9 per cent. In terms of GHG emission trends in 2004, the total GHG emissions in Canada, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) were 758 Mt which represents a 0.6 per cent increase over the 2003 total and a 26.6 per cent increase over the 1990 total, and 34.6 per cent above the Kyoto target. The increase from 2003 to 2004 was small because of a reduced demand for heating fuel due to warmer weather, and greater emissions reductions from electricity production on the basis of increased nuclear availability and reduced coal generation. In 2004, emissions from most sectors such as industrial process, solvent, agriculture and waste were increased, but emissions from

  15. National report of Brazil. Nuclear Safety Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  16. An evaluation on its fifth anniversary of the council of europe’s framework convention for the protection of national minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Relaño Pastor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The year 1998 marked the advent of the new Council of Europe’s Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM. It is legally binding and has been ratified by almost all of the Council of Europe’s members. The FCNM offers an objective, apolitical way of responding to the needs of minorities by agreeing minimal norms that must be met. It is a unique, legally binding instrument, offering individual protection with a collective dimension. In most countries there is intolerance and prejudice towards immigrants, asylum-seekers, and towards certain ethnic minorities. In particular, discrimination against Roma has continued across Europe at government and community level. If the FCNM is properly applied, it will put an end to this and many other injustices. Five years after it entered into force, it is time to assess the effectiveness of the monitoring of FCNM which is crucial for measuring and managing the protection of national minorities and for the promotion of tolerance throughout society. I will focus on the most significant problems that the Advisory Committee —the key monitoring body— have faced in the last five years and I will analyse the most outstanding issues related to the FCNM that States have failed to accomplish.

  17. Denmark's national inventory report 2010. Emission inventories 1990-2008 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M [and others

    2010-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  18. Denmark's national inventory report 2011. Emission inventories 1990-2009 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M; Hoffmann, L [and others

    2011-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2011. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2009 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  19. Denmark's national inventory report 2011. Emission inventories 1990-2009 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L. (and others)

    2011-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2011. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2009 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  20. Denmark's national inventory report 2010. Emission inventories 1990-2008 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2010-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  1. Denmark's national inventory report 2012. Emission inventories 1990-2010 - submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L. (and others)

    2012-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2010 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  2. Denmark's national inventory report 2009. Emission inventories 1990-2007 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2009-04-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub X}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  3. Denmark's national inventory report 2012. Emission inventories 1990-2010 - submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M; Hoffmann, L [and others

    2012-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2010 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  4. Denmark's national inventory report 2013. Emission inventories 1990-2011 - submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, M.S.; Winther, M. [and others

    2013-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2011 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  5. Allowable CO2 concentrations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a function of the climate sensitivity probability distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L D Danny

    2007-01-01

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls for stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at levels that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) in the climate system. Until recently, the consensus viewpoint was that the climate sensitivity (the global mean equilibrium warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration) was 'likely' to fall between 1.5 and 4.5 K. However, a number of recent studies have generated probability distribution functions (pdfs) for climate sensitivity with the 95th percentile of the expected climate sensitivity as large as 10 K, while some studies suggest that the climate sensitivity is likely to fall in the lower half of the long-standing 1.5-4.5 K range. This paper examines the allowable CO 2 concentration as a function of the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf (ranging from 2 to 8 K) and for the following additional assumptions: (i) the 50th percentile for the pdf of the minimum sustained global mean warming that causes unacceptable harm equal to 1.5 or 2.5 K; and (ii) 1%, 5% or 10% allowable risks of unacceptable harm. For a 1% risk tolerance and the more stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO 2 concentration ranges from 323 to 268 ppmv as the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf increases from 2 to 8 K, while for a 10% risk tolerance and the less stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO 2 concentration ranges from 531 to 305 ppmv. In both cases it is assumed that non-CO 2 GHG radiative forcing can be reduced to half of its present value, otherwise; the allowable CO 2 concentration is even smaller. Accounting for the fact that the CO 2 concentration will gradually fall if emissions are reduced to zero, and that peak realized warming will then be less than the peak equilibrium warming (related to peak radiative forcing) allows the CO 2 concentration to peak at 10-40 ppmv higher than the limiting values given above for a climate

  6. National inventory report for France under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol - CCNUCC, March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jean-Pierre; Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Nicco, Laetitia; Andre, Jean-Marc; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Druart, Ariane; Gueguen, Celine; Jabot, Julien; Jacquier, Guillaume; Joya, Romain; Martinet, Yann; Mathias, Etienne; Prouteau, Emilie; Serveau, Laetitia; Vincent, Julien; Allemand, Nadine; Bastide, Aurelie; Gavel, Antoine; Kessouar, Sabrina; Tuddenham, Mark; Millard, Frederique; MArtineaud, Helene; MILLION, Aurelien; Nikov, Dimitar; Guittet, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    This national inventory report supplies emission data for France within the period 1990-2009, concerning all the substances that contribute to enhancing the greenhouse effect, required under: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the second year of commitment to the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012). The substances covered are the direct greenhouse gases comprising the Kyoto Protocol 'basket of six': carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), the two species of halogenous substances, hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), have also to be reported by the Parties under the Convention. For the period 1990-2008 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9), as defined by the UNFCCC. Several changes have been added to take into account the remarks of the reviews of UNFCCC. Although significant continuous progress has been achieved in terms of the sources covered and the quality of estimates, considerable uncertainties remain concerning emissions. These should be borne in mind when using the data in this report. A table indicating uncertainties based on current knowledge has been included in the report. Future reviews of these data are always possible, if not probable, to take into account both changes in methodology and work underway at international level with a view to improving knowledge and rules on compiling and presenting emissions. To answer specifically to the Kyoto Protocol's requirements, this report also includes the requirements supplementary information required under Article 7, paragraph 1, and Article 3, paragraph 14 of the

  7. First UN member state conference on the climate framework convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, F.

    1995-01-01

    The ''Framework Convention of the United Nations Concerning Climate Changes'' (Climate Framework Convention - KRK), which was passed at the 1992 World Environment Conference (UNCEO) in Rio de Janeiro and took effect on 21 March 1994, has instituted the UN Conference of Contracting Parties (VSK) as the organ presiding over this issue (Article 7 KRK). This annual conference has the task to implement the KRK and its associated legal instruments and pass the resolutions required to this end. Its premiere took place in Berlin (28 March to 7 April 1995). Delegates from 117 signatory and 53 observer states struggled before an audience of 2000 news reportes to find a solution to the pending tasks that might be tolerable for all participants. The present article gives a brief outline of these tasks and the results achieved in Berlin. The picture is rounded off by information on the different positions defended, lines of conflict and the course of the conference. (orig.) [de

  8. New Zealand's Fourth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Including the Report on the Global Climate Observing System and the Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The New Zealand Government is committed to playing its part in the global response to climate change. This Fourth National Communication provides a snapshot of New Zealand's progress with implementing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This document covers the period from the submission of the Third National Communication in January 2002 through to the end of December 2005. This document also contains New Zealand's Report on the Global Climate Observing System and the Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol. New Zealand's response to climate change has evolved substantially since the Third National Communication was submitted. On 19 December 2002, New Zealand became the 101st nation to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. In 2002, the New Zealand Parliament passed the Climate Change Response Act. This Act established a New Zealand climate change registry and corresponding institutional arrangements in accordance with Kyoto Protocol requirements. Other achievements are detailed throughout this Fourth National Communication. When the Government introduced its climate change policy package in 2002, it anticipated there would be three reviews of the package not later than 2005, 2007 and 2010. The reviews would be necessary to monitor progress with emissions reductions, assess the effectiveness of policies, and confirm that New Zealand was positioned to meet its commitments. The first of these reviews was commissioned by the Government in mid-2005 and completed by November 2005. The review concluded that some elements of the Government's 2002 climate change policy package should be modified to better position New Zealand to respond to the longer-term challenges of climate change. A key outcome of the policy review was the announcement by the newly elected Government in December 2005 that the previously announced carbon tax would not proceed. In addition, a suite of future work programmes would be required to inform Government

  9. A prompt start: Implementing the framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayes, A.; Skolnikoff, E.B.; Victor, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    A Framework Convention on Climate Change is under active negotiation in the United Nations with the expectation it will be ready for Signature at the Rio Conference this June. Under the most optimistic projections, a Convention will not come into force and be an effective instrument for months, probably years. In recognition of the several institutional tasks that will be of crucial importance whatever the detailed content of the Convention a small group of high international organizations involved in the negotiations was convened at the Rockefeller Foundation's Conference Center at Bellagio in January. The discussions at Bellagio on the need for a Prompt Start on these institutional tasks benefitted from earlier meetings at Harvard in March and at Bermuda in May, 1991, that the co-organizers convened to discuss these and related aspects of the negotiations on a Climate Convention. Those meetings were attended by members of the academic community, officials from the United Nations, and representatives of governments involved in the negotiations

  10. Climatic change. The third Conference of the Parties of the United Nations - Framework Convention. Kyoto, Japan, 1-10 December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meclot, Bernard; Madet, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Facing the global problems raised by the climatic change, it is absolutely necessary to bring forth worldwide orientations which must balance the economic growth in the developing countries, the competition between countries and between industrial companies, the right repartition of the efforts of developed countries and the remaining world's countries as well as among the developed countries. This EDF press communique, concerning the 3. Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework - Convention, held in Kyoto on 1-10 Dec 1999, presents the results of EDF struggle against the Greenhouse effect, a comparative statistics of the CO 2 emission and, particularly, the role of electric sector. The following conclusions are drown in this report: 1. No matter what common target will be established for CO 2 emission (2-4.5 tones per inhabitant, for instance), it implies that big countries like US and Canada should decide on plans for significant lowering of the emissions while Europe as well as China have still important steps to do; 2. Although, Europe has mastered rather well the global CO 2 emission there are still very contrasting values from the different countries of the European Union; 3. The emissions produced by transport do increase continuously and will soon become the main contributor to the polluting emissions; 4. The European industrial sector has reduced its emission by about 12% during the last ten years and at present it is only the fourth contributor; 5. The electric sector can bring a major contribution to the pollution abatement by choosing CO 2 non-emitting power generating systems, so as the plots giving the emission evolution in France, Sweden or Austria demonstrate

  11. Spanish report to the framework convention of United Nations on the Climatic Change. Informe de Espana a la Convencion Marco de las Naciones UNidas sobre el cambio climatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report has the following chapters: 1.- Synthesis of national report: main aspect of Spanish report. 2.- Reference frame: Spanish situation, the factors of risk, Spanish contribution to the CO[sub 2] emissions. 3.- Estimations of future climate. 4.- International engagements assumed by Spain. 5.- Evaluation and control of greenhouse gases

  12. A Modeling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a generic, modular model framework for describing fluid separation by distillation is presented. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column and a heat-integrated distillation column, but due to a modular structure the database can be further...

  13. The framework convention on climate change a convention for sustainable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassing, P.; Mendis, M.S.; Menezes, L.M.; Gowen, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, over 165 countries signed the United Nation`s Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). These countries have implicitly agreed to alter their `anthropogenic activities` that increase the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere and deplete the natural sinks for these same greenhouse gases. The energy sector is the major source of the primary anthropogenic GHGs, notably carbon dioxide and methane. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries presently account for the major share of GHG emissions from the energy sector. However, the developing countries are also rapidly increasing their contribution to global GHG emissions as a result of their growing consumption of fossil-based energy. Implementation of this global climate change convention, if seriously undertaken by the signatory countries, will necessitate changes in the energy mix and production processes in both the OECD and developing countries. International actions also will be needed to put the world on a sustainable energy path. By adoption of the FCCC, representatives of the world`s populations have indicated their desire to move toward such a path. The Conference of Parties to the Convention has just concluded its second meeting, at which the Parties endorsed a U.S. proposal that legally binding and enforceable emissions targets be adopted. It is clearly evident that the FCCC, as presently operating, cannot achieve the objective of stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere unless it adopts a major protocol to significantly reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. As demonstrated here, a good starting point in determining the steps the Parties to the FCCC should take in designing a protocol is to remember that the primary source of anthropogenic GHG emissions is the consumption of fossil fuels and the future growth of GHG emissions will derive primarily from the ever-increasing demand for and consumption of these fuels.

  14. Fifth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This Fifth National Report is a new update to include relevant information for the period of 2007/2009. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the Brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  15. Sixth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has presented periodically its National Report prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities related to nuclear safety. Due to the implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, an Extraordinary National Report was presented in 2012. This Sixth National Report is an update of the Fifth National Report in relation to the Convention on Nuclear Safety articles and also an update of the Extraordinary Report with respect to the action taken related to lesson learned from the Fukushima accident. It includes relevant information for the period of 2010/2012. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  16. Sixth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Brazil has presented periodically its National Report prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities related to nuclear safety. Due to the implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, an Extraordinary National Report was presented in 2012. This Sixth National Report is an update of the Fifth National Report in relation to the Convention on Nuclear Safety articles and also an update of the Extraordinary Report with respect to the action taken related to lesson learned from the Fukushima accident. It includes relevant information for the period of 2010/2012. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations.

  17. National Convention on Family Life Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    This secretarial report gives brief comments on some discussion of topics at the National Convention on Family Life Education. Discussion included: 1) legalized prostitution as a means to reduce venereal disease; 2) family life education promotion by government and civic groups; 3) more authority for the Population Council; 4) more liberal abortion legislation than previously; 5) statutory notification of veneral disease by medical practitioners; 6) compensatory measures for working women with young children, and 7) the need for modernization of legislation pertaining to child health, adoption, paternity, the Persons Act, infant life preservation, drugs, age of consent, and the age of minority.

  18. Brazil and the UN framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques De Souza, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Due to a high share (96%) of hydropower generation in its electricity production, Brazil emits relatively small amounts of CO 2 . It is argued that, because developed countries are responsible for some 65% of the global emissions of GHGs, they should start to reduce their greenhouse gas emission, which follows also directly from the Framework Convention on Climate Change. After ratification of the Convention Brazil has taken all steps to implement the Convention and to assess its greenhouse gas emissions. Various advisory and co-ordinating bodies have been installed by decree in mid 1994. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Activities implemented jointly: First report to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Accomplishments and descriptions of projects accepted under the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    More than 150 countries are now Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks, as its ultimate objective, to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. As a step toward this goal, all Parties are to take measures to mitigate climate change and to promote and cooperate in the development and diffusion of technologies and practices that control or reduce emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases. In the US view, efforts between countries or entities within them to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions undertaken cooperatively--called joint implementation (JI)--holds significant potential both for combating the threat of global warming and for promoting sustainable development. To develop and operationalize the JI concept, the US launched its Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) in October 1993, and designed the program to attract private sector resources and to encourage the diffusion of innovative technologies to mitigate climate change. The USIJI provides a mechanism for investments by US entities in projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide and has developed a set of criteria for evaluating proposed projects for their potential to reduce net GHG emissions.

  20. Transportation management and security during the 2004 Democratic National Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-05

    The transportation operations plan for the 2004 Democratic National Convention (DNC) in Boston, Massachusetts, was not a typical transportation plan driven by goals such as mobility and air quality. The DNC was the first national political convention...

  1. A Modelling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of hydrocarbons such as separations of equimolar mixtures of benzene/toluene or propane/propene described by simple models, a generic, modular, model framework is presented in this work. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column, a mechanical vapor recompression column......Diabatic operation of distillation columns can lead to signicant reductions in energy utilization and operation cost compared to conventional (adiabatic) distillation columns, at an expense of an increased complexity of design and operation. The earliest diabatic distillation conguration dates back...... to the late 70s, and various dierent congurations have appeared since. However, at present, no full-scale diabatic distillation columns are currently operating in the industry. Current studies related to alternative distillation congurations report very dierent gures for potential energy savings which...

  2. The National School Safety Framework: A framework for preventing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National School Safety Framework (NSSF) – approved by the Minister of Education in April 2015 - is located within a range of international and national laws and policies that recognise the safety of learners and educators as a prerequisite for quality learning and teaching at school. The framework affirms the ...

  3. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention.

  4. Report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs on the bill project adopted by the Senate, after initiation of the accelerated procedure, authorizing the approval of the agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto protocol about the twenty first session of the Conference Of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the eleventh session of the Conference Of the Parties acting as a gathering of parties to the Kyoto protocol and organ sessions. National Assembly Nr 2943, 3062, Senate Nr 587, 512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Borgn', Pierre-Yves; Larcher, Gerard; Grand, Jean-Pierre; Valls, Manuel; Fabius, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    As France is about to host the twenty first Conference of Parties (COP 21), this report presents this conference on climate changes as an historical step. It describes the context by recalling the content of international negotiations on climate since 1992, and by commenting the preparation of the Paris conference. It addresses the various and important organisational aspects: means, non-budgetary means, security aspects. The second part discusses the content of the agreement between the French government and the Secretary of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): provisions related to the material organisation of the conference, provisions related to privileges and immunities, and other arrangements (related to security, financial, responsibility and conflict resolution). The text of the bill project and the discussion of the commission are reported

  5. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that it may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention [es

  6. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that it may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention

  7. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD x , these fluctuations begin to occur as x → 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD x the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  8. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, Scott R. [Research Systems Inc., 9822 Pebble Weigh Ct., Burke VA 22015-3378 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD{sub x}, these fluctuations begin to occur as x {yields} 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD{sub x} the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  9. Climatic change. The third Conference of the Parties of the United Nations - Framework Convention. Kyoto, Japan, 1-10 December 1997; Les changements climatiques. 3eme conference des Parties de la Convention Cadre des Nations Unies a Kyoto au Japon du 1er au 10 Decembre 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meclot, Bernard; Madet, Daniel [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-11-28

    Facing the global problems raised by the climatic change, it is absolutely necessary to bring forth worldwide orientations which must balance the economic growth in the developing countries, the competition between countries and between industrial companies, the right repartition of the efforts of developed countries and the remaining world's countries as well as among the developed countries. This EDF press communique, concerning the 3. Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework - Convention, held in Kyoto on 1-10 Dec 1999, presents the results of EDF struggle against the Greenhouse effect, a comparative statistics of the CO{sub 2} emission and, particularly, the role of electric sector. The following conclusions are drown in this report: 1. No matter what common target will be established for CO{sub 2} emission (2-4.5 tones per inhabitant, for instance), it implies that big countries like US and Canada should decide on plans for significant lowering of the emissions while Europe as well as China have still important steps to do; 2. Although, Europe has mastered rather well the global CO{sub 2} emission there are still very contrasting values from the different countries of the European Union; 3. The emissions produced by transport do increase continuously and will soon become the main contributor to the polluting emissions; 4. The European industrial sector has reduced its emission by about 12% during the last ten years and at present it is only the fourth contributor; 5. The electric sector can bring a major contribution to the pollution abatement by choosing CO{sub 2} non-emitting power generating systems, so as the plots giving the emission evolution in France, Sweden or Austria demonstrate.

  10. Climatic change. The third Conference of the Parties of the United Nations - Framework Convention. Kyoto, Japan, 1-10 December 1997; Les changements climatiques. 3eme conference des Parties de la Convention Cadre des Nations Unies a Kyoto au Japon du 1er au 10 Decembre 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meclot, Bernard; Madet, Daniel [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-11-28

    Facing the global problems raised by the climatic change, it is absolutely necessary to bring forth worldwide orientations which must balance the economic growth in the developing countries, the competition between countries and between industrial companies, the right repartition of the efforts of developed countries and the remaining world's countries as well as among the developed countries. This EDF press communique, concerning the 3. Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework - Convention, held in Kyoto on 1-10 Dec 1999, presents the results of EDF struggle against the Greenhouse effect, a comparative statistics of the CO{sub 2} emission and, particularly, the role of electric sector. The following conclusions are drown in this report: 1. No matter what common target will be established for CO{sub 2} emission (2-4.5 tones per inhabitant, for instance), it implies that big countries like US and Canada should decide on plans for significant lowering of the emissions while Europe as well as China have still important steps to do; 2. Although, Europe has mastered rather well the global CO{sub 2} emission there are still very contrasting values from the different countries of the European Union; 3. The emissions produced by transport do increase continuously and will soon become the main contributor to the polluting emissions; 4. The European industrial sector has reduced its emission by about 12% during the last ten years and at present it is only the fourth contributor; 5. The electric sector can bring a major contribution to the pollution abatement by choosing CO{sub 2} non-emitting power generating systems, so as the plots giving the emission evolution in France, Sweden or Austria demonstrate.

  11. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material which it may be useful to include in the national reports required by Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention

  12. Guidelines regarding national reports under the convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material which it may be useful to include in the national reports required by Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention

  13. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material which it may be useful to include in the national reports required by Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention.

  14. National Consumer and Financial Literacy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document is a revised version of the National Consumer and Financial Literacy Framework (the Framework) originally developed in 2005. It articulates a rationale for consumer and financial education in Australian schools; describes essential consumer and financial capabilities that will support lifelong learning; and provides guidance on how…

  15. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  16. National nuclear safety report 1998. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Argentine Republic subscribed the Convention on Nuclear Safety, approved by a Diplomatic Conference in Vienna, Austria, in June 17th, 1994. According to the provisions in Section 5th of the Convention, each Contracting Party shall submit for its examination a National Nuclear Safety Report about the measures adopted to comply with the corresponding obligations. This Report describes the actions that the Argentine Republic is carrying on since the beginning of its nuclear activities, showing that it complies with the obligations derived from the Convention, in accordance with the provisions of its Article 4. The analysis of the compliance with such obligations is based on the legislation in force, the applicable regulatory standards and procedures, the issued licenses, and other regulatory decisions. The corresponding information is described in the analysis of each of the Convention Articles constituting this Report. The present National Report has been performed in order to comply with Article 5 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and has been prepared as much as possible following the Guidelines Regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety, approved in the Preparatory Meeting of the Contracting Parties, held in Vienna in April 1997. This means that the Report has been ordered according to the Articles of the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the contents indicated in the guidelines. The information contained in the articles, which are part of the Report shows the compliance of the Argentine Republic, as a contracting party of such Convention, with the obligations assumed

  17. The United Nations Convention against Corruption. A Primer for Development Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), adopted in Merida, Mexico in 2003, represents a remarkable achievement for international anti-corruption efforts. With endorsements from more than 140 state signatories representing every region of the world, the UNCAC offers a comprehensive, global framework for combating corruption.

  18. Policy of gradualism. Background information and results on the first UN conference of the parties to the climate framework convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafhausen, F.

    1995-01-01

    Not quite three years after Rio, representatives from altogether 167 states met in Berlin for the First UN Conference of the Parties (1. VSK) to the Climate Framework Convention (KRK) from 28 March to 7 April 1995. By the end of the Conference altogether 128 states (including the European Union) had ratified the Climate Framework Convention. One hundred and seventeen of the states that had incorporated the United Nations Convention in their national legal system were present in Berlin. A total of around 4000 government representatives, journalists, scientists, industrial representatives, and members of environmental associations and other socially relevant groups took part in the Conference. The 1. VSK has to date been the largest event of the United Nations to take place in Germany. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Reframing national image: A methodological framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Li (Leah

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the role of national images in international relations and develops a methodological framework for its study. It concludes that national image study should comprise private frames associated with perceived images of other nations, and public frames referring to projected media images of other nations by drawing on framing theory. It suggests that in-depth interview with intermediate elites can be employed to explore private frames, and the inductive or the deductive approaches to public frames. There is recognition that inquiry is conducted in the shadow of a dynamic world politics and within a historical context, and public diplomacy can be used to build national reputation. To examine the associations between public and private frames of a given country will prepare the ways for the identification of alternative frames and framing devices that may result in variation in public opinion, contributing to national image building in the state under study, and promote understanding and relationships between countries.

  20. National report of Brazil on nuclear safety convention - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document was prepared for fulfilling the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Chapter 1 presents some historical aspects of the Brazilian nuclear policy, targets to be attained for increasing the nuclear energy contribution for the national production of electric energy

  1. National Ignition Facility system design requirements conventional facilities SDR001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirements (SDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the minimum design requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) site infrastructure and conventional facilities. These consist of the physical site and buildings necessary to house the laser, target chamber, target preparation areas, optics support and ancillary functions

  2. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Second National Report, October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present document is the second Spanish national report prepared in order to comply with the obligations deriving from the convention on Nuclear Safety, made in Vienna on 20th September 1994. This convention was signed by Spain on 15th October 1994 and ratified by way of an instrument issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, signed by H. M. the King on 19th June 1995. The convention, which entered into force on 24th October 1996, following ratification by a minimum number of countries, as set out in articles 20, 21 and 22 includes 51 countries and Euratom, in addition to Spain. The first review meeting, organised in accordance with chapter 3 of the Convention, was held in vienna in April 1999. Spain was represented by the CSN, the State organisation solely responsible for nuclear safety, both for the drawing up of the national report and for participation in the meeting held between the parties. In accordance with article 21, the second review meeting has been scheduled for April 2002, also in Vienna. At the review meeting, the countries party to the Convention review the national reports required by article 5, Spain submitted its first national report in September 1998. The present document is an update of that first report, and is to be submitted by 15th October 2001, as agreed on during the first review meeting. This report will be reviewed by the interested countries, which will forward their comments and questions. In April 2002, the Spanish report and the questions received will be subjected to the review process contemplated by the convention, along with the reports submitted by the other countries

  3. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and Kyoto protocol 2010. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2008; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2010. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strogies, Michael; Gniffke, Patrick (comps.)

    2010-06-15

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC), since 1994 Germany has been obliged to prepare, publish and regularly update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases. In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol entered into force. As a result, for the first time ever the international community of nations is required to implement binding action objectives and instruments for global climate protection. This leads to extensive obligations vis-a-vis the preparation, reporting and review of emissions inventories. As a result of Europe's own implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, via the adoption of EU Decision 280/20041, these requirements became legally binding for Germany in spring 2004. Pursuant to Decision 3/CP.5, all The purpose of such reports is to ensure the transparency, consistency and comparability of inventories and support the independent review process. The Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Climate Change has made submission of the inventory report a pre-requisite for performance of the agreed inventory reviews. Germany now presents its eighth National Inventory Report (NIR 2010), following its inventories for the years 1990 to 2008. This latest report covers the same period (1990 to 2008), and it describes the methods and the data sources on which the calculations are based. This year, the NIR contains, for the first time, an additional Part II, along with additional sub-chapters in the existing part, in conformance with expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant decisions at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, this chapter describes the basic principles and methods with which the emissions and sinks of the IPCC categories

  4. Kebijakan Pemerintah Brunei Darussalam Meratifikasi The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Alunaza SD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Health issue is one of national priority issue in Brunei in recent decades. Sultan of Brunei formed the seriousness of the health accord with the realization of the national development agenda Health Promotion Blueprint 2011-2015 and the Brunei Vision 2035. This paper is aims to answer the question why Brunei ratified the WHO Convention on Tobacco Control. This paper is an explanatory with qualitative approach. Data collection method in this research is through library with secondary data sources. All data are taken from books, journals, internet articles and other relevant data to the research. By using the theory of the rational actor model of decision making and the concept of health security, this research shows the policy taken by the Sultan of Brunei is a form of the Health Security of Government to the citizens. Sultan of Brunei ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control because of health issue is including in national development agenda. Various efforts to create Brunei Darussalam as a free smoke state in 2025 have been realized. The evidence of the successes policy of Brunei Government related to tobacco control shown by activities of imported tobacco is significantly decreased and also decreasing the number of smokers in Brunei in 2011. It was also offset by the increasing level of public health in Brunei and the achievement of some of WHO health targets as the Millennium Development Goals.

  5. National report of Brazil: nuclear safety convention - September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The last chapter describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil

  6. National report of Brazil: nuclear safety convention - September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The last chapter describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil.

  7. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  8. National Nuclear Safety Report 2001. Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The First National Nuclear Safety Report was presented at the first review meeting of the Nuclear Safety Convention. At that time it was concluded that Argentina met the obligations of the Convention. This second National Nuclear Safety Report is an updated report which includes all safety aspects of the Argentinian nuclear power plants and the measures taken to enhance the safety of the plants. The present report also takes into account the observations and discussions maintained during the first review meeting. The conclusion made in the first review meeting about the compliance by Argentina of the obligations of the Convention are included as Annex 1. In general, the information contained in this Report has been updated since March 31, 1998 to March 31, 2001. Those aspects that remain unchanged were not addressed in this second report with the objective of avoiding repetitions and in order to carry out a detailed analysis considering article by article. As a result of the above mentioned detailed analysis of all the Articles, it can be stated that the country fulfils all the obligations imposed by the Nuclear Safety Convention

  9. National nuclear safety report 2004. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The second National Nuclear Safety Report was presented at the second review meeting of the Nuclear Safety Convention. At that time it was concluded that Argentina met the obligations of the Convention. This third National Nuclear Safety Report is an updated report which includes all safety aspects of the Argentinian nuclear power plants and the measures taken to enhance the safety of the plants. The present report also takes into account the observations and discussions maintained during the second review meeting. The conclusion made in the first review meeting about the compliance by Argentina of the obligations of the Convention are included as Annex I and those belonging to the second review meeting are included as Annex II. In general, the information contained in this Report has been updated since March 31, 2001 to April 30, 2004. Those aspects that remain unchanged were not addressed in this third report. As a result of the detailed analysis of all the Articles, it can be stated that the country fulfils all the obligations imposed by the Nuclear Safety Convention. The questions and answers originated at the Second Review Meeting are included as Annex III

  10. Third National Report on compliance with the Joint Convention Obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    small amounts of radioactive materials or do not meet the above-mentioned criteria are not subject to any regulatory control in that respect. For her third report, France drew from the experience acquired over the first two similar reports for the Joint Convention and the four reports for the Nuclear Safety Convention. It constitutes a self-supporting report, based on existing documentation, and reflects the viewpoints of the different regulatory authorities and operators. Hence, for each of the chapters in which the regulatory authority is not the only party to express its opinion, a three-step structure was adopted: a description by the regulatory authority of the regulations involved, followed by a presentation by the operators of the steps taken to comply with those regulations, and lastly, by an analysis by the regulatory authority of the steps taken by the operators. This report is structured according to the 'guidelines regarding national reports' for the Joint Convention - i.e., an 'article-by-article' format, with each one being addressed in a dedicated chapter bearing the corresponding text of the relevant article of the Joint Convention on a shaded background at the top of the chapter. After the Introduction (Section A), the various sections deal successively with the following topics in the specific order prescribed by the guidelines: - Section B: Policy and practices under the Joint Convention (Article 32-1); - Section C: Scope (Article 3); - Section D: Spent-fuel and radioactive-waste Inventories, along with the list of corresponding facilities (Article 32-2); - Section E: Legislative and regulatory system in force (Articles 18 to 20); - Section F: Other general safety provisions (Articles 21 to 26); - Section G: The safety of spent-fuel management (Articles 4 to 10); - Section H: The safety of radioactive-waste management (Articles 11 to 17); - Section I: Transboundary movements (Article 27); - Section J: Disused sealed sources (Article 28), and - Section

  11. Fourth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention. Sep. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This Fourth National Report of Brazil is a new update to include relevant information of the period of 2004-2007. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  12. Fourth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention. Sep. 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    This Fourth National Report of Brazil is a new update to include relevant information of the period of 2004-2007. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  13. Denmark's national inventory report 2005 - submitted under the United Nations frameword convention on climate change. 1990-2003. Emission Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    This report is Denmkark's National Inventory Report (NIR) due by 15 April 2005 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). the report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 2003. The structure of the report is in accordance with the UNFCCC Guidelines on reporting and review and the report includes detailed information on the inventories for all years from the base year to the year of the current annual inventory submission, in order to ensure the transparency of the inventory. (au)

  14. Beyond Vienna and Montreal: A global framework convention on greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, D.A.; Lashof, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter discusses the need for a framework treaty analogous to the Vienna Convention and to the Montreal Protocol for greenhouse gases. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the immediate need for multilateral greenhouse gas controls, including policy implications of scientific uncertainties; (2) recent steps toward a greenhouse gas convention; (3) an environmentally meaningful plan for a greenhouse gase conventions, including the ozone precident, CO 2 targets, resource transfers, trading emissions allocations, institutional issues

  15. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto protocol 2011. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2009; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2011. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC), since 1994 Germany has been obliged to prepare, publish and regularly update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases. In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol entered into force. As a result, for the first time ever the international community of nations is required to implement binding action objectives and instruments for global climate protection. As a result of Europe's own implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, via the adoption of EU Decision 280/20041, these requirements became legally binding for Germany in spring 2004. The Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Climate Change has made submission of the inventory report a pre-requisite for performance of the agreed inventory reviews. Germany now presents its ninth National Inventory Report (NIR 2011), following its inventories for the years 1990 to 2009. This latest report covers the same period (1990 to 2009), and it describes the methods and the data sources on which the calculations are based. The report and the report tables in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) have been prepared in accordance with the UNFCCC guideline on annual inventories (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9) and, as far as possible, in accordance with the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC-GPG, 2000) and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (IPCC-GPG LULUCF, 2003). This year, the NIR contains, for the first time, an additional Part II, along with additional sub-chapters in the existing part, in conformance with expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant decisions at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse-gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of development of

  16. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto protocol 2011. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2009; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2011. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC), since 1994 Germany has been obliged to prepare, publish and regularly update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases. In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol entered into force. As a result, for the first time ever the international community of nations is required to implement binding action objectives and instruments for global climate protection. As a result of Europe's own implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, via the adoption of EU Decision 280/20041, these requirements became legally binding for Germany in spring 2004. The Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Climate Change has made submission of the inventory report a pre-requisite for performance of the agreed inventory reviews. Germany now presents its ninth National Inventory Report (NIR 2011), following its inventories for the years 1990 to 2009. This latest report covers the same period (1990 to 2009), and it describes the methods and the data sources on which the calculations are based. The report and the report tables in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) have been prepared in accordance with the UNFCCC guideline on annual inventories (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9) and, as far as possible, in accordance with the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC-GPG, 2000) and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (IPCC-GPG LULUCF, 2003). This year, the NIR contains, for the first time, an additional Part II, along with additional sub-chapters in the existing part, in conformance with expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant decisions at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse-gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of

  17. Sweden's second national report under the Convention on nuclear safety. Swedish implementation of the obligations of the Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The National Reports to the Review Meetings according to Article 5 of the Convention call for a self-assessment of each Contracting Party with regard to compliance with the obligations of the Convention. For Sweden this self-assessment has demonstrated full compliance with all the obligations of the Convention, as shown in detail in part B of this National Report. Sweden wishes to emphasise the incentive character of the Convention. In the opinion of Sweden, the Convention implies a commitment to continuous learning from experience and a proactive approach to safety improvement. Therefore, Sweden has found it important that a National Report highlights strong features in national nuclear practices as well as areas where special attention to the further development are needed. Since the first report to the Convention was issued, three major events have been experienced in the Swedish nuclear programme: Phase out of nuclear power started by the closing of one unit of a twin unit plant on 30 November 1999. The full effects of deregulation of the electricity market have been experienced. Together with increasing taxes on nuclear power, this has strongly affected the production economy of the nuclear industry resulting in efforts to reduce production costs and leaving less room for investments. The new general safety regulations came into force 1 July 1999, resulting in a more structured approach to inspection and safety assessment. These changes have created new challenges for the safety work of the licensees as well as for the regulatory bodies during the last three years. However, the generally positive impression reported to the first review meeting under the Convention still stands. Therefore, Sweden would like to point out the following as strong features in its national nuclear practice: The responsibility for safety is very well defined in the Swedish legal framework. In order not to dilute the responsibility of the licence holders, the Swedish regulations are

  18. The national legal framework in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touitou-Durand, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Ms Touitou-Durand presented the French legal framework regarding public participation. The 2005 Charter for the Environment, which has constitutional value, lays down the principle of public participation in decisions likely to affect the environment. These include, among others, Nuclear Safety Authority decisions on technical prescriptions or on modifications requested by licensees. France is a Party to the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions and applies the relevant European directives related to the matter. Whereas the Aarhus Convention covers access to environmental information held by public authorities, French provisions go further by creating obligations also for the operator of a nuclear installation, which must grant access to information on the risks related to ionising radiation that can result from its activity and on the measures taken to prevent or reduce these risks. The principle of transparency in the nuclear field was introduced in French law in 2006 and further incorporated in the Environmental Code. It grants the public the right to reliable and accessible information on nuclear safety, radiological protection, the prevention of and fight against malicious acts, and civil security actions in the event of an accident. Two bodies are called to deal with stakeholder involvement, namely the High Committee for Transparency and Information on Nuclear Security and the Local Information Committees, the latter being mandatory for any site comprising one or several nuclear installations. The Local Information Committees are composed of representatives of local authorities, environmental protection organisations, trade unions, experts and residents of the area where the site is located. Regarding involvement of the public in project-level decisions, Ms Touitou-Durand explained that the eventual authorisation by decree of the creation of a nuclear installation must be preceded by a formal public debate (when located on a new site), an environmental impact

  19. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto protocol 2012. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2010; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2012. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    All Parties listed in ANNEX I of the UNFCCC are required to prepare and submit annual National Inventory Reports (NIRs) containing detailed and complete information on the entire process of preparation of greenhouse gas inventories. The purpose of such reports is to ensure the transparency, consistency and comparability of inventories and support the independent review process. Pursuant to decision 15/CMP.1, as of 2010 all of the countries listed in ANNEX I of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change that are also parties to the Kyoto Protocol must submit annual inventories in order to be able to make use of flexible mechanisms pursuant to Articles 6, 12 and 17 of the Kyoto Protocol. Together with the inventory tables, Germany submits a NIR, which refers to the period covered by the inventory tables and describes the methods and data sources on which the pertinent calculations are based. The report and the report tables in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) have been prepared in accordance with the UNFCCC guideline on annual inventories (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9) and in accordance with the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC-GPG, 2000) and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (IPCC-GPG LULUCF, 2003). The NIR contains a Part II, along with additional sub-chapters, that fulfill the expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant obligations at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse-gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse-gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. This section describes the National System pursuant to Article 5.1 of the Kyoto Protocol, which system is designed to aid and assure compliance with all reporting obligations with respect to atmospheric emissions and removals in sinks. In addition, this chapter describes the basic

  20. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto protocol 2012. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2010; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2012. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    All Parties listed in ANNEX I of the UNFCCC are required to prepare and submit annual National Inventory Reports (NIRs) containing detailed and complete information on the entire process of preparation of greenhouse gas inventories. The purpose of such reports is to ensure the transparency, consistency and comparability of inventories and support the independent review process. Pursuant to decision 15/CMP.1, as of 2010 all of the countries listed in ANNEX I of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change that are also parties to the Kyoto Protocol must submit annual inventories in order to be able to make use of flexible mechanisms pursuant to Articles 6, 12 and 17 of the Kyoto Protocol. Together with the inventory tables, Germany submits a NIR, which refers to the period covered by the inventory tables and describes the methods and data sources on which the pertinent calculations are based. The report and the report tables in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) have been prepared in accordance with the UNFCCC guideline on annual inventories (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9) and in accordance with the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC-GPG, 2000) and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (IPCC-GPG LULUCF, 2003). The NIR contains a Part II, along with additional sub-chapters, that fulfill the expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant obligations at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse-gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse-gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. This section describes the National System pursuant to Article 5.1 of the Kyoto Protocol, which system is designed to aid and assure compliance with all reporting obligations with respect to atmospheric emissions and removals in sinks. In addition, this chapter describes the basic

  1. Wreck removal and the Nairobi Convention - a movement towards a unified framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonnie Mikael Kern

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks came into force on the 14 of April 2015 and provides a framework for wreck removal. Three central questions arise when dealing with shipwrecks; Who is responsible? What measures can and are to be taken based on such a responsibility? And lastly; how can the responsibility be enforced? The Nairobi Convention on the Removal of Wrecks addresses these questions. The registered owner of a ship bears strict liability according to the convention but can be exonerated by certain limited defenses. Measures that are to be taken include locating, marking and subsequently removing the wreck. The onus to remove the wreck is on the registered owner, but there are also options available for the State affected by the wreck should the registered owner not cooperate or be unable to contact. Finally the convention strives to ensure enforceability by compulsory insurance for ships, wherever registered, with a gross tonnage of 300 tons and above calling any port or offshore facility in a State Party. The convention also enables an Affected State to claim the insurer directly. This article will analyze the convention by the use of the convention text, its preparatory works and legal writing. The article suggests that even though the convention provides a unified framework for wreck removal, it has inclusions that may actually inhibit harmonization. The convention is also in part unclear and ambiguous. Despite this the article concludes in the convention being a natural step forward in unifying the regulation of wrecks and providing a platform to deal with wreck removal in the future.

  2. The Ad Hoc process to strengthen the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, K.; Deutz, A.M.; Jacobsen, L.A. [eds.

    1995-11-01

    The Woods Hole Research Center convened an International Conference on The Ad Hoc Process to Strengthen the Framework Convention on Climate Change in Woods Hole, MA, on October 7-9, 1995. The conference was conducted to examine the prospects for successful adoption of a protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change by 1997. In preparation for the Second session of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate, several governmental and nongovernmental representatives met in Woods Hole to discuss the process and possible outcome of the Berlin Mandate negotiations for a protocol or other legal instrument to strengthen the Convention. The conference was by invitation and all participants attended in their personal capacities.

  3. Navigating the National Qualifications Framework (NQF): The role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Navigating the National Qualifications Framework (NQF): The role of career guidance. ... opportunities (including, but not confined to, those within higher education). ... It argues that the time is ripe for a high-level national career development ...

  4. National Framework for GHG Emission Trading in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.; Nikitina, E.

    2003-01-01

    If Russia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), domestic implementation of its international commitments under this international regime will require special national responses, i.e. institutional capacity building for application of its mechanisms. The Kyoto Protocol and its mechanisms, particularly, international emission trading (IET) and joint implementation (JI), mark a turning point, with opportunities for Russia to benefit from an economic and environmental standpoint from international cooperation. Russia might wish to sell to other parties a surplus in its assigned amount for the first commitment period in 2008-2012, as according to existing estimates its GHG emissions are expected to be below their 1990 base level. In order to participate in international emission trading, Russia has to meet several international requirements, including providing national inventory and reporting and establishing national registry compatible with the standard international format. It is to establish a domestic institutional regime defining laws and rules of behaviour for its participants, the administrative frameworks, and designing major schemes for domestic emission trading programme. Russia's emission trading system is not formed yet. This is a challenging innovation for Russia, as in its previous environmental management practices it did not have any experience in domestic emission trading with other air pollutants. The paper examines the key elements suggested in a number of existing proposals, assessments, and approaches of the government, parliamentarians and non-governmental experts for its institutional design which is at the core of ongoing climate policy debates in the country. These approaches and practical suggestions define the current state-of-the-art in domestic emission trading regime formation and channel the paths of its institutional development in the future. This paper analyses peculiarities

  5. Implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in Africa: current status of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwine, Jacqueline

    2011-11-01

    To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries' FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in Africa.

  6. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Tumwine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC—(1 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2 Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3 Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC

  7. Sweden's fourth national report under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Swedish implementation of the obligations of the Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The national reports to the review meetings according to Article 5 of the Convention call for a self-assessment of each Contracting Party with regard to compliance with the obligations of the Convention. For Sweden this self-assessment has demonstrated compliance with all the obligations of the Convention, as shown in part B of this national report. The Swedish existing nuclear power programme is currently under strong development since a few years. Large amounts are being invested in the 10 remaining operating reactors to prepare for long term operation. The licensees as well as the regulatory bodies have also been challenged over the last years by events, especially the Forsmark event in July 2006, demonstrating the importance of having strong safety management in place and maintaining of a vital safety culture. Of particular importance is not only to develop good formal management systems, but also to monitor and follow up how the systems function in the daily work at the plants. The need for this attention is reinforced by the major programmes going on during a limited time period to upgrade and uprate the plants. These programmes will require a full effort of the operating organisations as well as of the regulatory bodies. An additional challenge is, during the same time period, to manage the transfer of knowledge to a new generation of engineers and specialists. A large number of key staff is due to retire within the next 10 years. The generally positive impression reported to earlier review meetings under the Convention still stands. Therefore, Sweden would like to point out the following as strong features in its national nuclear practice: The Swedish legal framework is well developed and the responsibility for safety is very well defined. The nuclear law also provides for public insight into the activities of the licensees. The regulatory bodies have maintained and increased their resources and are further developing their regulatory practices. There is an

  8. National nuclear safety report 2005. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This National Nuclear Safety Report was presented at the 3rd. Review meeting. In general the information contained in the report are: Highlights / Themes; Follow-up from 2nd. Review meeting; Challenges, achievements and good practices; Planned measures to improve safety; Updates to National report to 3rd. Review meeting; Questions from peer review of National Report; and Conclusions

  9. France - Convention on nuclear safety. Fourth national report established in view of the 2008 examination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    This report is the fourth one established in compliance with the article 5 of the international Convention on nuclear safety, and presents measures implemented by France to meet each of the Convention requirements. It addresses electro-nuclear reactors as well as research reactors. After an overview of the main evolutions since the third French report, and a general presentation of the French national nuclear policy, the report addresses the different articles of the Convention. These articles deal with general arrangements (application arrangements, presentation of reports, existing nuclear installations with their safety assessments and main safety improvements brought to the different nuclear reactors), law and regulation (legal and regulatory framework, regulation bodies, responsibility of an authorization holder), general safety considerations (priority for safety, human and financial resources, human factors, quality insurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection, organisation in case of emergency), and installation safety (site selection, design and construction, exploitation, activities planned to improve safety). Appendices propose a list and locations of French nuclear reactors, a list of the main legal and regulatory texts, presentations of nuclear reactor operators (EDF, CEA, ILL), and an overview of practices of control of the environment

  10. An analysis of a national strategic framework to promote tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of a national strategic framework to promote tourism, leisure, sport and ... is to highlight the extent to which selected macro policy components namely, ... tourism growth, tourism safety and security, environmental management and ...

  11. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Second national report on the implementation by france of the obligations of the Convention; Convention sur la surete nucleaire. Deuxieme rapport national sur la mise en oeuvre par la France des obligations de la Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    The first national report on the implementation by france of the obligation under the Convention is structured along its Articles. the french Nuclear safety Authority ensured the co ordination of the report, with contributions from other regulators and nuclear operators. this report was distributed at the middle of April 2003 to the other Contracting party (on 3 november to 14, 2003 at the IAEA headquarters. (author)

  12. Framing the Framework: Discourses in Australia's National Values Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany Mary

    2009-01-01

    In the past, many Australian state schools avoided teaching about values explicitly. However, the Australian government released Australia's first official values education policy in 2005: the "National Framework for Values Education in Australian Schools" (NFVEAS). This framework represents a local manifestation of the recent…

  13. Building an integrative framework for national systems of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Zhou, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    development of functional view of national systems of innovation, and the effective approach. Design/methodology/approach – As a theoretical research paper, the paper reviews and analyses intensive literature on national system of innovation from the perspectives of functional, structural, and effectiveness......Purpose – This paper proposes a way to integrate three different analytical approaches into a consistent framework of national systems of innovation that can benefit academia and policy makers. The approaches include the traditional structural method of national systems of innovation, the new...... approaches. Findings – The paper argues that these three approaches reflect different perspectives of national systems of innovation. Instead of contradicting each other, they could be integrated into a coherent framework. Originality/value – The paper builds an integrative framework to bring different...

  14. France - Convention on Nuclear Safety. Sixth National report for the 2014 review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety, hereinafter referred to as 'the Convention', is one of the results of international discussions initiated in 1992 in order to contribute to maintaining a high level of nuclear safety worldwide. The convention sets a number of nuclear safety objectives and defines measures to meet them. France signed the Convention on 20 September 1994, the date on which it was opened for signature during the IAEA General Conference, and approved it on 13 September 1995. The Convention entered into force on 24 October 1996. For many years France has been participating actively in international initiatives to enhance nuclear safety. It considers the Convention on Nuclear Safety to be an important instrument for achieving this aim. The areas covered by the Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. The purpose of this sixth report, which was drafted pursuant to Article 5 of the Convention and which covers the period 2010 to mid-2013, is to present the measures taken by France in order to fulfil each of its obligations as specified in the said Convention. Since the Convention applies to all nuclear-power generating reactors most of this report is dedicated to the measures taken in order to ensure their safety. However, as in previous reports, France has decided in this sixth report also to present the measures that were taken for all research reactors. First of all, research reactors are actually subject to the same overall regulations as nuclear-power reactors with regard to safety and radiation protection. Then, within the framework of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, to which France is a Contracting Party, an account was made of the measures taken in those respective fields with regard to research reactors. Lastly, the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), of which France is a member, in March 2004 approved the Code

  15. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanas Javadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. Although the response rate (28% was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62% have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99% considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77% indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment.

  16. General description of the national regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basurto C, J.

    2008-12-01

    Of the six existing hierarchy in the Mexican legal system, the first five of the Constitution of the Mexican Official Norms have a binding character, containing mandatory requirements to meet, while the sixth is not binding. The articles that have nuclear subject in the Mexican Constitution are 25, 27 and 28. At the same hierarchical level as the Constitution is the international treaties signed and ratified by our country, such as for example the Nuclear Safety Convention or the Convention on the Nuclear Materials Physical Protection. For the treaties negotiation process consists of a text adoption, the authentication which implies the final content signature and unalterable, the Senate approval and the consent submission, which implies the ratification and publication in the Federation Official Gazette. In the case of Mexican laws your proposition process includes an initiative, the analysis of the relevant committee, the discussion, approval, sanction, and with it the publication of the initiation force. The road can become very convoluted because some steps are recurrent, returning to the same level several times. Regulations whose purpose is to clarify, develop or explain the general principles contained in the laws that relate to more obtainable your application are subject to a similarly complicated process. First we developed a preliminary draft by the competent authority subject to revision and opinion of the respective institutions prior to submission to the Federal Executive. The final document is submitted to the latter project, which must be approved by the agencies involved, approved by the Federal Executive and finally published in the Federation Official Gazette, from which it launched its application. (Author)

  17. An Independent Review and Accountability Mechanism for the Sustainable Development Goals: The Possibilities of a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eric A

    2016-06-01

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), a proposed global treaty to be rooted in the right to health and aimed at health equity, could establish a nuanced, layered, and multi-faceted regime of compliance with, and accountability to, the right to health. In so doing, it would significantly strengthen accountability for the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which it would encompass. Legally binding, the FCGH could facilitate accountability through the courts and catalyze comprehensive domestic accountability regimes, requiring national strategies that include transparency, community and national mechanisms for accountability and participation and an enabling environment for social empowerment. A "Right to Health Capacity Fund" could ensure resources to implement these strategies. Inclusive national processes could establish targets, benchmarks, and indicators consistent with FCGH guidance, with regular reporting to a treaty body, which could also hear individual cases. State reports could be required to include plans to overcome implementation gaps, subjecting poorly complying states to penalties and targeted capacity building measures. Regional special rapporteurs could facilitate compliance through regular country visits, while also responding to serious violations. And reaching beyond government compliance, from capacity building to the courts and contractual obligations, the FCGH could establish nationally enforceable right to health obligations on the private sector.

  18. Costa Rica’s Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Crosbie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods. Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results. Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion. Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control.

  19. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Second national report on the implementation by france of the obligations of the Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The first national report on the implementation by france of the obligation under the Convention is structured along its Articles. the french Nuclear safety Authority ensured the co ordination of the report, with contributions from other regulators and nuclear operators. this report was distributed at the middle of April 2003 to the other Contracting party (on 3 november to 14, 2003 at the IAEA headquarters. (author)

  20. 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約之財務支援機制:全球環境機構 ― 兼論台灣參與之限制與機會 The Financial Mechanism of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: The Global Environment Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    蘇義淵 Yi-Yuan Su

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 全球環境機構(Global Environmental Facility, GEF)是聯合國於1991 年建立的國際環境金融機構,目的是提供財務支援與無害技術移轉與開發中及低度開發國家,以協助其針對防止氣候變遷、保護生物物種、保護水資源、減少對臭氧層的破壞等之能力建置,以保護全球環境。聯合國氣候變化綱要公約亦指定此機構作為協助開發中國家之財務支援機構。 礙於聯合國會員國資格之要求,台灣並無法以政治實體的身分參加並取得相關之協助,特別是廣泛涉及科學、經濟、社會等相關領域的防止氣候變遷議題。未能取得此一機構的支援會降低我國環境行政效率及能力、提高我國實施溫室氣體減量成本而損及全球競爭力。本文擬以討論氣候變遷議題為主,從國際法之角度檢討並討論氣候變化綱要公約、京都議定書、馬拉喀什協定及全球環境機構等就開發中及低度開發國家申請財務支援的規範與限制;從中整理、瞭解對台灣所造成的實質限制,最後將建議我國公、私營部 門如何在既有限制之下規劃策略,以取得實質參與全球環境治理之機會維持競爭力,並同時落實台灣的環境保護。 those countries to develop their capacities on preventing climate change, protecting biodiversity, protecting water resources and decreasing the ozone depletion. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC also entrusted this institution as its financial mechanism to provide assistance to developing countries. Because of the limitation of membership of United Nations, Taiwan does not allow to enroll and enjoy the benefits of this mechanism as a political entity, especially on the scientific, social and economic issues relating to against the climate change. It could seriously reduce the administrative efficiency of our environmental policies in government and

  1. Denmark's national inventory report 2005 - submitted under the United Nations frameword convention on climate change. 1990-2003. Emission Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.

    2005-12-20

    This report is Denmkark's National Inventory Report (NIR) due by 15 April 2005 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). the report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 2003. The structure of the report is in accordance with the UNFCCC Guidelines on reporting and review and the report includes detailed information on the inventories for all years from the base year to the year of the current annual inventory submission, in order to ensure the transparency of the inventory. (au)

  2. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  3. The decision-making process in Brazil's ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Erica Cavalcanti; Pereira, Andre; Cavalcante, Tania Maria; Oliveira, Egléubia Andrade; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-09-21

    Tobacco consumption is a leading cause of various types of cancer and other tobacco-related diseases. In 2003, the World Health Assembly adopted the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), which aims to protect citizens from the health, social, environmental, and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. The Convention was to be ratified by the Member States of the WHO; in Brazil's case, ratification involved the National Congress, which held public hearings in the country's leading tobacco growing communities (municipalities). The current study analyzes this decision-making process according to the different interests, positions, and stakeholders. In methodological terms, this is a qualitative study based on document research, drawing primarily on the shorthand notes from the public hearings. We analyze the interests and arguments for and against ratification. The article shows that although preceded by intense debates, the final decision in favor of ratification was made by a limited group of government stakeholders, characterizing a decision-making process similar to a funnel.

  4. Sweden's third national report under the the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Swedish implementation of the obligations of the Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The national reports to the review meetings according to Article 5 of the Convention call for a self-assessment of each Contracting Party with regard to compliance with the obligations of the Convention. For Sweden this self-assessment has demonstrated full compliance with all the obligations of the Convention, as shown in detail in part B of this national report. There is an open and constructive dialogue between the regulatory bodies and the licensees. The owner companies are well established with good corporate financial records. They demonstrate a commitment to maintain a high level of safety in their nuclear power plants. Not withstanding the increased competition, the licensees continue to co-operate in solving important safety issues. The regulators in Sweden are assessed as well qualified for their tasks and their resources have been maintained. The international co-operation networks of both regulators and utilities are well developed. From the safety and environmental impact point of view, the Swedish nuclear power plants are competitive internationally. However, Sweden would like to point out the following issues, where further development should be given special attention in relation to the obligations under the Convention: The compatibility of the Act on Nuclear Activities with the Environmental Code needs to be followed up in order to assure that the licensing process is fully consistent. The future supply of radiation protection specialists needs to be further investigated and measures may need to be taken, as has been done to ensure the supply or nuclear safety specialists. The ongoing concentration of vendors and service companies needs to be assessed, from the safety and availability point of view, and the licensees may need to implement their own joint solutions if the market can not supply the necessary services at acceptable conditions. The operating organisations need to assess their consolidation after several organisational changes following

  5. China and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincent, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    ...), and has made maritime claims citing historic waters. China asserts that these actions are consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Convention On The Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS) Treaty...

  6. Unconventional protests: Partisans and independents outside the Republican and Democratic national conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Heaney

    2016-01-01

    Protests at national party conventions are an important setting in which political parties and social movements challenge one another. This article examines the motivations of participants in these events. Drawing upon data from surveys of protesters outside the 2008 national party conventions, it focuses on how partisan and independent political identifications correspond with the reasons that individuals give for protesting. The results demonstrate that there are some conditions under which...

  7. General framework and key technologies of national nuclear emergency system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Feng; Li Xudong; Zhu Guangying; Song Yafeng; Zeng Suotian; Shen Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear emergency is the important safeguard for the sustainable development of nuclear energy, and is the significant part of national public crisis management. The paper gives the definition of nuclear emergency system explicitly based on the analysis of the characteristics of the nuclear emergency, and through the research of the structure and general framework, the general framework of the national nuclear emergency management system (NNEMS) is obtained, which is constructed in four parts, including one integrative platform, six layers, eight applications and two systems, then the paper indicate that the architecture of national emergency system that should be laid out by three-tiers, i.e. national, provincial and organizations with nuclear facilities, and also describe the functions of the NNEMS on the nuclear emergency's workflow. Finally, the paper discuss the key technology that NNIEMS needed, such as WebGIS, auxiliary decision-making, digitalized preplan and the conformity and usage of resources, and analyze the technical principle in details. (authors)

  8. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. National Framework of Professional Standards for Change Leadership in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2009-01-01

    The ten professional standards form what Francis Duffy refers to as a "National Framework of Professional Standards for Change Leadership in Education." Each standard has examples of the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that the research suggests are important for effective change leadership. Duffy's hope is that this proposed…

  10. Expanding the Frontiers of National Qualifications Frameworks through Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Agyeman, Yaw

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of a national qualifications framework (NQF) by some governments in all world regions has shown some success in the area of formal learning. However, while NQFs continue to enhance "formal" learning in many countries, the same cannot be said for the recognition, validation and accreditation (RVA) of "non-formal"…

  11. France - convention on nuclear safety. Fifth national report for the 2011 peer review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety, hereinafter referred to as 'the Convention', is one of the results of international discussions initiated in 1992 in order to contribute maintaining a high level of nuclear safety worldwide. The convention aims to propose binding international obligations regarding nuclear safety. France signed the Convention on 20 September 1994, the date on which it was opened for signature during the IAEA's General Conference, and approved it on 13 September 1995. The Convention entered into force on 24 October 1996. For many years France has been participating actively in international initiatives to enhance nuclear safety, and it considers the Convention on Nuclear Safety to be an important instrument for achieving this aim. The areas covered by the Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. The purpose of this fifth report, which was drafted pursuant to Article 5 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, is to present the measures taken by France in order to fulfil each of her obligations as specified in the said Convention. Since the Convention applies to all nuclear-power generating reactors, most of this report is dedicated to the measures taken in order to ensure their safety. However, as in previous reports, France has decided to present also in this fifth report, the measures that were taken for all research reactors, together with a graduated approach, if need be, for taking their size into account. First of all, research reactors are actually submitted to the same overall regulations as nuclear-power reactors with regard to safety and radiation protection. It should be noted that the most powerful French research reactor, called Phenix, which also used to produce electricity, was disconnected from the grid in March 2009, but continued to run an 'ultimate-test programme' until 1 February 2010. Later, in the framework of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive

  12. Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention transfer provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses legal aspects of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention's (CWC's) export and import provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. As a result, the author and his colleagues prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Here the author discusses progress among several States in actually developing implementing measures for the Convention's transfer requirements. CWC legislation from australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available at this writing in English through the Provisional Technical Secretariat. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing background of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation

  13. National protocol framework for the inventory and monitoring of bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, Sam; Engler, Joseph D.; Sellers, Elizabeth A.; Lee O'Brien,

    2016-01-01

    This national protocol framework is a standardized tool for the inventory and monitoring of the approximately 4,200 species of native and non-native bee species that may be found within the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). However, this protocol framework may also be used by other organizations and individuals to monitor bees in any given habitat or location. Our goal is to provide USFWS stations within the NWRS (NWRS stations are land units managed by the USFWS such as national wildlife refuges, national fish hatcheries, wetland management districts, conservation areas, leased lands, etc.) with techniques for developing an initial baseline inventory of what bee species are present on their lands and to provide an inexpensive, simple technique for monitoring bees continuously and for monitoring and evaluating long-term population trends and management impacts. The latter long-term monitoring technique requires a minimal time burden for the individual station, yet can provide a good statistical sample of changing populations that can be investigated at the station, regional, and national levels within the USFWS’ jurisdiction, and compared to other sites within the United States and Canada. This protocol framework was developed in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the USFWS, and a worldwide network of bee researchers who have investigated the techniques and methods for capturing bees and tracking population changes. The protocol framework evolved from field and lab-based investigations at the USGS Bee Inventory and Monitoring Laboratory at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland starting in 2002 and was refined by a large number of USFWS, academic, and state groups. It includes a Protocol Introduction and a set of 8 Standard Operating Procedures or SOPs and adheres to national standards of protocol content and organization. The Protocol Narrative

  14. Egypt's energy planning and management in view of the commitments to the framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, A.G.S.; Rashad, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Egypt has a rapidly growing population and per capita energy demand. As a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change Egypt is making all efforts to comply with the obligations of the Convention. This paper summarizes the efforts carried out in the field of electricity generation and consumption. Plans implemented to improve energy efficiency and to achieve switching to non-carbon energy resources, such as solar, wind and biomass power, are outlined. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in China: barriers, challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Teh-Wei; Lee, Anita H; Mao, Zhengzhong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the barriers in the implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in China and present recommendations on ways to address these challenges in tobacco control in China. We review the available literature on progress and explore the barriers and challenges that impede a speedier pace in the adoption of the effective tobacco control measures, and present recommendations based on in-depth knowledge of decision-making process on the implementation of FCTC in China. The pace of progress in China is too slow. China faces intractable political, structural, economic and social barriers in tobacco control, which make the whole-hearted implementation of FCTC measures a painstaking process. The authors recommend a comprehensive approach to speed up the implementation of tobacco control measures. This includes strong political leadership from the top, structural changes to the tobacco industry and government oversight of the tobacco industry, as well as advocacy and support for tobacco control from civil society at the grassroots level.

  16. Biomass energy projects for joint implementation of the UN FCCC [Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, Joel N.; Renner, Frederick P.

    1998-01-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) allows for the joint implementation (JI) of measures to mitigate the emissions of greenhouse gases. The concept of JI refers to the implementation of such measures in one country with partial or full financial and/or technical support from another country, potentially fulfilling some of the supporting country's emission-reduction commitment under the FCCC. This paper addresses some key issues related to JI under the FCCC as they relate to the development of biomass energy projects for carbon offsets in developing countries. Issues include the reference case or baseline, carbon accounting and net carbon storage, potential project implementation barriers and risks, monitoring and verification, local agreements and host-country approval. All of these issues are important in project design and evaluation. We discuss briefly several case studies, which consist of a biomass-fueled co-generation projects under development at large sugar mills in the Philippines, India and Brazil, as potential JI projects. The case studies illustrate the benefits of bioenergy for reducing carbon emissions and some of the important barriers and difficulties in developing and crediting such projects. Results to date illustrate both the achievements and the difficulties of this type of project. (author)

  17. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11: packaging and labelling of tobacco products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires member countries to implement measures aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products. FCTC article 11 describes the important forms of health communication and packaging regulations. And this article recommends on large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure on constituents and emissions. Furthermore, article 11 recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms "light" and "mild." The Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted guidelines for implementation of article 11 on "Packaging and labelling of Tobacco Products". Some countries, such as Canada, the U.S.A., Australia, EU countries etc. positively promoted tobacco control by implementing countermeasures such as the graphic health warning labels and plain packages. These countermeasures showed the significant effects of decreasing smoking rate and preventing smoking initiation in young people. Furthermore, these warning labels were effective for the literally challenged. However, the Japanese government has not implemented these countermeasures, and only limited texts are shown on Japanese tobacco packaging. Therefore, Japan should emulate approaches taken by other countries, and promote the tobacco control policy in accordance with FCTC.

  18. Joint Implementation under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Technical and institutional challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    The UN Framework Convention of Climate Change (FCCC) allows for the Joint Implementation (JI) of measures to mitigate the emissions of greenhouse gases. The concept of JI refers to the implementation of such measures in one country with partial and/or technical support from another country, potentially fulfilling some of the supporting country's emission-reduction commitment under the FCCC. At present, all JI transactions are voluntary, and no country has claimed JI credit against existing FCCC commitments. Nevertheless, JI could have important implications for both the economic efficiency and the international equity of the implementation of the FCCC. The paper discusses some of the information needs of JI projects and seeks to clarify some of the common assumptions and arguments about JI. Issues regarding JI are distinguished according to those that are specific to JI as well as other types of regimes and transactions. The focus is on the position of developing countries and their potential risks and benefits regarding JI. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 35 refs

  19. Analysing the conflicting requirements of the framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enting, I.G.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change imply the conflicting constraints of minimising concentrations and maximising emissions (e.g. minimising emission restrictions). Carbon cycle models are readily used for 'forward' calculations of future CO 2 given specific emissions and the 'inverse' problem of deducing the emissions required to achieve specific concentration profiles. However these approaches (a) are each geared to only one side of the problem; and (b) each requires the specification of a particular pathway in terms of either emissions or concentrations. These limitations can be avoided by analysing the relations between future emissions and concentrations of CO 2 using a formalism that optimises overall possible future emission profiles, subject to relevant constraints on both emissions and concentrations. The paper presents specific calculations indicating which combinations of upper bounds on concentrations and lower bounds on emissions are mutually inconsistent and which are consistent. The authors calculate the (smaller) consistency regions that apply if emission reductions are restricted to less than 0.5% p.a. or less than 1% p.a. In each case, two reference periods (1990-2100 and 1990-2200) are considered. 11 refs., 4 figs

  20. Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan; Backinger, Cathy L

    2013-04-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

  1. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.

  2. User Interface Framework for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J M; Bowers, G A; Carey, R W; Daveler, S A; Herndon Ford, K B; Ho, J C; Lagin, L J; Lambert, C J; Mauvais, J; Stout, E A; West, S L

    2007-01-01

    A user interface (UI) framework supports the development of user interfaces to operate the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). [1] This framework simplifies UI development and ensures consistency for NIF operators. A comprehensive, layered collection of UIs in ICCS provides interaction with system-level processes, shot automation, and subsystem-specific devices. All user interfaces are written in Java, employing CORBA to interact with other ICCS components. ICCS developers use these frameworks to compose two major types of user interfaces: broadviews and control panels. Broadviews provide a visual representation of the NIF beamlines through interactive schematic drawings. Control panels provide status and control at a device level. The UI framework includes a suite of display components to standardize user interaction through data entry behaviors, common connection and threading mechanisms, and a common appearance. With these components, ICCS developers can more efficiently address usability issues in the facility when needed. The ICCS UI framework helps developers create consistent and easy-to-understand user interfaces for NIF operators

  3. Maqasid al-Shariah as a Complementary Framework for Conventional Bioethics: Application in Malaysian Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Fatwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdul Halim; Rahman, Noor Naemah Abdul; Saifuddeen, Shaikh Mohd

    2017-09-11

    Rapid development in the area of assisted reproductive technology (ART), has benefited mankind by addressing reproductive problems. However, the emergence of new technologies and techniques raises various issues and discussions among physicians and the masses, especially on issues related to bioethics. Apart from solutions provided using conventional bioethics framework, solutions can also be derived via a complementary framework of bioethics based on the Higher Objectives of the Divine Law (Maqasid al-Shariah) in tackling these problems. This approach in the Islamic World has been applied and localised in the Malaysian context. Thus, this paper highlights a conceptual theoretical framework for solving current bioethical issues, with a special focus on ART in the Malaysian context, and compares this theory with conventional theories of bioethics.

  4. Special national report of the Slovak Republic compiled under the convention on nuclear safety. April 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    A Special safety report of the Slovak Republic in 2012 is presented. An account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (0) Introduction; (0.1) Purpose of the report; (0.2) Brief description of the site characteristics and units; (1) Executive summary; (2) External events; (2.1) Seismic; (2.2) Flooding; (2.3) Extreme weather conditions; (3) Design issues; (3.1) Loss of electrical power; (3.2) Loss of the decay heat removal capability/ultimate heat sink; (3.3) Loss of the primary ultimate heat sink, combined with station black out (see stress tests specifications); (4) Severe accident management; (4.1) Organization and arrangements of the licensee to manage accidents; (4.2) Accident management measures in place at the various stages of a scenario of loss of the core cooling function; (4.3) Maintaining the containment integrity after occurrence of significant fuel damage (up to core meltdown) in the reactor core; (4.4) Accident management measures to restrict the radioactive releases; (5) National organizations (regulator, technical support organizations, operator, government); (5.1) Legislative and regulatory framework; (6) Emergency preparedness and response and post--accident management (off-site); (6.1) Implementation of legislation in the field of emergency preparedness; (7) International cooperation; (7.1) Conventions and communications; (7.2) Cooperation with the international organizations; (7.3) Providing feedback including occurrences at nuclear installations of other nuclear power plants abroad.

  5. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  6. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  7. National convention on world homoeopathy day: Enhancing quality of research in homoeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A national convention on World Homoeopathy Day was held to commemorate the 262nd birth anniversary of Dr. Samuel Hahnemann on 9th–10th April, 2017 at National Agricultural Science Complex, Pusa, New Delhi, India. The theme of the convention was ‘Enhancing Quality of Research in Homoeopathy’ inspired by the World Health Organization Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014–2023 for achieving Universal Health Coverage. Organised by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, an autonomous research organisation of the Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, the convention witnessed 11 oral presentations and focused group discussions held in parallel in the main and side hall, respectively. On this occasion, Awards of Excellence such as Lifetime Achievement Award, Best Teacher and Researcher Award, Young Scientist Award and Best Research Paper Award were also given.

  8. Second national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document was prepared for fulfilling the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Chapter 1 presents some historical aspects of the Brazilian nuclear policy, targets to be attained for increasing the nuclear energy contribution for the national production of electric energy

  9. Second national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention - introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document was prepared for fulfilling the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Chapter 1 presents some historical aspects of the Brazilian nuclear policy, targets to be attained for increasing the nuclear energy contribution for the national production of electric energy.

  10. National Inspection Program of Conventional Industries: implement, results and evaluation- 1981 to 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloria, M.B.; Silva, F.C.A. da; Leocadio, J.C.; Valenca, J.R.M.; Farias, C.

    1986-01-01

    The methodology adopted by the Instutute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry to implement the National Inspection Program of Conventional Industries is present. This methodology is being efficient because of many technical and administrative problems about radiation protection could be identified, analysed and solved gradually. Many workplaces of gammagraphy are analysed in relation to radiation safety, geographyc localization and social-economics aspects. (Author) [pt

  11. EU Water Framework Directive and Stockholm Convention: can we reach the targets for priority substances and persistent organic pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerhacker, Maria

    2009-08-01

    Water is a renewable resource and acceptable quality is important for human health, ecological and economic reasons, but human activity can cause great damage to the natural aquatic environment. Managing the water cycle in a sustainable way is the key to protect natural resources and human health. On a global level, the microbiological contamination of water sources is a major problem in connection with poverty and the United Nations Millennium Development Declaration is an important initiative to handle this problem. In terms of environmental health, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) circulate globally; as they travel long distances, they are found in remote areas far from their original source of application and can cause damage wherever they move to. On a global scale, United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) issued the Stockholm Convention to reduce POPs; in the European Union (EU), one intention of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is to reach the good chemical status of waters; beside these regulations, there are other directives in support of these goals. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether the Stockholm Convention and the WFD allows meeting the targets of protection of human and environmental health, which are established in the different directives and how could we approach the targets. The aims and scopes of different directives are compiled and compared with the actual quality of water, different approaches of standard settings are compared and potential treatment options are discussed. Under the Stockholm Convention on POPs, which came into force in May 2004, governments are required to develop a National Implementation Plan (NIP) setting out how they will address their obligations under the convention and how they will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment by the use of best available techniques (BAT) and application of best environmental practices (BEP). On a European level, the WFD has been in

  12. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  13. Expanding the frontiers of national qualifications frameworks through lifelong learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Agyeman, Yaw

    2017-10-01

    The adoption of a national qualifications framework (NQF) by some governments in all world regions has shown some success in the area of formal learning. However, while NQFs continue to enhance formal learning in many countries, the same cannot be said for the recognition, validation and accreditation (RVA) of non-formal and informal learning. Focusing on competency-based technical and vocational education and training (TVET) within its NQF, Ghana introduced the National Technical and Vocational Education and Training Qualifications Framework (NTVETQF) as a sub-framework in 2012. In the wake of the NTVETQF's limited success, the author of this article reasons that a lifelong learning approach could enhance its effectiveness considerably. Comparing national and international policies, he argues that the NTVETQF should be able to properly address the issues of progression from informal and non-formal to formal modes of lifelong learning within the country's broad context of education. In addition, the study conceptualises the integration of lifelong learning within a broad NQF in four key domains: (1) individual; (2) institutional; (3) industry; and (4) state. The author concludes that, for the NTVETQF to achieve its goal of facilitating access to further education and training while also promoting lifelong learning for all (including workers in the informal economy), effective integration of all modes of lifelong learning is required. Although this entails some challenges, such as recognition of prior learning and validation of all modes of learning, it will help to widen access to education as well as providing individuals with a pathway for achieving their educational aspirations.

  14. 76 FR 11243 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders To Inform the National Framework for Electronics Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Stakeholders To Inform the National Framework for Electronics Stewardship AGENCY: Environmental Protection... inform the national framework for electronics stewardship that is being developed by the Interagency Task Force on Electronics Stewardship. On November 15, 2010, President Obama signed a presidential...

  15. The role of non-governmental organizations in global health diplomacy: negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Kothari, Anita; Labonté, Ronald

    2011-09-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is an exemplar result of global health diplomacy, based on its global reach (binding on all World Health Organization member nations) and its negotiation process. The FCTC negotiations are one of the first examples of various states and non-state entities coming together to create a legally binding tool to govern global health. They have demonstrated that diplomacy, once consigned to interactions among state officials, has witnessed the dilution of its state-centric origins with the inclusion of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the diplomacy process. To engage in the discourse of global health diplomacy, NGO diplomats are immediately presented with two challenges: to convey the interests of larger publics and to contribute to inter-state negotiations in a predominantly state-centric system of governance that are often diluted by pressures from private interests or mercantilist self-interest on the part of the state itself. How do NGOs manage these challenges within the process of global health diplomacy itself? What roles do, and can, they play in achieving new forms of global health diplomacy? This paper addresses these questions through presentation of findings from a study of the roles assumed by one group of non-governmental actors (the Canadian NGOs) in the FCTC negotiations. The findings presented are drawn from a larger grounded theory study. Qualitative data were collected from 34 public documents and 18 in-depth interviews with participants from the Canadian government and Canadian NGOs. This analysis yielded five key activities or roles of the Canadian NGOs during the negotiation of the FCTC: monitoring, lobbying, brokering knowledge, offering technical expertise and fostering inclusion. This discussion begins to address one of the key goals of global health diplomacy, namely 'the challenges facing health diplomacy and how they have been addressed by different groups and at different levels of

  16. Second national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention - September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The chapter 6 describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil.

  17. Second national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention - September 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The chapter 6 describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil

  18. From public health to international law: possible protocols for inclusion in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    OpenAIRE

    Joossens, L.

    2000-01-01

    Faced with a difficult business environment in the United States and the falling demand for cigarettes in industrialized countries, multinational tobacco companies have been competing fiercely to expand their sales in developing countries. Because of the worldwide threat posed by smoking to health and the emphasis being placed by international tobacco companies on marketing in developing countries, an international regulatory strategy, such as the WHO proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco ...

  19. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapp...

  20. Dark sides of the proposed Framework Convention on Global Health's many virtues: A systematic review and critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2013-06-14

    The costs of any proposal for new international law must be fully evaluated and compared with benefits and competing alternatives to ensure adoption will not create more problems than solutions. A systematic review of the research literature was conducted to categorize and assess limitations and unintended negative consequences associated with the proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH). A critical analysis then interpreted these findings using economic, ethical, legal, and political science perspectives. Of the 442 documents retrieved, nine met the inclusion criteria. Collectively, these documents highlighted that an FCGH could duplicate other efforts, lack feasibility, and have questionable impact. The critical analysis reveals that negative consequences can result from the FCGH's proposed form of international law and proposed functions of influencing national budgets, realizing health rights and resetting global governance for health. These include the direct costs of international law, opportunity costs, reducing political dialogue by legalizing political interactions, petrifying principles that may have only contemporary relevance, imposing foreign values on less powerful countries, forcing externally defined goals on countries, prioritizing individual rights over population-wide well-being, further complicating global governance for health, weakening the World Health Organization (WHO), reducing participation opportunities for non-state actors, and offering sub-optimal solutions for global health challenges. Four options for revising the FCGH proposal are developed to address its weaknesses and strengthen its potential for impact. These include: 1) abandoning international law as the primary commitment mechanism and instead pursuing agreement towards a less formal "framework for global health"; 2) seeking fundamental constitutional reform of WHO to address gaps in global governance for health; 3) mobilizing for a separate political platform

  1. 50 CFR 86.101 - What is the Service schedule to adopt the National Framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Service schedule to adopt the National Framework? 86.101 Section 86.101 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... schedule to adopt the National Framework? The Secretary of the Interior adopted the National Framework on...

  2. The digital national framework - underpinning the knowledge economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K J Murray

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Providing a sustainable spatial data infrastructure creates responsibility and high demand by continually meeting and satisfying the needs of all kinds of users. It is essential to provide the right information at the right level of quality and reliability and at the right time. Geographic information (GI is today being universally recognised as a key part of the national information infrastructure, especially by government. GI is an enabler in the knowledge economy since the power of geography can be used to underpin the sharing (and trading of vital georeferenced information collected by all kinds of organisations. From this information reliable conclusions can and will be drawn and decisions made. However, achieving such an environment does not just happen. It has to be led, nurtured and developed in line with user needs. Funding requires sustained investment, and it all has to be implemented and maintained whether the economy enjoys good times or bad, and through periods of political change. These are all big challenges encountered by just about every national economy. The aim of many national governments around the world is to establish a reliable and integrated reference base for GI that can underpin the e-economy. This base needs to support government and the commercial sector who need to reference information, and potentially share it with others (eg land ownership or link it up to form an application.(eg location based services. To achieve this a consistent method of georefererencing is required and the Digital National Framework is intended to fulfil that need in Great Britain. This paper will describe what has been happening in Great Britain to build on the firm foundations of the past, and develop a modern and sustainable framework for geographic information for the future. In particular it will be shown that the business model adopted by Ordnance Survey in recent years (ie the users pay for the data has played a key role in securing

  3. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  4. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  5. Maqasid al-shariah as a complementary framework to conventional bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuddeen, Shaikh Mohd; Rahman, Noor Naemah Abdul; Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan

    2014-06-01

    With the rapid advancements made in biotechnology, bioethical discourse has become increasingly important. Bioethics is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field that goes beyond the realm of natural sciences, and has involved fields in the domain of the social sciences. One of the important areas in bioethical discourse is religion. In a country like Malaysia, where Muslims make up the majority of the population, Islam plays a crucial role in providing the essential guidelines on the permissibility and acceptability of biotechnological applications in various fields such as medicine, agriculture, and food processing. This article looks at the framework of a complementary model of bioethics derived from the perspective of Islam. The framework is based on 'maqasid al-shariah' (purposes or objectives of Islamic law) which aims to protect and preserve mankind's faith, life, intellect, progeny, and property. It is proposed that 'maqasid al-shariah' be used as a pragmatic checklist that can be utilized in tackling bioethical issues and dilemmas.

  6. Marine protected areas in areas beyond national jurisdiction
    The pioneering efforts under the OSPAR Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Molenaar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The international community has committed itself to establishing a coherent network of marine protected areas (MPAs by 2012. This network should also extend to areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ, namely the high seas and the ‘Area’ (the seabed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. This article examines the pioneering efforts of OSPAR to establish MPAs in ABNJ in the North-East Atlantic Ocean. In that connection, OSPAR has to work out how to deal with the applicable international governance and regulatory framework, most importantly the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS and the various ‘competent’ international organizations functioning thereunder. The article’s most important conclusion is that an effective regime for ABNJ in general and also for holistic MPAs in ABNJ requires complementary action at the global and regional levels. OSPAR’s pioneering approach may, if pursued carefully – among other things by respecting the competence of other global and regional bodies – have a decisive impact on the development of the global legal regime in respect of the role of regional environmental organizations in the management of ABNJ.

  7. Unconventional protests: Partisans and independents outside the Republican and Democratic national conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Heaney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Protests at national party conventions are an important setting in which political parties and social movements challenge one another. This article examines the motivations of participants in these events. Drawing upon data from surveys of protesters outside the 2008 national party conventions, it focuses on how partisan and independent political identifications correspond with the reasons that individuals give for protesting. The results demonstrate that there are some conditions under which independents place a greater focus on issues than do partisans and under which partisans place a greater focus on presidential candidates than do independents. However, there are also conditions under which independents are inclined to work alongside partisans, such as trying to stop the election of a threatening candidate and in championing an issue outside their opposing party’s convention. The article argues that micro-level partisan identifications are thus likely to affect the broader structure of party coalitions. These considerations promise to become increasingly relevant as social movements – such as the Tea Party, Occupy Wall Street, and Black Lives Matter – launch new campaigns against or within established parties.

  8. Will the struggle for health equity and social justice be best served by a Framework Convention on Global Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Leigh; Legge, David; London, Leslie; McCoy, David; Sanders, David; Schuftan, Claudio

    2013-06-14

    The idea of a Framework Convention for Global Health (FCGH), using the treaty-making powers of the World Health Organization (WHO), has been promoted as an opportunity to advance global health equity and the right to health. The idea has promise, but needs more thought regarding risks, obstacles, and strategies. The reform of global health governance must be based on a robust analysis of the political economy out of which the drivers of inequality and the denial of the right to health arise. Some of the published commentary has focused on using the proposed FCGH to institutionalize a paradigm change regarding international aid for health care, i.e., reconceptualizing such aid as obligatory, based on human solidarity rather than strategic considerations, based on global stability and national security. We warn against limiting the project to questions of inter-governmental financial transfers because of the risk of neglecting the underlying structural determinants of health injustice. Such neglect would help to legitimize an unjust and unsustainable global economic regime. We raise further questions about the strategic logic informing any campaign for a FCGH. The governments of the United States and Europe have put considerable effort into weakening WHO through tight donor controls, and it would require heavy pressure to persuade them to sign on to a FCGH. Generating such pressure would require strong popular mobilization around the local and diverse priorities of different communities across the globe, and recognition of a common need for effective regulation at the global level. We argue for a broad-based campaign from which the need for more effective global health regulation (and a FCGH) would emerge as a common theme arising from myriad more specific claims. This type of campaign would respond to local needs, and would also be understood within a global, political, and economic perspective. Copyright © 2013 Haynes, Legge, McCoy, Sanders, Schuftan. This is an

  9. The National Legal Framework of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosland, Martha S.

    2017-01-01

    Ms Crosland presented the United States legal framework regarding public participation. Under the Administrative Procedure Act, the primary way of conducting public participation is through 'notice and comment rulemaking'. A proposed rule is published in the Federal Register and is open to comment by the general public; the final publication of the rule includes the answers to the comments received. The various agencies in the United States make use of several digital tools to expand effective public participation and manage the process. The Atomic Energy Act established an adjudicatory process including 'trial-type' hearings, providing participation opportunities to any individual or group whose interests may be affected by a Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing action. The National Environmental Policy Act requires several levels of review for all actions with potentially significant environmental impacts. An environmental assessment (EA) is conducted, to determine whether there is no significant impact or if a more detailed environmental impact statement (EIS) is needed. The EA requires notification of the host state and/or tribe, and the agency in charge has discretion as to the level of public involvement. The EIS requires public notification, a period for public comments on the draft EIS, and at least one public hearing. Ms Crosland presented stakeholder involvement initiatives carried out beyond the legal requirements, such as Citizen Advisory Boards at certain Department of Energy nuclear sites or the National Transportation Stakeholders Forum

  10. Great expectations for the World Health Organization: a Framework Convention on Global Health to achieve universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, G; Marten, R; Waris, A; Hammonds, R; Mulumba, M; Friedman, E A

    2014-02-01

    Establishing a reform agenda for the World Health Organization (WHO) requires understanding its role within the wider global health system and the purposes of that wider global health system. In this paper, the focus is on one particular purpose: achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The intention is to describe why achieving UHC requires something like a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) that have been proposed elsewhere,(1) why WHO is in a unique position to usher in an FCGH, and what specific reforms would help enable WHO to assume this role. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The New International Nuclear Liability Conventions: Status of their Implementation into National Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade or so, a number of significant improvements have been made to the international nuclear liability regimes. The first major advancement was the adoption, in September 1997, of the Protocol to amend the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (VC Protocol) and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC). This was followed, in February 2004, by the adoption of Protocols to amend both the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (PC Protocol) and the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention (BSC Protocol). The principle goal of these new instruments is to provide more compensation to more victims in respect of more types of nuclear damage suffered than ever before. A second objective, at least for the VC and PC Protocols, is to maintain compatibility between the Paris and Vienna Conventions, thereby ensuring the smooth functioning of the 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention (VC) and the Paris Convention (PC). In addition, both Vienna and Paris Convention States wish to ensure that the newly revised Conventions will not prevent them from joining the global liability and compensation regime established by the CSC, should they so wish. However, one wonders to what extent these new instruments will attract a sufficient number of adherents to make them truly effective. While the VC Protocol is already in force, it has drawn surprisingly little support from the 1963 Vienna Convention States and even less from those countries with important nuclear generating capacity but which have not yet joined any of the international nuclear liability and compensation instruments. For its part, and notwithstanding its adoption almost 10 years ago, the CSC has not yet entered into force and only the future will tell whether it ever will, particularly given its strict requirements in this regard. As for the PC and BSC

  12. The Ethnopsychological Framework of the Croatian and Serbian Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rendić-Miočević

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The author proceeds from the opinion of E. Gellner that nationalism creates nations, and not vice versa. In South-East Europe homogeneity has been brought about through a traditional model, wherein archetypes and psychological matrices, especially those based on hajduk (bandit myths, proved to be persistent during the 20th century, even in its closing decades. As the historical framework in his analysis, the author uses the concept of Illyricum, and not of the Balkans. The later term was invented only at the beginning of the 20th century and it does not have any historical, cultural or geographic validity. In research on the problem of nationalism and nations in South-East Europe it is possible to apply an ethnopsychological approach, in which Freudian theories can be of great help. In order to understand archetypes that still survive in the area of ancient Illyricum, one must analyse three historical models that were formed during the long centuries in this region: 1 the Croatian-Pannonian feudal model as well as the Mediterranean one in the West, 2 the patriarchal model in the mid-areas, 3 the Serbian “despotic” model in the East. In regard to patriarchal society, the author recognises in its ideology (national songs, myths etc. the Kraljević Marko syndrome (with projections, paranoia and narcism as its symptoms. The author emphasises that the parental super-ego is transferred to children, and so becomes the upholding factor of tradition and values. Mediaeval Serbia, in which Church and State were linked, had a different social development from European society. “Oriental despotism” as a dominant type can be seen in Serbian history from the Nemanjić period, through the Ottoman epoch to the modern Serbian state. During the Ottoman period, a homogeneous national culture prevailed, which was deeply marked by the Dinaric heritage. Stimulating paranoia and projects in the population, the modern state, assisted by the Church, threatened

  13. Comparison of porcelain bond strength of different metal frameworks prepared by using conventional and recently introduced fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleli, Necati; Saraç, Duygu

    2017-07-01

    Most studies evaluating dental laser sintering systems have focused on the marginal accuracy of the restorations. However, the bond strength at the metal-ceramic interface is another important factor that affects the survival of restorations, and currently, few studies focus on this aspect. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the porcelain bond strength of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) metal frameworks prepared by using the conventional lost-wax technique, milling, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and laser cusing, a direct process powder-bed system. A total of 96 metal frameworks (n=24 in each group) were prepared by using conventional lost-wax (group C), milling (group M), DMLS (group LS), and direct process powder-bed (group LC) methods according to International Organization for Standardization standard ISO 9693-1. After porcelain application, a 3-point bend test was applied to each specimen by using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference tests (α=.05). Failure types at the metal-ceramic interfaces were examined using stereomicroscopy. Additionally, 1 specimen from each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis to evaluate the surface topography of metal frameworks. The mean bond strength was 38.08 ±3.82 MPa for group C, 39.29 ±3.51 MPa for group M, 40.73 ±3.58 MPa for group LS, and 41.24 ±3.75 MPa for group LC. Statistically significant differences were observed among the 4 groups (P=.016). All groups, except for LS, exhibited adhesive and mixed type bond failure. Both of the laser sintering methods were found to be successful in terms of metal-ceramic bond strength. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  15. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help guard against

  16. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Weishaar

    Full Text Available In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, the World Health Organization (WHO has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs to try to undermine the proposed convention.The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists, and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation.TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help

  17. Global Health Governance and the Commercial Sector: A Documentary Analysis of Tobacco Company Strategies to Influence the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. Methods and Findings The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, “good governance,” and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. Conclusions TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance

  18. A Review of Children's Rights Literature since the Adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, Didier; Bouverne-de-Bie, Maria; Vandevelde, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    Children's rights have become a significant field of study during the past decades, largely due to the adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1989. Today, scholarly work on children's rights is almost inconceivable without considering the Convention as the bearer of the children's rights debate. The goal of…

  19. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. United Nations 2005: International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is a 2005 United Nations treaty designed to criminalize acts of nuclear terrorism and to promote police and judicial cooperation to prevent, investigate and punish those acts. As of September 2016, the convention has 115 signatories and 106 state parties, including the nuclear powers China, France, India, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Convention covers a broad range of acts and possible targets, including nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors; covers threats and attempts to commit such crimes or to participate in them, as an accomplice; stipulates that offenders shall be either extradited or prosecuted; encourages States to cooperate in preventing terrorist attacks by sharing information and assisting each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings; and, deals with both crisis situations, assisting States to solve the situations and post-crisis situations by rendering nuclear material safe through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  20. [Equal rights for women and the United Nations convention in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, M I

    1991-12-01

    Although Latin American institutions have, directly or indirectly, established the juridical equality of the sexes, institutional power continues to be concentrated in the hands of men. It is necessary that Latin American governments seek ways to eliminate the legal, cultural, economic, political and social discrimination that persists against women in these patriarchal societies if men and women are to enjoy equality of rights. Today, instruments such as the Convention of Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women approved by the UN in 1979 and ratified by all Latin American countries, have succeeded in establishing the concept of improvement of the status of women as a legislative right supported by international juridical principles. International recognition of human rights has meant that all restrictions against women in the public and private realms are to be regarded as discrimination. Previously, family law was based on traditional customs which accepted that the roles and obligations of men and women were different. Although most Latin American countries now have laws recognizing the equality of rights and obligations of men and women, women continue to be in a secondary position. Poverty, scarcity of resources, and the economic crisis not only impede improvement in the status of women but have led to increases in female unemployment. Another obstacle is the lack of a true political will to improve the status of women. The UN convention on elimination of discrimination obliges each ratifying nation to strive not just for equality or rights but for equality of enjoyment of these rights. Each government should adopt measures to overcome discrimination. Among measures adopted by governments to achieve equality have been incorporation of the principle of equality into the national constitution and creation of offices or ministries for women that are distinct from those for the family or youth. The Committee for Elimination of Discrimination

  1. France - Convention on Nuclear Safety. Fourth National Report Issued for the 2008 Peer Review Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    stipulations of the present Convention. This report was produced by ASN, the French nuclear safety authority, which coordinated the work on it, with contributions from IRSN (Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety) and from nuclear reactor licensees, Electricite de France (EDF), the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the Laue-Langevin institute (ILL). The final version was completed in July 2007 after consultation with the French parties concerned. For this report, France has taken account of the experience acquired with the three previous editions: it is a stand-alone report based mainly on existing documents and reflecting the viewpoints of the various stakeholders (regulatory authority and licensees). Thus, for each of the chapters in which the regulatory authority is not the only party to express its point of view, a three-part structure has been adopted: first a description of the regulations by the regulatory authority, followed by a presentation by the licensees of the steps taken to comply with the regulations, and finally an analysis by the regulatory authority of the steps taken by the licensees. The report is structured according to the guidelines for national reports, as modified during the 2002 peer review meeting. The presentation is made 'article by article', each being the subject of a separate chapter, at the beginning of which the corresponding text of the Convention article is reproduced in a shadow box. This introduction presents the main changes since the third national report and France's nuclear power policy. Part A deals with the general provisions (articles 4 to 6). Part B summarises the legislation and regulations (articles 7 to 9). Part C is devoted to general safety considerations (articles 10 to 16). Part D discusses the safety of the installations (articles 17 to 19). The conclusion outlines future trends in the field of nuclear safety in France, including measures for international cooperation. The report is supplemented by a number

  2. Creating a National Framework for Cybersecurity: An Analysis of Issues and Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Eric A

    2005-01-01

    ... widely in effectiveness. Concerns have grown that what is needed is a national cybersecurity framework -- a coordinated, coherent set of public- and private-sector efforts required to ensure an acceptable level of cybersecurity for the nation...

  3. Coastal Assessment Framework - National Assessment of Estuary and Coastal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Under the National Fish Habitat Partnership, scientists at the NEFSC, NWFSC, and Silver Spring Headquarters are compiling information on the nation's estuarine and...

  4. Accelerated Adoption of Smoke-Free Laws After Ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uang, Randy; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to evaluate the effect of ratifying the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on countries enacting smoke-free laws covering indoor workplaces, restaurants, and bars. Methods. We compared adoption of smoke-free indoor workplace, restaurant, and bar laws in countries that did versus did not ratify the FCTC, accounting for years since the ratification of the FCTC and for countries’ World Bank income group. Results. Ratification of the FCTC significantly (P restaurants and bars. Compared with high-income countries, upper-middle–income countries had a significantly higher probability of smoke-free indoor workplace laws. Conclusions. The FCTC accelerated the adoption of smoke-free indoor workplace, restaurant, and bar laws, with the greatest effect in the years immediately following ratification. The policy implication is that health advocates must increase efforts to secure implementation of FCTC smoke-free provisions in countries that have not done so. PMID:26562125

  5. Potentials and limitations of epistemic communities. An analysis of the World Climate Council and the Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In times of increasing global uncertainties, science takes a central position for policy decisions. According to Peter M. Haas, epistemic communities are able to influence the cooperative behavior of states through their consensual knowledge. This book critically examines this statement. As the case of the Framework Convention on Climate Change shows, the World Climate Council (IPCC) was not in a position to enforce its solution options in the intergovernmental negotiations, as these affected the individual convictions of the decision-makers. While Angela Merkel advocated an agreement, the US government under George W. Bush denied the existence of climate change. Decision-makers and their individual convictions must therefore have a greater significance in international politics. [de

  6. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Fourth National Report on Compliance with the Joint Convention Obligations. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    Environment. Facilities that contain only small amounts of radioactive materials or do not meet the above-mentioned criteria are not subject to any regulatory control in that respect. For her forty report, France drew from the experience it acquired from its participation in the previous meetings on the Joint Convention and the Nuclear Safety Convention. It constitutes a self-supporting report based on existing documentation and reflects the viewpoints of the different actors (regulatory authorities and operators). Hence, for each of the sections in which the regulatory authority is not the only party to express its opinion, a three-step structure was adopted, as follows: - a description by the regulatory authority of the regulations involved; - a presentation by the operators of the steps taken to comply with those regulations, and - an analysis by the regulatory authority of the steps taken by the operators. This report is structured according to the 'guidelines regarding national reports' for the Joint Convention, i.e., an 'article-by-article' format, with each one being addressed in a dedicated section bearing the corresponding text of the relevant article of the Joint Convention on a shaded background at the top of the section. After the Introduction (Section A), the various sections deal successively with the following topics: - Section B Policy and practices under the Joint Convention (Article 32-1); - Section C Scope (Article 3); - Section D Spent-fuel and radioactive-waste inventories, together with the list of the corresponding facilities (Article 32-2); - Section E Legislative and regulatory system in force (Articles 18 to 20); - Section F Other general safety provisions (Articles 21 to 26); - Section G The safety of spent-fuel management (Articles 4 to 10); - Section H The safety of radioactive-waste management (Articles 11 to 17); - Section I Transboundary movements (Article 27); - Section J Disused sealed sources (Article 28), and - Section K Planned safety

  7. United Nations Environment Programme Capacity Building Pilot Project - Training on persistent organic pollutant analysis under the Stockholm Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Leslie, H.A.; van Leeuwen, S.P.J.; Wegener, J.W.M.; van Bavel, B; Lindstrom, G.; Lahoutifard, N.; Fiedler, H.

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Capacity Building Project for training of laboratory staff in developing countries on persistent organic pollutant (POP) analysis, an interlaboratory study was organised following an initial evaluation of the performance of

  8. Convention on nuclear safety 2012 extra ordinary meeting. The Swedish National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    During the 5th Review Meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS), the Contracting Parties in attendance agreed to hold an Extraordinary Meeting in August 2012 with the aim to enhance safety through reviewing and sharing lessons learned and actions taken by Contracting Parties in response to events at TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi. It was agreed that a brief and concise National Report should be developed by each Contracting Party to support the Extraordinary Meeting. This report should be submitted three months prior to the meeting to the Secretariat via the Convention-secured website for peer review by other Contracting Parties. It was also agreed that the Contracting Parties should organize their reports by topics that cross the boundaries of multiple CNS Articles. Each National Report should provide specific information on these topics to address the lessons learned and activities undertaken by each Contracting Party. The National Report should include a description of the activities the Contracting Party has completed and any activities it intends to complete along with scheduled completion dates. The present report is therefore structured in accordance with the guidance given by the General Committee for CNS. In Chapter 0, a brief description of Swedish nuclear power plants is given with an emphasis on measures that have been taken gradually as a result of new knowledge and experience. The following chapters deal with the six topics, which are: 1) External events, 2) Design issues, 3) Severe accident management and recovery, 4) National organizations, 5) Emergency preparedness and response and post-accident management, and 6) International cooperation. Each chapter concludes with a table illustrating a high-level summary of the items identified. To clarify the relationship between the text and table contained in each chapter, the parts of the text appearing in the table are underlined. Furthermore, the text of some sections/subsections in different chapters

  9. 50 CFR 86.102 - How did the Service design the National Framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How did the Service design the National Framework? 86.102 Section 86.102 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Service Completion of the National Framework § 86.102 How did the Service...

  10. Urban Partnership Agreement and Congestion Reduction Demonstration : National Evaluation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-21

    This report provides an analytical framework for evaluating six deployments under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) and Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) Programs. The six UPA/CRD sites...

  11. How can we restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children? A proposal for a World Health Organization-sponsored framework convention to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G

    2017-12-01

    High-sugar drinks, including fruit drinks, soft drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks, are of no nutritional value and contribute to the burden of dental disease in all age groups. The manufacturers of sports and energy drinks have elected to target children in their marketing campaigns and promote a misleading association between their products, healthy lifestyles and sporting prowess. The World Health Organization (WHO) has acknowledged that strategies aimed at prevention of dental disease are the only economically viable options for managing the oral health of children in low- and middle-income countries. Developed nations will also be advantaged by preventive programmes given that the cost of providing dental care to those who cannot pay draws valuable resources away from more pressing health issues. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) obligates governments to develop legislation to protect the health of children. A framework convention modelled on the existing Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, supported by the WHO, would assist governments to proactively legislate to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children. This article will consider how a framework convention would be an advantage with reference to the strategies used by sports and energy drink manufacturers in Australia. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Sweden's first national report under the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Swedish implementation of the obligations of the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    -assessment by each Contracting Party regarding compliance with the obligations of the Joint Convention. This self-assessment should be reported in the National Report to the Review Meetings. Sweden's self-assessment has demonstrated compliance with all the obligations of the Convention, as shown in detail in section B to K of this report. Having taken a very active part in the creation of the Joint Convention, Sweden wishes to emphasise this incentive. In Sweden's opinion, the Convention implies a commitment to the continuous improvement of safety whenever operating experience, safety research or technical development indicate room for such improvement. Continuous learning from experience and a proactive approach to safety are in fact corner stones of the current Swedish nuclear and radiation safety work, both for the industry and the regulatory bodies. Therefore, Sweden has found it important that its National Report highlights strong features in national practices, as well as areas in which improvements are justified. Implementation of such improvements should then be followed up in the National Reports to subsequent Review Meetings. As general conclusions with regard to strong features in national practices, Sweden would like to point out the following: - The responsibility for safety is clearly defined in the Swedish legal framework. In order not to dilute the responsibility of the licence holders, the Swedish regulations are designed to define requirements to be achieved, not the detailed means to achieve them. Within the framework given by the regulations, the licence holders have to define their own solutions, and demonstrate the safety level achieved to the regulatory bodies. - The legislation clearly defines that all licence holders are responsible for the safe handling and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste, as well as for the decommissioning and dismantling of facilities. - The operators of nuclear power plants must jointly carry out the research and

  13. Advancing the right to health through global organizations: The potential role of a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O; Buse, Kent

    2013-06-14

    Organizations, partnerships, and alliances form the building blocks of global governance. Global health organizations thus have the potential to play a formative role in determining the extent to which people are able to realize their right to health. This article examines how major global health organizations, such as WHO, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, UNAIDS, and GAVI approach human rights concerns, including equality, accountability, and inclusive participation. We argue that organizational support for the right to health must transition from ad hoc and partial to permanent and comprehensive. Drawing on the literature and our knowledge of global health organizations, we offer good practices that point to ways in which such agencies can advance the right to health, covering nine areas: 1) participation and representation in governance processes; 2) leadership and organizational ethos; 3) internal policies; 4) norm-setting and promotion; 5) organizational leadership through advocacy and communication; 6) monitoring and accountability; 7) capacity building; 8) funding policies; and 9) partnerships and engagement. In each of these areas, we offer elements of a proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), which would commit state parties to support these standards through their board membership and other interactions with these agencies. We also explain how the FCGH could incorporate these organizations into its overall financing framework, initiate a new forum where they collaborate with each other, as well as organizations in other regimes, to advance the right to health, and ensure sufficient funding for right to health capacity building. We urge major global health organizations to follow the leadership of the UN Secretary-General and UNAIDS to champion the FCGH. It is only through a rights-based approach, enshrined in a new Convention, that we can expect to achieve health for all in our lifetimes. Copyright © 2013 Friedman, Gostin

  14. A comparison of laser-welded titanium and conventional cast frameworks supported by implants in the partially edentulous jaw: a 3-year prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemt, T; Henry, P; Lindén, B; Naert, I; Weber, H; Bergström, C

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate and compare the clinical performance of laser-welded titanium fixed partial implant-supported prostheses with conventional cast frameworks. Forty-two partially edentulous patients were provided with Brånemark system implants and arranged into 2 groups. Group A was provided with a conventional cast framework with porcelain veneers in one side of the jaw and a laser-welded titanium framework with low-fusing porcelain on the other side. The patients in group B had an old implant prosthesis replaced by a titanium framework prosthesis. The patients were followed for 3 years after prosthesis placement. Clinical and radiographic data were collected and analyzed. Only one implant was lost, and all prostheses were still in function after 3 years. The 2 framework designs showed similar clinical performance with few clinical complications. Only one abutment screw (1%) and 9 porcelain tooth units (5%) fractured. Four prostheses experienced loose gold screws (6%). In group A, marginal bone loss was similar for both designs of prostheses, with a mean of 1.0 mm and 0.3 mm in the maxilla and mandible, respectively. No bone loss was observed on average in group B. No significant relationship (P > 0.05) was observed between marginal bone loss and placement of prosthesis margin or prosthesis design. The use of laser-welded titanium frameworks seems to present similar clinical performance to conventional cast frameworks in partial implant situations after 3 years.

  15. Climate change and agriculture under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and related documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan; Angelo, Mary Jane; du Plessis, Anél

    Agriculture contributes to climate change to a considerable extent. Agriculture is also among the sectors that will suffer the largest negative impacts of climate change, for which, consequently, huge adaptation efforts are needed. At the same time this sector faces the challenge of feeding a

  16. Protocols to Amend the Paris, Vienna and Brussels Supplementary Conventions and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage: Status of their Implementation into National Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    2006-01-01

    amend the Paris and Brussels Supplementary Compensation Conventions, it is too early to make predictions regarding their entry into force, but one can say, based upon the latest available information that their Contracting Parties are progressing rapidly towards ratification, acceptance or approval of those instruments and their implementation into national law. Nevertheless, there is little encouraging information with respect to the adherence to those Protocols of the many important nuclear power generating countries which have not yet joined the Paris/Brussels any international nuclear liability regime. The need for international co-operation to attract a larger number of adherents to these various instruments, to facilitate their ratification, acceptance or approval and to assist in the adoption of appropriate implementing legislation therefore remains a high priority amongst the international nuclear community. (author)

  17. National report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled in terms of the convention on nuclear safety. May 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaj, J.; Konecny, L.; Rovny, J.; Metke, E.; Zemanova, D.; Turner, M.; Pospisil, M.; Jurina, V.; Rivny, I.; Soltes, L.; Petrik, T.; Petrovic, J.; Fazekasova, H.; Kobzova, D.; Trcka, T.; Maudry, J.; Betak, A.; Capkovic, J.

    2007-05-01

    A brief national safety report of the Slovak Republic compiled in terms of the joint convention on nuclear safety in 2007 is presented. This safety report consists of following chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear installations in the Slovak Republic in terms of the Convention; (C) Scope of application; (3) Legislation and regulation; (4) General safety aspects; (5) Safety of nuclear installations in Slovakia; (6) Annexes

  18. Enhanced Disease Surveillance during the 2012 Republican National Convention, Tampa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrubin, David; Wiese, Michael; Snider, Rebecca; Workman, Kiley; McDougle, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe disease and illness surveillance utilized during the 2012 Republican National Convention (RNC) held August 26–30, 2012 in Tampa, FL. Introduction While the Tampa Bay Area has previously hosted other high profile events that required heightened disease surveillance (e.g., two Super Bowls), the 2012 RNC marked the first national special security event (NSSE) held in Florida. The Hillsborough County Health Department (HCHD), in conjunction with the Pinellas County Health Department (PinCHD) coordinated disease surveillance activities during this time frame. This presentation will focus of the disease surveillance efforts of the Hillsborough County Health Department during the 2012 RNC. In addition to the surveillance systems that are used routinely, the HCHD Epidemiology Program implemented additional systems designed to rapidly detect individual cases and outbreaks of public health importance. The short duration of RNC, coupled with the large number of visitors to our area, provided additional surveillance challenges. Tropical Storm Isaac, which threatened Tampa in the days leading up to RNC, and an overwhelming law enforcement presence likely dissuaded many protestors from coming to Tampa. As a result, a tiny fraction of the number of protestors that were expected actually showed up. Methods Our normal daily analysis of the emergency department (ED) data using the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE) was expanded to look in detail at ED volumes and chief complaints of those patients who live outside of a 5-county Tampa Bay area. This analysis used patient zip code to determine place of residence. Additionally, ESSENCE queries were utilized to look for heat, tear gas, and RNC related exposures. The ESSENCE system also receives Poison Control data every 15 minutes. Expanded analyses of the Poison Control data were conducted as well. Two Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) were

  19. Predictors of women's attitudes toward world health organization framework convention on tobacco control policies in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu Saleh; Yang, Tingzhong; Beard, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    In 2005 China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and committed to implement tobacco control legislation and policies. Wide variation in smoking prevalence between men and women in China and the high exposure of women to secondhand smoke suggest that each component of the FCTC should be analyzed from a gender perspective. This study describes women's attitudes toward and predictors of support for four key FCTC measures in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,408 women in two urban cities on demographics, smoking behavior, and attitudes toward key tobacco control measures. Seventy percent of the study women (n = 1,408) were exposed to secondhand smoke at home, work, or other public places. Support for the four FCTC measures of interest was as follows: 92.5% supported banning smoking in public places, 79.2% supported increasing the cigarette tax, 92% supported stronger health warnings on cigarette packages, and 87.1% favored banning tobacco advertising. The predictors for supporting each of these measures included socioeconomic, attitudinal, and behavioral factors. Urban Chinese women appear to support implementation of key WHO FCTC measures. Predictors of women's attitudes toward the key FCTC measures varied. The formulation process resulting from the tobacco control policy should consider these women-specific predictors in order to facilitate successful implementation of FCTC.

  20. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: opportunities and issues El Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco: oportunidades y problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E Warner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, a World Health Organization sponsored global tobacco control treaty, constitutes the first major international tool with the potential to significantly reduce the global pandemic of tobacco-produced disease and death. After providing background on the prevalence of cigarette smoking and smoking attributable mortality, both at present and projected for the future, the paper then describes the FCTC and discusses its development, the barriers it has confronted, and the opportunities it offers for improving global health. Successful implementation of the provisions in the treaty could avoid literally tens of millions of premature tobacco-produced deaths over the next few decades.El Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT, un tratado para el control global del tabaco patrocinado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, constituye la primera herramienta internacional importante con el potencial de reducir significativamente la pandemia mundial de enfermedades y decesos producidos por el tabaco. Este ensayo proporciona antecedentes sobre la prevalencia de consumo de cigarrillos y sobre mortalidad atribuible a dicho consumo, tanto al presente como con proyección a futuro. Después describe el CMCT, su desarrollo, las barreras que ha confrontado y las oportunidades que ofrece para mejorar la salud global. La implementación exitosa de las disposiciones del tratado podría evitar, literalmente, decenas de millones de muertes prematuras producidas por el tabaco en las próximas décadas.

  1. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  2. Means and ENDS - e-cigarettes, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and global health diplomacy in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Tilson, Melodie

    2018-01-01

    E-cigarettes are a new and disruptive element in global health diplomacy (GHD) and policy-making. This is an ethnographic account of how e-cigarettes and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) were tackled at the 6th Conference of the Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It demonstrates how uncertainty about ENDS and differences of opinion are currently so great that 'agreeing to disagree' as a consensus position and 'strategic use of time' were the principles that ensured effective GHD in this case. Observers representing accredited non-governmental organisations were active in briefing and lobbying country delegates not to spend too much time debating an issue for which insufficient evidence exists, and for which countries were unlikely to reach a consensus on a specific regulatory approach or universally applicable regulatory measures. Equally, the work of Costa Rica in preparing and re-negotiating the draft decision, and the work of the relevant Committee Chair in managing the discussion, contributed to effectively reining in lengthy statements from Parties and focusing on points of consensus. As well as summarising the debate itself and analysing the issues surrounding it, this account offers an example of GHD working effectively in a situation of epistemic uncertainty.

  3. THE NATIONAL SECURITY - MEDIA POWER LINKAGE. A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARIN MEGHEŞAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of national security policy is an issue of increasing interests in post cold war era. But what is the impact of the media upon national security policy decision making? New world wide events show us that more than ever national policy is often at the mercy of the media. The Wiki leaks, the Murdoch inquiry, the impact of new social media on Arab democratic movements are just some examples regarding the effect of nearly simultaneous presentation of information around the world. The world is changing, and the processes by which national policy is developed may also be changing especially in the security domain. The essence of this study, as the title suggests is the idea of a „dual use” media in the national security issues. This study employs a relatively narrow definition of national security issues as only those which are concerned with national survival and preservation of our society. The media affects us as individuals and as a collective body so we will like to focus on a realistic understanding of the media-secrecy-security linkage, noting that we will do nothing else but advance and underline the main points of view from the public and scientific discourse.

  4. Collaboration within the United Nations system - General matters. Conventions concerning nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The texts of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (CENNA) and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (CANARE) are preceded by brief remarks on their origin. The World Health Organization is bound to carry out the activities envisaged, by virtue or its constitutional responsibility for ''promoting, developing, assisting and coordinating international health work''. The Executive Board thus recommends that the WHO accede to both conventions

  5. IGBC&E – A national framework for green buildings in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Government adopted A National Framework for Green Building in South Africa (NFGBSA) in November 2011 as its official policy toward green building. The NFGBSA assists Government in meeting its sustainable development commitments through its...

  6. National Fish Habitat Action Plan (NFHAP) - Coastal Spatial Framework and Coastal Indicator Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NFHAP Coastal Spatial Framework and Indicator Datasets consist of a geospatial base layer developed in ArcGIS, and associated data fields joined to the spatial...

  7. "EU-on-Demand": Developing National Qualifications Frameworks in a Multi-Level Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elken, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The development of comprehensive national qualifications frameworks (NQFs) across Europe has been sparked by the introduction of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) in 2008. Taking an institutional perspective, this article examines the development of NQFs in three countries, in light of developments that have taken place at the European…

  8. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  9. First Nations, Metis and Inuit Education Policy Framework: Progress Report, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This progress report describes the work currently underway toward improving the success of First Nations, Metis and Inuit (FNMI) students in Alberta. It provides an update on the progress made since the release of the Framework in 2002 and the 2004 Progress Report up to December 31, 2007. Since the release of the Framework, a new Ministry of…

  10. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, J.; Nielsen, L.S.; Lueg, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Dalby, J., Nielsen, Lueg, R., L. S., Pedersen, L., Tomoni, A. C. 2014. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(4): 379-498.......Dalby, J., Nielsen, Lueg, R., L. S., Pedersen, L., Tomoni, A. C. 2014. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(4): 379-498....

  11. SUNRA - a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, Chris; Langstraat, James; Harmer, Clare

    National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social......, environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations...

  12. The 'diverse, dynamic new world of global tobacco control'? An analysis of participation in the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Evgeniya; Hill, Sarah E; Collin, Jeff

    2014-03-01

    The increasingly inequitable impacts of tobacco use highlight the importance of ensuring developing countries' ongoing participation in global tobacco control. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has been widely regarded as reflecting the high engagement and effective influence of developing countries. We examined participation in FCTC governance based on records from the first four meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP), comparing representation and delegate diversity across income levels and WHO regions. While attendance at the COP sessions is high, there are substantial disparities in the relative representation of different income levels and regions, with lower middle and low income countries contributing only 18% and 10% of total meeting delegates, respectively. In regional terms, Europe provided the single largest share of delegates at all except the Durban (2008) meeting. Thirty-nine percent of low income countries and 27% of those from Africa were only ever represented by a single person delegation compared with 10% for high income countries and 11% for Europe. Rotation of the COP meeting location outside of Europe is associated with better representation of other regions and a stronger presence of delegates from national ministries of health and focal points for tobacco control. Developing countries face particular barriers to participating in the COP process, and their engagement in global tobacco control is likely to diminish in the absence of specific measures to support their effective participation.

  13. Review on the Implementation of the Islamic Republic of Iran about Tobacco Control, Based on MPOWER, in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control by the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Jafari-Mansoorian, Hossein; Hashemi, Seyed Yaser; Momenabadi, Victoria; Ghasemi, Seyed Mehdi; Karimyan, Kamaladdin

    2017-07-01

    Smoking is the largest preventable cause of death in the world, killing nearly 6 million people annually. This article is an investigation of measures implemented laws in the Iran to study the proposed strategy of control and reduce tobacco use based on the monitor, protect, offer, warn, enforce and raise (MPOWER) policy. All laws approved by the Parliament along with the instructions on tobacco control prepared by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Ministry of Industry, Mine and Trade were collected and studied. Moreover, practical steps of Ministry of Health and other organizations were examined in this regard. Iranian Parliament after the adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) acts to create a comprehensive and systematic program for tobacco control legislation as a first step towards comprehensive national tobacco control and combat. In this law and its implementing guidelines and based on the strategy of MPOWER, specific implement is done to monitor tobacco use and prevention policies, protect people from tobacco smoke, offer help to quit tobacco use, warn about the dangers of tobacco, enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship and raise taxes on tobacco. However, the full objectives of the legislation have not achieved yet. According to Iran's membership in the FCTC and executive producer of tobacco control laws and regulations, necessary infrastructure is ready for a serious fight with tobacco use. In Iran, in comparison with developed countries, there is a huge gap between ratified laws and performing of laws.

  14. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-12-01

    We used Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected over time to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The GYTS is a school-based survey, conducted in 23 countries in WHO EMR countries from 1999-2008. The prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was high compared to cigarette use in all countries. In general, the following changes were observed between baseline and repeated surveys: in five countries fewer youth supported a ban on smoking in public places. In four countries more youth saw actors smoking on TV and were exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) outside of home. Fewer youth were offered free cigarettes in ten countries; in eight countries youth saw less advertisement on TV; in seven countries youth had fewer items with a tobacco logo, discussed more reasons for smoking and dangers of smoking, and were less exposed to SHS at home; in six countries youth saw less advertisement at sports events. The GYTS data can be used for monitoring, evaluation of national tobacco control plans and defining future directions for tobacco control. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Framework for a National Testing and Evaluation Program ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract:The National STEPP Program seeks to improve water quality by accelerating the effective implementation and adoption of innovative stormwater management technologies. Itwill attempt to accomplish this by establishing practices through highly reliable, and cost-effective Stormwater control measures (SCM) testing, evaluation, and verification services. The program will aim to remove barriers to innovation, minimize duplicative performance evaluation needs, increase confidence that regulatory requirements are met by creating consistency among testing and evaluation protocols, and establishing equity between public domain and proprietary SCM evaluation approaches.The Environmental Technology Verification Program, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 18 years ago, was the only national program of its kindin the stormwater sector, but is now defunct, leaving a national leadership void. The STEPP initiative was triggered in part by regulatory demands in the government and private sectors to fill this vacuum. A concerted focus and study of this matter led to the release of a Water Environment Federation (WEF) white paper entitled “Investigation into the Feasibility of a National Testing and Evaluation Program for Stormwater Products and Practices” in February 2014. During this second phase of the STEPP initiative, and with EPA support, five analogous technology evaluation programs related to both stormwater and non-stormwater were an

  16. Tobacco control and the World Trade Organization: mapping member states' positions after the framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Callard, Cynthia D

    2016-11-01

    To note the frequency of discussions and disputes about tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization (WTO) before and after the coming into force of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). To review trends or patterns in the positions taken by members of the WTO with respect to tobacco control measures. To discuss possible explanations for these observed trends/patterns. We gathered data on tobacco-related disputes in the WTO since its establishment in 1995 and its forerunner, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), prior-FCTC and post-FCTC. We also looked at debates on tobacco control measures within the WTO more broadly. To this end, we classified and coded the positions of WTO member states during discussions on tobacco control and the FCTC, from 1995 until 2013, within the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Council. There is a growing interest within the WTO for tobacco-related issues and opposition to tobacco control measures is moving away from high-income countries towards low(er) income countries. The growing prominence of tobacco issues in the WTO can be attributed at least in part to the fact that during the past decade tobacco firms have been marginalised from the domestic policy-making process in many countries, which has forced them to look for other ways and forums to influence decision-making. Furthermore, the finding that almost all recent opposition within the WTO to stronger tobacco regulations came from developing countries is consistent with a relative shift of transnational tobacco companies' lobbying efforts from developed to developing countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  18. Norwegian national report. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This report contains the national report from Norway to the fourth review meeting of the JointConvention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management to be held 14-23 May 2012. (Author)

  19. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Participation in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, L.; Dew, K.

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of persons with disabilities in formal decision-making processes is thought to have a range of benefits. However, research suggests that participatory processes may fail to match normative ideals. This study examines the participation of persons with disabilities in the development of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of…

  20. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Aluttis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreed upon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising

  1. Sweden's second national report under the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Swedish implementation of the obligations of the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    plant units at the Oskarshamn site. These events create new challenges for the safety work of the licensees as well as for the regulatory bodies. However, the generally positive impression reported to the first review meeting under the Convention still stands. Therefore, Sweden would like to point out the following as strong features in its national nuclear practice: - The responsibility for safety is clearly defined in the Swedish legal framework. In order not to dilute the responsibility of the licence holders, the Swedish regulations are designed to define requirements to be achieved, not the detailed means to achieve them. Within the framework given by the regulations, the licence holders have to define their own solutions, and demonstrate the safety level achieved to the regulatory bodies. - The legislation clearly defines that all licence holders are responsible for the safe handling and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste, as well as for the decommissioning and dismantling of facilities. - The operators of nuclear power plants must jointly carry out the research and development activities needed to ensure the safe handling and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste, as well as for the decommissioning of facilities. The RandD programme is presented to the Government regularly and is subject to regulatory review. - The operators of nuclear power plants must pay fees to the Nuclear Waste Fund, which is subject to regulatory supervision, to ensure that resources are available for the handling and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste, and for the decommissioning and dismantling of the facilities. - There is an open and generally constructive relationship between the regulatory bodies and the licence holders. Even though comprehensive and very active programmes for the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste have been established, many challenges remain. Over the next 10-20 years several new facilities will be sited, constructed and taken

  2. The National Response Framework: A Cross-Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    stepped up to offer free childcare for those in need. Furthermore, the private sector provided temporary lodging to 90 percent of the 5,000 to 7,000...coordination.64 Twenty national corporations sent teams of employees who volunteered to provide helping hands, while other large, prominent companies ...property owners to maintain building infrastructure.216 Four solar power companies formed teams of volunteers in New York and New Jersey and

  3. Monitoring selected conditions related to wilderness character: a national framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Landres; Steve Boutcher; Linda Merigliano; Chris Barns; Denis Davis; Troy Hall; Steve Henry; Brad Hunter; Patrice Janiga; Mark Laker; Al McPherson; Douglas S. Powell; Mike Rowan; Susan Sater

    2005-01-01

    One of the central mandates of the 1964 Wilderness Act is that “each agency administering any area designated as wilderness shall be responsible for preserving the wilderness character of the area.” Although wilderness comprises about 20 percent of National Forest System lands (over 35 million acres), the agency lacks a way to evaluate progress in fulfilling this...

  4. The air quality impacts of road closures associated with the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clougherty Jane E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Democratic National Convention (DNC in Boston, Massachusetts in 2004 provided an opportunity to evaluate the impacts of a localized and short-term but potentially significant change in traffic patterns on air quality, and to determine the optimal monitoring approach to address events of this nature. It was anticipated that the road closures associated with the DNC would both influence the overall air pollution level and the distribution of concentrations across the city, through shifts in traffic patterns. Methods To capture these effects, we placed passive nitrogen dioxide badges at 40 sites around metropolitan Boston before, during, and after the DNC, with the goal of capturing the array of hypothesized impacts. In addition, we continuously measured elemental carbon at three sites, and gathered continuous air pollution data from US EPA fixed-site monitors and traffic count data from the Massachusetts Highway Department. Results There were significant reductions in traffic volume on the highway with closures north of Boston, with relatively little change along other highways, indicating a more isolated traffic reduction rather than an across-the-board decrease. For our nitrogen dioxide samples, while there was a relatively small change in mean concentrations, there was significant heterogeneity across sites, which corresponded with our a priori classifications of road segments. The median ratio of nitrogen dioxide concentrations during the DNC relative to non-DNC sampling periods was 0.58 at sites with hypothesized traffic reductions, versus 0.88 for sites with no changes hypothesized and 1.15 for sites with hypothesized traffic increases. Continuous monitors measured slightly lower concentrations of elemental carbon and nitrogen dioxide during road closure periods at monitors proximate to closed highway segments, but not for PM2.5 or further from major highways. Conclusion We conclude that there was a small but

  5. Sweden's fourth national report under the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and the safety of radioactive waste management. Swedish implementation of the obligations of the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Sweden signed Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) September 29, 1997. Sweden ratified the Joint Convention about two years later and is a Contracting Party to the Joint Convention since July 29, 1999. The Joint Convention entered into force on June 18, 2001. Each member nation having ratified the Joint Convention (Contracting Party) is obligated to prepare a National Report covering the scope of the Joint Convention and subject it to review by other Contracting Parties at Review Meetings held in Vienna, Austria. Sweden participated in the First Review Meeting in November 2003, the Second Review Meeting in May 2006 and the Third Review Meeting in May 2009. This report is the fourth Swedish National Report under the Joint Convention. This report satisfies the requirements of the Joint Convention for reporting on the status of safety at spent fuel and radioactive waste management facilities within Sweden. It constitutes an updated document with basically the same structure as the previous national reports under the terms of the Joint Convention and reflects developments in Sweden through December 2010. It will be subject to review at the Fourth Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties in Vienna, Austria, in May 2012

  6. Legislative framework affecting First Nations and resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, M.

    1998-01-01

    In its Delgamuukw decision (released December 1997), the Supreme Court of Canada has given a clear direction to the Crown and First Nations to negotiate rather than litigate outstanding claims within the province of British Columbia. This paper describes the practical implications which the Delgamuukw decision will have for resource development on lands located within the traditional territories of Aboriginal people, reviews constitutional and jurisdictional issues, and discusses issues such as reserve lands in British Columbia, including the nature of reserve interest, tax considerations, the surrender of reserve lands, and provincial regulation on reserve lands

  7. National water, food, and trade modeling framework: The case of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, A; Elshorbagy, A; Tuninetti, M; Laio, F; Ridolfi, L; Fahmy, H; Hoekstra, A Y

    2018-05-22

    This paper introduces a modeling framework for the analysis of real and virtual water flows at national scale. The framework has two components: (1) a national water model that simulates agricultural, industrial and municipal water uses, and available water and land resources; and (2) an international virtual water trade model that captures national virtual water exports and imports related to trade in crops and animal products. This National Water, Food & Trade (NWFT) modeling framework is applied to Egypt, a water-poor country and the world's largest importer of wheat. Egypt's food and water gaps and the country's food (virtual water) imports are estimated over a baseline period (1986-2013) and projected up to 2050 based on four scenarios. Egypt's food and water gaps are growing rapidly as a result of steep population growth and limited water resources. The NWFT modeling framework shows the nexus of the population dynamics, water uses for different sectors, and their compounding effects on Egypt's food gap and water self-sufficiency. The sensitivity analysis reveals that for solving Egypt's water and food problem non-water-based solutions like educational, health, and awareness programs aimed at lowering population growth will be an essential addition to the traditional water resources development solution. Both the national and the global models project similar trends of Egypt's food gap. The NWFT modeling framework can be easily adapted to other nations and regions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Survey and Recording Technologies in Italian Underwater Cultural Heritage: Research and Public Access Within the Framework of the 2001 UNESCO Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secci, Massimiliano

    2017-08-01

    The 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage is slowly but peremptorily becoming a standard reference tool for underwater archaeology and underwater cultural heritage management. The many provisions included within the Convention touch on many aspects that are key to an effective protection and promotion of the underwater cultural heritage. Within the web of these provisions many aspects are gaining consideration and driving research in underwater archaeology worldwide. These provisions, when seen within a wider frame of social, economical and technological dynamics, pinpoint many aspects requiring further scrutiny from the disciplinary circle. In the framework of the 2001 UNESCO Convention, this article will analyze the path traveled in technological acquisition in the practice of Italian underwater archaeology and how this has affected the approach to underwater cultural heritage management, particularly highlighting how this process has been further influenced by the adoption in 2001 of the Convention and Italy's ratification of it in 2010.

  9. National measures required by the implementation of the climate convention and the Kyoto Protocol in Finland. Report by the Committee on National Climate Policy Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    The task of the Committee was to develop the administrative framework for the national measures that the UN Climate Convention and the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol require in Finland. The Committee proposes that a ministerial working group should continue to act in the Government to draft and implement the climate policy, assisted by a contact network representing the central ministries. The Committee recommends that Finland should have a national climate strategy that would be updated at two or three year's intervals. The drafting, implementation and monitoring of the Climate Strategy should be under the steering of the ministerial working group. In drafting and implementation of the strategy, the responsible ministry would be the one whose minister is the Chairman of the ministerial working group. The evaluation reports on the impacts of policy measures reducing greenhouse gases would be drawn up as part of the strategy's implementation. The Ministry of Trade and Industry would coordinate the scenarios that examine greenhouse gas emissions and that are required by the climate policy in practice. The drafting of the scenarios would be steered by the ministerial working group assisted by a contact network Expert institutions would participate both in the drafting and implementation of the strategy and in the follow-up of the implementation by producing the necessary surveys. In the Committee's opinion, international climate negotiations should still be under the drafting responsibility of the Ministry of the Environment. The Committee suggests that Statistics Finland should be appointed as the inventory entity of greenhouse gases and that a temporary steering group chaired by the Ministry of the Environment, representing all the central ministries and expert institutes, should be set up to assist and steer the national system calculating greenhouse gas emissions. The initial distribution according to the proposal for an EC Directive on emissions trading

  10. Sweden's third national report under the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Swedish implementation of the obligations of the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 32 of the Joint Convention calls for a self-assessment by each Contracting Party regarding compliance with the obligations of the Convention. Sweden's self-assessment has demonstrated compliance with all the obligations of the Convention, as shown in detail in sections B to J of this report. The Swedish existing nuclear power programme is since a few years under strong development. Large amounts are being invested in the 10 remaining operating reactors to prepare for long term operation and major programmes are going on to upgrade and uprate the plants. The former regulatory authorities, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), was merged into a new regulatory body, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, July 01, 2008. The new authority has been tasked with the responsibility and tasks from SKI and SSI. These developments create new challenges for the safety work of the licensees as well as for the regulatory authority. Even though comprehensive and very active programmes for the management and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste have been established, many challenges remain. Over the next 5-15 years several new facilities will be sited, constructed and taken into operation, e.g. an encapsulation plant and a repository for spent fuel. These activities will require substantial efforts for both the nuclear industry and the regulatory bodies. The generally positive impression reported to earlier review meetings under the Joint Convention still stands. Therefore, Sweden would like to point out the following as strong features in its national nuclear practice: The responsibility for safety is clearly defined in the Swedish legal framework. In order not to dilute the responsibility of the licence holders, the Swedish regulations are designed to define requirements to be achieved, not the detailed means to achieve them. Within the framework given by the regulations, the licence holders have to

  11. Implementing a sub-national strategic framework to reduce the illicit tobacco market to support national strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa Rutter

    2018-03-01

    The success of this strategic framework demonstrates that activity can be co-ordinated locally or sub-nationally to support national strategies to reduce the illicit tobacco market. Activity should always be placed within the broader context of 'all tobacco kills' and should contain measures to reduce both supply and demand. Useful resources for other programmes and settings can be found at www.illicit-tobacco.co.uk.

  12. National Health Accounts: A Framework For Understanding Health Care Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Over the course of the past century, the challenges facing the United States in its consumption of health care goods and services have not changed very much. What is being consumed, who is paying for it, and how much is affordable are questions that arise in every cycle of the debate-if they ever go dormant. National Health Accounts are one tool to use in the search for answers to these questions and to the challenges behind the questions. The accounts cannot (and do not pretend to) address every aspect of the debate, but they provide an important context. In this article I briefly review the history of the health accounts and discuss their strengths and weaknesses in the context of the present debate over spending.

  13. The second Swedish national report on climate changes. Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Swedish policy and measures for mitigating the climatic change and an inventory of Swedish greenhouse gas emissions are reported. 80% of these emission are carbon dioxide, and the transport sector is responsible for 33% of the emissions. Emissions from the energy sector and industry have been reduced, while the emissions from transports are increasing. The Swedish forests are a carbon sink, with a net accumulation of about 30 M tons/year, which roughly corresponds to half the emission of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels

  14. Remedies for Breach Under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    For every breach of a binding contract, there must be some remedy. The gap-filling remedial structure of the 1980 Vienna Sales Convention (CISG) reflects the fact that all significant forms of remedial relief may be said to fall within three basic courses of action which modern legal systems make...

  15. The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the central commercial importance of contracts of sale and the impressive and steadily growing list of ratifications (more than 75 States), the CISG Convention must be regarded as the most significant piece of substantive contract legislation in effect at the international level....

  16. The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the central commercial importance of contracts of sale and the impressive and steadily growing list of ratifications (more than 80 States), the CISG Convention must be regarded as the most significant piece of substantive contract legislation in effect at the international level....

  17. SEATCA Tobacco Industry Interference Index: a tool for measuring implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Methods Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. Results The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. Conclusions This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. PMID:25908597

  18. SEATCA Tobacco Industry Interference Index: a tool for measuring implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses

    2016-05-01

    To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Goal implementation perspectives of the Framework U N Convention on Climate Change in Russian Federation - Federal Objective Program on prevention of dangerous climate change and their negative consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedritskij, A.I.; Berdin, V.Kh.; Karpov, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Principal goals and tasks of Federal Target-oriented Program (FTP), system of program measures, its resources ensuring, mechanism for the FTP realization, supervision of execution and data on assessment of its effectiveness are expounded. Results of Russian Federation Inter-department commission activity on climate change issues are cited. Some aspects of negotiation process on Framework U N Convention o climate change are considered. (author)

  20. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to Influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year, about 5 million people die worldwide from tobacco-related causes and, if current trends continue, annual deaths from tobacco-related causes will increase to 10 million by 2030. In response to this global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an international instrument for tobacco control called the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Negotiations on the FCTC began in 1999, and the international treaty—the first...

  1. Policy implementation in practice: the case of national service frameworks in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Kath; Harrison, Stephen

    2004-10-01

    National Service Frameworks are an integral part of the government's drive to 'modernise' the NHS, intended to standardise both clinical care and the design of the services used to deliver that clinical care. This article uses evidence from qualitative case studies in three general practices to illustrate the difficulties associated with the implementation of such top-down guidelines and models of service. In these studies it was found that, while there had been little explicit activity directed at implementation overall, the National Service Framework for coronary heart disease had in general fared better than that for older people. Gunn's notion of 'perfect implementation' is used to make sense of the findings.

  2. The United Nations Convention on Migrant Workers’ Rights. Obstacles, opportunities and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Guchteneire

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the obstacles encountered by the UN International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, the most comprehensive international treaty in the field of migration and human rights, which has however been ratified by only 39 states. It gathers evidence from major destination states in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas and outlines three main sources of difficulties stemming from the influence of market forces, security and sovereignty on migration policies. It concludes by an investigation of the place of the Convention and of migrants, rights in recent initiatives taken by the international community in the field of migration management

  3. Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Second national report on implementation by France of its obligations under the convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    installation containing radioactive materials can be an 'installation classified on environmental protection grounds' (ICPEs) and is placed under the supervision of the Ministry for the Environment. In France there are about 600,000 industrial facilities in the ICPE category, including nearly 65,000 subject to issue of an authorization. If we consider only those ICPEs which are classified owing to the radioactive substances they contain or use, we obtain about 800 facilities. Facilities only containing small quantities of radioactive materials are not subject to regulatory supervision in this respect. The radioactive sources they use may nonetheless be subject to supervision, as mentioned in this report and remain subject to the general radiation protection regulations. For this second report, France took account of the experience acquired with its first report on the subject and on the three reports for the Convention on Nuclear Safety: this report is a stand-alone document based on existing documents and reflecting the viewpoints of the various stakeholders (regulatory authorities and operators). Thus, for each of the chapters in which the regulatory authority is not the only party to express its point of view, we adopted a three-stage structure: first of all a description by the regulatory authority of the regulations, followed by a presentation by the operators of the steps taken to meet the regulations and finally, an analysis by the regulatory authority of the steps taken by the operators. This report is structured according to the 'guidelines regarding national reports' for this Convention, in other words with an 'article by article' presentation. Each article is the subject of a separate chapter at the beginning of which the corresponding text of the Convention article is recalled in a shaded box. After this introduction (section A) the various sections deal with the following topics, in the order proposed in the 'guidelines': - section B: policy and practices in the

  4. OECD and NEA countries' national frameworks for nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzeyli, Kaan

    2016-01-01

    To assist its member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the scientific, technological and legal bases required for a safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, the NEA serves as a forum for sharing and analysing information and experience among its member countries in order to pool and maintain their technical expertise and human infrastructure and to support nuclear activities by providing them with nuclear policy analyses. Comprehensive and effective legal regimes are necessary to help achieve confidence in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. These regimes, whose goals are to protect the public and the natural environment from the risks inherent in such activities, include regulation at a national level, co-operation at bilateral and multilateral levels and international harmonisation of national policies and legislation through adherence to international conventions. Regimes need to be strong enough to set and enforce limits, and flexible enough to keep pace with technological advances and changing public concerns. The NEA collects, analyses and disseminates information on nuclear law in general and on topical nuclear legal issues in particular. Nuclear law is the body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionising radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. In 1995, the NEA began publishing country profiles entitled Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries - Regulatory and Institutional Frameworks for Nuclear Activities or the 'Grand Orange', a name which was adopted and became widely used because of the colour of the initial cover. Since 2006, these country profiles can be downloaded free online both in English and French from the NEA web site. The NEA endeavours to complement country profiles by publishing online an English, non

  5. Developing a national performance indicator framework for the Dutch health system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Asbroek, A. H. A.; Arah, O. A.; Geelhoed, J.; Custers, T.; Delnoij, D. M.; Klazinga, N. S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To report on the first phase of the development of a national performance indicator framework for the Dutch health system. Methods. In January 2002, we initiated an informed interactive process with the intended users-policymakers at the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport-and academics

  6. A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: implications for national curriculum policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Pareja Roblin, N.N.

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites

  7. Indigenous Peoples and Indicators of Well-Being: Australian Perspectives on United Nations Global Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John

    2008-01-01

    One of the major tasks of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) following its establishment in 2000 has been to establish statistical profiles of the world's Indigenous peoples. As part of this broad task, it has recommended that the Millennium Development Goals and other global reporting frameworks should be assessed…

  8. Developing a national performance indicator framework for the Dutch health system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbroek, A.H.A. ten; Arah, O.A.; Geelhoed, J.; Custers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To report on the first phase of the development of a national performance indicator framework for the Dutch health system. Methods. In January 2002, we initiated an informed interactive process with the intended users-policymakers at the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport—and academics

  9. The Impact of National Qualifications Frameworks: By Which Yardstick Do We Measure Dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Nick; Fernie, Scott; Smith, Karen

    2017-01-01

    National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs) are a global phenomenon. This is evidenced by their scale, coverage and intrinsic link with education policy across Europe and beyond. Research into their impact has encompassed a number of perspectives; theoretical, practical and evaluative. Yet, despite the existence of critical literature related to the…

  10. Working for Industry. An Introduction to Workplace Assessment and the National Qualifications Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Zealand Qualifications Authority, Wellington.

    This booklet explains the operation of New Zealand's National Qualifications Framework (NQF) and its relationship to workplace assessment. Discussed first is the NQF's mission of encouraging people to continue their education and training after secondary school and permitting flexibility in where and how people train. The role of the NQF in…

  11. Resourcing the National Goals for Schooling: An Agreed Framework of Principles for Funding Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Funding for school education in Australia should be on the basis of clear and agreed policy principles for achieving effectiveness, efficiency, equity and a socially and culturally cohesive society. On the basis of these principles a national framework for funding schools will be supported by complementary State and Commonwealth models for funding…

  12. Research on persistent organic pollutants in China on a national scale: 10 years after the enforcement of the Stockholm Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Jia, Hong-Liang; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Song, Wei-Wei; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-10-01

    As a signatory of the Stockholm Convention and the largest developing country, China plays a very important role in implementation of the convention to reduce and finally eliminate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the world. In the past ten years after the enforcement in 2004, Chinese Government and scientists have made great progress on the study of POPs. The present work aims to provide an overview on recent studies on POPs in China, with particular focus on usage/emission inventory, residue inventory, and pollution status of POPs on national scale. Several legend (old) and new target POPs were comprehensively summarized with progress on inventory. Furthermore, several national scale monitoring programs have been selected for the occurrence, spatial and temporal trends of POPs in China, which are compared with Asian data and Global data. Based on the observed results, some important scientific issues, such as the primary and secondary distribution patterns, the primary and secondary fractionations, and air-soil exchange of POPs, are also discussed. It is proposed that more studies should be carried out for the new targeted POPs in future for both the national and global interests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate change convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    1992-01-01

    Principles that guide Canada's Green Plan with respect to global warming are outlined. These include respect for nature, meeting environmental goals in an economically beneficial manner, efficient use of resources, shared responsibilities, federal leadership, and informed decision making. The policy side of the international Framework Convention on Climate Change is then discussed and related to the Green Plan. The Convention has been signed by 154 nations and has the long-term objective of stabilizing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at levels that prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Some of the Convention's commitments toward achieving that objective are only applicable to the developed countries. Five general areas of commitment are emissions reductions, assistance to developing countries, reporting requirements, scientific and socioeconomic research, and education. The most controversial area is that of limiting emissions. The Convention has strong measures for public accountability and is open to future revisions. Canada's Green Plan represents one country's response to the Convention commitments, including a national goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000

  14. METHODOLOGY OF THE AUDIT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF THE WETLANDSOF PERÚ WTHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE RAMSAR CONVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mogrovejo Espinoza, Martín Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    The study formulates how the technical/operative alignments of the Ramsar Convention facilitate the implementation of the environmental and audit management methodology of the wetlands of Peru. It’s an investigation on an explanatory level, developed in a sample of five wetlands: Reserva Nacional de Paracas (Ica), Refugio de Vida Silvestre Los Pantanos de Villa (Lima), Santuario Nacional Lagunas de Mejia (Arequipa), Santuario Nacional Manglares de Tumbes (Tumbes) y Reserva Nacional Junín ( Ju...

  15. National report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled according to the terms of the convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchac, A.; Konecny, L.; Lipar, M.; Metke, E.; Novak, S.; Rohar, S.; Turner, M.; Zemanova, D.; Zlatnansky, J.; Gies, F.; Lipar, B.; Parimucha, F.; Pospisil, P.; Tomek, J.; Toth, A.; Jurina, V.; Kmosena, M.; Marcin, S.; Silny, M.

    1998-09-01

    A brief safety report of the Slovak Republic in 1998 is presented. A account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) is presented.These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear installations in Slovakia accords to the convention definition; (3) Legislation and supervision; (4) General safety aspects; (5) Safety of nuclear installations in Slovakia; ((6) Annexes; (7) Act of National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 130/1998 Coll. LL. Contents and list of abbreviations used are included

  16. A hierarchical spatial framework and database for the national river fish habitat condition assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Infante, D.; Esselman, P.; Cooper, A.; Wu, D.; Taylor, W.; Beard, D.; Whelan, G.; Ostroff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fisheries management programs, such as the National Fish Habitat Action Plan (NFHAP), urgently need a nationwide spatial framework and database for health assessment and policy development to protect and improve riverine systems. To meet this need, we developed a spatial framework and database using National Hydrography Dataset Plus (I-.100,000-scale); http://www.horizon-systems.com/nhdplus). This framework uses interconfluence river reaches and their local and network catchments as fundamental spatial river units and a series of ecological and political spatial descriptors as hierarchy structures to allow users to extract or analyze information at spatial scales that they define. This database consists of variables describing channel characteristics, network position/connectivity, climate, elevation, gradient, and size. It contains a series of catchment-natural and human-induced factors that are known to influence river characteristics. Our framework and database assembles all river reaches and their descriptors in one place for the first time for the conterminous United States. This framework and database provides users with the capability of adding data, conducting analyses, developing management scenarios and regulation, and tracking management progresses at a variety of spatial scales. This database provides the essential data needs for achieving the objectives of NFHAP and other management programs. The downloadable beta version database is available at http://ec2-184-73-40-15.compute-1.amazonaws.com/nfhap/main/.

  17. Inventories of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France under the convention framework on the long range transboundary air pollution; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique tranfrontaliere a longue distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), on behalf of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Data are reported according to new specifications adopted in Autumn 2001 regarding substances and source coverage. Parties to the convention have to report annually emissions of these substances. (author)

  18. The progress and challenges of implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Chinara Bekbasarova

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation The Kyrgyz Republic is Party of the WHO FCTC since August 23, 2006. This abstract analyzes progress and challenges during 10 years of implementation of WHO´s FCTC Intervention or response National Tobacco Control (TC) Law was adopted on August 21, 2006, entered into force on December 19, 2006 and was amended and supplemented during 10 years 2 times. TC measures were included, as one of main priorities, in the National Program on Heal...

  19. National, Regional and Global Certification Bodies for Polio Eradication: A Framework for Verifying Measles Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblina Datta, S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Reef, Susan; William Schluter, W; Adams, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    The Global Certification Commission (GCC), Regional Certification Commissions (RCCs), and National Certification Committees (NCCs) provide a framework of independent bodies to assist the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in certifying and maintaining polio eradication in a standardized, ongoing, and credible manner. Their members meet regularly to comprehensively review population immunity, surveillance, laboratory, and other data to assess polio status in the country (NCC), World Health Organization (WHO) region (RCC), or globally (GCC). These highly visible bodies provide a framework to be replicated to independently verify measles and rubella elimination in the regions and globally. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. National Report presented by the Mexican United States to satisfy the compromises of the Nuclear Safety Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In order to satisfy to the compromises derived of the ratification by part of the Mexican Government for the Nuclear Safety Convention it is presented this National Report which is based on the directives proposed as a result of the preparatory meetings held in the IAEA Headquarters in the city of Vienna, Austria. This National Report represents a document summary and activities realized at present in relation with the only nuclear facility in Mexico: the Nuclear Power Plant in Laguna Verde, Veracruz. This report consists of two parts: In the first one it is described how have been satisfied each one of the compromises. The second one talks about the Laws and Regulations on nuclear activities in the country. (Author)

  1. National report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled according to the terms of the convention on nuclear safety. September 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaj, J.; Bezak, S.; Gies, F.

    2001-09-01

    A brief national safety report of the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. A account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear installations in Slovakia accords to the convention definition; (3) Legislation and regulation; (4) General safety aspects; (5) Safety of nuclear installations in Slovakia; ((6) Annexes: (a) List of nuclear installations and technical and economic parameters; (b) 6.2 Some generally binding legal regulations concerning nuclear and radiation safety; (c) 6.3 List of some national and international documents relating to safety of WWER type reactors; 6.4 Limits of radioactive substance discharges; 6.5 Author team. Contents, list of abbreviations used as well as reference index are included

  2. Evaluation of the causal framework used for setting national ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Bailey, Lisa A; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A scientifically sound assessment of the potential hazards associated with a substance requires a systematic, objective and transparent evaluation of the weight of evidence (WoE) for causality of health effects. We critically evaluated the current WoE framework for causal determination used in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of the scientific data on air pollutants for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process, including its methods for literature searches; study selection, evaluation and integration; and causal judgments. The causal framework used in recent NAAQS evaluations has many valuable features, but it could be more explicit in some cases, and some features are missing that should be included in every WoE evaluation. Because of this, it has not always been applied consistently in evaluations of causality, leading to conclusions that are not always supported by the overall WoE, as we demonstrate using EPA's ozone Integrated Science Assessment as a case study. We propose additions to the NAAQS causal framework based on best practices gleaned from a previously conducted survey of available WoE frameworks. A revision of the NAAQS causal framework so that it more closely aligns with these best practices and the full and consistent application of the framework will improve future assessments of the potential health effects of criteria air pollutants by making the assessments more thorough, transparent, and scientifically sound.

  3. Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice: National Association of School Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) developed the Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice to reflect current school nurse practice. The Framework of practice was introduced in June 2015, and feedback was requested and obtained from practicing school nurses in a variety of ways. The final version of the Framework is introduced in this article. This article updates (and replaces) the articles in the July 2015 NASN School Nurse related to the Framework. Central to the Framework is student-centered nursing care that occurs within the context of the students' family and school community. Surrounding the student, family, and school community are the nonhierarchical, overlapping key principles of Care Coordination, Leadership, Quality Improvement, and Community/Public Health.These principles are surrounded by the fifth principle, Standards of Practice, which is foundational for evidence-based and clinically competent quality care. Each of these principles is further defined by practice components. Suggestions are provided regarding how the Framework can be used in a variety of settings to articulate and prioritize school nursing practice. The ultimate goal is to provide a resource to guide school nurses in their practice to help students be healthy, safe, and ready to learn. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Waterpipe product packaging and labelling at the 3rd international Hookah Fair; does it comply with Article 11 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Darzi, Andrea; Lotfi, Tamara; Nakkash, Rima; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A

    2017-08-01

    We assessed compliance of waterpipe product packaging and labelling with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's Article 11. We evaluated samples collected at a trade fair against ten domains: health warning location, size, use of pictorials, use of colour, and packaging information on constituents and emissions. We also evaluated waterpipe accessories (e.g., charcoal) for misleading claims. Ten of 15 tobacco products had health warnings on their principal display areas, covering a median of 22.4 per cent (interquartile range 19.4-27.4 per cent) of those areas. Three had pictorial, in-colour health warnings. We judged all packaging information on constituents and emissions to be misleading. Eight of 13 charcoal products displayed environmentally friendly descriptors and/or claims of reduced harm that we judged to be misleading. Increased compliance with waterpipe tobacco regulation is warranted. An improved policy framework for waterpipe tobacco should also consider regulation of accessories such as charcoal products.

  5. [Teaching pediatrics to residents via conventional lectures in France: A national survey from students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, B; Bendavid, M; Faivre, J-C; Salleron, J; Debillon, T; Claris, O; Chabrol, B; Schweitzer, C; Gajdos, V

    2017-08-01

    To assess the point of view of young physicians training in pediatrics in France on their theoretical courses during residency. A free-access electronic anonymous survey was sent three times by e-mail to the 1215 residents in pediatrics, from July to October 2015. Fifty-seven percent of French residents in pediatrics responded to the survey. It was established that they took part in six (range, 3-10) half-days of specific theoretical teaching in pediatrics from November 2014 to mid-April 2015. Only 54% participated in more than 75% of regional theoretical training. The main self-declared reason for their absence was that they could not leave their clinical activities. Fifty-three per cent of the residents took part in additional training, 45% of them because they found the primary theoretical training insufficient. The overall quality of the theoretical teaching was rated 5 (range, 3-7) out of 10. Eighty-five percent of residents expected to be evaluated on their knowledge during their residency. In pediatrics, additional training is individually undertaken because they deemed their initial training insufficient during their residency. An evaluation of knowledge is requested by residents. The reform of the national residency program must take into account these results in redesigning the theoretical training in pediatrics, integrating innovative teaching techniques to daily practice, for example. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie; Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward...

  7. Application of United Nations Framework Classification – 2009 (UNFC-2009) to nuclear fuel resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulsidas, Harikrishnan; Li Shengxiang; Van Gosen, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Fuel and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009: • Generic, principles-based system: – Applicable to both solid minerals and fluids; • Applications in: – International energy studies; – National resource reporting; – Company project management; – Financial reporting; • 3-D classification of resources on the basis of: – Socio-economic criteria (E); – Project maturity (technical feasibility) (F); – Geological knowledge (G); • A key goal of UNFC-2009 is to provide a tool to facilitate global communications: – Uses a numerical coding system; – Language independent reporting

  8. Updated United Nations Framework Classification for reserves and resources of extractive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blaise, J.R.; Blystad, P.; Kelter, D.; Gabrielyants, G.; Heiberg, S.; Martinez, A.; Ross, J.G.; Slavov, S.; Subelj, A.; Young, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The United Nations have studied how the oil and gas resource classification developed jointly by the SPE, the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) could be harmonized with the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Solid Fuel and Mineral Resources (1). The United Nations has continued to build on this and other works, with support from many relevant international organizations, with the objective of updating the UNFC to apply to the extractive industries. The result is the United Nations Framework Classification for Energy and Mineral Resources (2) that this paper will present. Reserves and resources are categorized with respect to three sets of criteria: ??? Economic and commercial viability ??? Field project status and feasibility ??? The level of geologic knowledge The field project status criteria are readily recognized as the ones highlighted in the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification system of 2000. The geologic criteria absorb the rich traditions that form the primary basis for the Russian classification system, and the ones used to delimit, in part, proved reserves. Economic and commercial criteria facilitate the use of the classification in general, and reflect the commercial considerations used to delimit proved reserves in particular. The classification system will help to develop a common understanding of reserves and resources for all the extractive industries and will assist: ??? International and national resources management to secure supplies; ??? Industries' management of business processes to achieve efficiency in exploration and production; and ??? An appropriate basis for documenting the value of reserves and resources in financial statements.

  9. Architectures for the Development of the National Interoperability Framework in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codrin-Florentin NISIOIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors of Digital Agenda consider that Europe do not take fully advantage of interoperability. They believe that we need effective interoperability between IT products and services to build a truly Digital Society. The Digital Agenda can only be effective if all the elements and applications are interoperable and based on open standards and platforms. In this context, I propose in this article a specific architecture for developing Romanian National Interoperability framework.

  10. France's fifth national communication submitted under the United Nations framework on Climate Change. November 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of France's national context (institutions, demography, geography, climate, economy), this document proposes information related to greenhouse gas emission inventory, a description of policy and measures aimed notably at meeting Kyoto's protocol requirements, a discussion of projections and of an assessment of the total effect of these policy and measures, a discussion of vulnerability assessment, climate change impacts and adaptation measures, a presentation of financial resources and technology transfer actions, a presentation of research actions and systematic observations, and a presentation of actions in the fields of education, training and public participation

  11. Marginal discrepancy of noble metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis frameworks fabricated by conventional and digital technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Ahmed; Haney, Stephan; Verrett, Ronald; Mansueto, Michael; Cray, James; Johnson, Russell

    2018-02-01

    Studies evaluating the marginal adaptation of available computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) noble alloys for metal-ceramic prostheses are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the vertical marginal adaptation of cast, milled, and direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) noble metal-ceramic 3-unit fixed partial denture (FDP) frameworks before and after fit adjustments. Two typodont teeth were prepared for metal-ceramic FDP abutments. An acrylic resin pattern of the prepared teeth was fabricated and cast in nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloy. Each specimen group (cast, milled, DMLS) was composed of 12 casts made from 12 impressions (n=12). A single design for the FDP substructure was created on a laboratory scanner and used for designing the specimens in the 3 groups. Each specimen was fitted to its corresponding cast by using up to 5 adjustment cycles, and marginal discrepancies were measured on the master Ni-Cr model before and after laboratory fit adjustments. The milled and DMLS groups had smaller marginal discrepancy measurements than those of the cast group (PDMLS and cast groups (F=30.643, P<.001). Metal-ceramic noble alloy frameworks fabricated by using a CAD-CAM workflow had significantly smaller marginal discrepancies compared with those with a traditional cast workflow, with the milled group demonstrating the best marginal fit among the 3 test groups. Manual refining significantly enhanced the marginal fit of all groups. All 3 groups demonstrated marginal discrepancies within the range of clinical acceptability. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (28th, Orlando, Florida, 2005). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.; Crawford, Margaret, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    For the twenty-eighth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the National AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  13. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (28th, Orlando, Florida, 2005). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.; Crawford, Margaret, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    For the twenty-eighth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the National AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  14. READING THE VALUES OF LIBERAL FEMINISM IN HILLARY CLINTON’S SPEECH AT THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Fakhrian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In history, Hillary Clinton is the only female candidate as the president of the United State, and she got the name in politic, and having significant roles as a politician in America. Hillary performs a strong leadership and how the picture of women in the modern era. Thus, this study examines the representative women in the lens of Hillary Clinton. It is also under descriptively qualitative research supported by primary data from the script of Hillary Clinton’s speech at the democratic national convention 2016 along with relevant literature as the secondary data. The theory of liberal feminism is used to get a deep analysis of the women’s roles in modern society. Now Women seize the same chance for involving their roles in modern society. Women are not only in a domestic sense, but also in masculinity areas.

  15. National report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled in terms of the convention on nuclear safety. September 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaj, J.; Jurina, V.; Kasana, A.

    2004-09-01

    A brief national safety report of the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. A account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear installations in Slovakia according to the convention; (3) Legislation and regulation; (4) General safety aspects; (5) Safety of nuclear installations in Slovakia; (6) Annexes: 6.1 List of nuclear installations and technical and economic parameters; 6.2 Some generally binding legal documents concerning nuclear and radiation safety; 6.3 Limits of radioactive discharges; 6.4 Author team. Contents, list of abbreviations used as well as reference index are included

  16. National report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled according to the terms of the convention on nuclear safety, June 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaj, J.; Homola, J.; Rovny, J.; Metke, E.; Zemanova, D.; Grebeciova, J.; Turner, M.; Pospisil, M.; Bystricka, S.; Jurina, V.; Rovny, I.; Soltes, L.; Husarova, M.; Petrovic, J.; Fazekasova, H.; Zizkova, D.; Vagac, M.; Maudry, J.; Hacaj, A.; Betak, A.; Barbaric, M.

    2010-06-01

    A brief safety report of the Slovak Republic in 2010 is presented. A account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) is presented.These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear installations in Slovak Republic in terms of the convention; (3) Legislation and regulation; (4) General safety aspects; (5) Safety of nuclear installations in Slovakia; ((6) Annexes; (6.1) List of nuclear installations and technical and economic indicators; (6.2) Selected generally binding legal regulations and safety guidelines in relation to nuclear and radiation safety; (6.3) List of selected national and international documents applicable to safety of nuclear installations; (6.4) Limits for radioactive discharges; (6.5) Team of authors.

  17. National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovsky, V.; Betak, A.; Balaj, J.; Bystricka, S.; Grebeciova, J.; Husarcek, J.; Metke, E.; Pospisil, M.; Smrtnik, I.; Turner, M.; Uhrik, P.; Zemanova, D.; Bulla, R.; Filip, A.; Jurina, V.; Sedlak, M.; Tomek, J.; Zimermann, M.

    2013-06-01

    A brief safety report of the Slovak Republic in 2013 is presented. A account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear installations in Slovak Republic in terms of the convention; (3) Legislation and regulation; (4) General safety aspects; (5) Safety of nuclear installations in the Slovak Republic; ((6) Annexes; (6.1) List of nuclear installations and technical and economic indicators; (6.2) Selected generally binding legal regulations and safety guidelines in relation to nuclear and radiation safety; (6.3) List of selected national and international documents applicable to safety of nuclear installations; (6.4) Limits for radioactive discharges; (6.5) IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety; (6.6) Team of authors.

  18. Publication rate of scientific papers presented at the XXVI Annual Convention of National Neonatology Forum (NEOCON 2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archana; Solanki, Priyanka; Mishra, Devendra

    2015-01-01

    To document the publication rate of papers presented at the Annual Convention of National Neonatology Forum of India (NNF), and study the factors associated with their subsequent publication. All papers presented at the NEOCON 2006, the XXVI annual convention of NNF at Varanasi, India, were searched for subsequent full publication, by an internet-based search using Pubmed, Google Scholar and Indmed. Publication of the presented paper was looked for in English language, peer-reviewed, indexed journals over the next five years (1st January 2007 to 31st December, 2011). The full published papers were compared with the abstract and differences noted. One hundred and two papers and posters were presented at the conference and 14 (13.7 %) of these were published in the next five years. None was published in any un-indexed journal. The highest percentage of paper publication was from the Award paper category (83.3 %) and least from Innovation category (none). The only factor significantly associated with subsequent publication was presentation as an Award paper (P papers, there was a change in authors in 78.5 %, title in 42.8 %, and the data in 35.7 %. The subsequent publication of conference abstracts as a full-paper is sub-optimal in the field of neonatology. Further research is needed to identify the factors responsible for the poor subsequent publication, and efforts need to be made to address them both at the institutional and the researchers' level.

  19. Reconsidering Sheltered Workshops in Light of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte May-Simera

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheltered work and related practices remain a prevalent service for people with intellectual disabilities. However, as a result of being placed in these, participants overwhelmingly remain segregated and excluded from their wider communities. This paper explores whether, with the advent of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, we can at least begin to assess the equality implications of such placements and argue that the experience of segregation itself represents numerous rights violations and discrimination. Having considered traditional equality mechanisms and their bearing on people with intellectual disabilities, this discussion explores how far the Convention’s re-envisioning of the basic principles of equality can perhaps provide a more promising outlook and ideological stance. Indeed, during the Convention’s inception, the negotiations circled around the conflicting opinions as to the purpose, usefulness, and future of sheltered work, revealing the existing tensions between protection and autonomy, shrouding all disability policy discussions. As a result, the question of sheltered work is not explicitly addressed in the treaty and the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities have been unable to definitively declare that the practice of sheltered work constitutes an act of discrimination. However, the Committee does as times demand that sheltered workshops be phased out where it is obvious that the practice of sheltered work is directly linked to the exploitation of workers. Moreover, certain provisions in the Convention might help in determining wrongful discrimination in some, if limited, instances.

  20. National Culture and Business Model Change - A Framework for Successful Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenskov, Lea Houmark; Lueg, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework to analyse how a company’s business model needs to be adjusted if it is expanded into another cultural context. For this, we use the example of changes in the business model of a Danish ITcompany opening a new office in the U.S. Using a single case study......, we integrate the concepts of business models (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2005) and national culture (Hofstede, 1980). Our findings explain why and how adjustments in the business model are necessary regarding the company’s communication, team composition, and customer involvement in projects....... As to implications, we construct a matrix combining business models and national culture that other multinational companies can use to achieve better understanding of their business model in different national contexts....

  1. National Qualifications Framework For Higher Education in Turkey, and Architectural Education: Problems and Challenges of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel AKÖZER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Council of Higher Education (CoHE adopted the National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in Turkey (NQF-HETR in May 2009, as part of the Bologna reforms. In January 2010, the CoHE decided full implementation of the NQF-HETR at institutional and program levels and in this decision, it was foreseen that the process would be completed by the end of December 2012. The NQFHETR has been aligned both to the overarching Framework for Qualifications in the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA, 2005 and to the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning (EQF-LLL, 2008. The latter was introduced to facilitate the European cooperation in education and training, in line with the goals of the European Union's (EU Lisbon Strategy. This paper focuses on some of the problems that have become apparent during the NQF-HETR's implementation at the levels of “narrow fields of education” and architecture programs, and the challenges ahead. Following a discussion of the significance of the two European frameworks in light of the goals of the EHEA, the Education and Training 2010 work programme (ET 2010 and the strategic framework for European cooperation in Education and Training (ET 2020, it covers two problem areas concerning qualifications in architecture: i terminological and classificatory problems entailed by the NQF-HETR; ii the lack of alignment between the European qualifications frameworks and the EU Directive on the Recognition of Professional Qualifications (Directive EC/2005/36 that covers seven “sectoral professions” including architecture. The paper also reviews the latest developments for the modernization of the EU Directive in order to provide progression in forming an integrated European Higher Education Area.

  2. From local scenarios to national maps: a participatory framework for envisioning the future of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Capitani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tackling societal and environmental challenges requires new approaches that connect top-down global oversight with bottom-up subnational knowledge. We present a novel framework for participatory development of spatially explicit scenarios at national scale that model socioeconomic and environmental dynamics by reconciling local stakeholder perspectives and national spatial data. We illustrate results generated by this approach and evaluate its potential to contribute to a greater understanding of the relationship between development pathways and sustainability. Using the lens of land use and land cover changes, and engaging 240 stakeholders representing subnational (seven forest management zones and the national level, we applied the framework to assess alternative development strategies in the Tanzania mainland to the year 2025, under either a business as usual or a green development scenario. In the business as usual scenario, no productivity gain is expected, cultivated land expands by ~ 2% per year (up to 88,808 km², with large impacts on woodlands and wetlands. Despite legal protection, encroachment of natural forest occurs along reserve borders. Additional wood demand leads to degradation, i.e., loss of tree cover and biomass, up to 80,426 km² of wooded land. The alternative green economy scenario envisages decreasing degradation and deforestation with increasing productivity (+10% and implementation of payment for ecosystem service schemes. In this scenario, cropland expands by 44,132 km² and the additional degradation is limited to 35,778 km². This scenario development framework captures perspectives and knowledge across a diverse range of stakeholders and regions. Although further effort is required to extend its applicability, improve users' equity, and reduce costs the resulting spatial outputs can be used to inform national level planning and policy implementation associated with sustainable development, especially the REDD

  3. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in breast cancer detection: possibilities beyond the conventional theoretical framework for data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkic, Karen E-mail: karen.belkic@radfys.ki.se

    2004-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) is a promising method for breast cancer diagnosis, providing, in addition to the anatomic picture, complementary biochemical and physiologic information in the form of spectra. It should be able to identify key biochemical changes before the tumour becomes detectable by other functional imaging methods that rely upon single markers not entirely sensitive or specific for malignant activity. MRSI is potentially well suited for screening and repeated monitoring since it entails no radiation exposure. There are, however, limitations to current applications of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and MRSI. Many of these can be directly related to reliance upon the conventional data analytical method, i.e. the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which has low resolution, poor signal/noise (S/N) in clinical signals, supplies only shape spectra and requires fitting, which is non-unique, so that the number of metabolites must be guessed in advance. This can lead to spurious peaks (over-fitting) and true metabolites being undetected (under-fitting). These limitations of the FFT can be circumvented by recent mathematical advances in signal processing via e.g. the Fast Pade Transform (FPT). As a high resolution, non-linear, stable parametric method, the FPT substantially improves S/N, and fulfills stringent requirements for tumour diagnostics: no post-processing fitting, provides precise numerical results for all peak parameters, and specifies the exact number of metabolites (including those that overlap) from the encoded data. We illustrate in a realistic synthesized model problem similar to MRS that the FPT can identify overlapping peaks that are entirely missed by the FFT, and we give an example from in vivo MRS of the superior resolving power of the FPT compared to FFT at short acquisition time. We also perform detailed paired and logistic regression analyses of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data on extracted breast specimens

  4. National Service Frameworks and UK general practitioners: street-level bureaucrats at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Kath

    2004-11-01

    This paper argues that the past decade has seen significant changes in the nature of medical work in general practice in the UK. Increasing pressure to use normative clinical guidelines and the move towards explicit quantitative measures of performance together have the potential to alter the way in which health care is delivered to patients. Whilst it is possible to view these developments from the well-established sociological perspectives of deprofessionalisation and proletarianisation, this paper takes a view of general practice as work, and uses the ideas of Lipsky to analyse practice-level responses to some of these changes. In addition to evidence-based clinical guidelines, National Service Frameworks, introduced by the UK government in 1997, also specify detailed models of service provision that health care providers are expected to follow. As part of a larger study examining the impact of National Service Frameworks in general practice, the response of three practices to the first four NSFs were explored. The failure of NSFs to make a significant impact is compared to the practices' positive responses to purely clinical guidelines such as those developed by the British Hypertension Society. Lipsky's concept of public service workers as 'street-level bureaucrats' is discussed and used as a framework within which to view these findings.

  5. The climate change convention and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, E J

    1995-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed at Rio in June 1992, is intended to minimize climate change and its impact. Much of its text is ambiguous and it is not specifically directed to health considerations. It is, however, recognized that adverse effects of climate change on health are a concern of humankind, and health is an integral part of the Convention. The Convention includes commitments by the developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and to increase public awareness of these commitments. The significance of the Convention in these respects is discussed critically and future developments considered.

  6. National Assembly report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the progressive implementation of measures and international convention to prevent pollution by ships: the Oilpol convention (Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil), the Marpol convention (Marine Pollution), and the different international conventions on liability and compensation (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution, International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, convention on other damages). It also describes the French system to struggle against marine pollution. Then, it presents the main arrangements of the 2001 Convention (liability, mandatory insurance and certificate, and so on), expresses some reserves on the chosen arrangement, and comments the impact of this convention

  7. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): the case for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Liz Maria; Cavalcante, Tânia Maria; Casado, Letícia; Fernandes, Elaine Masson; Warren, Charles Wick; Peruga, Armando; Jones, Nathan R; Curi Hallal, Ana Luiza; Asma, Samira; Lee, Juliette

    2008-09-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Brazil was developed to provide data on youth tobacco use to the National Tobacco Control Program. The GYTS uses a standardized methodology for constructing sampling frames, selecting schools and classes, preparing questionnaires, carrying out field procedures, and processing data. The GYTS questionnaire is self-administered and includes questions about: initiation; prevalence; susceptibility; knowledge and attitudes; environmental tobacco smoke; cessation; media and advertising. SUDDAN and Epi-Info Software were used for analysis. Weighted analysis was used in order to obtain percentages and 95% confidence intervals. Twenty-three studies were carried out between 2002 and 2005 in Brazilian capitals: 2002 (9); 2003 (4); 2004 (2) and 2005 (9). The total number of students was 22832. The prevalence rate among the cities varied from 6.2% (João Pessoa, 2002) to 17.7% (Porto Alegre, 2002). The tobacco use prevalence rates in 18 Brazilian cities show significant heterogeneity among the macro regions. Data in this report can be used to evaluate the efforts already done and also as baseline for evaluation of new steps for tobacco control in Brazil regarding the goals of the WHO FCTC.

  8. Development of the national report of the Mexican United States for the Convention on Nuclear Safety of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz L, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the content of the National Report of the Mexican United States in it revision 2 is presented, which was presented for it exam by the member countries of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in April, 2005. The conclusion of this Report, with base in the existent objective evidence, is that the Laguna Verde Central continues maintaining a level of similar safety to that of other nuclear power plants of its type, not existing conditions at the moment that they can be identified as adverse for a sure operation and that, therefore, plans don't exist to advance the closing of this installation, before the end of its useful life. The questions that the member countries formulated to the Report of Mexico, the answers that were provided to these questions, as well as the conclusions of the 3 Exam Meeting of April, 2005 are also included. The next National Report, in it revision 3, it will cover the period from the January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006, it was developed from January to August, 2007, it delivered to the IAEA on September of the same year and it was presented in the IAEA Headquarters (IAEA) in the 4 Exam Meeting on April, 2008. (Author)

  9. Reimaanlok: A National Framework for Conservation Area Planning in the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Baker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Reimaanlok, a national framework for the planning and establishment of community-based conservation areas in the Marshall Islands, is outlined. A team composed of international experts and local resource management professionals selected and modified an ecoregional planning approach, defined key concepts, selected conservation features and targets, compiled biogeographical information from scientific and local knowledge and carried out a national-level ecological gap assessment. Past development of community-based fisheries and conservation plans was reviewed and the lessons learned informed the development of a robust community-based planning process for the design and establishment of conservation areas on individual atolls, integrating ecosystem based management (EBM theory, traditional knowledge and management, and the particular socio-economic needs of island communities. While specific geographic, historical, cultural and economic characteristics of the Marshall Islands have created a framework that is unique, several aspects of this process offer ideas for national strategic conservation planning in other Small Island Developing States where there is a paucity of scientific data, significant and increasing threats, and where decision-making about the use of natural resources occurs primarily at the local level.

  10. Harmonizing national forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Erkki O. Tomppo; Klemens Schadauer; Göran. Ståhl

    2012-01-01

    International agreements increasingly require that countries report estimates of national forest resources. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change requires that countries submit annual reports of greenhouse gas emissions and removals by sources and sinks. The Convention on Biological Diversity requires that countries identify and monitor components...

  11. Using an ontology as a model for the implementation of the National Cybersecurity Policy Framework for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Vuuren, JC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available National Cybersecurity Policy Framework that is easy to understand and implement. In this paper, the authors motivate that an ontology can assist in defining a model that describes the relationships between different stakeholders and cybersecurity...

  12. Controlling corporate influence in health policy making? An assessment of the implementation of article 5.3 of the World Health Organization framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary Jonas; Smith, Julia; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2017-03-08

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) stands to significantly reduce tobacco-related mortality by accelerating the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control measures. However, the extent to which States Parties have implemented the Convention varies considerably. Article 5.3 of the FCTC, is intended to insulate policy-making from the tobacco industry's political influence, and aims to address barriers to strong implementation of the Convention associated with tobacco industry political activity. This paper quantitatively assesses implementation of Article 5.3's Guidelines for Implementation, evaluates the strength of Parties' efforts to implement specific recommendations, and explores how different approaches to implementation expose the policy process to continuing industry influence. We cross-referenced a broad range of documentary data (including FCTC Party reports and World Bank data on the governance of conflicts of interest in public administration) against Article 5.3 implementation guidelines (n = 24) for 155 Parties, and performed an in-depth thematic analysis to examine the strength of implementation for specific recommendations. Across all Parties, 16% of guideline recommendations reviewed have been implemented. Eighty-three percent of Parties that have taken some action under Article 5.3 have introduced less than a third of the guidelines. Most compliance with the guidelines is achieved through pre-existing policy instruments introduced independently of the FCTC, which rarely cover all relevant policy actors and fall short of the guideline recommendations. Measures introduced in response to the FCTC are typically restricted to health ministries and not explicit about third parties acting on behalf of the industry. Parties systematically overlook recommendations that facilitate industry monitoring. Highly selective and incomplete implementation of specific guideline recommendations facilitates

  13. Monitoring and Assessment Science to Support Decision-Making by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, M.; Akhtar-Schuster, M.; Cherlet, M.; Martius, C.; Sommer, S.; Thomas, R.; Vogt, J.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is a global treaty that emerged from the Rio Earth Summit and formally took force in 1996. It has now been ratified by 193 countries (known as Parties to the Convention). Yet the UNCCD has gained only modest support from donors, largely due to questions about the science base underlying its target issue (desertification) resulting in ambiguous definitions and quantification of the problem. The UNCCD recognizes the need to reform itself and commissioned a scientific conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina in September 2009 to discuss ways to improve the scientific underpinning of monitoring and assessment (M&A) of desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD). Previous attempts by the UNCCD on M&A focused largely on a search for a common, simple, universal set of indicators that could be reported by country Parties to the Convention Secretariat, which would collate them into a global report. However experience found that no single set of indicators is satisfactory to all countries, because DLDD depends strongly on the local environmental and human/social context. Three preparatory Working Groups analyzed the issue of DLDD M&A and recommended the following. Parties should recognize that M&A methods must integrate human-environment parameters to capture the complexity of DLDD phenomena as defined in the Convention’s text. Traditional tendencies had been to isolate biophysical from social and economic parameters, leading to unrealistic conclusions. Parties should take advantage of a much wider range of analytical techniques than just the coarse-scale indicators that had been their main focus to date. Powerful but underutilized techniques include integrated assessment models, remote sensing, geographic information systems and mapping, participatory stakeholder assessment, hierarchical aggregation of related data, knowledge management and many others. Multiple methods could provide validation checks

  14. Key principles for a national clinical decision support knowledge sharing framework: synthesis of insights from leading subject matter experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Wright, Adam; Lewis, Janet; Bell, Douglas S; Middleton, Blackford

    2013-01-01

    To identify key principles for establishing a national clinical decision support (CDS) knowledge sharing framework. As part of an initiative by the US Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) to establish a framework for national CDS knowledge sharing, key stakeholders were identified. Stakeholders' viewpoints were obtained through surveys and in-depth interviews, and findings and relevant insights were summarized. Based on these insights, key principles were formulated for establishing a national CDS knowledge sharing framework. Nineteen key stakeholders were recruited, including six executives from electronic health record system vendors, seven executives from knowledge content producers, three executives from healthcare provider organizations, and three additional experts in clinical informatics. Based on these stakeholders' insights, five key principles were identified for effectively sharing CDS knowledge nationally. These principles are (1) prioritize and support the creation and maintenance of a national CDS knowledge sharing framework; (2) facilitate the development of high-value content and tooling, preferably in an open-source manner; (3) accelerate the development or licensing of required, pragmatic standards; (4) acknowledge and address medicolegal liability concerns; and (5) establish a self-sustaining business model. Based on the principles identified, a roadmap for national CDS knowledge sharing was developed through the ONC's Advancing CDS initiative. The study findings may serve as a useful guide for ongoing activities by the ONC and others to establish a national framework for sharing CDS knowledge and improving clinical care.

  15. Global climate convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-01-01

    The effort of negotiate a global convention on climate change is one of mankind's great endeavours - and a challenge to economists and development planners. The inherent linkages between climate and the habitability of the earth are increasingly well recognized, and a convention could help to ensure that conserving the environment and developing the economy in the future must go hand in hand. Due to growing environmental concern the United Nations General Assembly has set into motion an international negotiating process for a framework convention on climate change. One the major tasks in these negotiations is how to share the duties in reducing climate relevant gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), between the industrial and the developing countries. The results and proposals could be among the most far-reaching ever for socio-economic development, indeed for global security and survival itself. While the negotiations will be about climate and protection of the atmosphere, they will be on fundamental global changes in energy policies, forestry, transport, technology, and on development pathways with low greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these aspects of a climate convention, particularly the distributional options and consequences for the North-South relations, are addressed in this chapter. (orig.)

  16. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  17. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward? The future research in Ghana cannot progress without consulting the past. In order to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all, Ghana has begun expanding her economy with the growing Ghanaian population as a way to meet the SDG (1, which seeks to end poverty and improve well-being. There are a number of intervention strategies by Ghana’s Energy sector which provides new, high-quality, and cost-competitive energy services to poor people and communities, thus alleviating poverty. Ghana’s Energy sector has initiated the National Electrification Scheme, a Self-Help Electrification Program, a National Off-grid Rural Electrification Program, and a Renewable Energy Development Program (REDP. The REDP aims to: assess the availability of renewable energy resources, examine the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of promising renewable energy technologies, ensure the efficient production and use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources, and develop an information base that facilitates the establishment of a planning framework for the rational development and the use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources.

  18. A Big Spatial Data Processing Framework Applying to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel framework for spatial data processing is proposed, which apply to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring project of China. It includes 4 layers: spatial data storage, spatial RDDs, spatial operations, and spatial query language. The spatial data storage layer uses HDFS to store large size of spatial vector/raster data in the distributed cluster. The spatial RDDs are the abstract logical dataset of spatial data types, and can be transferred to the spark cluster to conduct spark transformations and actions. The spatial operations layer is a series of processing on spatial RDDs, such as range query, k nearest neighbor and spatial join. The spatial query language is a user-friendly interface which provide people not familiar with Spark with a comfortable way to operation the spatial operation. Compared with other spatial frameworks, it is highlighted that comprehensive technologies are referred for big spatial data processing. Extensive experiments on real datasets show that the framework achieves better performance than traditional process methods.

  19. A Big Spatial Data Processing Framework Applying to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, F.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a novel framework for spatial data processing is proposed, which apply to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring project of China. It includes 4 layers: spatial data storage, spatial RDDs, spatial operations, and spatial query language. The spatial data storage layer uses HDFS to store large size of spatial vector/raster data in the distributed cluster. The spatial RDDs are the abstract logical dataset of spatial data types, and can be transferred to the spark cluster to conduct spark transformations and actions. The spatial operations layer is a series of processing on spatial RDDs, such as range query, k nearest neighbor and spatial join. The spatial query language is a user-friendly interface which provide people not familiar with Spark with a comfortable way to operation the spatial operation. Compared with other spatial frameworks, it is highlighted that comprehensive technologies are referred for big spatial data processing. Extensive experiments on real datasets show that the framework achieves better performance than traditional process methods.

  20. NATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OF HEALTH KNOWLEDGE TRANSLATION INITIATIVES IN UGANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaza, Robert; Kinegyere, Alison; Mutatina, Boniface; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the design and implementation of policies for advancing the sustainability of knowledge translation (KT) initiatives and policies in Uganda's health system. We searched for and reviewed evidence about KT sustainability issues in Uganda, the impacts of options, barriers to implementing these options, and implementation strategies to address such barriers. In instances where the systematic reviews provided limited evidence, these were supplemented with relevant primary studies. Documents such as the government reports and unpublished literature were also included in the search. Key informant interviews and a policy dialogue were conducted, and an expert working group guided the study. The KT sustainability issues identified were: the absence of a specific unit within the health sector to coordinate and synthesize research; health worker not familiar with KT activities and not often used. Furthermore, Uganda lacks a mechanism to sustain its current national health frameworks or platforms, and does not have a system to ensure the sustained coordination of existing national health KT platforms. The policy options proposed include: (i) the identification of a KT champion; (ii) the establishment of an operational KT framework; (iii) KT capacity building for researchers and research users, as well as policy and decision makers. The sustainability of KT will be influenced by the prevailing context and concerns within healthcare both in Uganda and internationally. Furthermore, the availability of resources for KT advocacy, communication, and program design will impact on the sustainability of Uganda's KT activities.

  1. What is preventing India from developing an inclusive national framework for older people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera-Sanso Penny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite having the second largest population of people over age 60, India has yet to generate an effective national framework for confronting the exigencies of later life, especially those that are derived from a lifetime of poverty. This article demonstrates that this lack of interest in 'past' generations is driven by the unfortunate coincidence of externally endorsed concerns and concepts, and internal politics. Foundational assumptions on the economy and development and on old-age capacities and inter-generational relations, push for evidence collation which disincentivises more empirically relevant analyses, creating the fiction of dependency ratios and inhibiting the generation of evidence-based knowledge on later life. The consequence is that India prioitises current and future generations over ‘past’ generations. Policies on older people, who are treated as 'other' at international and national levels, are tied to competition for votes at national and state elections. Currently, policy is not designed around the concept of older people’s rights, nor of meeting need. The first outcome of external and internal drivers is that national and state governments are not interested in, nor know, how many older people qualify for a pension; instead they fix budget ceilings and, at a local level, allocate and manage pensions in a random fashion. The second outcome is that pension values are allowed to wither on the vine, waiting on the political context in which one or more parties places a pension uplift at the centre of their manifesto.

  2. Overview of the National Energy-Water System (NEWS) Assessment Framework Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Rosenzweig, B.; Corsi, F.; Piasecki, M.; Celicourt, P.; Fekete, B. M.; Macknick, J.; Melillo, J. M.; Newmark, R. L.; Tidwell, V. C.; Suh, S.; Prousevitch, A.

    2015-12-01

    In practical terms, strategic planning for the nation's economic, social and environmental future increasingly centers on issues relating to fresh water. U.S. energy security is highly dependent on electricity generated by the nation's fleet of thermoelectric power stations, which today contribute 90% to total electricity production. This presentation summarizes the overall structure and recent progress on a study devoted to climate adaptation and the reliability of power sector infrastructure and operations, when viewed through the lens of strategic water issues. The focus is on electric power infrastructure, i.e., the types, spatial distributions and levels of investment in technologies that deliver or could deliver electricity to the U.S. economy. The work is guided by a central hypothesis, that today's portfolio of electric power sector infrastructure is unsustainable in the context of satisfying its water needs under anticipated climate change and rising electricity demands. Insofar as water-mediated feedbacks reverberate throughout the national economy, we include macro-economic perspectives as well. The work is organized around the technical development of the NEWS framework which is then used to evaluate, in the context of anticipated climate, economic change and regulatory context: the performance of the nation's electricity sector, the feasibility of alternative pathways to improve climate adaptation, and impacts of energy technology. Scenarios are co-designed with a stakeholder community, and investment tradeoffs are considered with respect to the productivity of the economy, water availability and aquatic ecosystem condition.

  3. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. National Report of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    On 10 March 1999, the Netherlands signed the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, which was subsequently formally ratified on 26 April 2000 and entered into force on 18 June 2001. The Joint Convention obliges each contracting party to apply widely recognized principles and tools in order to achieve and maintain high standards of safety during management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. The Joint Convention also requires each party to report on the national implementation of these principles to review meetings of the parties to this Convention. This report describes the manner in which the Netherlands is fulfilling its obligations under the Joint Convention

  4. Implementation of the obligations of the Convention on Nuclear Safety - 6th national report of Switzerland to the Convention in accordance with its article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    After a short description of Switzerland as a state in the middle of Europe and of its political organization, the report explains the development of the nuclear power from the first experimental reactor in 1957. Presently five nuclear power plants (NPP) are operating in Switzerland, producing about 40% of the electricity consumption of the country, the rest being produced essentially by hydroelectric plants. As the first regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission was set up in 1960, which evolved to the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) which came into force at the end of 1996. Since there, Switzerland has prepared and submitted the country reports for the regular Review Meetings of Contracting Countries. This 6th report by ENSI provides an update on compliance with CNS obligations. It gives consideration to issues that aroused particular interest at the 5th meeting and at the extraordinary meeting dedicated to the consequences of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi. Shortly after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, the Swiss government has decided to phase out nuclear energy; existing plants will continue to operate as long as they are safe. In Switzerland, on-going activities regarding safety assessment of the different stages in the lifetime of nuclear installations consist of periodic assessments and assessments of long-term operation for existing Swiss NPPs. Such assessments have been performed for two Swiss NPPs (Beznau NPP and Muehleberg NPP) which have been in commercial operation for over 40 years. A detailed examination demonstrated that the conditions for the taking out of service of an NPP are not and will not be reached by these two plants within the next 10 years. Nevertheless, it is mandatory to continue with the scheduled ageing management, maintenance and backfitting activities. After the Fukushima accident, additional safety reviews were performed. All Swiss

  5. Implementation of the obligations of the Convention on Nuclear Safety - 6th national report of Switzerland to the Convention in accordance with its article 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    After a short description of Switzerland as a state in the middle of Europe and of its political organization, the report explains the development of the nuclear power from the first experimental reactor in 1957. Presently five nuclear power plants (NPP) are operating in Switzerland, producing about 40% of the electricity consumption of the country, the rest being produced essentially by hydroelectric plants. As the first regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission was set up in 1960, which evolved to the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) which came into force at the end of 1996. Since there, Switzerland has prepared and submitted the country reports for the regular Review Meetings of Contracting Countries. This 6th report by ENSI provides an update on compliance with CNS obligations. It gives consideration to issues that aroused particular interest at the 5th meeting and at the extraordinary meeting dedicated to the consequences of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi. Shortly after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, the Swiss government has decided to phase out nuclear energy; existing plants will continue to operate as long as they are safe. In Switzerland, on-going activities regarding safety assessment of the different stages in the lifetime of nuclear installations consist of periodic assessments and assessments of long-term operation for existing Swiss NPPs. Such assessments have been performed for two Swiss NPPs (Beznau NPP and Muehleberg NPP) which have been in commercial operation for over 40 years. A detailed examination demonstrated that the conditions for the taking out of service of an NPP are not and will not be reached by these two plants within the next 10 years. Nevertheless, it is mandatory to continue with the scheduled ageing management, maintenance and backfitting activities. After the Fukushima accident, additional safety reviews were performed. All Swiss

  6. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. National Report from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This report is the Norwegian report to the second review meeting to the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The comments, questions and remarks given to Norway's initial national report and Norway's presentation given at the first review meeting have been incorporated in this report. The second report is a full revision of the first report. This report concludes that Norway meets the obligations of the Joint Convention. However, Norwegian authorities will aim for development in the waste management policy and Norway will continue to improve its existing systems to further enhance safety, in line with the aims of the Joint Convention

  7. Strategic environmental assessment and national development plans in Turkey: Towards legal framework and operational procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Say, Nuriye Peker; Yuecel, Muzaffer

    2006-01-01

    National development plans were started to be prepared in Turkey in 1963. These plans are mandatory for public investments and guiding principles for private investments. They have a quality which guides and sets objectives for other plans in the country. Therefore, they can be evaluated as the main reason of successes and failures of sectoral investments or the problems that they cause directly or indirectly. Turkey is undergoing rapid industrialization, urbanization and population growth, thus environmental problems are on the increase. Although Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been applied to individual investments in Turkey since 1993, natural environment has continued to be affected because of human activities. Today, parallel to the developments in the world, it has been discussed that it is necessary to strengthen project-level Environmental Assessment (EA) and to practice Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The interest in SEA, that is, EA at the level of proposed policies, plans and programs has grown significantly since 2000 in the country. Discussions and preparations have started about regulation which provides the legal and institutional framework for SEA in The Ministry of Environment and Forestry. However, since the scientific approach into the subject is very new in Turkey, it will take time to answer the questions about how and in what fields to practice. This research project aims at analyzing the possible practice opportunities of SEA in Turkey and the practicability of SEA into the National Five-Year Development Plan (FYDP) which is assumed at the highest level of planning hierarchy in the country. The research is conducted on two sections. In the first section, procedural approaches to SEA on national development plans are investigated and a framework for these approaches is adapted at the institutional level. In the second section, SEA form for energy sector in the development plans is developed. In this article, the findings

  8. Controlling hepatitis C in Rwanda: a framework for a national response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbituyumuremyi, Aimable; Van Nuil, Jennifer Ilo; Umuhire, Jeanne; Mugabo, Jules; Mwumvaneza, Mutagoma; Makuza, Jean Damascene; Umutesi, Justine; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Gupta, Neil

    2018-01-01

    With the introduction of direct-acting antiviral drugs, treatment of hepatitis C is both highly effective and tolerable. Access to treatment for patients, however, remains limited in low- and middle-income countries due to the lack of supportive health infrastructure and the high cost of treatment. Poorer countries are being encouraged by international bodies to organize public health responses that would facilitate the roll-out of care and treatment on a national scale. Yet few countries have documented formal plans and policies. Here, we outline the approach taken in Rwanda to a public health framework for hepatitis C control and care within the World Health Organization hepatitis health sector strategy. This includes the development and implementation of policies and programmes, prevention efforts, screening capacity, treatment services and strategic information systems. We highlight key successes by the national programme for the control and management of hepatitis C: establishment of national governance and planning; development of diagnostic capacity; approval and introduction of direct-acting antiviral treatments; training of key personnel; generation of political will and leadership; and fostering of key strategic partnerships. Existing challenges and next steps for the programme include developing a detailed monitoring and evaluation framework and tools for monitoring of viral hepatitis. The government needs to further decentralize care and integrate hepatitis C management into routine clinical services to provide better access to diagnosis and treatment for patients. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests to public health-care facilities would help to increase case-finding. Increased public and private financing is essential to support care and treatment services.

  9. Can Children and Young People "Learn from" Atheism for Spiritual Development? A Response to the National Framework for Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    The new National Framework for Religious Education (RE) suggests, for the first time in national advice on agreed syllabuses, that atheism can be included in the curriculum alongside world religions. This article counters objections to the inclusion of atheism in RE and argues that children and young people can learn from atheistic beliefs and…

  10. Integration of energy analytics and smart energy microgrid into mobile medicine operations for the 2012 Democratic National Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahill, Peter W; Noste, Erin E; Rossman, A J; Callaway, David W

    2014-12-01

    Disasters create major strain on energy infrastructure in affected communities. Advances in microgrid technology offer the potential to improve "off-grid" mobile disaster medical response capabilities beyond traditional diesel generation. The Carolinas Medical Center's mobile emergency medical unit (MED-1) Green Project (M1G) is a multi-phase project designed to demonstrate the benefits of integrating distributive generation (DG), high-efficiency batteries, and "smart" energy utilization in support of major out-of-hospital medical response operations. Carolinas MED-1 is a mobile medical facility composed of a fleet of vehicles and trailers that provides comprehensive medical care capacities to support disaster response and special-event operations. The M1G project partnered with local energy companies to deploy energy analytics and an energy microgrid in support of mobile clinical operations for the 2012 Democratic National Convention (DNC) in Charlotte, North Carolina (USA). Energy use data recorded throughout the DNC were analyzed to create energy utilization models that integrate advanced battery technology, solar photovoltaic (PV), and energy conservation measures (ECM) to improve future disaster response operations. The generators that supply power for MED-1 have a minimum loading ratio (MLR) of 30 kVA. This means that loads below 30 kW lead to diesel fuel consumption at the same rate as a 30 kW load. Data gathered from the two DNC training and support deployments showed the maximum load of MED-1 to be around 20 kW. This discrepancy in MLR versus actual load leads to significant energy waste. The lack of an energy storage system reduces generator efficiency and limits integration of alternative energy generation strategies. A storage system would also allow for alternative generation sources, such as PV, to be incorporated. Modeling with a 450 kWh battery bank and 13.5 kW PV array showed a 2-fold increase in potential deployment times using the same amount of

  11. Summary of the Fourth Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and of the Activities of The International Nuclear Forum in Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuster, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Fourth Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change was concluded on 14 November 1998 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Unlike Kyoto in 1997, this conference was on a smaller scale and was convened as a technical work session, its aim being to produce a plan of action and a timetable for a programme of work for the next two years. This paper summarizes the main outcomes of the conference and looks at the way in which the International Nuclear Forum organized the nuclear industry's representation. In particular, the paper assesses the impact of the nuclear industry's message regarding the avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions, and goes on to consider what lessons can be reached for raising the industry's profile at future climate change conferences. (author)

  12. The state of transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This twelfth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the thirteenth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1995. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1994 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report on the development of a library of default values for each of the input variables to the simple mass balance equation for the calculation of critical loads of nitrogen and for a range of ecosystems. Part Four presents the modelling results of European sulphur and nitrogen emissions, depositions for 1980 and 1993, and export/import budgets

  13. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This eleventh volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the twelfth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1994. Part one focuses on the possible impact of acid deposition on the quality of groundwater in the ECE region. The objective of this report is to present an updated review of available knowledge on the possible impact of deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the status of groundwater, including a brief survey of recent research results in this field. It updates an earlier report on the effects of air pollutants on groundwater, prepared within the Convention (EB.AIR/WG.1/R.9). Part two is an executive summary of the 1993 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe (Forest Condition in Europe. Results of the 1993 Survey. 1994 Report, EC-UN/ECE, Brussels, Geneva, 1994). The report describes the results of both the national and the transnational surveys which are conducted annually within the International Cooperative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and under European Community Council Regulation (EEC) 3528/86 on the protection of the Community's Forests against Atmospheric Pollution. Part three is a summary report on the options for further reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from road heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). This report is primarily focused on reduction options for road HDVs, but some of the technical measures reviewed can, however, also be applied to some non-road diesel engines, such as machinery in construction, agriculture or forestry

  14. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This tenth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the eleventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 1 to 3 December 1993. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. National emission data and forecasts for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from 1980 to 2005 are presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the status of implementation of the sulphur and nitrogen oxides protocols on the basis of these data. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1992 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by the ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report that focuses on the reduction of air pollution from heat and electric energy production. It is based on discussion papers submitted to the fifth ECE Seminar on Emission Control Technology for Stationary Sources, held in Nuremberg (Germany) from 10 to 14 June 1991. This chapter presents the main control techniques to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, which is a major contribution in most ECE countries to air pollution by sulphur and nitrogen compounds, carbon oxides, organic compounds, as well as heavy metals. Three principal abatement options are reviewed: fuel cleaning and fuel conversion, low-emission combustion processes, and flue gas cleaning processes. Both technical and economic aspects of the different measures are discussed

  15. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Pedrana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. Objectives: This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. Design: We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed® database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results: The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many

  16. The Conceptual Framework of the National eHealth Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Rotomskienė (Juciūtė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In April 2004 the European Commission adopted the eHealth Action Plan and urged the member states of the European Union to develop national eHealth implementation strategies and corresponding action plans to support their delivery. Extensive eHealth infrastructures and systems were soon viewed as central to the future provision of safe, efficient, high quality and citizen-centred healthcare. However, the ambitious plans and high expectations were soon followed by even larger failures. Based on the findings from the two international case studies undertaken by the article’s author, the article has presented the conceptual e-health development framework, which introduces a much more complex understanding of eHealth development processes than the prevailing technocratic view towards technology-led organisational change. Considerable attention is paid to the organisational changes that have to take place along and the role that stakeholders play while implementing technology-led organisational change in healthcare contexts.Purpose—the purpose of this article is to deliver a conceptual framework for the analysis of eHealth development, which would correspond to the contemporary needs of practical eHealth development.Design/methodology/approach—the research findings presented in the article were delivered using qualitative research methodology and associated research methods such as document analysis, in-depth interviews and participant observation.Findings—the article has delivered a conceptual framework of eHealth development at the national level.Research limitations/implications—the research findings are based on two international case studies undertaken by the author in the UK. While using the results in other countries, local realities and contexts have to be taken into account.Practical implications—the article has presented empirically grounded new insights in relation to eHealth development at the national level. These

  17. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed(®) database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in the WHO EQuAL framework were not

  18. Analytic study of determining factors in negotiation policy of developed countries regarding UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S.W. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    As the awareness on the global warming diffuses worldwide, the UNFCCC was officially adopted during the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio. Even though Korea is not included in the direct control target countries on emission amount because it is now classified as a developing country, pressures from developed countries to include Korea in the control target countries are mounting as its international standing improves as evidenced in its admission into OECD. The purpose of this study is to review the negotiation policies of developed countries and to analyze the determining factors. The major result of analysis shows that the lower population increase ratio with high population density, lower economic growth ratio, lower growth ratios of metal, machine, and plant industries, and lower relative importance and the growth ratios of coal and petroleum which emit lot of green house gases among energy sources, the more these countries are active in the reinforcement of responsibility and duties of UNFCCC. This proves that these factors are to determine the costs associated with reducing green house gases. In Korea, population growth is high, economic growth ratio is very high, and it has an industrial structure that emits lot of green house gases. The consumption of coal and petroleum is high among energy sources. Therefore, in the process of future negotiation, special features of ultra- dynamic Korean economy which is in contrast to the stable economies of major advanced countries and the tremendous costs associated with reducing green house gases should be stressed. It should be also emphasized that the rules of duty sharing that can be established together with fair, cost-effective, and enduring economic development be devised. 22 refs., 5 figs., 64 tabs.

  19. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Guidelines regarding the Form and Structure of National Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The 'Guidelines regarding the Form and Structure of National Reports' adopted at the Preparatory Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Joint Convention held from 10 to 12 December 2001 were modified at the Second Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties held from 15 to 24 May 2006. The modified 'Guidelines regarding the Form and Structure of National Reports' are set forth in the Attachment hereto

  20. Danish National Framework for collecting information about patients’ nutritional status. Nursing Minimum dataset (N-MDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsen, Sasja Jul; Madsen, Inge; Bjerrum, Merete

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark the national guidelines for nursing documentation outlines twelve areas in which nurses have to systematically document daily care. Nutrition is one of these areas. However, the guidelines are frameworks that do not specify exactly what data nurses have to collect and which areas nurses...... need to document about nutrition in order to make a nursing specific documentation. This present study set out to identify a Nursing Minimum Data set for nutrition in a clinical setting. As data was used validated and available tools to screen or assess patients’ nutritional risk. A systematic...... literature search was undertaken identifying x eligible instruments. An inductive qualitative content analysis identified eighteen subcategories that were divided into five main categories: 1 Anthropometry such as weight, height, biochemistry, muscle mass and fat etc., 2 Ability to eat, 3 Intake, 4 Factors...

  1. Organizational learning for sustainable development: Correlation with the national culture dimensions framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has become a key resource and the driver of economic progress. The distribution of welfare in the world demonstrates that the richest countries are the ones that have the knowledge, not natural resources. Creating a knowledge-based society is the foundation for sustainable development. Key factors influencing the creation of a knowledge-based economy are investments in education, research and development and application of new technologies. Nevertheless, culture, attitudes and values that affect people’s commitment to continuous improvement and learning, can also play an important role in creating a knowledge society for sustainable development. In this paper authors are making an attempt to identify the basic values of employees in several Serbian companies by means of factor analysis approach, with special emphasis on the national cultural dimensions framework and its utility.

  2. The National Qualifications Framework in South Africa and "out-of-School Youth": Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgobe, Madumetja

    1997-07-01

    Over the past few years, an initiative called the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) has been unfolding in South Africa. The NQF has as its vision the integration of education and training and the creation of mechanisms through which all learners can receive accreditation for their learning, irrespective of where such learning takes place, and can progress through the education and training system. The passage of the SAQA Act in 1995, and the establishment of the SAQA Board in 1996, provided the framework for the implementation of the NQF. The success or failure of the NQF will depend largely on the extent to which it addresses the major challenges facing South Africa, not only in terms of education and training but also the need to cope with the economic imperatives of society through the conquest of poverty, hunger and unemployment. This paper explores the extent to which the NQF addresses these issues by examining it in relation to "out-of- school youth". The paper begins by providing the background and origins of the NQF. It is argued that the NQF has its origins in a web of interlocking local and international economic, ideological, social and political concerns. The paper then considers some of the key proposals of the NQF for the restructuring of education and training, and finally focus on implications for youth.

  3. A national geographic framework for guiding conservation on a landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Michael J.; Czarnecki, Craig A.; Morton, John M.; Brandt, Laura A.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Shipley, Frank S.; Sayre, Roger G.; Sponholtz, Pamela J.; Perkins, David; Simpkins, Darin G.; Taylor, Janith

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, along with the global conservation community, has recognized that the conservation challenges of the 21st century far exceed the responsibilities and footprint of any individual agency or program. The ecological effects of climate change and other anthropogenic stressors do not recognize geopolitical boundaries and, as such, demand a national geographic framework to provide structure for cross-jurisdictional and landscape-scale conservation strategies. In 2009, a new map of ecologically based conservation regions in which to organize capacity and implement strategic habitat conservation was developed using rapid prototyping and expert elicitation by an interagency team of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S. Geological Survey scientists and conservation professionals. Incorporating Bird Conservation Regions, Freshwater Ecoregions, and U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic unit codes, the new geographic framework provides a spatial template for building conservation capacity and focusing biological planning and conservation design efforts. The Department of Interior's Landscape Conservation Cooperatives are being organized in these new conservation regions as multi-stakeholder collaborations for improved conservation science and management.

  4. Price and tax measures and illicit trade in the framework convention on tobacco control: what we know and what research is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corne; Blecher, Evan; Gilmore, Anna; Ross, Hana

    2013-04-01

    Article 6 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control commits Parties to use tax and price policies to reduce tobacco use, whereas Article 15 commits Parties to implement measures to eliminate the illicit trade in tobacco products. This paper identifies research gaps/needs, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, if adequately addressed, would help in implementing Articles 6 and 15. Based on a recent comprehensive review on the impact of tax and price on tobacco consumption and a summary of reviews and narratives about the illicit tobacco market, research gaps are identified. Countries have highly diverse research needs, depending on the stage of the tobacco epidemic, previous research and data availability, and making a ranking of research needs infeasible. Broad issues for further research are the following: (1) monitoring tobacco consumption, prices, and taxes, (2) assessing the effectiveness of the tax structure in generating revenue and reducing tobacco use, (3) strengthening the tax administration system in order to reduce tax evasion and tax avoidance, (4) improving our understanding of the political economy of tobacco tax policy, and (5) employing a multidisciplinary approach to assessing the magnitude of illicit tobacco trade. At a technical level, the case for increasing excise taxes to improve public health and increase government revenue is easily made, but the political and policy environment is often not supportive. In order to effectively impact policy, the required approach would typically make use of rigorous economic techniques, and be cognizant of the political economy of raising excise taxes.

  5. Tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns: research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Wakefield, Melanie; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up.

  6. Requiem for Liberalism: The Therapeutic and Deliberative Functions of Nostalgic Appeals in Edward Kennedy's Address to the 1980 Democratic National Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoe, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the emotion of nostalgia and the strategies and functions of nostalgic rhetorical appeals in order to analyze Edward Kennedy's major policy address during the 1980 Democratic national convention. Suggests that Kennedy used nostalgic appeals to serve therapeutic and deliberative functions. (KEH)

  7. Preventing and Addressing Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying in Education: A Human Rights-Based Approach Using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools can have a serious effect on children and young people subjected to it at a crucial moment in their lives. It is an obstacle to the right to education, which is one of the basic universal human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various United Nations Conventions. This…

  8. Finding the Gaps: A Comparative Analysis of Disability Laws in the United States to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the National Council on Disability (NCD), and others, better understand how the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, if ratified by the United States, might impact U.S. disability laws by examining the degree to which U.S. law is consistent with the CRPD. The paper endeavors to analyze the…

  9. Children's Rights and School Psychology: An Introduction to the Multiple Journal Series Honoring the 25th Anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Hart, Stuart N.

    2014-01-01

    This year, 2014, is the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child--the world's "positive ideology" and its clearest statement of commitments to and respect and aspirations for the dignity of the child. To commemorate this landmark, a program of articles by respected experts has been organized to advance…

  10. Developing a monitoring and evaluation framework to integrate and formalize the informal waste and recycling sector: the case of the Philippine National Framework Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrona, Kevin Roy B; Yu, Jeongsoo; Aguinaldo, Emelita; Florece, Leonardo M

    2014-09-01

    The Philippines has been making inroads in solid waste management with the enactment and implementation of the Republic Act 9003 or the Ecological Waste Management Act of 2000. Said legislation has had tremendous influence in terms of how the national and local government units confront the challenges of waste management in urban and rural areas using the reduce, reuse, recycle and recovery framework or 4Rs. One of the sectors needing assistance is the informal waste sector whose aspiration is legal recognition of their rank and integration of their waste recovery activities in mainstream waste management. To realize this, the Philippine National Solid Waste Management Commission initiated the formulation of the National Framework Plan for the Informal Waste Sector, which stipulates approaches, strategies and methodologies to concretely involve the said sector in different spheres of local waste management, such as collection, recycling and disposal. What needs to be fleshed out is the monitoring and evaluation component in order to gauge qualitative and quantitative achievements vis-a-vis the Framework Plan. In the process of providing an enabling environment for the informal waste sector, progress has to be monitored and verified qualitatively and quantitatively and measured against activities, outputs, objectives and goals. Using the Framework Plan as the reference, this article developed monitoring and evaluation indicators using the logical framework approach in project management. The primary objective is to institutionalize monitoring and evaluation, not just in informal waste sector plans, but in any waste management initiatives to ensure that envisaged goals are achieved. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  12. A proposed national strategic framework for the management of Cactaceae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haylee Kaplan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a long history of managing biological invasions. The rapid increase in the scale and complexity of problems associated with invasions calls for new, more strategic management approaches. This paper explores strategic management approaches for cactus invasions in South Africa. Cacti (Cactaceae have had a long history of socio-economic benefits, considerable negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, and a wide range of management interventions in South Africa. Objectives: To guide the future management of cactus invasions, a national strategic framework was developed by the South African Cactus Working Group. The overarching aim of this framework is to reduce the negative impacts of cacti to a point where their benefits significantly outweigh the losses. Method: Four strategic objectives were proposed: (1 all invasive and potentially invasive cactus species should be prevented from entering the country, (2 new incursions of cactus species must be rapidly detected and eradicated, (3 the impacts of invasive cacti must be reduced and contained and (4 socio-economically useful cacti (both invasive and non-invasive species must be utilised sustainably to minimise the risk of further negative impacts. Results: There are currently 35 listed invasive cactus species in the country; 10 species are targeted for eradication and 12 are under partial or complete biological control. We discuss approaches for the management of cactus species, their introduction and spread pathways and spatial prioritisation of control efforts. Conclusion: A thorough understanding of context-specific invasion processes and stakeholder support is needed when implementing strategies for a group of invasive species.

  13. Data Management System for the National Energy-Water System (NEWS) Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, F.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.; Piasecki, M.; Celicourt, P.; Miara, A.; Fekete, B. M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Macknick, J.; Cohen, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at providing a comprehensive assessment of the water-energy nexus, the National Energy-Water System (NEWS) project requires the integration of data to support a modeling framework that links climate, hydrological, power production, transmission, and economical models. Large amounts of Georeferenced data has to be streamed to the components of the inter-disciplinary model to explore future challenges and tradeoffs in the US power production, based on climate scenarios, power plant locations and technologies, available water resources, ecosystem sustainability, and economic demand. We used open source and in-house build software components to build a system that addresses two major data challenges: On-the-fly re-projection, re-gridding, interpolation, extrapolation, nodata patching, merging, temporal and spatial aggregation, of static and time series datasets in virtually any file formats and file structures, and any geographic extent for the models I/O, directly at run time; Comprehensive data management based on metadata cataloguing and discovery in repositories utilizing the MAGIC Table (Manipulation and Geographic Inquiry Control database). This innovative concept allows models to access data on-the-fly by data ID, irrespective of file path, file structure, file format and regardless its GIS specifications. In addition, a web-based information and computational system is being developed to control the I/O of spatially distributed Earth system, climate, and hydrological, power grid, and economical data flow within the NEWS framework. The system allows scenario building, data exploration, visualization, querying, and manipulation any loaded gridded, point, and vector polygon dataset. The system has demonstrated its potential for applications in other fields of Earth science modeling, education, and outreach. Over time, this implementation of the system will provide near real-time assessment of various current and future scenarios of the water-energy nexus.

  14. Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Guidelines regarding the form and structure of national reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    At the Preparatory Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Joint Convention held from 10 to 12 December 2001, three documents were adopted concerning the rules and arrangements for conducting meetings of Contracting Parties to the Convention. As announced in the Report on the Preparatory Meeting (GOV/INF/2002/3), these three documents are being made available as INFCIRCs. Accordingly, herewith attached are the Guidelines regarding the Form and Structure of National Reports. Also being made available are the Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules (INFCIRC/602) and Guidelines regarding the Review Process (INFCIRC/603)

  15. Validation of a Culturally Appropriate Social Capital Framework to Explore Health Conditions in Canadian First Nations Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Elias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An earlier study of our research group formulated a conceptual framework of social capital for First Nation communities and developed a culturally appropriate instrument for its measurement. We tested this instrument further with the Manitoba (Canada First Nations Regional Health Survey, 2003. Using data from this survey, we investigated the bonding dimension of the social capital conceptual framework, with a total sample of 2,765 First Nations individuals living in 24 Manitoba First Nations communities. Twenty seven Likert-scale survey questions measured aspects of bonding social capital, socially-invested resources, ethos,and networks. Validation analyses included an evaluation of internal consistency, factor analyses to explore how well the items clustered together into the components of the social capital framework, and the ability of the items to discriminate across the communities represented in the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was computed on the 27 scale items, producing an Alpha of 0.84 indicating high internal consistency. The factor analyses produced five distinct factors with a total explained variance of 54.3%. Lastly, a one-way analysis of variancerun by community produced highly significant F-ratios between the groups on all twenty-seven bonding items. The culturally-sensitive items included in the social capital framework were found to be an appropriate tool to measure bonding aspects among Manitoba First Nations communities. Research and policy implications are discussed.

  16. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): the case for the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Bharathi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira; Bovet, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Tobacco control has been recognized as a main public health concern in Seychelles for the past two decades. Tobacco advertising, sponsoring and promotion has been banned for years, tobacco products are submitted to high taxes, high-profile awareness programs are organized regularly, and several other control measures have been implemented. The Republic of Seychelles was the first country to ratify the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in the African region. Three population-based surveys have been conducted in adults in Seychelles and results showed a substantial decrease in the prevalence of smoking among adults between 1989 and 2004. A first survey in adolescents was conducted in Seychelles in 2002 (the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, GYTS) in a representative sample of 1321 girls and boys aged 13-15 years. The results show that approximately half of students had tried smoking and a quarter of both boys and girls had smoked at least one cigarette during the past 30 days. Although "current smoking" is defined differently in adolescents (>or=1 cigarette during the past 30 days) and in adults (>or=1 cigarette per day), which precludes direct comparison, the high smoking prevalence in youth in Seychelles likely predicts an increasing prevalence of tobacco use in the next adult generation, particularly in women. GYTS 2002 also provides important data on a wide range of specific individual and societal factors influencing tobacco use. Hence, GYTS can be a powerful tool for monitoring the situation of tobacco use in adolescents, for highlighting the need for new policy and programs, and for evaluating the impact of current and future programs.

  17. Is Consumer Response to Plain/Standardised Tobacco Packaging Consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Guidelines? A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I.; Bryce, Stuart L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Standardised or ‘plain’ tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Methods Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. Conclusions The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way

  18. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I; Bryce, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions regarding product harm

  19. Price and Tax Measures and Illicit Trade in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: What We Know and What Research Is Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Article 6 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control commits Parties to use tax and price policies to reduce tobacco use, whereas Article 15 commits Parties to implement measures to eliminate the illicit trade in tobacco products. This paper identifies research gaps/needs, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, if adequately addressed, would help in implementing Articles 6 and 15. Methods: Based on a recent comprehensive review on the impact of tax and price on tobacco consumption and a summary of reviews and narratives about the illicit tobacco market, research gaps are identified. Results: Countries have highly diverse research needs, depending on the stage of the tobacco epidemic, previous research and data availability, and making a ranking of research needs infeasible. Broad issues for further research are the following: (1) monitoring tobacco consumption, prices, and taxes, (2) assessing the effectiveness of the tax structure in generating revenue and reducing tobacco use, (3) strengthening the tax administration system in order to reduce tax evasion and tax avoidance, (4) improving our understanding of the political economy of tobacco tax policy, and (5) employing a multidisciplinary approach to assessing the magnitude of illicit tobacco trade. Conclusions: At a technical level, the case for increasing excise taxes to improve public health and increase government revenue is easily made, but the political and policy environment is often not supportive. In order to effectively impact policy, the required approach would typically make use of rigorous economic techniques, and be cognizant of the political economy of raising excise taxes. PMID:22987785

  20. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Stead

    Full Text Available Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm.Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted.Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample.The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions

  1. The National Ecosystem Services Classification System: A Framework for Identifying and Reducing Relevant Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C. R.; Sinha, P.; Amanda, N.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years the gap between what scientists know and what policymakers should appreciate in environmental decision making has received more attention, as the costs of the disconnect have become more apparent to both groups. Particularly for water-related policies, the EPA's Office of Water has struggled with benefit estimates held low by the inability to quantify ecological and economic effects that theory, modeling, and anecdotal or isolated case evidence suggest may prove to be larger. Better coordination with ecologists and hydrologists is being explored as a solution. The ecosystem services (ES) concept now nearly two decades old links ecosystem functions and processes to the human value system. But there remains no clear mapping of which ecosystem goods and services affect which individual or economic values. The National Ecosystem Services Classification System (NESCS, 'nexus') project brings together ecologists, hydrologists, and social scientists to do this mapping for aquatic and other ecosystem service-generating systems. The objective is to greatly reduce the uncertainty in water-related policy making by mapping and ultimately quantifying the various functions and products of aquatic systems, as well as how changes to aquatic systems impact the human economy and individual levels of non-monetary appreciation for those functions and products. Primary challenges to fostering interaction between scientists, social scientists, and policymakers are lack of a common vocabulary, and the need for a cohesive comprehensive framework that organizes concepts across disciplines and accommodates scientific data from a range of sources. NESCS builds the vocabulary and the framework so both may inform a scalable transdisciplinary policy-making application. This talk presents for discussion the process and progress in developing both this vocabulary and a classifying framework capable of bridging the gap between a newer but existing ecosystem services classification

  2. Impacts of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This eighth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the ninth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 18 to 22 November 1991. Part one is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. Part two describes the critical load concept and the role of the best available technology and other approaches in air pollution abatement strategies. The report analyses the aim, elements and examples of the use of the receptor-oriented or effect-based critical load approach. It also evaluates the role of the source-oriented or technology-based approach as a supplement, rather than an alternative, to the critical load approach. The report contains a table with examples of national target loads for acidity or sulphur as well as preliminary European maps of critical loads of actual acidity, sulphur, present load computation of sulphur and the exceedance of the critical load of sulphur. Part three is an executive summary of the 1990 Forest Damage Survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. Part four is an executive summary of the interim report on cause/effect relationships in forest decline. Part five reviews recent research results on effects of acid deposition on atmospheric corrosion of materials

  3. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  4. Implementation of the obligations of the joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management - Sixth national report of Switzerland in accordance with article 32 of the Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated Sixth Swiss National Report in accordance with Article 32 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety reports on Swiss policies and practices with respect to the management of various categories of radioactive waste. The scope of application is looked at. This includes reprocessing and the processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials. Further sections of the report present notes on inventories and lists, along with a review of legislative and regulatory systems. Other general safety provisions discussed include the responsibility of licence holders, human and financial resources, quality assurance, operational radiation protection, emergency preparedness and decommissioning. Safety aspects of spent fuel management and the design, location and operation of disposal facilities are discussed. General efforts to improve safety are looked at, as is the global transport of wastes. An annex provides information on national laws, regulations and associated guidelines

  5. A novel performance monitoring framework for health research systems: experiences of the National Institute for Health Research in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallsworth Michael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR was established in 2006 with the aim of creating an applied health research system embedded within the English National Health Service (NHS. NIHR sought to implement an approach for monitoring its performance that effectively linked early indicators of performance with longer-term research impacts. We attempted to develop and apply a conceptual framework for defining appropriate key performance indicators for NIHR. Method Following a review of relevant literature, a conceptual framework for defining performance indicators for NIHR was developed, based on a hybridisation of the logic model and balanced scorecard approaches. This framework was validated through interviews with key NIHR stakeholders and a pilot in one division of NIHR, before being refined and applied more widely. Indicators were then selected and aggregated to create a basket of indicators aligned to NIHR's strategic goals, which could be reported to NIHR's leadership team on a quarterly basis via an oversight dashboard. Results Senior health research system managers and practitioners endorsed the conceptual framework developed and reported satisfaction with the breadth and balance of indicators selected for reporting. Conclusions The use of the hybrid conceptual framework provides a pragmatic approach to defining performance indicators that are aligned to the strategic aims of a health research system. The particular strength of this framework is its capacity to provide an empirical link, over time, between upstream activities of a health research system and its long-term strategic objectives.

  6. A novel performance monitoring framework for health research systems: experiences of the National Institute for Health Research in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Turabi, Anas; Hallsworth, Michael; Ling, Tom; Grant, Jonathan

    2011-03-24

    The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) was established in 2006 with the aim of creating an applied health research system embedded within the English National Health Service (NHS). NIHR sought to implement an approach for monitoring its performance that effectively linked early indicators of performance with longer-term research impacts. We attempted to develop and apply a conceptual framework for defining appropriate key performance indicators for NIHR. Following a review of relevant literature, a conceptual framework for defining performance indicators for NIHR was developed, based on a hybridisation of the logic model and balanced scorecard approaches. This framework was validated through interviews with key NIHR stakeholders and a pilot in one division of NIHR, before being refined and applied more widely. Indicators were then selected and aggregated to create a basket of indicators aligned to NIHR's strategic goals, which could be reported to NIHR's leadership team on a quarterly basis via an oversight dashboard. Senior health research system managers and practitioners endorsed the conceptual framework developed and reported satisfaction with the breadth and balance of indicators selected for reporting. The use of the hybrid conceptual framework provides a pragmatic approach to defining performance indicators that are aligned to the strategic aims of a health research system. The particular strength of this framework is its capacity to provide an empirical link, over time, between upstream activities of a health research system and its long-term strategic objectives.

  7. [Development of a Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Chronic Care in the Spanish National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espallargues, Mireia; Serra-Sutton, Vicky; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Torrente, Elena; Moharra, Montse; Benítez, Dolors; Robles, Noemí; Domíngo, Laia; Escarrabill Sanglas, Joan

    2016-07-07

    The aim was to develop a conceptual framework for the assessment of new healthcare initiatives on chronic diseases within the Spanish National Health System. A comprehensive literature review between 2002 and 2013, including systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and reports with evaluation frameworks and/or assessment of initiatives was carried out; integrated care initiatives established in Catalonia were studied and described; and semistructured interviews with key stakeholders were performed. The scope and conceptual framework were defined by using the brainstorming approach.Of 910 abstracts identified, a total of 116 studies were included. They referred to several conceptual frameworks and/or assessment indicators at a national and international level. An overall of 24 established chronic care initiatives were identified (9 integrated care initiatives); 10 in-depth interviews were carried out. The proposed conceptual framework envisages: 1)the target population according to complexity levels; 2)an evaluation approach of the structure, processes, and outcomes considering the health status achieved, the recovery process and the maintenance of health; and 3)the dimensions or attributes to be assessed. The proposed conceptual framework will be helpful has been useful to develop indicators and implement them with a community-based and result-oriented approach and a territorial or population-based perspective within the Spanish Health System. This will be essential to know which are the most effective strategies, what are the key elements that determine greater success and what are the groups of patients who can most benefit.

  8. Creating a Framework for Medical Professionalism: An Initial Consensus Statement From an Arab Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Razig, Sawsan; Ibrahim, Halah; Alameri, Hatem; Hamdy, Hossam; Haleeqa, Khaled Abu; Qayed, Khalil I; Obaid, Laila O; Al Fahim, Maha; Ezimokhai, Mutairu; Sulaiman, Nabil D; Fares, Saleh; Al Darei, Maitha Mohammed; Shahin, Nhayan Qassim; Al Shamsi, Noora Abdulla Omran; Alnooryani, Rashed Arif; Al Falahi, Salama Zayed

    2016-05-01

    Background Medical professionalism has received increased worldwide attention, yet there is limited information on the applicability and utility of established Western professionalism frameworks in non-Western nations. Objective We developed a locally derived consensus definition of medical professionalism for the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which reflects the cultural and social constructs of the UAE and the Middle East. Methods We used a purposive sample of 14 physicians working in the UAE as clinical and education leaders. This expert panel used qualitative methods, including the world café, nominal group technique, the Delphi method, and an interpretive thematic analysis to develop the consensus statement. Results The expert panel defined 9 attributes of medical professionalism. There was considerable overlap with accepted Western definitions, along with important differences in 3 aspects: (1) the primacy of social justice and societal rights; (2) the role of the physician's personal faith and spirituality in guiding professional practices; and (3) societal expectations for professional attributes of physicians that extend beyond the practice of medicine. Conclusions Professionalism is a social construct influenced by cultural and religious contexts. It is imperative that definitions of professionalism used in the education of physicians in training and in the assessment of practicing physicians be formulated locally and encompass specific competencies relevant to the local, social, and cultural context for medical practice. Our goal was to develop a secular consensus statement that encompasses culture and values relevant to professionalism for the UAE and the Arab region.

  9. Creating a Framework for Medical Professionalism: An Initial Consensus Statement From an Arab Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Razig, Sawsan; Ibrahim, Halah; Alameri, Hatem; Hamdy, Hossam; Haleeqa, Khaled Abu; Qayed, Khalil I.; Obaid, Laila O.; Al Fahim, Maha; Ezimokhai, Mutairu; Sulaiman, Nabil D.; Fares, Saleh; Al Darei, Maitha Mohammed; Shahin, Nhayan Qassim; Al Shamsi, Noora Abdulla Omran; Alnooryani, Rashed Arif; Al Falahi, Salama Zayed

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical professionalism has received increased worldwide attention, yet there is limited information on the applicability and utility of established Western professionalism frameworks in non-Western nations. Objective We developed a locally derived consensus definition of medical professionalism for the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which reflects the cultural and social constructs of the UAE and the Middle East. Methods We used a purposive sample of 14 physicians working in the UAE as clinical and education leaders. This expert panel used qualitative methods, including the world café, nominal group technique, the Delphi method, and an interpretive thematic analysis to develop the consensus statement. Results The expert panel defined 9 attributes of medical professionalism. There was considerable overlap with accepted Western definitions, along with important differences in 3 aspects: (1) the primacy of social justice and societal rights; (2) the role of the physician's personal faith and spirituality in guiding professional practices; and (3) societal expectations for professional attributes of physicians that extend beyond the practice of medicine. Conclusions Professionalism is a social construct influenced by cultural and religious contexts. It is imperative that definitions of professionalism used in the education of physicians in training and in the assessment of practicing physicians be formulated locally and encompass specific competencies relevant to the local, social, and cultural context for medical practice. Our goal was to develop a secular consensus statement that encompasses culture and values relevant to professionalism for the UAE and the Arab region. PMID:27168882

  10. E-Competent Australia: Report on the Impact of E-Commerce on the National Training Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John

    The impact of electronic commerce (e-commerce) on Australia's National Training Framework (NTF) was studied for the purpose of forecasting future demand for training in areas related to e-commerce and identifying appropriate responses by the NTF committee. The following were among the study's main data collection activities: reviews of the…

  11. National report of the Slovak Republic - proposal. Compiled in terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Jun 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurina, V.; Viktory, D.; Kobzova, D.; Petrik, T.; Sovcik, J.; Hekel, P.; Suess, J.; Tomek, J.; Lukacovic, J.; Hekel, P.; Ivan, J.; Ziakova, M.; Metke, E.; Pospisil, M.; Turner, M.; Homola, J.; Konecny, L.; Parimucha, F.; Vaclav, J.; Horvath, J.; Soos, F.; Betak, A.; Pospisil, P.; Mihaly, B.; Kubala, M.; Schmidtova, B.; Orihel, M.; Vasina, D.; Balaz, J.; Ehn, L.; Micovicova, D.; Vrtoch, M.; Mlcuch, L.; Granak, P.; Meleg, J.; Sedliak, D.; Bardy, M.; Gogoliak, J.; Prazska, M.; Burslova, J.

    2008-06-01

    A brief national safety report of the Slovak Republic compiled in terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management in 2008 is presented. This safety report consists of following chapters: (A) Introduction; (B) Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RAW) management conception; (C) Scope of application; (D) Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RAW) management; (E) Legislation and regulatory framework; (F) General safety provisions; (G) Safety of spent nuclear fuel management; (H) Safety of radioactive waste management; (I) Transboundary movement of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste; (J) Discussed sealed radioactive sources; (K) Planned measures to improve safety; (L) Annexes

  12. Parties at the convention of the United Nations on climatic change and second meeting of the parties to the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Kenya hosted the second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in conjunction with the twelfth session of the conference of the Parties to the climatic change convention, in Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. This document presents in a first part the key areas discussed at Nairobi; in a second part the international framework with the consequences of the Kyoto protocol implementation; and in the last part the demonstrable progresses of the France in the policy effects, tendencies concerning the greenhouse gases and the respect of the commitments. (A.L.B.)

  13. Rebranding Before the Digital Age: 4 Strategies Used by the Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers During the 1992 Democratic National Convention

    OpenAIRE

    Leora Halpern Lanz; Erinn Tucker; Juan Lesmes

    2016-01-01

    In 1992, New York City was undergoing a major revitalization in an effort to combat poverty and crime. The hospitality industry had much to contribute to these efforts like the Sheraton Centre Hotel. This hotel in particular was not only part of the city's drastic efforts to turn out its safety and public image, but it simultaneously leveraged its connection to the 1992 Democratic National Convention to lift its own rebrand.

  14. Rebranding Before the Digital Age: 4 Strategies Used by the Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers During the 1992 Democratic National Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, New York City was undergoing a major revitalization in an effort to combat poverty and crime. The hospitality industry had much to contribute to these efforts like the Sheraton Centre Hotel. This hotel in particular was not only part of the city's drastic efforts to turn out its safety and public image, but it simultaneously leveraged its connection to the 1992 Democratic National Convention to lift its own rebrand.

  15. Implementing the 1989 United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child in sub-Saharan Africa: the overlooked socioeconomic and political dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinge, Munyae M

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this article is to identify and profile some often overlooked socioeconomic and political factors that render the protection of the rights of the child, as guaranteed through the 1989 United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child, a distant dream in most African countries. It is argued that, in most African countries, there are other major impediments to the protection of the child's rights in addition to the frequently cited lack of adequate legislation and of political will. The paper is a review essay and utilizes existing literature from varied sources to advance its main arguments. It draws from such documents to profile the socioeconomic and political barriers to the protection of children's rights in Africa both at the family and at the national levels. CORE ARGUMENT: The ratification of the United Nation's 1989 Convention and the passing of supportive legislation by most state governments, has not resulted in major improvements in the well-being of children. This is as a result of prevailing socioeconomic and political conditions such as social transformations within the family unit, poverty, and rampant corruption. The emergence of HIV/AIDS, civil wars and armed conflicts is a major impediment to the protection of children's rights across most of Africa. The effective implementation of the 1989 United Nations' Convention by African governments requires more than the ratification of the Convention. Governments require the political will to implement its prescriptions by passing supportive legislation. To create the necessary enabling environments, equal emphasis should be placed on the eradication of poverty, corruption and disease; and to ending armed conflicts where they exist.

  16. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    The report documents the methodologies and data used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from Denmark for the reporting obligations under the European Union, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.......The report documents the methodologies and data used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from Denmark for the reporting obligations under the European Union, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol....

  17. National nuclear power plant safety research 2011-2014. SAFIR2014 framework plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A country utilising nuclear energy is presumed to possess a sufficient infrastructure to cover the education and research in this field, besides the operating organisations of the plants and a regulatory body. The starting point of public nuclear safety research programmes is that they provide the necessary conditions for retaining the knowledge needed for ensuring the continuance of safe and economic use of nuclear power, for development of new know-how and for participation in international cooperation. In fact, the Finnish organisations engaged in research in this sector have been an important resource which the various ministries, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the power companies have had at their disposal. Ministry of employment and the economy appointed a group to write the Framework Plan of the new programme. This report contains a proposal for the general outline of the programme, entitled as SAFIR2014 (SAfety of Nuclear Power Plants - Finnish National Research Programme). The plan has been made for the period 2011-2014, but it is based on safety challenges identified for a longer time span as well. Olkiluoto 3, the new nuclear power plant unit under construction and new decisions-in-principle have also been taken into account in the plan. The safety challenges set by the existing plants and the new projects, as well as the ensuing research needs do, however, converge to a great extent. The research programme is strongly based on the Chapter 7a of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. The construction of new power plant units will increase the need for experts in the field in Finland. At the same time, the retirement of the existing experts is continuing. These factors together will call for more education and training, in which active research activities play a key role. This situation also makes long-term safety research face a great challenge. The Framework Plan aims to define the important research needs related to the safety

  18. Projections of Ocean Acidification Under the U.N. Framework Convention of Climate Change Using a Reduced-Form Climate Carbon-Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, C.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean chemistry is quickly changing in response to continued anthropogenic emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. Mean surface ocean pH has already decreased by 0.1 units relative to the preindustrial era. We use an open-source, simple climate and carbon cycle model ("Hector") to investigate future changes in ocean acidification (pH and calcium carbonate saturations) under the climate agreement from the United Nations Convention on Climate Change Conference (UNFCCC) of Parties in Paris 2015 (COP 21). Hector is a reduced-form, very fast-executing model that can emulate the global mean climate of the CMIP5 models, as well as the inorganic carbon cycle in the upper ocean, allowing us to investigate future changes in ocean acidification. We ran Hector under three different emissions trajectories, using a sensitivity analysis approach to quantify model uncertainty and capture a range of possible ocean acidification changes. The first trajectory is a business-as-usual scenario comparable to a Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, the second a scenario with the COP 21 commitments enacted, and the third an idealized scenario keeping global temperature change to 2°C, comparable to a RCP 2.6. Preliminary results suggest that under the COP 21 agreements ocean pH at 2100 will decrease by 0.2 units and surface saturations of aragonite (calcite) will decrease by 0.9 (1.4) units relative to 1850. Under the COP 21 agreement the world's oceans will be committed to a degree of ocean acidification, however, these changes may be within the range of natural variability evident in some paleo records.

  19. The state of transboundary air pollution 1992 update. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This ninth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains documents reviewed and approved for publication at the tenth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 17 to 19 November 1992. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. It is compiled on the basis of national data and reports received up to 31 December 1992. National emission data and forecasts for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from 1980 to the year 2005 is presented. Part Two contains results of scenario analysis for sulphur abatement strategies. It is concluded, inter alia, that strategies can be found which, by differentiating emission reductions, provide greater environmental benefit than a uniform reduction at the same cost. It is also shown that a small number of high-emitting countries in Central Europe have significant impact on deposition of sulphur throughout Europe, and that emission reduction in these countries proves to be a cost-effective way of moving towards critical loads in Europe as a whole. Most of the scenarios analysed are based on reductions of current deposition in relation to critical loads, i.e., a decrease in the exceedances of critical loads. Part Three is an executive summary of the 1992 Report on Forest Condition in Europe, carried out under the International Cooperative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. The full report has been jointly published by ECE and the Commission of the European Communities. It summarizes the results of surveys carried out in 1991 in 28 European countries and in several additional regions, conducted in accordance with common guidelines. Of 214 million hectares of forest in Europe (including major parts of the forests in the western part of the

  20. Norwegian national report. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. [National report from Norway, fourth review meeting, 14-23 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This report contains the national report from Norway to the fourth review meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management to be held 14 to 23 May 2012. (Author)

  1. Smart Grid Adoption Likeliness Framework: Comparing Idaho and National Residential Consumers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiya, Evanson G.

    New energy technologies that provide real-time visibility of the electricity grid's performance, along with the ability to address unusual events in the grid and allow consumers to manage their energy use, are being developed in the United States. Primary drivers for the new technologies include the growing energy demand, tightening environmental regulations, aging electricity infrastructure, and rising consumer demand to become more involved in managing individual energy usage. In the literature and in practice, it is unclear if, and to what extent, residential consumers will adopt smart grid technologies. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationships between demographic characteristics, perceptions, and the likelihood of adopting smart grid technologies among residential energy consumers. The results of a 31-item survey were analyzed for differences within the Idaho consumers and compared against national consumers. Analysis of variance was used to examine possible differences between the dependent variable of likeliness to adopt smart grid technologies and the independent variables of age, gender, residential ownership, and residential location. No differences were found among Idaho consumers in their likeliness to adopt smart grid technologies. An independent sample t-test was used to examine possible differences between the two groups of Idaho consumers and national consumers in their level of interest in receiving detailed feedback information on energy usage, the added convenience of the smart grid, renewable energy, the willingness to pay for infrastructure costs, and the likeliness to adopt smart grid technologies. The level of interest in receiving detailed feedback information on energy usage was significantly different between the two groups (t = 3.11, p = .0023), while the other variables were similar. The study contributes to technology adoption research regarding specific consumer perceptions and provides a framework that

  2. The prospect of conventional disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, O.

    1989-01-01

    The prospect of conventional disarmament in Europe holds out great consequences not only for the continent but also for the entire world. The arms race both in its nuclear and conventional aspects has been the single most important element of the destabilizing factors in international relations since 1945. Though initially borne out of the ideological division of Europe and the consequent quest for strategic military superiority, it soon developed a technological momentum of its own, becoming more the cause than the effect of the distrust in the relationship of the two alliances. The issue of conventional weapons was raised for negotiations side by side with that of nuclear weapons when the United Nations took up the question of disarmament in 1946. Due, however, to the unforeseen and most dangerous advance in nuclear weaponry, the fear engendered shifted all attention at the multilateral level to nuclear weapons. Except in Europe where the Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction Talks in Central Europe were initiated, conventional weapons disarmament did not attract multilateral attention again until the First Special Session of the United nations General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament in 1978. The Final Document of the Special Session did accord highest priority to negotiations on nuclear weapons. However, it also affirmed that side by side with negotiations on nuclear weapons, the limitation and gradual reduction of armed forces and conventional weapons should be resolutely pursued within the framework of general and complete disarmament. States with the largest military arsenals, it was stated, had a special responsibility in pursuing conventional armaments reduction. Underscoring the central role of Europe further, the Final Document postulated that the achievement of a more stable situation at a lower level of military potential would contribute toward strengthening of security in Europe and constitute a significant step toward international peace and security

  3. The climate change convention: What role can business play?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammit Cutajar, M.

    1994-01-01

    The development, content, and some implications of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are treated briefly. The Climate Change Convention commits those developed countries which have ratified it to limit their emissions of greenhouse gases. While this Convention is an agreement among Governments, and is not directly binding on companies, individuals or organizations, business people and others need to understand it and be prepared for the national initiatives that will follow its ratification. New opportunities are being created for energy-efficient firms, and for new technologies and products. (author)

  4. Abstract Collection of 24th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: EU Energy Policy after 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This year's Forum coincides with 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Changes (COP21) in Paris. For energy sector, political agreement about climate change in Paris opens the discussion about realization of the climate policy of CO2 emission reduction, with reference on conceiving an energy policy that will be based on complete implementation of climate protection policy. While content and commitments will be discussed in Paris, EU, which supports climate protection policy, will be discussing about elements of climate and energy policy implementation. In Paris the main question will be: is it possible to achieve an agreement on climate change, that would be legally binding, fair and feasible? The majority answer would probably be: difficult, but absolutely necessary. What is the problem in achieving a legally binding agreement on climate policy? Legally binding climate change agreement has its consequence - every country would be legally bound to change its climate policy, include climate protection in energy costs, modify or change technology in the entire manufacturing chain, transport/transfer, distribution and energy supply, increase in energy efficiency, production of energy from renewable energy sources and other measures that contribute to reduction of CO2 emissions. In the start-up phase, it will directly affect the citizens and entrepreneurship with the increase in expenses and then the competitiveness of economy and living standard of citizens. Where it only for the expenses of energy in question, in which every country would be in the same position, there probably would not be any problem in achieving of the agreement. The larger problem lies in thresholds of emission reductions for every country, which produces the differences between countries - from which level to start and to which level to get to in certain amount of time. The starting point is not the same, responsibility for the current emission levels is

  5. Initial Demonstration of the Real-Time Safety Monitoring Framework for the National Airspace System Using Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil; Daigle, Matthew; Goebel, Kai; Spirkovska, Lilly; Sankararaman, Shankar; Ossenfort, John; Kulkarni, Chetan; McDermott, William; Poll, Scott

    2016-01-01

    As new operational paradigms and additional aircraft are being introduced into the National Airspace System (NAS), maintaining safety in such a rapidly growing environment becomes more challenging. It is therefore desirable to have an automated framework to provide an overview of the current safety of the airspace at different levels of granularity, as well an understanding of how the state of the safety will evolve into the future given the anticipated flight plans, weather forecast, predicted health of assets in the airspace, and so on. Towards this end, as part of our earlier work, we formulated the Real-Time Safety Monitoring (RTSM) framework for monitoring and predicting the state of safety and to predict unsafe events. In our previous work, the RTSM framework was demonstrated in simulation on three different constructed scenarios. In this paper, we further develop the framework and demonstrate it on real flight data from multiple data sources. Specifically, the flight data is obtained through the Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART-NAS) Testbed that serves as a central point of collection, integration, and access of information from these different data sources. By testing and evaluating using real-world scenarios, we may accelerate the acceptance of the RTSM framework towards deployment. In this paper we demonstrate the framework's capability to not only estimate the state of safety in the NAS, but predict the time and location of unsafe events such as a loss of separation between two aircraft, or an aircraft encountering convective weather. The experimental results highlight the capability of the approach, and the kind of information that can be provided to operators to improve their situational awareness in the context of safety.

  6. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...

  7. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, ......, NMVOC, SO2, HFCs, PFCs and SF6....

  8. Scenario Planning Provides a Framework for Climate Change Adaptation in the National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Resource management decisions must be based on future expectations. Abundant evidence suggests climate change will have highly consequential effects on the Nation's natural and cultural resources, but specific impacts are difficult to accurately predict. This situation of too much information but not enough specificity can often lead to either paralysis or denial for decision makers. Scenario planning is an emerging tool for climate change adaptation that provides a structured framework for identifying and exploring critical drivers of change and their uncertain outcomes. Since 2007, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with its partners to develop and apply a scenario-based approach for adaptation planning that integrates quantitative, model-driven, climate change projections with qualitative, participatory exercises to explore management and policy options under a range of future conditions. Major outcomes of this work are (1) increased understanding of key scientific results and uncertainties, (2) incorporation of alternative perspectives into park and landscape level planning, (3) identification of "no brainer" and "no gainer" actions, (4) strengthening of regional science-management partnerships, and (5) overall improved capacity for flexible decision making. The basic approach employed by NPS for scenario planning follows a typical adaptive management process: define the focal question, assess the relevant science, explore plausible futures, identify effective strategies, prioritize and implement actions, and monitor results. Many science and management partners contributed to the process, including NOAA Regional Integrated Science and Assessment teams (RISAs) and Regional Climate Centers (RCCs), USGS Research Centers, and other university and government scientists. The Global Business Network, an internationally recognized leader in scenario development, provided expert facilitation and training techniques. Climate science input is provided

  9. Article Commentary: Researching Prescription Drug Misuse among First Nations in Canada: Starting from a Health Promotion Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Anne Dell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intentional misuse of psychotropic drugs is recognized as a significant public health concern in Canada, although there is a lack of empirical research detailing this. Even less research has been documented on the misuse of prescription drugs among First Nations in Canada. In the past, Western biomedical and individual-based approaches to researching Indigenous health have been applied, whereas First Nations’ understandings of health are founded on a holistic view of wellbeing. Recognition of this disjuncture, alongside the protective influence of First Nations traditional culture, is foundational to establishing an empirical understanding of and comprehensive response to prescription drug misuse. We propose health promotion as a framework from which to begin to explore this. Our work with a health promotion framework has conveyed its potential to support the consideration of Western and Indigenous worldviews together in an ‘ethical space’, with illustrations provided. Health promotion also allots for the consideration of Canada's colonial history of knowledge production in public health and supports First Nations’ self-determination. Based on this, we recommend three immediate ways in which a health promotion framework can advance research on prescription drug misuse among First Nations in Canada.

  10. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  11. France - Convention on nuclear safety. National report established before the second extraordinary meeting 27-31 August 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This report presents a synthesis of actions performed in France regarding the Fukushima accident. It takes the IAEA recommendations into account, i.e. addresses the six predefined themes: extreme events (earthquake, floods, extreme meteorological conditions), design studies (loss of electricity supplies and loss of cooling systems), management of severe accidents and restoration (on site), national organization, organization in case of emergency and post-accidental (out of site) situation and international cooperation. The report is notably based on stress tests performed by operators, and on other analysis performed by different ASN departments, the IRSN, permanent groups of experts, and other French bodies

  12. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  13. La mise en œuvre de la Convention des Nations Unies sur la lutte contre la désertification au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Lynda Hubert Ta

    2017-01-01

    Parmi les instruments internationaux issus de la Conférence des Nations Unies sur l’environnement et le développement ou Sommet de la Terre, qui s’est tenue en 1992 à Rio de Janeiro (Brésil), la Convention des Nations Unies sur la lutte contre la désertification a été adoptée à Paris le 17 juin 1994. 193 États l’ont ratifiée. En effet, reconnaissant la désertification comme un problème environnemental, social et économique grave et persistant, malgré les efforts de la communauté international...

  14. National Profile of Mercury Use in Costa Rica in light of the Entry into Force of the Minamata Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Fernández-Villalobos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a metal whose inadequate management can put health and the environment at risk; but in Costa Rica there is no a complete policy that allows the country to establish the controls for its management. Therefore, in 2014, a profile of mercury use was elaborated in Costa Rica in order to identify existing anthropogenic sources, when evaluating the existing capabilities in the country for the management of such metal, in accordance with the implementation of the Minamata Agreement. For its development, extensive bibliographical research and field visits were conducted to all economic activities related to mercury management. According to the analysis, the artisanal mining is considered the riskiest sector since the miners are in constant contact with the metal and manipulate it inadequately. Health facilities, hospitals and dental clinics have limitations due to the lack of legislation and, therefore, weaknesses—such as the lack of training of staff in relation to the risks of mercury and the storage of their wastes in inappropriate places—are identified. On the other hand, cosmetics, biocides, pesticides, and paints are duly regulated with respect to best practices and standards at the international level. Likewise, a vacuum was identified at all stages, including the management of mercury waste at the national level. It is recommended that national plans and strategies be implemented to address the major challenges of mercury management, such as the lack of storage and disposal options.

  15. A new ball game: the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and assumptions in care for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anita; Sullivan, Danny

    2012-09-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a powerful international instrument which imposes significant responsibilities on signatories. This column discusses changes in the definition of legal capacity which will have significant impacts on decision-making related to people with dementia. Various restrictions and limitations on personal freedoms are discussed in light of the Convention. The main focus is on challenges to existing paradigms of substitute decision-making, which are in wide use through a guardianship model. Under Art 12 of the Convention, moves to supported decision-making will result in significant changes in ensuring the rights of people with dementia. There are challenges ahead in implementing supported decision-making schemes, not only due to tension with existing practices and legislation, but also the difficulty of developing and resourcing workable schemes. This is particularly so with advanced dementia, which is acknowledged as a pressing issue for Australia due to effective health care, an ageing population and changing expectations.

  16. Jamaica is Without a National Sexual Harassment Policy: Challenges, Consequences, Health Problems and the Need for a National Policy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    R. Peters; P.A. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    Humans are sexual as they are physical beings. Simply put, sexual relations are embedded in their composition and so legislations are needed to protect vulnerable groups such as children, poor, women, orphans, elderly, mentally and physically disabled people and adolescents from sexual exploitations. The current study will explore why Jamaica needs a national sexual harassment policy, the challenges without a policy and the difficulties in formulating a policy in such a highly sexed culture. ...

  17. Options for a National Framework for Benefit Distribution and Their Relation to Community-Based and National REDD+ Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Skutsch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring is a central element in the implementation of national REDD+ and may be essential in providing the data needed to support benefit distribution. We discuss the options for benefit sharing systems in terms of technical feasibility and political acceptability in respect of equity considerations, and the kind of data that would be needed for the different options. We contrast output-based distribution systems, in which rewards are distributed according to performance measured in terms of carbon impacts, with input-based systems in which performance is measured in term of compliance with prescribed REDD+ activities. Output-based systems, which would require regular community carbon inventories to produce Tier 3 data locally, face various challenges particularly for the case of assessing avoided deforestation, and they may not be perceived as equitable. Input-based systems would require data on activities undertaken rather than change in stocks; this information could come from community-acquired data. We also consider how community monitored data could support national forest monitoring systems and the further development of national REDD+.

  18. Framework for national and multicultural research on the impact of human rights violations in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Introduction: This framework examines the scope of problems and attempts to achieve a shared approach to research on monitoring, assessment and intervention strategies applicable to children, families and communities. It comprises three main components: 1. monitoring, 2. assessment and diagnosis, 3...

  19. Natural gas massification plan in Colombia with the National Oil Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Colombian natural gas industry is described. The Colombian natural gas plan is discussed under the following topics: background of natural gas in Colombia, natural gas reserves, gas plan objectives, methodology, marketing studies, transportation and investment strategy, and economic evaluation. The present natural gas institutional framework is described. The production system structure, transportation, and distribution are also discussed

  20. Giving Voice to Our First Nations: Creating a Framework for Indigenous Interpretation at Cultural Heritage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Chay; Abbott, Judy; Laird, Shelby Gull; Causin, Gina; Stephens-Williams, Pat; Coble, Theresa; Ross, Sara

    2018-01-01

    The Indigenous voice may be muted or lost at complex and controversial cultural heritage sites, but barriers to interpreting these sites can be bridged through collaboration and co-creation. This process necessitates a long-term investment by both the sites and stakeholders. Lessons learned from this experience can serve as a framework for…

  1. National Ecosystem Services Classification System (NESCS): Framework Design and Policy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the ways in which ecosystems provide flows of “services” to humans is critical for decision making in many contexts; however, relationships between natural and human systems are complex. A well-defined framework for classifying ecosystem services is essential for sy...

  2. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. First national report on the implementation by France of the obligations of the Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management is supplementing the Convention of Nuclear Safety. it was approved by France on february 22, 2000 and it entered into force on June 18,2001. Article 32 obliges each contracting Party to present at the review meetings (every three years) a report on the way in which it implements the obligations of the Convention (full text of the Convention and additional information on the web site of the IAEA, its director General being the depository of the Convention. (author)

  3. Development of a National Standards Framework for the Teaching Profession. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    This paper was prepared for the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment and Training Taskforce on Teacher Quality & Educational Leadership. It covers the following broad areas: (1) How can a national definition of "Good Teaching" be developed, and what should it include?; (2) What should a "National Standards…

  4. Designing and Implementing a Retrospective Earthquake Detection Framework at the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J.; Yeck, W.; Benz, H.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC) is implementing and integrating new signal detection methods such as subspace correlation, continuous beamforming, multi-band picking and automatic phase identification into near-real-time monitoring operations. Leveraging the additional information from these techniques help the NEIC utilize a large and varied network on local to global scales. The NEIC is developing an ordered, rapid, robust, and decentralized framework for distributing seismic detection data as well as a set of formalized formatting standards. These frameworks and standards enable the NEIC to implement a seismic event detection framework that supports basic tasks, including automatic arrival time picking, social media based event detections, and automatic association of different seismic detection data into seismic earthquake events. In addition, this framework enables retrospective detection processing such as automated S-wave arrival time picking given a detected event, discrimination and classification of detected events by type, back-azimuth and slowness calculations, and ensuring aftershock and induced sequence detection completeness. These processes and infrastructure improve the NEIC's capabilities, accuracy, and speed of response. In addition, this same infrastructure provides an improved and convenient structure to support access to automatic detection data for both research and algorithmic development.

  5. Parties at the convention of the United Nations on climatic change and second meeting of the parties to the Kyoto protocol; Parties a la convention-cadre des Nations-Unies sur les changements climatiques et seconde reunion des parties au Protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Kenya hosted the second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in conjunction with the twelfth session of the conference of the Parties to the climatic change convention, in Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. This document presents in a first part the key areas discussed at Nairobi; in a second part the international framework with the consequences of the Kyoto protocol implementation; and in the last part the demonstrable progresses of the France in the policy effects, tendencies concerning the greenhouse gases and the respect of the commitments. (A.L.B.)

  6. Conceptual Framework of Tourism Carrying Capacity for a Tourism City: Experiences from National Parks in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Nasha; Zheng Xilai

    2010-01-01

    There is no universally-accepted definition of tourism carrying capacity(TCC).Numerical TCC focuses on use level and is considered as"a magic number"of the saturation point for tourism.There are several reasons why numerical tourism capacity is inadequate.Alternatively,tourism capacity can be defined in terms of limits of acceptable change,which shifts the focus from"how much use is too much"to"how much change is acceptable".This article proposes an improved conceptual framework for evaluating carrying capacity for the tourism city based on approaches used in US national parks,which consider the impact of human use on a city's economic,environmental/resource,and socio-cultural conditions.Based on the basic data of indicator values and relevant standards,the framework monitors the current indicators and predicts future indicator values; it can also be used to assess and predict TCC.

  7. Racial, Ethnic, or National Minority? Legal Discourses and Policy Frameworks on the Roma in Hungary and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras L. Pap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by recent Hungarian legislative developments that, in reference to the Roma minority, exchanged the term “ethnic minority” with “nationality”, by providing a detailed case study of the development and morphology of policy measures and frameworks in Hungary, the article provides a general assessment of the relationship between policy instruments and terminology: that is, definitions and conceptualizations in international and domestic legal and policy documents for minority groups. The author argues that while terminology in itself is not a reliable signifier for policy frameworks, it may reveal contradictory group conceptualization and inconsistent policy-making. In regards to the Roma, the author claims that the inconsistent labelling as an ethnic, racial and national minority reflects the lack of consistent conceptualization of who the Roma are, and what should be done with them.

  8. The National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework and its implications for continuing professional development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah; Berridge, Emma-Jane; Kelly, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework has been introduced as part of the Agenda for Change Reforms in the United Kingdom to link pay and career progression to competency. The purpose of this paper is to consider the implications for nurses, their managers and the impact on university departments delivering continuing professional development for nurses. The new system has the potential to increase the human resources management aspect of the clinical nurse managers' role and could have legal implications, for example if practitioners perceive that their needs for continuing professional development have been overlooked to the detriment of their pay and career aspirations. The new system also has implications for providers of continuing professional development in the universities and is likely to demand closer liaison between education providers and trust staff who commission education and training. The Knowledge and Skills Framework is of interest to nurses and nurse educators internationally because the system, if effective, could be introduced elsewhere.

  9. 3. French national report on implementation of the obligations of the Convention on nuclear safety - Issued for the 2005 Peer review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Conduct on the safety of research reactors, which incorporates most of the provisions of the present Convention. This report was produced by the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), which ensured the necessary coordination, together with the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) as well as the nuclear power reactor operators, Electricite de France (EDF), the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the Laue - Langevin Institute (ILL). The final version was completed in July 2004 after consultation with the French parties concerned. For this report, France took account of the experience acquired with its first two reports: this report is a stand-alone document based mainly on existing documents and reflecting the viewpoints of the various stakeholders (Regulatory authority and operators). Thus, for each of the chapters in which the regulatory authority is not the only party to express its point of view, we adopted a three-stage structure: first of all a description by the regulatory body of the regulations, followed by a presentation by the operators of the steps taken to meet the regulations and finally, an analysis by the regulator of the steps taken by the operators. The report is structured according to the guidelines for national reports, as modified during the 2002 peer review meeting. The presentation is made 'Article by Article', each being the subject of a different chapter, at the beginning of which the corresponding text of the Convention is repeated in a shadow box. The current introduction highlights the main changes since the second national report together with France's nuclear energy policy. Part A deals with the general provisions (Articles 4 to 6). Part B summarizes the legislation and regulations (Articles 7 to 9). Part C is devoted to general safety considerations (Articles 10 to 16). Part D discusses the safety of the installations (Articles 17 to 19). Finally, the conclusion gives indications on future trends in the field of nuclear safety

  10. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity risk management framework applied to modern vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of the work described in this report is to review the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) guidelines and foundational publications from an automotive : cybersecurity risk management stand-point. The NIST approach...

  11. Architectural frameworks for developing national health information systems in low and middle income countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudaly, T

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Consolidating currently fragmented health information systems in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) into a coherent national information system will increase operational efficiencies, improve decision-making and will lead to better health...

  12. Developing an Education Capability Assessment and Planning (E-CAP) Framework for Establishing National Educational Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugbor, Ugochukwu N.

    2014-01-01

    NKM Programme Objectives: • to increase Member State understanding and application of nuclear knowledge management: - development and dissemination of methodology, guidance and tools; - implementation in national nuclear programmes; • providing knowledge management services and assistance

  13. Conceptual Framework for the National Pilot Project on Livestock and the Environment, Livestock Series Report 2

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Bouzaher; Stanley R. Johnson; Shannon Neibergs; Ron Jones; Larry Beran; Larry Frarey; Larry M. Hauck

    1993-01-01

    Assessing the effects of alternative policies that regulate nonpoint pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires insight into the interactions of livestock production practices, waste management technologies, and their impacts on the environment. CAFOs have been identified as a source of nutrient loadings that impair ground and surface water quality, and they can emit intense odor that impairs air quality. This report describes the conceptual framework and the integ...

  14. La mise en œuvre de la Convention des Nations Unies sur la lutte contre la désertification au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Hubert Ta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les instruments internationaux issus de la Conférence des Nations Unies sur l’environnement et le développement ou Sommet de la Terre, qui s’est tenue en 1992 à Rio de Janeiro (Brésil, la Convention des Nations Unies sur la lutte contre la désertification a été adoptée à Paris le 17 juin 1994. 193 États l’ont ratifiée. En effet, reconnaissant la désertification comme un problème environnemental, social et économique grave et persistant, malgré les efforts de la communauté internationale pour en venir à bout, les États présents à Rio ont exprimé leurs préoccupations face à ce problème et ont pris la résolution de préparer un accord dédié à la lutte contre la désertification. Cet accord est devenu l’une des pierres angulaires du droit international de l’environnement. Juridiquement contraignant pour les Parties qui doivent en appliquer les dispositions, les échos du discours global qu’il véhicule sont appelés à être intégrés aux politiques nationales des Parties, particulièrement les pays les plus affectés par le phénomène de désertification comme le Burkina Faso. Le présent article a pour objectif de questionner la mise en œuvre de la Convention des Nations Unies sur la lutte contre la désertification dans ce pays, plus d’une vingtaine d’années après son adoption, afin de porter un regard critique sur le chemin parcouru et celui qu’il reste à parcourir pour en vue des objectifs de la Convention.

  15. Fragmentation pathways of O-alkyl methylphosphonothionocyanidates in the gas phase: toward unambiguous structural characterization of chemicals in the Chemical Weapons Convention framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidian, Hamid; Babri, Mehran; Ashrafi, Davood; Sarabadani, Mansour; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-08-01

    The electron-impact (EI) mass spectra of a series of O-alkyl methylphosphonothionocyanidates were studied for Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) purposes. General EI fragmentation pathways were constructed and discussed, and collision-induced dissociation studies of the major EI ions were performed to confirm proposed fragment structures by analyzing fragment ions of deuterated analogs and by use of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Thiono-thiolo rearrangement, McLafferty-type rearrangement, and a previously unknown intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction were observed and confirmed. The study also focused on differentiation of isomeric compounds. Retention indices for all compounds, and an electrophilicity index for several compounds, are reported and interpreted.

  16. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as policy and strategy for social work action in child welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international agreements. An earlier analysis for understanding the CRC is reviewed and replaced with one that uses a policy analysis model. This new model provides a basis for uniform child welfare policy and strategy throughout the nation. Although NASW has been supportive, it has not actively studied the consequences of implementation of the CRC, nor has it incorporated the CRC into its policy statements as a fundamental tenet. This article recommends that the NASW use the CRC as a basis for all child welfare policy statements and reference the CRS in future articles on child welfare issues. It also urges social workers to become politically active on behalf of the CRC to achieve ratification. Finally, it recommends a national committee to not only coordinate efforts toward ratification, but also oversee implementation of the CRC once it is ratified.

  17. Why the Convention on the Rights of the Child must become a guiding framework for the realization of the rights of children affected by tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Roy, Robindra; Brandt, Nicola; Moodie, Nicolette; Motlagh, Mitra; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Seddon, James A; Detjen, Anne K; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-12-08

    Until recently, paediatric tuberculosis (TB) has been relatively neglected by the broader TB and the maternal and child health communities. Human rights-based approaches to children affected by TB could be powerful; however, awareness and application of such strategies is not widespread. We summarize the current challenges faced by children affected by TB, including: consideration of their family context; the limitations of preventive, diagnostic and treatment options; paucity of paediatric-specific research; failure in implementation of interventions; and stigma. We examine the articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and relate them to childhood TB. Specifically, we focus on the five core principles of the CRC: children's inherent right to life and States' duties towards their survival and development; children's right to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health; non-discrimination; best interests of the child; and respect for the views of the child. We highlight where children's rights are violated and how a human rights-based approach should be used as a tool to help children affected by TB, particularly in light of the Sustainable Development Goals and their focus on universality and leaving no one behind. The article aims to bridge the gap between those providing paediatric TB clinical care and conducting research, and those working in the fields of human rights policy and advocacy to promote a human rights-based approach for children affected by TB based upon the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  18. The renaissance of National Forest Inventories (NFIs in the context of the international conventions – a discussion paper on context, background and justification of NFIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available National Forest Inventories (NFI cover whole countries and strive to put the resource forest and the ecosystem forest into a quantitative framework. While for forest management inventories it is very obvious that they shall support management decisions and contribute to making forest planning, silvicultural interventions, conservation management and timber sales more efficient, the purpose of NFIs is not immediately visible nor “measurable”: they are to support national (and sub-national level policy processes that relate to forests. NFIs have a long history and do experience currently a boom because the availability of a science-based quantification of the forest resource and its changes is among the prerequisites for results-based payments to developing countries when they implement measures that are efficient - and evidenced by verifiable results – in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from forests. While forest monitoring science does currently focus very much on increasing precision and accuracy of forest monitoring, on integration of ever more efficient remote sensing techniques and modelling methods, surprisingly little research is being published on background, strategic justification, institutionalization and impact of NFIs.

  19. Building a Framework of Global Cooperation Beyond the Economic Performance of Companies in Developing Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitriasari, Dewi; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We examine the emerging generative force in developing SER (social and environmental reporting) that focuses on the economic performance of companies from developing nations. The focus raises our concern because it suggests that the development of SER is for shareholders and other capital suppliers....... We observe that the focus is in direct contradiction to the original generative force of SER, i.e. stakeholder interests. This leads to the marginalization of other stakeholder groups' interests. In order to shift the focus of developing nations, cooperation between developing nations and SER...... actors to give insights into their cultural values, Foucault's technology of the selfwith its care of one-self introduces the concept of social actors liberation from the history of subjectivity and thereby, to elaborate and transform their self-conception in relation to others' conceptions of identity...

  20. A national framework for flood forecasting model assessment for use in operations and investment planning over England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert J.; Wells, Steven C.; Cole, Steven J.

    2016-04-01

    It has been common for flood forecasting systems to be commissioned at a catchment or regional level in response to local priorities and hydrological conditions, leading to variety in system design and model choice. As systems mature and efficiencies of national management are sought, there can be a drive towards system rationalisation, gaining an overview of model performance and consideration of simplification through model-type convergence. Flood forecasting model assessments, whilst overseen at a national level, may be commissioned and managed at a catchment and regional level, take a variety of forms and be large in number. This presents a challenge when an integrated national assessment is required to guide operational use of flood forecasts and plan future investment in flood forecasting models and supporting hydrometric monitoring. This contribution reports on how a nationally consistent framework for flood forecasting model performance has been developed to embrace many past, ongoing and future assessments for local river systems by engineering consultants across England & Wales. The outcome is a Performance Summary for every site model assessed which, on a single page, contains relevant catchment information for context, a selection of overlain forecast and observed hydrographs and a set of performance statistics with associated displays of novel condensed form. One display provides performance comparison with other models that may exist for the site. The performance statistics include skill scores for forecasting events (flow/level threshold crossings) of differing severity/rarity, indicating their probability and likely timing, which have real value in an operational setting. The local models assessed can be of any type and span rainfall-runoff (conceptual and transfer function) and flow routing (hydrological and hydrodynamic) forms. Also accommodated by the framework is the national G2G (Grid-to-Grid) distributed hydrological model, providing area

  1. Dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sea dumping of radioactive waste has, since 1983, been precluded under a moratorium established by the London Dumping Convention. Pressure from the nuclear industry to allow ocean dumping of nuclear waste is reported in this article. (author)

  2. Toward a national framework for the secondary use of health data: an American Medical Informatics Association White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Charles; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Hammond, W Edward; Labkoff, Steven; Markel-Fox, Suzanne; Tang, Paul C; Detmer, Don E; Expert Panel

    2007-01-01

    Secondary use of health data applies personal health information (PHI) for uses outside of direct health care delivery. It includes such activities as analysis, research, quality and safety measurement, public health, payment, provider certification or accreditation, marketing, and other business applications, including strictly commercial activities. Secondary use of health data can enhance health care experiences for individuals, expand knowledge about disease and appropriate treatments, strengthen understanding about effectiveness and efficiency of health care systems, support public health and security goals, and aid businesses in meeting customers' needs. Yet, complex ethical, political, technical, and social issues surround the secondary use of health data. While not new, these issues play increasingly critical and complex roles given current public and private sector activities not only expanding health data volume, but also improving access to data. Lack of coherent policies and standard "good practices" for secondary use of health data impedes efforts to strengthen the U.S. health care system. The nation requires a framework for the secondary use of health data with a robust infrastructure of policies, standards, and best practices. Such a framework can guide and facilitate widespread collection, storage, aggregation, linkage, and transmission of health data. The framework will provide appropriate protections for legitimate secondary use.

  3. A multicriteria framework for producing local, regional, and national insect and disease risk maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank J. Jr. Krist; Frank J. Sapio

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the 2006 National Insect and Disease Risk Map, compiled by the USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry Area, Forest Health Protection Unit, resulted in the development of a GIS-based, multicriteria approach for insect and disease risk mapping that can account for regional variations in forest health concerns and threats. This risk mapping...

  4. Optimizing the Nation's Investment in Academic Research: A New Regulatory Framework for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Research universities are critical contributors to our national research enterprise. They are the principal source of a world-class labor force and fundamental discoveries that enhance our lives and the lives of others around the world. These institutions help to create an educated citizenry capable of making informed and crucial choices as…

  5. Predicting cannabis cultivation on national forests using a rational choice framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; Jeff Prestemon; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Everett A. Hinkley; John M. Chase

    2016-01-01

    Government agencies in the United States eradicated 10.3 million cannabis plants in 2010. Most (94%) of these plants were outdoor-grown, and 46% of those were discovered on federal lands, primarily on national forests in California, Oregon, and Washington. We developed models that reveal how drug markets, policies, and environmental...

  6. Quality Management Systems for the National Qualifications Framework. Quality Assurance in Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Zealand Qualifications Authority, Wellington.

    This booklet explores the idea of quality and its management as it applies to providers of education in particular, but also as it applies to national standards bodies and workplaces offering on-the-job training. It explores the focus on quality in industry and education and defines quality in terms of the features of quality and their…

  7. Product development within the framework of a National Casting Technology Centre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, WB

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for a state of the art advanced National Casting Technology Centre (NCTC) has been widely supported throughout industry and recognised as an important facilitator in the growth of the foundry industry. This initiative also aligns itself...

  8. First Nations, Metis and Inuit Education Policy Framework. A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Government of Alberta is committed to enhancing the well-being and educational opportunities of Aboriginal peoples in the province. As part of Ministry commitment to the Government of Alberta's Aboriginal Policy Initiative (API), a key priority is to improve First Nations, Inuit and Metis learner success. In the spring of 1999, a review of the…

  9. Development of a National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework: A Shared Process to Guide Effective Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Brands

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a substantially higher cancer mortality rate than non-Indigenous Australians. While cancer outcomes are improving for non-Indigenous Australians, they are worsening for Indigenous Australians. Reducing this disparity requires evidence-based and culturally-appropriate guidance. The purpose of this paper is to describe an initiative by Cancer Australia and Menzies School of Health Research (Menzies to develop Australia’s first National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework using a process of co-design with relevant stakeholders. The initiative was guided by three core principles: achieving policy-relevant evidence-based outcomes; engaging and maintaining trust with Indigenous Australians at every phase; and employing best-practice and appropriate research methods. Four components of research comprised the Framework development: evidence review; multifaceted stakeholder consultation and input; triangulation of findings; and direct stakeholder input in drafting and refining the Framework. The evidence review confirmed the increasing burden of cancer on Indigenous Australians, while stakeholder consultations facilitated comprehensive input from those with lived experience. The consultations revealed issues not identified in existing literature, and gave different emphases of priority, thus reinforcing the value of including stakeholder perspectives. This paper focuses primarily on documenting the methods used; findings are presented only in order to illustrate the results of the process. The published Framework is available at www.canceraustralia.gov.au; further description and analyses of findings from the consultations will be published elsewhere. The logistics inherent in large-scale consultation are considerable. However, the quality of data and the foundation for sustained partnership with stakeholders and knowledge translation vastly outweighed the challenges. The process of wide

  10. Comparison of conventional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry versus microflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry within the framework of full method validation for simultaneous quantification of 40 antidepressants and neuroleptics in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Koenig, Magdalena; Tingelhoff, Eva; Staeheli, Sandra N; Roemmelt, Andreas T; Kraemer, Thomas

    2015-02-13

    Microflow liquid chromatography (MFLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is claimed to improve analysis throughput, reduce matrix effects and lower mobile phase consumption. This statement was checked within the framework of method validation of a multi-analyte procedure in clinical and forensic toxicology employing MFLC-MS/MS and conventional LC-MS/MS. 200 μL whole blood were spiked with 50 μL internal standard mixture and extracted by protein precipitation. The concentrated extract was separated into two vials. One was analyzed using a Thermo Fisher Ultimate liquid chromatography system coupled to an ABSciex 5500 QTrap mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) and one by an ABSciex Eksigent Microflow LC system coupled to an ABSciex 4500 linear ion trap quadrupole MS (MFLC-MS/MS). Both methods were fully validated and compared in terms of selectivity, stability, limits, calibration model, recovery (RE), matrix effects (ME), bias, imprecision and beta tolerance interval for 40 antidepressants and neuroleptics including 9 metabolites. Both methods had comparable LODs, LOQs and calibration models with some exceptions. The MFLC system showed slightly higher coefficients of variation (CVs) in the RE experiments. ME were reproducible in both systems but with lower CVs in the conventional LC system. Acceptance criteria for imprecision and bias were fulfilled for 32 analytes on the LC and for 28 analytes on the MFLC system. Beta tolerance intervals indicated better reproducibility in terms of narrower intervals for the conventional LC system. The advantages of the MFLC system were low mobile phase consumption, short run time, and better peak separation. The systems were comparable in terms of peak interference, LOD, ME, bias and imprecision. The advantages of the conventional LC system were more data points per peak, linear calibration models, stable retention times and better beta tolerance intervals. Due to higher robustness, the conventional LC system was finally chosen for

  11. Humanitarian Power – Rough Care: National politics of asylum in the humanitarian (biopolitical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Petrović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a short field research conducted at the refugee transit center in Slavonski Brod, the paper analyzes contemporary asylum policies in Croatia. The author is suggesting that the structure and function of a centre plays a crucial role in the securitization and humanitarization of the asylum policy. The analysis has shown that the asylum policy in Croatia has the same structure as the dominant asylum policies in Europe. Both of them oscillate between two poles: compassion and repression. Humanitarian policy in Croatia is more restrictive and is based on radical inequality, nationalism, racism, the suspension of rights and the normalization of structural violence. Due to its exclusive national focus, it will not provide any long term solutions for dealing with refugees in the future.

  12. Introduction: Towards a Framework for Studying the Politics of National Peculiarity in the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkova, Diana

    2013-01-01

    THE PROJECT This volume is the result of a 15-month research work which brought together young scholars from different Southeast-European academic cultures on a project initiated and hosted by the Centre for Advanced Study in Sofia in partnership with Collegium Budapest. The project entitled We, the People. Visions of National Peculiarity and Political Modernities in Southeastern Europe, is inscribed into a broad and daunting design: to help craft a more coherent methodological and structural...

  13. Developing a geoscience knowledge framework for a national geological survey organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew S.; Hatton, Bill; Reitsma, Femke; Lawrie, Ken I. G.

    2009-04-01

    Geological survey organisations (GSOs) are established by most nations to provide a geoscience knowledge base for effective decision-making on mitigating the impacts of natural hazards and global change, and on sustainable management of natural resources. The value of the knowledge base as a national asset is continually enhanced by the exchange of knowledge between GSOs as data and information providers and the stakeholder community as knowledge 'users and exploiters'. Geological maps and associated narrative texts typically form the core of national geoscience knowledge bases, but have some inherent limitations as methods of capturing and articulating knowledge. Much knowledge about the three-dimensional (3D) spatial interpretation and its derivation and uncertainty, and the wider contextual value of the knowledge, remains intangible in the minds of the mapping geologist in implicit and tacit form. To realise the value of these knowledge assets, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has established a workflow-based cyber-infrastructure to enhance its knowledge management and exchange capability. Future geoscience surveys in the BGS will contribute to a national, 3D digital knowledge base on UK geology, with the associated implicit and tacit information captured as metadata, qualitative assessments of uncertainty, and documented workflows and best practice. Knowledge-based decision-making at all levels of society requires both the accessibility and reliability of knowledge to be enhanced in the grid-based world. Establishment of collaborative cyber-infrastructures and ontologies for geoscience knowledge management and exchange will ensure that GSOs, as knowledge-based organisations, can make their contribution to this wider goal.

  14. Asthma Education Program for First Nations Children: An exemplar of the Knowledge-to-Action Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen L Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma in Aboriginal children is 6% to 14%. Gaps in knowledge regarding asthma and its management exist in First Nations (FN communities, and culturally relevant education and resources are required. Studies have recommended that the children’s asthma education program, the ‘Roaring Adventures of Puff’, be modified through partnership with FN communities to be culturally appropriate.

  15. Current Use of E-Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes Among US High School Students in Urban and Rural Locations: 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T; Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Rayens, Emily A; Howard, Tiffany; Hahn, Ellen J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent tobacco use is higher in rural than in urban areas. While e-cigarette use is increasing rapidly among this age group, differences in prevalence between rural versus urban populations for this relatively novel product have not been explored. The purpose is to investigate whether location of school (rural-urban) is associated with e-cigarette use and dual use (defined as the use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes) among high school students. Cross-sectional survey obtained using a stratified, 3-stage cluster sample design. United States. A nationally representative sample of US high school students (N = 11 053) who completed the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS); slightly more than half were urban (54%). The NYTS measures tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and use behavior and demographics of students in the United States. Weighted logistic regression assessed the relationships of urban-rural location with current e-cigarette use and dual use, adjusting for demographic factors, perceived risk, and social norms. There were clear differences in patterns of adolescent e-cigarette and cigarette use in rural versus urban areas. Social norms and perceptions may play a role in understanding these differences. Urban youth current cigarette smokers were nearly twice as likely as rural cigarette smokers to also use e-cigarettes. Reasons for urban-rural differences need to be taken into account when designing prevention programs and policy changes.

  16. National report of the Slovak Republic compiled in terms of the join convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurina, V.; Viktory, D.; Petrik, T.; Sovcik, J.; Suess, J.; Tomek, J.; Lukacovic, J.; Ivan, J.; Ziakova, M.; Metke, E.; Pospisil, M.; Turner, M.; Homola, J.; Vaclav, J.; Bystricka, S.; Barbaric, M.; Horvath, J.; Betak, J.; Mihaly, B.; Adamovsky, V.; Baloghova, A.; Orihel, M.; Vasina, D.; Balaz, J.; Misovicova, D.; Vrtoch, M.; Mlcuch, J.; Granak, P.; Meleg, J.; Bardy, M.; Gogoliak, J.

    2011-08-01

    The National safety report of the Slovak Republic on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radwaste management in 2011 is presented. These activities in the safety of spent fuel management and radioactive waste management in the Slovak Republic are reported under the headings: (A) Introduction; B) Concept for spent nuclear fuel management (SNF) and radwaste management (RAW); (C) Scope of application of the convention; (D) Spent fuel management and radioactive waste (RAW) management facilities; (E) Legislation and regulation; (F) General safety provisions; (G) Safety of spent fuel management; (H) Safety of radioactive waste (RAW) management; (I) Transboundary movement of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste; (J) Disused sealed sources; (K) Planned measures to improve safety; (L) Communication with the public; (M) Annexes. Annexes consists of following parts: I. List of nuclear facilities for spent fuel and RAW management. II. Limits of radioactive material discharges into atmosphere and hydrosphere. III. List of nuclear installations in decommissioning. IV. Inventory of stored spent nuclear fuel. V. Inventory of stored RAW. VI. List of national laws, decrees and guidelines. VII. List of international expert reports (including safety reports). VIII. List of authors.

  17. Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Third national report on the implementation of obligations of the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    This report is published in compliance with the Joint Convention and presents the measures implemented by France to comply with each of the obligations defined by this convention. The structure of the report refers to the articles of the Convention. Therefore, after a presentation of the main evolutions since France's previous report, the following themes are addressed: policies and practices, scope of application, inventories and lists, legislative and regulatory system, other general safety provisions, safety of spent fuel management, trans-boundary movement, disused sealed sources, and planned activities to improve safety

  18. Denmark's national inventory report 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Lyck, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO....

  19. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R; O'Brien, D; Nelson, J; Kamperschroer, J

    2007-01-01

    NIF target diagnostics are being developed to observe and measure the extreme physics of targets irradiated by the 192-beam laser. The response time of target materials can be on the order of 100ps--the time it takes light to travel 3 cm--temperatures more than 100 times hotter than the surface of the sun, and pressures that exceed 109 atmospheres. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were developed and fielded to observe and record the results of the first 4-beam experiments at NIF. Hard and soft x-ray spectra were measured, and time-integrated and gated x-ray images of hydrodynamics experiments were recorded. Optical diagnostics recorded backscatter from the target, and VISAR laser velocimetry measurements were taken of laser-shocked target surfaces. Additional diagnostics are being developed and commissioned to observe and diagnose ignition implosions, including various neutron and activation diagnostics. NIF's diagnostics are being developed at LLNL and with collaborators at other sites. To accommodate the growing number of target diagnostics, an Instrument-Based Controls hardware-software framework has been developed to facilitate development and ease integration into the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). Individual WindowsXP PC controllers for each digitizer, power supply and camera (i.e., instruments) execute controls software unique to each instrument model. Each hardware-software controller manages a single instrument, in contrast to the complexity of combining all the controls software needed for a diagnostic into a single controller. Because of this simplification, controllers can be more easily tested on the actual hardware, evaluating all normal and off-normal conditions. Each target diagnostic is then supported by a number of instruments, each with its own hardware-software instrument-based controller. Advantages of the instrument-based control architecture and framework include reusability, testability, and improved reliability of the deployed

  20. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R; O' Brien, D; Nelson, J; Kamperschroer, J

    2007-05-07

    NIF target diagnostics are being developed to observe and measure the extreme physics of targets irradiated by the 192-beam laser. The response time of target materials can be on the order of 100ps--the time it takes light to travel 3 cm--temperatures more than 100 times hotter than the surface of the sun, and pressures that exceed 109 atmospheres. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were developed and fielded to observe and record the results of the first 4-beam experiments at NIF. Hard and soft x-ray spectra were measured, and time-integrated and gated x-ray images of hydrodynamics experiments were recorded. Optical diagnostics recorded backscatter from the target, and VISAR laser velocimetry measurements were taken of laser-shocked target surfaces. Additional diagnostics are being developed and commissioned to observe and diagnose ignition implosions, including various neutron and activation diagnostics. NIF's diagnostics are being developed at LLNL and with collaborators at other sites. To accommodate the growing number of target diagnostics, an Instrument-Based Controls hardware-software framework has been developed to facilitate development and ease integration into the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). Individual WindowsXP PC controllers for each digitizer, power supply and camera (i.e., instruments) execute controls software unique to each instrument model. Each hardware-software controller manages a single instrument, in contrast to the complexity of combining all the controls software needed for a diagnostic into a single controller. Because of this simplification, controllers can be more easily tested on the actual hardware, evaluating all normal and off-normal conditions. Each target diagnostic is then supported by a number of instruments, each with its own hardware-software instrument-based controller. Advantages of the instrument-based control architecture and framework include reusability, testability, and improved reliability of the

  1. Getting It Right for Every Child: A National Policy Framework to Promote Children's Well-being in Scotland, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Emma; Cheyne, Helen; Rankin, Jean; Daniel, Brigid

    2016-06-01

    Getting It Right for Every Child (GIRFEC), a landmark policy framework for improving children's well-being in Scotland, United Kingdom, is a practice initiative signifying a distinct way of thinking, an agenda for change, and the future direction of child welfare policy. GIRFEC represents a unique case study of national transformative change within the contexts of children's well-being and universal services and is of relevance to other jurisdictions. Implementation is under way, with an understanding of well-being and the requirement for information sharing enshrined in law. Yet there is scope for interpretation within the legislation and associated guidance. Inherent tensions around intrusion, data gathering, professional roles, and balancing well-being against child protection threaten the effectiveness of the policy if not resolved. Despite persistent health inequalities and intergenerational deprivation, the Scottish government aspires for Scotland to be the best country for children to grow up in. Getting It Right for Every Child (GIRFEC) is a landmark children's policy framework to improve children's well-being via early intervention, universal service provision, and multiagency coordination across organizational boundaries. Placing the child and family "at the center," this approach marks a shift from welfare to well-being, yet there is still a general lack of consensus over how well-being is defined and measured. As an umbrella policy framework with broad reach, GIRFEC represents the current and future direction of children's/family policy in Scotland, yet large-scale practice change is required for successful implementation. This article explores the origins and emergence of GIRFEC and presents a critical analysis of its incremental design, development, and implementation. There is considerable scope for interpretation within the GIRFEC legislation and guidance, most notably around assessment of well-being and the role and remit of those charged with

  2. International and national frameworks of equal economic independence for women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardašević Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic independence enables individuals to have control over their own life for the purpose of personal and professional prosperity. The principle of equal pay and equality in work engagement is included in the EU treaties, respectively the equality is one of five values on which the European Union has been founded. In this paper we tried to answer the question whether 'equal pay for work of equal value' is applied in practice? For that reason, the subject of our research is the analysis of the problem of gender inequality in order to point out the differences in employment rates and salaries in Serbia as well as in the EU countries. We analyzed the key documents, proposed some measures and pointed out the strategies that aim to support and address issues of gender inequality. In order to build an economically and socially developed society, Serbia, being on its path of European integrations, should pay particular attention to the issue of gender equality, further amending the legal framework and ensuring the inclusion of all aspects of gender equality in development policies.

  3. A systems framework for national assessment of climate risks to infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Richard J.; Thompson, David; Johns, Daniel; Wood, Ruth; Darch, Geoff; Chapman, Lee; Hughes, Paul N.; Watson, Geoff V. R.; Paulson, Kevin; Bell, Sarah; Gosling, Simon N.; Powrie, William; Hall, Jim W.

    2018-06-01

    Extreme weather causes substantial adverse socio-economic impacts by damaging and disrupting the infrastructure services that underpin modern society. Globally, $2.5tn a year is spent on infrastructure which is typically designed to last decades, over which period projected changes in the climate will modify infrastructure performance. A systems approach has been developed to assess risks across all infrastructure sectors to guide national policy making and adaptation investment. The method analyses diverse evidence of climate risks and adaptation actions, to assess the urgency and extent of adaptation required. Application to the UK shows that despite recent adaptation efforts, risks to infrastructure outweigh opportunities. Flooding is the greatest risk to all infrastructure sectors: even if the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to 2°C is achieved, the number of users reliant on electricity infrastructure at risk of flooding would double, while a 4°C rise could triple UK flood damage. Other risks are significant, for example 5% and 20% of river catchments would be unable to meet water demand with 2°C and 4°C global warming respectively. Increased interdependence between infrastructure systems, especially from energy and information and communication technology (ICT), are amplifying risks, but adaptation action is limited by lack of clear responsibilities. A programme to build national capability is urgently required to improve infrastructure risk assessment. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  4. A systems framework for national assessment of climate risks to infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David; Johns, Daniel; Darch, Geoff; Paulson, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Extreme weather causes substantial adverse socio-economic impacts by damaging and disrupting the infrastructure services that underpin modern society. Globally, $2.5tn a year is spent on infrastructure which is typically designed to last decades, over which period projected changes in the climate will modify infrastructure performance. A systems approach has been developed to assess risks across all infrastructure sectors to guide national policy making and adaptation investment. The method analyses diverse evidence of climate risks and adaptation actions, to assess the urgency and extent of adaptation required. Application to the UK shows that despite recent adaptation efforts, risks to infrastructure outweigh opportunities. Flooding is the greatest risk to all infrastructure sectors: even if the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to 2°C is achieved, the number of users reliant on electricity infrastructure at risk of flooding would double, while a 4°C rise could triple UK flood damage. Other risks are significant, for example 5% and 20% of river catchments would be unable to meet water demand with 2°C and 4°C global warming respectively. Increased interdependence between infrastructure systems, especially from energy and information and communication technology (ICT), are amplifying risks, but adaptation action is limited by lack of clear responsibilities. A programme to build national capability is urgently required to improve infrastructure risk assessment. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy’. PMID:29712793

  5. The Psychiatric Association of Bosnia-Herzegovina--distinctive role in national and international framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Račetović, Goran

    2012-10-01

    Following the initiative and after preparation that lasted about a year, a national association of experts dealing with psychiatry has been formed in our country named Psychiatric Association of Bosnia-Herzegovina (PABH). On March 17th 2008 PABH was formally started with its work that would be since 2009 been actively promoted and profiling as one of the best organized professional associations in B-H. Recognition on the international level and the active role of the PABH were substantially achieved in 2010 in the World (WPA), and from 2011 in European (EPA) Psychiatric Association. The Third Congress of Psychiatrists of B-H with International participation is the first in a series of future Congresses organized by PABH. This retrospective review describes the development and significance of the PABH both nationally and internationally through the documentation and archives of the PABH. The PABH is included in major psychiatric events in the country (active participation in the organization, logistics and scientific programme) and experts from our country are involved in an increasing number of international professional bodies. The PABH is the leading psychiatric association B-H, an active member of the largest and most important international organizations, with a continuous increase of the number of members who recognize the importance, relevance and quality of the PABH and further progress in its development and tendencies to harmonize psychiatric practice in the country and internationally.

  6. Ability and Willingness to Pay Premium in the Framework of National Health Insurance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Abdillah Ramadhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Health Insurance is one of the government’s efforts to improve community access to health services. The government has fixed the premiums to be paid by community, except for underprivileged community. The aim of the study was to identify Ability to Pay (ATP and Willingness to Pay (WTP of the national health insurance premium. Methods: A descriptive study which involved 210 housewives who were chosen by rapid survey method was conducted from September to November 2013 in Cipacing village, Jatinangor, Sumedang, West Java. Data collection was using questionnaire to obtain level of ability and willingness to pay the health insurance premium. The results were compared to the required premium by the government (Rp 22,000,-. Results: Most of the respondents were only housewives, but there were still respondents who were private workers. Most of them were 20–39 years old. About 57.6% of the respondents were able to pay for the required premium, but Only 17.4% of the them were willing to pay according to the required premium. Conclusions: The ATP of the respondents are higher compared to the WTP, meaning that most of the respondents are able to pay the requires premium but are not willing to pay it.

  7. Barriers to the Implementation of the Health and Rehabilitation Articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Hussey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The United Nations (UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD is a milestone in the recognition of the human rights of persons with disabilities, including the right to health and rehabilitation. South Africa has signed and ratified the CRPD but still has a long way to go in reforming policies and systems in order to be in compliance with the convention. This paper seeks to fill a gap in the literature by exploring what the barriers to the implementation of the health and rehabilitation articles of the CRPD are, as identified by representatives of the disability community. Methods This investigation used a qualitative, exploratory methodology. 10 semi-structured interviews of a purposive sample of representatives of disabled persons organizations (DPOs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, and service providers in South Africa were conducted. Participants were drawn from urban, peri-urban, and rural settings in order to reflect diverse perspectives within South Africa. Data was analysed using a multi-stage coding process to establish the main categories and relationships between them. Results Six main categories of barriers to the implementation of the health and rehabilitation articles of the CRPD were identified. Attitude barriers including stigma and negative assumptions about persons with disabilities were seen as an underlying cause and influence on all of the other categories; which included political, financial, health systems, physical, and communication barriers. Conclusion The findings of this study have important implications for strategies and actions to implement the CRPD. Given the centrality of attitudinal barriers, greater sensitization around the area of disability is needed. Furthermore, disability should be better integrated and mainstreamed into more general initiatives to develop the health system and improve the lives of persons living in poverty in South Africa.

  8. Comparative Results From a National Joint Registry Hip Data Set of a New Cross-Linked Annealed Polyethylene vs Both Conventional Polyethylene and Ceramic Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinette, Jean-Alain; Jolles-Haeberli, Brigitte M

    2016-07-01

    Major concerns in hip arthroplasty concern the fate of bearing surfaces. Highly cross-linked polyethylene materials (HXLPE) currently demonstrate successful in vitro results with new technical procedures of cross-linking the polyethylene material, whereas processing the polyethylene below its melting temperature to produce so-called "annealed HXLPE" would allow retention of important mechanical properties. Data released by the National Joint Registry of England and Wales addressing in 45,877 hips the same Trident uncemented cup, allowed us to compare the performance of a consecutive cohort of patients implanted with the newest generation of annealed HXLPE acetabular bearings (X3: 21,470) vs 2 consecutive nonselected cohorts, one with conventional polyethylene (N2vac: 8225) and one with ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) hip bearings (AL: 16,182). The main end point in survivorship has been first defined as revision for any cause, then for any cause which could be related to a failure of the bearing couple. At 6-year follow-up, all Trident cups demonstrated encouraging global survival cumulative rates all between 95% and 99%. A first study demonstrated better survivorship with X3-HXLPE liners vs conventional ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene. On the second parallel study, the cumulative survival rates were better for X3 liners as compared to CoC bearings. Moreover, when ranking the yearly cumulative percent revision rates, again the best results were obtained with X3 liners with small alumina heads (cumulative percent revision rate at 0.298). Within the frame of this Trident study, the use of this X3 highly cross-linked annealed polyethylene could be considered as a reliable alternate solution to CoC bearings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE NATIONAL PLAN FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE EVIDENCE FROM SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Bozha Vukovic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the development of a financial framework for assessing the effectiveness of interventions. The research is based on the evidence from Serbia. In terms of methods applied, we used econometric and scenario analysis. We presented — as individual separate items — the issues such as “who” — Government budget (Ministry, specific program, loan, donor, etc., “how much” — the amount spent, “where” (NUTS 2 region, and on “what” (type of initiative. In our model, each of the interventions applied to one of the regional development priorities is linked and evaluated by its effectiveness observing the performance of the group of indicators associated with each of the priorities. All data obtained from 8 sectors were categorized under 4 priorities, i.e. “People, Place, Productive Capacity, and Institutional Capacity”. Accordingly, we evaluate the effectiveness by observing the performance of a group of indicators related to each of the priorities. Our recommendations for optimizing the distribution structure of regional policies and regions are determined by the analysis of the performance of the group of indicators and their relative rankings per NUTS 2 region. The results are significant for further theoretical and applied research, as well as decision-making in the field of government financial policy. Our results confirmed that calculations of funds for regional development in strategic areas appear to be slightly problematic because, in the past, there was no strategic distribution based on established facts, which could be measured in terms of performance.

  10. A study on the establishment of national regulatory framework for effective implementation of exemption or clearance concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, J.H.; Park, S.H.; Suk, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The concepts of exemption and clearance have a lot of advantages in the aspects of effective use of limited resources, land, and optimization of regulatory works. The exact scopes and extent of the implementation of the concepts, however, can widely vary depending upon each country's own specific situations. In order to support the political decision-making on the practical implementation, a series of possible alternatives, general methodology for decision-making, and factors to be considered were proposed. Five primary categories and subsequent nineteen secondary categories were suggested and discussed, and four-step-approach was introduced in order to show the general guidelines for establishing an appropriate national regulatory framework. Though the specific procedure for each country to get to the practical implementation of the exemption and clearance concepts was not described, it is anticipated that the basic guidelines proposed in this paper can be used as a general reference. (author)

  11. How equitable is vocational rehabilitation in Sweden? A review of evidence on the implementation of a national policy framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstrom, Bo; Nylen, Lotta; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Under the national framework law in Sweden, all eligible people should have equal chances of receiving vocational rehabilitation. We aimed to review the evidence on (1) whether access to vocational rehabilitation is equitable in practice and (2) whether the outcomes vary for different groups in the population. Systematic review of studies in Sweden that reported diagnostic or socio-demographic characteristics of people offered or taking up rehabilitation programmes and outcomes of such programmes for different diagnostic and socio-demographic groups. Searches of 11 relevant electronic databases, 15 organisational websites, citation searching and contact with experts in the field, for the period 1990-2009. A total of 11 studies were included in the final review, six of which addressed review question (1) and seven addressed review question (2). All the six observational studies of access reported biased selection into vocational rehabilitation: greater likelihood for men, younger people, those with longer-term sick leave, those with lower income, employed rather than unemployed people and those with musculoskeletal and mental disorders or alcohol abuse. Having had a rehabilitation investigation also increased the likelihood of receiving vocational rehabilitation. Differential outcome of rehabilitation was reported in seven studies: outcomes were better for men, younger people, employed individuals, those with shorter sick leave and those with higher income. Selection into vocational rehabilitation was perceived as important for successful outcomes, but success also depended on the state of the local labour market. There is evidence of socio-demographic differences in access to and outcomes of vocational rehabilitation in Sweden, even though the national framework law is meant to apply to everyone. Few studies have deliberately measured differential access or outcomes, and there is a need for this kind of equity analysis of population-wide policies. Studies

  12. Analysing the production and treatment of solid waste using a national accounting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, Roel; Hoekstra, Rutger; Nootenboom, Leslie

    2011-07-01

    Our knowledge of the relationship between the economy and the environment has increased significantly over recent decades. One of the areas in which this is most apparent is the area of environmental accounting, where environmental data is presented according to national accounting principles. These accounts provide consistent, complete and detailed information for understanding environmental-economic interdependencies. One of the modules of these accounts is the waste accounts which record the origin and destination of waste materials. The first part of this paper discusses the Dutch waste accounts and their relation with economic indicators. In the second part a number of applications, which are based on the input-output model, are applied to these accounts. This section includes a novel structural decomposition analysis which quantifies the underlying driving forces of changes in total waste and landfilled waste between 1995 and 2004. The results show that the total amount of waste is mainly driven by economic growth (positive effect) and the direct export of waste (negative effect). The models also show that the construction sector has played a very important part in the reduction of waste. Furthermore, the decrease in the amount of landfilled waste, which is caused by Dutch regulations, has led to a large shift towards recycling and to a lesser degree incineration. Finally, the calculations for the 'environmental trade balance' for waste show that the waste-contents of exports exceed that of imports. This paper shows that the waste accounts have many analytical and policy-relevant applications.

  13. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): the case for the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Baquilod, Marina; Fishburn, Burke; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in the Philippines in 2000 and 2003 which can be used as baseline measures to monitor provisions of the 2003 Tobacco Regulatory Act and Articles of the WHO FCTC. The GYTS is a school-based survey which uses a two-stage sample design to produce representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates. In both 2000 and 2003, the GYTS was conducted in three geographic zones in the Philippines. The zones are then combined to produce a representative national estimate each year. Data in this report are limited to students aged 13-15 years. The findings in this study show that in the Philippines changes occurred between 2000 and 2003 in that: students were less likely to smoke cigarettes or use other tobacco products, less likely to be exposed to SHS in public places, more likely to support bans on smoking in public places, more likely to have learned in school and from the media about the health hazards of tobacco use, and less likely to have been offered "free" cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. The synergy between the Philippines' leadership in passing the Clean Air Act in 1999 and the Tobacco Regulatory Air in 2003, in ratifying the WHO FCTC in 2005, and in supporting the conduct of the GYTS offers the Philippines a unique opportunity to develop, implement and evaluate the youth component of their comprehensive tobacco control policy that can be most helpful to the country.

  14. Report on alternative techniques to hydraulic fracturing for the exploration and exploitation of non conventional hydrocarbons - National Assembly No. 1581 / Senate No. 174

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LENOIR, Jean-Claude; BATAILLE, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Based on several hearings, and on missions in the USA and in Poland, this report addresses the issue of alternative techniques to hydraulic fracturing which appeared to be more advanced than hearings performed for a preliminary report had suggested. A first part outlines the necessity of fracturing the rock, and presents several possible modalities, proposes a detailed overview of alternative techniques to hydraulic fracturing used in the USA and in Poland. The second part outlines that coal gas is already an exploitable resource without rock fracturing; it discusses the possible perspectives thus associated for the old French coal-mining sites, outlines that this resource can be exploited without requiring hydraulic fracturing, and comments the first assessments. The third part addresses the possible management of risks associated with hydraulic fracturing: risks vary from one region to the other and therefore require further studies; the non-conventional hydrocarbon issue is addressed in different ways in the USA; the use of this technique must be controlled by public authorities. The next part outlines the need of an assessment of national resources before any assessment of the economic impact. The last part formulates several proposals for the future

  15. Legal content of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, adopted by the united nations general assembly by resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a detailed analysis of the legal contents of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant workers and their Families, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in the Resolution 45/158 of December 1990. The objectives of the Convention, the personal spehere of application, the Human Rights of all migrant workers and their families wether they be regular of iregular are presented throughout the article. Finally, the practical effectiveness of the Convention is analyzed concluding with the importance of its ratification by the largest number of States possible.

  16. 14 Years of PID Services at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB: Connected Frameworks, Research Data and Lessons Learned from a National Research Library Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Kraft

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In an ideal research world, any scientific content should be citable and the coherent content, as well as the citation itself, should be persistent. However, today’s scientists do not only produce traditional research papers – they produce comprehensive digital resources and collections. TIB’s mission is to develop a supportive framework for a sustainable access to such digital content – focusing on areas of engineering as well as architecture, chemistry, information technology, mathematics and physics. The term digital content comprises all digitally available resources such as audiovisual media, databases, texts, images, spreadsheets, digital lab journals, multimedia, 3D objects, statistics and software code. In executing this mission, TIB provides services for the management of digital content during ongoing and for finished research. This includes:   - a technical and administrative infrastructure for indexing, cataloguing, DOI registration and licensing for text and digital objects, namely the TIB DOI registration which is active since 2005,   - the administration of the ORCID DE consortium, an institutional network fostering the adoption of ORCID across academic institutions in Germany,   - training and consultancy for data management, complemented with a digital repository for the deposition and provision of accessible, traceable and citable research data (RADAR,   - a Research and Development Department where innovative projects focus on the visualization and the sustainable access to digital information, and   - the development of a supportive framework within the German research data community which accompanies the life cycle of scientific knowledge generation and transfer. Its goal is to harmonize (metadata display and exchange primarily on a national level (LEIBNIZ DATA project.

  17. Answers to questions on National Report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. October 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    Slovakia is pleased to present to the State Parties of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management the Answers to questions received on the National Report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the Joint Convention (April 2003). Slovakia is ready to provide additional explanations to these Answers during the 1 st Review Meeting. In the Annexes the 254/1994 Coll. LL. Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic of 25 August 1994 on State Fund of Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Nuclear Wastes is included

  18. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management -- Fifth Swiss national report in accordance with article 32 of the Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The report begins with a presentation of Switzerland and its political system which is partitioned between the Federal Council, the 26 cantons with their own governments, and the municipalities. Total energy consumption in Switzerland was 896,000 TJ in 2013, electricity accounting for about 24% with 36% of this from nuclear power. Until the late 1960s, Switzerland generated electricity exclusively from hydro power. By the mid-1950s, the private sector increased its interest in nuclear energy technology. The nuclear programme required a legislative framework to ensure safety and radiation protection: the Atomic Energy Act came into force in 1959. In 2005, Switzerland enacted a new Nuclear Energy Act according to which decisions on general licences for new nuclear facilities are subject to a facultative national referendum. The Federal Government was given full legal responsibility for licensing geological waste repositories. The first experimental nuclear reactor started operation in 1957. In 1964, the Federal Council set up the Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities, which later became the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) as a department of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. In order to warrant its independence, on 1 st January 2009 ENSI became an authority constituted under public law. It is supervised by the ENSI Board which is elected by the Federal Council. During the 1960s, many projects for nuclear power plants (NPP) were initiated. Four of them resulted in the current five operating units commissioned between 1969 and 1984. Licensing procedures for three new units on existing sites were ongoing, but as a consequence of the events at Fukushima, the Federal Council suspended them. The political authorities finally decided to phase out nuclear energy, but the existing plants should continue to operate. In October 2013, it was decided to shut down the Muehleberg NPP in 2019. Most nuclear research in Switzerland is performed at the Paul

  19. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management -- Fifth Swiss national report in accordance with article 32 of the Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The report begins with a presentation of Switzerland and its political system which is partitioned between the Federal Council, the 26 cantons with their own governments, and the municipalities. Total energy consumption in Switzerland was 896,000 TJ in 2013, electricity accounting for about 24% with 36% of this from nuclear power. Until the late 1960s, Switzerland generated electricity exclusively from hydro power. By the mid-1950s, the private sector increased its interest in nuclear energy technology. The nuclear programme required a legislative framework to ensure safety and radiation protection: the Atomic Energy Act came into force in 1959. In 2005, Switzerland enacted a new Nuclear Energy Act according to which decisions on general licences for new nuclear facilities are subject to a facultative national referendum. The Federal Government was given full legal responsibility for licensing geological waste repositories. The first experimental nuclear reactor started operation in 1957. In 1964, the Federal Council set up the Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities, which later became the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) as a department of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. In order to warrant its independence, on 1{sup st} January 2009 ENSI became an authority constituted under public law. It is supervised by the ENSI Board which is elected by the Federal Council. During the 1960s, many projects for nuclear power plants (NPP) were initiated. Four of them resulted in the current five operating units commissioned between 1969 and 1984. Licensing procedures for three new units on existing sites were ongoing, but as a consequence of the events at Fukushima, the Federal Council suspended them. The political authorities finally decided to phase out nuclear energy, but the existing plants should continue to operate. In October 2013, it was decided to shut down the Muehleberg NPP in 2019. Most nuclear research in Switzerland is performed at the

  20. A National Energy-Water System Assessment Framework (NEWS): Synopsis of Stage 1 Research Strategy and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Macknick, J.; Newmark, R. L.; Cohen, S.; Sun, Y.; Tidwell, V. C.; Corsi, F.; Melillo, J. M.; Fekete, B. M.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Glidden, S.; Suh, S.

    2017-12-01

    The focus of this talk is on climate adaptation and the reliability of power supply infrastructure when viewed through the lens of strategic water issues. Power supply is critically dependent upon water resources, particularly to cool thermoelectric plants, making the sector particularly sensitive to any shifts in the geography or seasonality of water supply. We report on results from an NSF-Funded Water Sustainability and Climate effort aimed at uncovering key energy and economic system vulnerabilities. We have developed the National Energy-Water System assessment framework (NEWS) to systematically evaluate: a) the performance of the nation's electricity sector under multiple climate scenarios; b) the feasibility of alternative pathways to improve climate adaptation; and, c) the impacts of energy technology and investment tradeoffs on the economic productivity, water availability and aquatic ecosystem condition. Our project combines core engineering and geophysical models (ReEDS [Regional Energy Deployment System], TP2M [Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution], and WBM [Water Balance]) through unique digital "handshake" protocols that operate across different institutions and modeling platforms. Combined system outputs are fed into a regional-to-national scale economic input/output model to evaluate economic consequences of climate constraints, technology choices, and environmental regulation. The impact assessments in NEWS are carried out through a series of climate/energy policy scenario studies to 2050. We find that despite significant climate-water impacts on individual plants, the current US power supply infrastructure shows potential for adaptation to future climates by capitalizing on the size of regional power systems, grid configuration and improvements in thermal efficiencies. However, the magnitude and implications of climate-water impacts vary depending on the configuration of the future power sector. To evaluate future power supply performance, we

  1. Barriers to the Implementation of the Health and Rehabilitation Articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Meghan; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mji, Gubela

    2016-08-28

    The United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is a milestone in the recognition of the human rights of persons with disabilities, including the right to health and rehabilitation. South Africa has signed and ratified the CRPD but still has a long way to go in reforming policies and systems in order to be in compliance with the convention. This paper seeks to fill a gap in the literature by exploring what the barriers to the implementation of the health and rehabilitation articles of the CRPD are, as identified by representatives of the disability community. This investigation used a qualitative, exploratory methodology. 10 semi-structured interviews of a purposive sample of representatives of disabled persons organizations (DPOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and service providers in South Africa were conducted. Participants were drawn from urban, peri-urban, and rural settings in order to reflect diverse perspectives within South Africa. Data was analysed using a multi-stage coding process to establish the main categories and relationships between them. Six main categories of barriers to the implementation of the health and rehabilitation articles of the CRPD were identified. Attitude barriers including stigma and negative assumptions about persons with disabilities were seen as an underlying cause and influence on all of the other categories; which included political, financial, health systems, physical, and communication barriers. The findings of this study have important implications for strategies and actions to implement the CRPD. Given the centrality of attitudinal barriers, greater sensitization around the area of disability is needed. Furthermore, disability should be better integrated and mainstreamed into more general initiatives to develop the health system and improve the lives of persons living in poverty in South Africa. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is

  2. How the Triangle of Bologna Quality Assurance, a National Legal Framework and Internal Quality Enhancement Supports Institutional Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kareva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Macedonia (RM has been a part of the Bologna process since 2003. The Ministry of Education, law and policy makers and higher education institutions have actively engaged with its main concepts. In parallel with this, since the adoption of the law on higher education in 2008 and the reform of the Accreditation and Evaluation Board, there have been numerous changes and amendments culminating in the fast-tracked adoption of a new law at the beginning of 2015. Some of its solutions created a huge debate among the academic community, other intellectuals and students themselves, resulting in the postponement of that law and a kind of legal vacuum. In such turbulent circumstances, individual higher education institutions had to consider how and to what extent to adopt and develop relevant standards and guidelines, comply with the legal framework and promote good practice. The aim of this paper is to present how these three aspects, Bologna standards and guidelines for Quality Assurance (QA, a national legal framework and an institutional approach are being reflected, merged and implemented at a relatively young higher education institution. It questions the impact of these three elements on each other and how one institution’s drive for improvement is affected. This is done through a qualitative analysis of the three-fold perspectives. The conclusions and recommendations are expected to be of use to policy makers in the country and region as they evaluate how international trends and good practice fit into the socio-economic and political conditions of RM and similar countries. At the same time, it can demonstrate how far institutional quality assurance and progress can be implemented and recognized in the country itself and by some international stakeholders. It can also prove that the South East European University (SEEU is a national leader in this field as RM has no functioning QA evaluation system, while SEEU has managed to

  3. GLOBAL FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petersen P.E., World Health Organization, Oral Health Programme, Chronic Disease and Health. Promotion, 20 Avenue .... particular, Health Promoting Schools provide an effective setting for tobacco prevention amongst children and youth.

  4. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2009 are published

  5. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2014 are published.

  6. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2011 are published.

  7. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2011 are published.

  8. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2011 are published.

  9. Implementing Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in Child Protection Decision-Making: A Critical Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Paul

    2017-01-01

    One of the most frequently cited principles in the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is Article 12. This article provides a critical analysis of the challenges that child protection social work faces when implementing Article 12 in social work decision-making whilst simultaneously keeping children safe. The article begins…

  10. National Response Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    community who may be affected by incidents and as a potential means of supporting response efforts. This includes those with household pets , service and...plans should also include provisions for their animals, including household pets or service animals. During an actual disaster, emergency, or threat...welfare of their employees in the workplace . In addition, some businesses play an essential role in protecting critical infrastructure systems and

  11. National Response Framework: Annexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    response Environmental short- and long-term cleanup ESF #11 – Agriculture and Natural Resources Nutrition assistance Animal and plant disease and pest ...continental United States, the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, and other U.S. territories and possession other than Alaska and U.S. territories in the...on the Pacific, Atlantic , and Gulf coasts, to provide response capabilities, technical advice, documentation and support assistance, communications

  12. Integrating NASA Earth Observations into the Global Indicator Framework for Monitoring the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepps, G.; Gotschalk, E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M. L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Rogers, L.; Ross, K. W.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program conducts rapid 10-week feasibility projects that build decision makers' capacity to utilize NASA Earth observations in their decision making. Teams, in collaboration with partner organizations, conduct projects that create end products such as maps, analyses, and automated tools tailored for their partners' specific decision making needs. These projects illustrate the varied applications about which Earth observations can assist in making better informed decisions, such topics as land use changes, ecological forecasting, public health, and species habitats. As a capacity building program, DEVELOP is interested in understanding how these end products are utilized once the project is over and if Earth observations become a regular tool in the partner's decision making toolkit. While DEVELOP's niche is short-term projects, to assess the impacts of these projects, a longer-term scale is needed. As a result, DEVELOP has created a project strength metrics, and partner assessments, pre- and post-project, as well as a follow up form. This presentation explores the challenges in both quantitative and qualitative assessments of valuing the contributions of these Earth observation tools. This proposal lays out the assessment framework created within the program, and illustrates case studies in which projects have been assessed and long-term partner use of tools examined and quantified.

  13. The nuclear safety convention. Results for Argentine as contracting party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    A powerful mechanism for increasing safety worldwide is through the development and adoption of legally binding Safety Conventions. Since 1986 four Conventions were ratified in the areas of Nuclear, Radiation and Waste Safety. The Nuclear Safety Convention establishes an international co-operation mechanism to maintain safety nuclear installations, focused on: to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide through the enhancement of national measures and international co-operation including, where appropriate, safety-related technical co-operation; to establish and maintain effective defences in nuclear installations against potential radiological hazards in order to protect individuals, society and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation from such installations and to prevent accidents with radiological consequences and to mitigate such consequences should they occur. Each contracting party shall take, within the framework of its national law, the legislative, regulatory and administrative measures and other steps necessary for implementing its obligations under this Convention. Moreover, each contracting parties shall submit for review prior to each review meeting, a National Report on the measures it has taken to implement each of the obligations of the Convention. The contracting parties concluded that the review process had proven to be of great value to their national nuclear safety programmes. (author)

  14. An Investigation of Teacher, Principal, and Superintendent Perceptions on the Ability of the National Framework for Principal Evaluations to Measure Principals' Leadership Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Lori D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the perceptions of effective principals' leadership competencies; determine if the perceptions of teachers, principals, and superintendents aligned with the proposed National Framework for Principal Evaluations initiative. This study examined the six domains of leadership outlined by the…

  15. A Research Study Using the Delphi Method to Define Essential Competencies for a High School Game Art and Design Course Framework at the National Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Nayo Corenus-Geneva

    2011-01-01

    This research study reports the findings of a Delphi study conducted to determine the essential competencies and objectives for a high school Game Art and Design course framework at the national level. The Delphi panel consisted of gaming, industry and educational experts from all over the world who were members of the International Game…

  16. The scholar role in the National Competence Based Catalogues of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) compared to other international frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautz, Stefanie C; Hautz, Wolf E; Keller, Niklas; Feufel, Markus A; Spies, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, a national competence based catalogue of learning objectives in medicine (NKLM) was developed by the Society for Medical Education and the Council of Medical Faculties. As many of its international counterparts the NKLM describes the qualifications of medical school graduates. The definition of such outcome frameworks indents to make medical education transparent to students, teachers and society. The NKLM aims to amend existing lists of medical topics for assessment with learnable competencies. All outcome frameworks are structured into chapters, domains or physician roles. The definition of the scholar-role poses a number of questions such as: What distinguishes necessary qualifications of a scientifically qualified physician from those of a medical scientist? 13 outcome frameworks were identified through a systematic three-step literature review and their content compared to the scholar role in the NKLM by means of a qualitative text analysis. The three steps consist of (1) search for outcome frameworks, (2) in- and exclusion, and (3) data extraction, categorization, and validation. The results were afterwards matched with the scholar role of the NKLM. Extracted contents of all frameworks may be summarized into the components Common Basics, Clinical Application, Research, Teaching and Education, and Lifelong Learning. Compared to the included frameworks the NKLM emphasises competencies necessary for research and teaching while clinical application is less prominently mentioned. The scholar role of the NKLM differs from other international outcome frameworks. Discussing these results shall increase propagation and understanding of the NKLM and thus contribute to the qualification of future medical graduates in Germany.

  17. The scholar role in the National Competence Based Catalogues of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM compared to other international frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautz, Stefanie C.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Germany, a national competence based catalogue of learning objectives in medicine (NKLM was developed by the Society for Medical Education and the Council of Medical Faculties. As many of its international counterparts the NKLM describes the qualifications of medical school graduates. The definition of such outcome frameworks indents to make medical education transparent to students, teachers and society. The NKLM aims to amend existing lists of medical topics for assessment with learnable competencies. All outcome frameworks are structured into chapters, domains or physician roles. The definition of the scholar-role poses a number of questions such as: What distinguishes necessary qualifications of a scientifically qualified physician from those of a medical scientist? Methods: 13 outcome frameworks were identified through a systematic three-step literature review and their content compared to the scholar role in the NKLM by means of a qualitative text analysis. The three steps consist of (1 search for outcome frameworks, (2 in- and exclusion, and (3 data extraction, categorization, and validation. The results were afterwards matched with the scholar role of the NKLM.Results: Extracted contents of all frameworks may be summarized into the components , and . Compared to the included frameworks the NKLM emphasises competencies necessary for research and teaching while clinical application is less prominently mentioned. Conclusion: The scholar role of the NKLM differs from other international outcome frameworks. Discussing these results shall increase propagation and understanding of the NKLM and thus contribute to the qualification of future medical graduates in Germany.

  18. National-level progress on adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesnikowski, A.; Ford-Robertson, J.; Biesbroek, G.R.; Berrang-Ford, L.; Heymann, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that adaptation will figure prominently in the post-2015 United Nations climate change agreement. As adaptation obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change evolve, more rigorous approaches to measuring adaptation progress among parties will

  19. Answers to questions on National Report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    Slovakia is pleased to present to the State Parties of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management the Answers to questions received on the National Report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the Joint Convention (2005). Slovakia is ready to provide additional explanations to these Answers during the 2 nd Review Meeting. In the Annexes the 541/2004 Coll. LL. Act of 9 September 2004 on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on Alternations and Amendments to Some Acts

  20. National report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled in terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekel, P.; Ivan, J.; Lukacovic, K.; Parimucha, F.; Suss, J; Tomek, J.; Jurina, V.; Kobzova, D.; Konecny, L.; Homola, J.; Zavazanova, A.; Metke, E.; Turner, M.; Vaclav, J.; Ziakova, M.; Pospisil, M.; Petrik, T.

    2005-09-01

    The National Report (Compiled in terms of the Joint Convention - September 2005) contains information how each of the obligations of the Joint Convention have been implemented. A account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) and other Slovak organisations are presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (A) Introduction; (B) Spent fuel and radioactive waste management; C) Scope of application; (D) Inventories and lists; (E) Legislation and regulation; (F) Other general safety provisions; (G) Safety of spent fuel management; (H) Safety of RAW management; (I) Transboundary movement of SF and RAW; (J) Disused sealed sources; (K) planned activiries to improve safety; (L) Annexes

  1. Potentials and limitations of epistemic communities. An analysis of the World Climate Council and the Framework Convention on Climate Change; Potenziale und Grenzen von epistemic communities. Eine Analyse des Weltklimarates und der Klimarahmenkonvention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    In times of increasing global uncertainties, science takes a central position for policy decisions. According to Peter M. Haas, epistemic communities are able to influence the cooperative behavior of states through their consensual knowledge. This book critically examines this statement. As the case of the Framework Convention on Climate Change shows, the World Climate Council (IPCC) was not in a position to enforce its solution options in the intergovernmental negotiations, as these affected the individual convictions of the decision-makers. While Angela Merkel advocated an agreement, the US government under George W. Bush denied the existence of climate change. Decision-makers and their individual convictions must therefore have a greater significance in international politics. [German] In Zeiten zunehmender globaler Unsicherheiten nimmt die Wissenschaft fuer die Entscheidungen der Politik eine zentrale Stellung ein. Epistemic communities sind nach Peter M. Haas durch ihr konsensuales Wissen in der Lage, das Kooperationsverhalten von Staaten zu beeinflussen. Das vorliegende Buch prueft diese Aussage kritisch. Wie der Fall der Klimarahmenkonvention zeigt, war der Weltklimarat (IPCC) nicht in der Lage, seine Loesungsoptionen in den zwischenstaatlichen Verhandlungen durchzusetzen, da diesen die individuellen Ueberzeugungen der Entscheidungstraeger entgegenstanden. Waehrend Angela Merkel ein Abkommen befuerwortete, bestritt die US-Regierung unter George W. Bush die Existenz des Klimawandels. Entscheidungstraegern und ihren individuellen Ueberzeugungen muss daher in der internationalen Politik eine staerkere Bedeutung zukommen.

  2. The Diabetes Evaluation Framework for Innovative National Evaluations (DEFINE): Construct and Content Validation Using a Modified Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Warren, Jann; Tyler, Marie; Fournie, Meghan; Harris, Stewart B

    2017-06-01

    In order to scale-up successful innovations, more evidence is needed to evaluate programs that attempt to address the rising prevalence of diabetes and the associated burdens on patients and the healthcare system. This study aimed to assess the construct and content validity of the Diabetes Evaluation Framework for Innovative National Evaluations (DEFINE), a tool developed to guide the evaluation, design and implementation with built-in knowledge translation principles. A modified Delphi method, including 3 individual rounds (questionnaire with 7-point agreement/importance Likert scales and/or open-ended questions) and 1 group round (open discussion) were conducted. Twelve experts in diabetes, research, knowledge translation, evaluation and policy from Canada (Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia) and Australia participated. Quantitative consensus criteria were an interquartile range of ≤1. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically and confirmed by participants. An importance scale was used to determine a priority multi-level indicator set. Items rated very or extremely important by 80% or more of the experts were reviewed in the final group round to build the final set. Participants reached consensus on the content and construct validity of DEFINE, including its title, overall goal, 5-step evaluation approach, medical and nonmedical determinants of health schematics, full list of indicators and associated measurement tools, priority multi-level indicator set and next steps in DEFINE's development. Validated by experts, DEFINE has the right theoretic components to evaluate comprehensively diabetes prevention and management programs and to support acquisition of evidence that could influence the knowledge translation of innovations to reduce the burden of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. IAEA Director General welcomes landmark convention to combat nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the adoption of an International convention against nuclear terrorism. 'This is a landmark achievement which will bolster global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism,' Dr. ElBaradei said. 'It will be a key part of international efforts to prevent terrorists from gaining access to nuclear weapons'. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the convention, The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, on 13 April 2005. The Convention strengthens the global legal framework to counter terrorist threats. Based on a proposal by the Russian Federation in 1998, the Convention focuses on criminal offences related to nuclear terrorism and covers a broad range of possible targets, including nuclear reactors as well as nuclear material and radioactive substances. Under its provisions, alleged offenders - for example any individual or group that unlawfully and intentionally possesses or uses radioactive material with the intent to cause harm - must be either extradited or prosecuted. States are also encouraged to cooperate with each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings. The Convention further requires that any seized nuclear or radiological material be held in accordance with IAEA safeguards, and handled in keeping with the IAEA's health, safety and physical protection standards. Dr. ElBaradei also recalled that the Agency is in the process of amending the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, in order to broaden its scope, and in so doing, strengthen the current legal framework for securing nuclear material against illicit uses. A conference will be held from 4 to 8 July in Vienna to consider and adopt the amendments. The Convention opens for signature in September this year. Dr ElBaradei urged all States to 'sign and ratify the Convention without delay so nuclear terrorism will have no chance'. (IAEA)

  4. The Effects of the Revised CPPNM on Legislative Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Shim, Hye-Won; Chang, Sun-Young; Lee, Jong-Uk

    2006-01-01

    A Diplomatic Conference was held last July at Vienna of Austria and adopted an important Convention in physical protection field. The Convention is the revised Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. A State Party to the revised CPPNM has obligation to meet the Convention. Since the Amendment to CPPNM is expected to enter into force in near future, there is an urgent need to prepare for implementing the international obligation. Thus, it is important to assess the effect of the revised Convention on national legislative and regulatory framework to govern physical protection of domestic nuclear material and facilities. The objective of this paper is to perform comparative assessment between new provisions of the revised Convention and national law in order to prepare for the implementation of the international norm

  5. Wind power: Italian auto-production legislation (ISES convention)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, G.

    1991-01-01

    With reference to what was discussed at the Bologna (Italy) June 1991 ISES (International Solar Energy Society) convention on wind energy, this paper summarizes the Italian legislative framework relative to on-site power generation and outlines the National Energy Plan objectives regarding the promotion of the use, by industry, of renewable energy sources. Brief notes are also provided on wind energy promotional activities being carried out by ENEL (the Italian National Energy Board), ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), and EWEA (the European Wind Energy Association)

  6. Implementation of the obligations of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Third national report of Switzerland in accordance with Article 32 of the convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The report begins with a short description of Switzerland and its most important political structures. The right of referendum allows forcing a vote on changes of the constitution or against a new law. Historically, electricity generated in Switzerland came exclusively from hydropower. In the mid 1950's, interest in the nuclear energy technology was manifested to cover an increasing electricity demand. The implementation of any nuclear programme and project required a legislative frame to ensure safety and radiation protection. A corresponding article was introduced into the Federal Constitution. The Atomic Act was put into force in 1959. It attributed to the Federal Council the exclusive competence to grant licences for the construction of, operation of and modification to nuclear facilities. Licences were based on a detailed review and assessment of nuclear safety. During the 1960's, several projects for nuclear power plants (NPP) were initiated. Four of them reached the stage of realization, leading to the five currently operating units commissioned between 1969 and 1984. These five units contribute roughly 40% of the total national electricity production, the rest being essentially covered by hydro power. The increasing opposition to nuclear power during the 1970's culminated in 1990 in a double decision taken by the Swiss population: a) to accept the further operation of the existing NPPs; b) to impose a ten years moratorium on granting licences for new NPPs. In 2003 two public votes on the prolongation of the above moratorium and on the gradual phase-out of existing NPPs were rejected by the Swiss population. Simultaneously, an entirely new Nuclear Energy Act was passed by the Parliament; it came into force on 1 st February 2005 and replaced the Atomic Act. In February 2007 the Federal Council issued a new national energy strategy, including the building of new large-scale power plants and NPPs in particular. In June 2008 a general licence application was

  7. Alleged Genocide in Sudan - Where Does the US National Security Strategy Take Us in Light of the UN Genocide Convention and Lingering Memories of Failure to Intervene in Rwanda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Block, Greg

    2005-01-01

    .... Using Rwanda as a baseline and the current situation in Sudan as a case study this project examines the US response to the alleged genocide from the perspective of the US as a signatory to the Genocide Convention. Given the US National Security Strategy what are the competing interests and concerns that impact this crisis? And what is the appropriate response to this crisis? Is there something about this specific allegation of genocide that suggests prevention efforts will succeed or fail?

  8. Analysis of System-Wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Dipasis; Morser, Frederick R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors review the FAA s current program investments and lay out a preliminary analytical framework to undertake projects that may address some of the noted deficiencies. By drawing upon the well developed theories from corporate finance, an analytical framework is offered that can be used for choosing FAA s investments taking into account risk, expected returns and inherent dependencies across NAS programs. The framework can be expanded into taking multiple assets and realistic values for parameters in drawing an efficient risk-return frontier for the entire FAA investment programs.

  9. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2003 NATIONAL OILHEAT RESEARCH ALLIANCE TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, HELD AT THE 2003 NEW ENGLAND FUEL INSTITUTE CONVENTION AND 30TH NORTH AMERICAN HEATING AND ENERGY EXPOSITION, HYNES CONVENTION CENTER, PRUDENTIAL CENTER, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, JUNE 9 - 10, 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    2003-06-09

    This meeting is the sixteenth oilheat industry technology meeting held since 1984 and the third since the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) was formed. This year's symposium is a very important part of the effort in technology transfer, which is supported by the Oilheat Research Fuel Flexibility Program under the United States Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability Program (DEER). The foremost reason for the conference is to provide a platform for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, service technicians, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The conference provides a conduit by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost effectively, reliably, and safely; (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

  10. The Impact of a Legal Framework on National Film Industry: an Approach to Basque-Language Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Manias-Muñoz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After the incursion of the digitalisation and the Internet, new forms of cultural production, reception and consumption have come via the hands of technological convergence and the way society has adapted to that scenario. In the current context of globalisation traditional cultural conceptualisation has been modified by opening up an economic discourse based on knowledge, creativity and innovation. But how are cultural policies bringing this paradigm into their protection framework? As part of the cultural activity, cinema plays a core role contributing to the national economic competitiveness and social cohesion. However, small cinemas struggle and films made in minority languages face a lot more difficulties. This paper shows how a legal change has made a certain funding model possible for cinema in the Basque-language, suggesting that a legally binding space where a specific cultural subject is primarily recognised has become crucial for films in Basque. Tras la llegada de la digitalización e Internet, han surgido nuevas formas de producción, recepción y consumo de cultura, de la mano de la convergencia tecnológica y la forma en la que la sociedad se ha adaptado a ese escenario. En el contexto actual de la globalización, la conceptualización cultural tradicional se ha modificado por un nuevo discurso económico basado en el conocimiento, la creatividad y la innovación. Pero ¿cómo están integrando las políticas culturales este paradigma en su marco de protección? Como parte de la actividad cultural, el cine juega un papel fundamental, contribuyendo a la competitividad económica nacional y a la cohesión social. Sin embargo, las salas de cine pequeñas experimentan dificultades y las películas rodadas en lenguas minoritarias se enfrentan a numerosas dificultades. Este artículo muestra cómo un cambio legal ha hecho posible un modelo de financiación para el cine en lengua vasca, y se sugiere que es fundamental para las pel

  11. Implementation of the obligations of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Fourth national report of Switzerland in accordance with Article 32 of the convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    The report begins with a short description of Switzerland and its most important political structures. The right of referendum allows forcing a vote on changes of the constitution or against a new law. Historically, electricity generated in Switzerland came exclusively from hydropower. In the mid 1950's, interest in the nuclear energy technology was manifested to cover an increasing electricity demand. The implementation of any nuclear programme and project required a legislative frame to ensure safety and radiation protection. A corresponding article was introduced into the Federal Constitution. The Atomic Act was put into force in 1959. It attributed to the Federal Council the exclusive competence to grant licences for the construction of, operation of and modification to nuclear facilities. Licences were based on a detailed review and assessment of nuclear safety. During the 1960's, several projects for nuclear power plants (NPP) were initiated. Four of them reached the stage of realization, leading to the five currently operating units commissioned between 1969 and 1984. These five units contribute roughly 40% of the total national electricity production, the rest being essentially covered by hydro power. The increasing opposition to nuclear power during the 1970's culminated in 1990 in a double decision taken by the Swiss population: a) to accept the further operation of the existing NPPs; b) to impose a ten years moratorium on granting licences for new NPPs. In 2003 two public votes on the prolongation of the above moratorium and on the gradual phase-out of existing NPPs were rejected by the Swiss population. Simultaneously, an entirely new Nuclear Energy Act was passed by the Parliament; it came into force on 1 st February 2005 and replaced the Atomic Act. In February 2007 the Federal Council issued a new national energy strategy, including the building of new large-scale power plants and NPPs in particular. In May 2011 following the nuclear accident in

  12. Implementation of the obligations of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Third national report of Switzerland in accordance with Article 32 of the convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-15

    The report begins with a short description of Switzerland and its most important political structures. The right of referendum allows forcing a vote on changes of the constitution or against a new law. Historically, electricity generated in Switzerland came exclusively from hydropower. In the mid 1950's, interest in the nuclear energy technology was manifested to cover an increasing electricity demand. The implementation of any nuclear programme and project required a legislative frame to ensure safety and radiation protection. A corresponding article was introduced into the Federal Constitution. The Atomic Act was put into force in 1959. It attributed to the Federal Council the exclusive competence to grant licences for the construction of, operation of and modification to nuclear facilities. Licences were based on a detailed review and assessment of nuclear safety. During the 1960's, several projects for nuclear power plants (NPP) were initiated. Four of them reached the stage of realization, leading to the five currently operating units commissioned between 1969 and 1984. These five units contribute roughly 40% of the total national electricity production, the rest being essentially covered by hydro power. The increasing opposition to nuclear power during the 1970's culminated in 1990 in a double decision taken by the Swiss population: a) to accept the further operation of the existing NPPs; b) to impose a ten years moratorium on granting licences for new NPPs. In 2003 two public votes on the prolongation of the above moratorium and on the gradual phase-out of existing NPPs were rejected by the Swiss population. Simultaneously, an entirely new Nuclear Energy Act was passed by the Parliament; it came into force on 1{sup st} February 2005 and replaced the Atomic Act. In February 2007 the Federal Council issued a new national energy strategy, including the building of new large-scale power plants and NPPs in particular. In June 2008 a general licence

  13. Implementation of the obligations of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Fourth national report of Switzerland in accordance with Article 32 of the convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    The report begins with a short description of Switzerland and its most important political structures. The right of referendum allows forcing a vote on changes of the constitution or against a new law. Historically, electricity generated in Switzerland came exclusively from hydropower. In the mid 1950's, interest in the nuclear energy technology was manifested to cover an increasing electricity demand. The implementation of any nuclear programme and project required a legislative frame to ensure safety and radiation protection. A corresponding article was introduced into the Federal Constitution. The Atomic Act was put into force in 1959. It attributed to the Federal Council the exclusive competence to grant licences for the construction of, operation of and modification to nuclear facilities. Licences were based on a detailed review and assessment of nuclear safety. During the 1960's, several projects for nuclear power plants (NPP) were initiated. Four of them reached the stage of realization, leading to the five currently operating units commissioned between 1969 and 1984. These five units contribute roughly 40% of the total national electricity production, the rest being essentially covered by hydro power. The increasing opposition to nuclear power during the 1970's culminated in 1990 in a double decision taken by the Swiss population: a) to accept the further operation of the existing NPPs; b) to impose a ten years moratorium on granting licences for new NPPs. In 2003 two public votes on the prolongation of the above moratorium and on the gradual phase-out of existing NPPs were rejected by the Swiss population. Simultaneously, an entirely new Nuclear Energy Act was passed by the Parliament; it came into force on 1{sup st} February 2005 and replaced the Atomic Act. In February 2007 the Federal Council issued a new national energy strategy, including the building of new large-scale power plants and NPPs in particular. In May 2011 following the

  14. Monitoring, reporting and vrification for national REDD+programmes: two proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herold, M.; Skutsch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Different options have been suggested by Parties to the UNFCCC (United Framework Convention on Climate Change) for inclusion in national approaches to REDD and REDD + (reduced deforestation, reduced degradation, enhancement of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forest, and conservation

  15. Framework for the analysis of the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national carbon Emissions reduction target: Focused on educational facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Choongwan; Kim, Hyunjoong; Hong, Taehoon

    2014-01-01

    Since the increase in greenhouse gas emissions has increased the global warming potential, an international agreement on carbon emissions reduction target (CERT) has been formulated in Kyoto Protocol (1997). This study aimed to develop a framework for the analysis of the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national CERT. To verify the feasibility of the proposed framework, educational facilities were used for a case study. This study was conducted in six steps: (i) selection of the target school; (ii) establishment of the reference model for the target school; (iii) energy consumption pattern analysis by target school; (iv) establishment of the energy retrofit model for the target school; (v) economic and environmental assessment through the life cycle cost and life cycle CO 2 analysis; and (vi) establishment of the low-carbon scenario in 2020 to achieve the national CERT. This study can help facility managers or policymakers establish the optimal retrofit strategy within the limited budget from a short-term perspective and the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national CERT from the long-term perspective. The proposed framework could be also applied to any other building type or country in the global environment

  16. A proposed structure for an international convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitze, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author recommends a framework convention that will stimulate policy changes without expensive emission reductions in the short term. A central task for a climate convention will be to provide the international community with a permanent mechanism for coordinating its efforts to deal with climate change. The convention should go beyond organizational structure to establish a process for updating the parties' understanding of the science and potential impacts of climate change and for building consensus on policy responses. Each party must then be required to prepare and distribute its own national plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and for adapting to future change while achieving its development objectives. A set of targets and timetables for the reduction of greenhouse gas reductions is presented

  17. Meeting challenges through good practice. Using the highlights from the third review meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety to improve national regulatory systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, L.J.; Cameron, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    The third review meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS), held in April 2005, demonstrated collective progress on ensuring worldwide nuclear safety. The Contracting Parties highlighted areas of focus to be brought back to the fourth review meeting and also committed to a continuity process to revitalize the review processes under the CNS. Specific progress has been achieved in the first year since the conclusion of the third review meeting, but further commitment to progress is required, by the Contracting Parties and the Secretariat of the IAEA, over the next year, especially if changes to the review processes are to be achieved for the fourth review meeting in 2008. (author)

  18. National implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (effects). Pt. 1. Deposition loads: methods, modelling and mapping results, trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauger, Thomas [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Navigation; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE)

    2008-09-15

    The report on the implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Pt.1, deposition loads (methods, modeling and mapping results, trends) includes the following chapters: Introduction, deposition on air pollutants used for the input for critical loads in exceeding calculations, methods applied for mapping total deposition loads, mapping wet deposition, wet deposition mapping results, mapping dry deposition, dry deposition mapping results, cloud and fog mapping results, total deposition mapping results, modeling the air concentration of acidifying components and heavy metals, agricultural emissions of acidifying and eutrophying species.

  19. United Nations Climate Change Bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The journal has printed a collection of five articles published just before the July 1996 second Conference of the Parties (COP-2) where some 160 countries were to meet to work on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Raul Estrado-Oyuela discusses the progress of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM) now half-way through its two-year task of preparing a protocol or other legal instrument to further the goals of the Convention and recommends directions for further effort. Vitaly Matsarki reviews national efforts to implement the Convention. Dr. Angela Merkel, presents her views on the lines that ministers should take at COP-2.

  20. Using the Cultural Dimension and Accounting Value Classification Frameworks to Investigate Cultural Diversity in a Multi-National South African-Based Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stander

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The developing South African economy provides good business opportunities for global companies. Despite the popularity of mergers and acquisitions as a way to expand into a developing economy, many such business transaction fail to create sustainable organisations due to issues pertaining to national and corporate cross-cultural issues. This study investigated the potential impact of national cultural differences pertinent to the acquisition of a South African-based resource company by a French-based international group. It was evident that there were cultural differences in the manner which certain attitudes and actions were expressed within the workplace, which have led to some conflict that hampered the optimum functioning of the accounting-related functions within the company. By using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions andGray’s accounting value classification frameworks within this case study, the organization’s management was provided with insights into how national cultural orientation affects their functioning.

  1. A preliminary assessment of the Normative Framework regulating MAR schemes in Europe: the EU Directives and their Implementation in nine National Legislations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo E. Bonfanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of MAR schemes within the European Union is not a new phenomenon, on the contrary it dates back to the beginning of the XIX century. Despite being widely adopted and currently the object of extensive studies, this tool is not soundly regulated and so far very little research has been conducted on the normative framework regulating MAR at the regional and at the national level. This paper draws upon the findings of a Report which represents one of the deliverables identified by MARSOL, a EU FP7 project launched in December 2013 that aims at demonstrating that MAR shall be regarded as a viable approach to address the predicted water shortages over the long term. Through a survey which involved a number of national experts, the researchers involved in the drafting of the Report have collected relevant data concerning the national legal frameworks of nine EU countries that adopt MAR schemes. The results of the questionnaire have been processed using a qualitative and comparative approach and have been duly included in the legal analysis, which covers the implementation at the national level of the two EU Directives relevant for MAR Schemes, i.e. the Water Framework Directive and its “daughter”, the Groundwater Directive. This paper shall be considered as the outcome of a preliminary investigation which covered only a limited number of European countries, it is expected that the research will be carried out as to include a larger number of EU Member States (MSs, alongside the most relevant extra EU countries.

  2. A Proposed Framework for Applying the National Standards of Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Sudan from the Teaching Staff’s Perspective - Faculties of Business Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfatih Alamin Elfaki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the importance of having national standards and their role in achieving quality, as well as establishing a framework for the actual application of national standards in quality assurance so as to achieve quality in higher education institutions. The researchers  followed a descriptive analytical method to achieve the objectives of the study and developed a questionnaire covering primary and secondary variables that have a role in the design of specific models to help in applying the national standards by the Sudanese universities. The questionnaire included one dependent variable; the effective application of national standards of quality assurance in higher education institutions, and the four main variables (independent are: the national standards of quality assurance in higher education in Sudan, the standard of quality assurance, the standard of teaching and learning and the standard of scientific research and publication. The study revealed a number of conclusions: there were statistically significant differences in the extent of familiarity with the  national quality assurance standards in Sudan according to the academic rank of the  faculty members; there were also significant differences in the extent of compliance with the  national quality assurance standards in Sudan according to the academic rank of the faculty members; there was full agreement between the national standards for quality assurance in Sudan and the international standards for quality assurance; and  there were statistically significant differences in that the absence of specific models would have a negative impact on effective application of national standards of quality assurance in higher education in Sudan, according to the academic rank of the faculty members. Keywords: Quality, The program, Standards, University, Total quality management.

  3. Framework for a National Testing and Evaluation Program Based Upon the National Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices (STEPP) Initiative (WERF Report INFR2R14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract:The National STEPP Program seeks to improve water quality by accelerating the effective implementation and adoption of innovative stormwater management technologies. Itwill attempt to accomplish this by establishing practices through highly reliable, and cost-effective S...

  4. Monitoring biodiversity loss with primary species-occurrence data: toward national-level indicators for the 2010 target of the convention on biological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberón, Jorge; Peterson, A Townsend

    2009-02-01

    Development of effective indicators is indispensable for countries and societies to monitor effects of their actions on biodiversity, as is recognized in decision VI/26 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Good indicators would ideally be scalable, at least for the different scales that characterize biodiversity patterns and process. Existing indicators are mostly global in scope, and often based on secondary information, such as classifications of endangered species, rather than on primary data. We propose a complementary approach, based on the increased availability of raw data about occurrences of species, cutting-edge modeling techniques for estimating distributional areas, and land-use information based on remotely sensed data to allow estimation of rates of range loss for species affected by land-use conversion. This method can be implemented by developing countries, given increasing availability of data and the open and well-documented nature of the techniques required.

  5. Nr 1115 National Assembly, Nr 640 Senate - Stage report on alternate techniques to hydraulic fracturing for the exploration and exploitation of non conventional hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, Jean-Claude; Bataille, Christian

    2013-01-01

    While noticing that these resources are more supposed that demonstrated, this report first addresses the potential of non conventional hydrocarbon resources: definition, forms and assessment. It presents the status and locations of such resources in France, and discusses how uncertainties can be reduced as far as gas shale and hydrocarbons are concerned (exploration drillings seem necessary). The second part proposes an overview of the various extraction techniques: technologies without fracturing, and hydraulic fracturing (description, recall of previous uses in France, technique management). The third part presents alternate techniques as research topics to be explored: stimulation by another pressurized fluid than water, or by other physical processes (electric arc, thermal process). Proposals are stated. The document also comprised a report of meeting of the scientific committee, a list of heard persons, and a feasibility study

  6. Police Deprivation of Third Parties’ Liberty – A Field of Tension between National Police Law and the European Convention on Human Rights, as illustrated by Austin & Others v the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Fredriksen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Austin & Others v the United Kingdom The European Court of Human Rights came to the conclusion that the use of a police cordon, also known as “kettling”, where approximately 2000 people were forced to remain inside the cordon for up to eight hours, did not amount to deprivation of liberty under Article 5 (1 of the European Convention on Human Rights. This conclusion was reached by way of restrictive interpretation of the term “deprivation”. Previous case law establishes a set of criteria to be used when deciding if an infringement on the physical liberty to move from place to place constitutes a deprivation of this liberty, or merely a restriction upon it. These criteria were upheld in Austin, but were found to give room for taking into account the context and circumstances in which the police cordon was used. The previous view of the Court that the grounds justifying deprivations of liberty listed in Article 5 (1 (a-f are exhaustive, was also upheld. In this article the starting point is the close relationship between national police law regarding the maintenance of security and public order on one hand, and the principle of necessity on the other. It is emphasised that “necessity”-based norms in national police law can make police measures directed against innocent third parties legal, deprivations of liberty included, but that this possibility would have been absent in Article 5 (1 of the Convention without the aforementioned restrictive interpretation of the term “deprivation”. An attempt is made to show that this interpretation is in fact based on central elements of the principle of necessity. Furthermore, it is attempted to show that the restrictive interpretation can be seen as a reflection of the need acknowledged in national police law, as well as in other articles of the Convention, to direct police measures against innocent third parties.

  7. Superfund Remedial Acquisition Framework SOL-R3-13-00006: Region 3 - National Remedial Action Contracts / Multiple Award Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Region 3 - EPA is performing market research to determine if industry has the capability and capacity to perform the work, on a national level, as described in the attached draft Statement of Work /Performance Work Statement(SOW/PWS).

  8. Utilizing the National Research Council's (NRC) Conceptual Framework for the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): A Self-Study in My Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvo, Arthur Francis

    Given the reality that active and competitive participation in the 21 st century requires American students to deepen their scientific and mathematical knowledge base, the National Research Council (NRC) proposed a new conceptual framework for K--12 science education. The framework consists of an integration of what the NRC report refers to as the three dimensions: scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas in four disciplinary areas (physical, life and earth/spaces sciences, and engineering/technology). The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS ), which are derived from this new framework, were released in April 2013 and have implications on teacher learning and development in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Given the NGSS's recent introduction, there is little research on how teachers can prepare for its release. To meet this research need, I implemented a self-study aimed at examining my teaching practices and classroom outcomes through the lens of the NRC's conceptual framework and the NGSS. The self-study employed design-based research (DBR) methods to investigate what happened in my secondary classroom when I designed, enacted, and reflected on units of study for my science, engineering, and mathematics classes. I utilized various best practices including Learning for Use (LfU) and Understanding by Design (UbD) models for instructional design, talk moves as a tool for promoting discourse, and modeling instruction for these designed units of study. The DBR strategy was chosen to promote reflective cycles, which are consistent with and in support of the self-study framework. A multiple case, mixed-methods approach was used for data collection and analysis. The findings in the study are reported by study phase in terms of unit planning, unit enactment, and unit reflection. The findings have implications for science teaching, teacher professional development, and teacher education.

  9. Development and convergence : a bottom-up analysis for the differentiation of future commitments under the Climate Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, Heleen

    2002-01-01

    A key issue in climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is how future commitments can be differentiated amongst countries. This thesis focuses on a more systematic differentiation of such commitments to support international decision making in

  10. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: a new approach to decision-making in mental health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Fiona

    2012-12-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) requires us to engage in new approaches to decision-making in mental health law. The reclassification of mental health rights to the realm of disability rights is an important step towards equal treatment for persons with psychosocial disabilities. Law reformers worldwide are beginning to consider the implications of the provisions. Legislators will be required to understand the underlying philosophy of the CRPD to realise the rights set out in it. The CRPD possesses a number of innovative provisions which can transform decision-making in the mental health context. Article 12 provides a new conceptualisation of persons with disabilities and their capacity to participate by requiring support to exercise legal capacity. While good practice exists, the provision has yet to be fully implemented by many State Parties. This article discusses the impact of the CRPD on mental health law, legal capacity law and describes examples of supported decision-making models for mental health care.

  11. Curriculum Framework (CF) Implementation Conference. Report of the Regional Educational Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia (Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, January 26-27, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jackie; Powell, Mary Jo

    The Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia, operating as the Curriculum Frameworks Task Force, jointly convened a group of educators involved in implementing state-level mathematics or science curriculum frameworks (CF). The Hilton Head (South Carolina) conference had a dual…

  12. National Report presented by the Mexican United States to satisfy the compromises of the Nuclear Safety Convention; Informe Nacional que presentan los Estados Unidos Mexicanos para satisfacer los compromisos de la Convencion de Seguridad Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, Mexico City (Mexico); Federal Commission for Electricity, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In order to satisfy to the compromises derived of the ratification by part of the Mexican Government for the Nuclear Safety Convention it is presented this National Report which is based on the directives proposed as a result of the preparatory meetings held in the IAEA Headquarters in the city of Vienna, Austria. This National Report represents a document summary and activities realized at present in relation with the only nuclear facility in Mexico: the Nuclear Power Plant in Laguna Verde, Veracruz. This report consists of two parts: In the first one it is described how have been satisfied each one of the compromises. The second one talks about the Laws and Regulations on nuclear activities in the country. (Author)

  13. National Report presented by the Mexican United States to satisfy the compromises of the Nuclear Safety Convention; Informe Nacional que presentan los Estados Unidos Mexicanos para satisfacer los compromisos de la Convencion de Seguridad Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, Mexico City (Mexico); Federal Commission for Electricity, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    In order to satisfy to the compromises derived of the ratification by part of the Mexican Government for the Nuclear Safety Convention it is presented this National Report which is based on the directives proposed as a result of the preparatory meetings held in the IAEA Headquarters in the city of Vienna, Austria. This National Report represents a document summary and activities realized at present in relation with the only nuclear facility in Mexico: the Nuclear Power Plant in Laguna Verde, Veracruz. This report consists of two parts: In the first one it is described how have been satisfied each one of the compromises. The second one talks about the Laws and Regulations on nuclear activities in the country. (Author)

  14. Submission of Republica Oriental del Uruguay to the Commission on the limits of the continental shelf pursuant to provisions of article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata Prates, C.; Tajes, J.; Burgos, M.; Caamaño; Lamartheé; Montiel, D.; Preciozzi, F.; De Santa Ana, H.

    2009-01-01

    Pursuant to provisions of article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (hereinafter the Convention), and to article 4 of Annex II of same, República Oriental del Uruguay (Uruguay) hereby submits to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (the Commission) particulars on the outer limit of its continental shelf, extending beyond 200 nautical miles (M) from the baselines from which the breadth of territorial sea is measured. On December 10, 1982 Uruguay signed the Convention, which was subsequently approved by Uruguayan Law Nº 16,287, and ratified on December 10, 1992. The porvisions of article 76 invoked in Uruguay submission fixed points delimiting Uruguay’s Continental Shelf. There exist, at present, no unresolved disputes over the maritime border with either of Uruguay’s neighbouring countries, Argentina or Brazil. It was received assistance in the elaboration of this Submission April 2008, from member of the Commission and also assistance from other, non-member consultants and institutions from Germany, Brazil, Portugal and Norway

  15. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...

  16. Legal and regulator framework of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez Cassanello, Griselda; Mels Siningen, Celeste; Reina, Mariana; Vega, Hernan

    2009-01-01

    The present work intends to develop the legislative and regulatory framework in the matter of radioactive waste. The legal frame of the radioactive waste conformed by the National Constitution, the treaties and conventions, laws and decrees and regulatory norm in Argentine . The subject is approached from the international point of view considering the slogan of 36 The Annual Meeting of the Association Argentine de Nuclear Technology: 'The Nuclear Energy in the Present World'. This work also contains a special paragraph dedicated to the analysis of practical cases related to the subject and the activity of the National Commission of Atomic Energy. (author)

  17. Expanding the disaster risk management framework: Measuring the constructed level of national identity as a factor of political risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend Prinsloo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Political risk is identified as a dominant risk category of disaster risk management (DRM which could negatively affect the success of those measures implemented to reduce disaster risk. Key to political risk is the construct of national identity which, if poorly constructed, could greatly contribute to political risk. This article proposed a tool to measure the construct of national identity and to provide recommendations to strengthen the construct in order to mitigate the exacerbating influence it may have on political risk and ultimately on DRM. The design of the measurement tool consisted of a mixed methodological approach employing both quantitative and qualitative data. The data collection instruments included a literature review (which is shortly provided in the previous sections and an empirical study that utilised data obtained through structured questionnaires. Although the results of the proposed measuring instrument did not include a representative sample of all the cultures in SouthAfrica, the results alluded to different levels for the construction of national identity among black and white respondents, possibly because of different ideological expectations among these groups. The results of the study should be considered as a validation of the measuring tool and not necessarily of the construct of national identity in South Africa. The measuring tool is thus promising for future studies to reduce political risk and ultimately disaster risk.

  18. Collaborative Framework for Designing a Sustainability Science Programme: Lessons Learned at the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi; Escalante, Ana E.; Eakin, Hallie; Solares, Ma. José; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Nation, Marcia; Gómez-Priego, Paola; Pérez-Tejada, César A. Domínguez; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the challenges and opportunities associated with developing an interdisciplinary sustainability programme in an emerging economy and illustrate how these are addressed through the approach taken for the development of the first postgraduate programme (MSc and PhD) in sustainability science at the National Autonomous…

  19. The National Bank of Ukraine Communication Strategy Optimization within the Framework of Impact on Exchange Rate Expectations of Economic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksolana Holub

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge in terms of smoothing excessive exchange rate volatility under the conditions of flexible exchange rate arrangement is optimization of the communication strategy of the country’s monetary regulator. Over the past two decades, communication (information support has become an increasingly important aspect of monetary policy. Communication enables influence of the volatility of financial markets, improvement of the predictability of monetary policy, and helps to achieve macroeconomic objectives. Nevertheless, as of today, consensus on the issue into what the optimal strategy of the central bank communication is has not been reached, either in Ukraine, nor in developed countries yet. Considering the abovementioned, the methodical approaches to improve the central bank’s communication strategies, based on the use of its verbal interventions in the context of smoothing out excessive cyclical volatility of exchange rates of the national currency, are determined in this article. It is suggested to consider the growth of the factor “information signal/information noise” as a criterion of the central bank’s optimal communication strategy. It is proved that the monetary regulator’s main task should be the continual provision of information concerning a fundamentally justified level of the exchange rate and the level of deviation of the actual rate of the national currency from its fundamental-equilibrium level, as of a given time, to the national foreign exchange market participants. The methodological approach to the improvement of information support of forecasting fundamentally specified value of the national currency is outlined.

  20. Niger Republic, mineral planning (part one)-Mining industries in socio-political and national economy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Julien

    1982-01-01

    This document focus on Niger Republic mineral industries related points that are: socio-political and economical context; specific characters such as administrative, juridical and fiscal environment; citizens employment and training; actual situation and energy projects; transport; existing mining companies, construction materials enterprises and projects presentation; effect of mining sector and construction material on national economy and prior major problems to be solved [fr